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České ženy 20.století


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#1 Dalibor Svoboda

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Posted 10 March 2005 - 07:57 AM

Prosba o pomoc!

Skupina evropských učitelů zapojena do projektu E-HELP se rozhodla na svém posledním zasedaní v městě Toulouse ve Francii vytvořit dějepisnou internetní vyučovací pomůcku s názvem Evropské ženy 20.století.

Muj ůkol v této skupině je presentace českých žen. Pro začátek jsem se rozhodl sepsat osudy Emmy Destinnové, Mileny Jesenské, Dr. Milady Horákové a Marie Čermínové (Toyen).

Volba je to snad konvenční a tedy jaké ženy by jste vybraly Vy?

Máte-li informace které by mně mohly pomoci v mém ůkolu (např. biografie a osudy českých žen z časopisů a novinových článků anebo i nějaké starší knížky o které by jste se rozhodly podělit) můžete mě kontaktovat s pomocí Education Forum.

Děkuji

Edited by Dalibor Svoboda, 08 May 2005 - 04:44 PM.


#2 Vladimir Havlicek

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Posted 12 May 2005 - 12:12 PM

Dalibore,
k tvemu seznamu typickych zen 20. stoleti pridavam opravdu nekonformni pohled, navrhuji tyto osobnosti: MUDr. Konigova - opravdova osobnost svetoveho vyznamu http://www.lkcr.cz/detail.php?id=1355

nebo naopak zenu stejne fiktivni jako Jara da Cimmerman, ale stejne oblibenou i pri opakovanem vysilani v ceske TV, koncentrat osudu mnoha zen v 60. letech - "zena za pultem" viz http://ceskyfilm.wz.cz/zenapult2.htm

a proc brat jenom osobnosti, ktere svuj zivot jiz prozily, co takhle velmi nekonformni osobnost Sara Saudkova - viz http://www.saudek.co...Sara/index.html

nebo kralovna sportu Vera Caslavska i se svym zivotem zcela v ustrani. Myslim, ze to je osobnost! V japonsku dostala pocty hodne samuraju, snad i mec, tvrda dricka, matka rodiny hodne antickeho dramatu, kdo ji zna z mladych..

Vladimir Havlicek

Edited by Vladimir Havlicek, 12 May 2005 - 12:13 PM.


#3 Dalibor Svoboda

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Posted 26 May 2005 - 12:31 PM

”Co se tyce zen 20. stoleti, stale vice mam na mysli Veru Caslavskou s celou jeji zivotni drahou i krutou, takrka antickou rodinnou tragedii. Asi znas podrobnosti.” napsal Vladimír Havlíček v mejlu před pár dny.

Odpověděl jsem, že podrobnosti moc neznám i když mně kmitla mozkem vzpomínka na Josefa Odložila (hrozně jsem ho obdivoval za jeho stříbrnou medajly, sám jsem též závodil v běhu za menší klub v té době), který byl s Věrou Čáslavskou ……. No a pak tam byla nějaká vražda, optal jsem se?!

Vladimír mně obratem poslal spoustu zajímavých odkazů, kde jsem si životopisy Věry Cáslavské i Josefa Odložila mohl přečíst.

A dostal jsem se do pochyb. Věra Čáslavská se stáhla z veřejného života, četl jsem. Měl bych tedy o ní sepsat její biografii?

Jiná námitka je, že je ješte pořád mezi námi. Snad v projektu E-HELP by alespoň ze začátku měly být ženy, které ovlivnily osud a historii českého národa a již mezi námi nejsou. Anebo to tak vůbec není?

O Věře Čáslavké jsem však jiz něco napsal v projektu Virtuální školy ”Olympic Games” vloni. Můj příspěvek se dá snad ješte nějakou dobu najít na:
http://vs.eun.org/eu...ang=en&ov=33159

Sportovní úspěch Věry Čáslavské v Mexicu je krátce popsán v článku: Short notices about modern Olympic Games. Tu část článku, který pojednavá o Věře Čáslavské zde otistuji:

The most popular female athlete at the Olympic Games in Mexico 1968 was the Czech gymnast, Vera Caslavska. Closely prior to Olympics Czechoslovakia have been invaded and occupied by the Warszawa pact forces headed by Soviet Union. In the turmoil right after the invasion Vera Caslavska went to hiding for three weeks with limited access for training. Then she surfaced at the Games, vinning three golds and two silvers at the gymnastic contests.

#4 Dalibor Svoboda

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Posted 01 August 2005 - 09:25 AM

První tři příspěvky, životopisy tří českých žen dvacátého století projektu E-HELP
jsou publikovány v angličtině v sekci: International projects pod rubrikou E-Help. Název sekce o evropských ženách je Europe´s Other Half.

Jedná se o životopisy Emmy Destinové, Mileny Jesenské a Marie Čermínové.

Asi nejjednodušejší je použít:
http://educationforu...?showtopic=4011
při přání o návštěvu.

Životopisy jsou předběžné, připomínky a návrhy na vylepšení jsou vítány.

Edited by Dalibor Svoboda, 01 August 2005 - 09:44 AM.


#5 Dalibor Svoboda

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Posted 02 September 2005 - 05:38 PM

Právě když jsem dokončil životopis dr.Milady Horákové obdržel jsem tuhle zprávu:

Ještě jsem Ti chtěla napsat, že jsem četla v novinách, že celý proces je natočen a teprve před týdnem byl v Uherském Hradišti poprvé promítán veřejnosti na festivalu dokumentárních filmů.

Přál bych si aby někdo kdo film již měl možnost vidět (byl již vysílán v televizi?) se ozval. A snad i film zde na Forum popsal.

Životopis dr.Milady Horákové je uveřejněn na:

http://educationforu...?showtopic=4011

Hned za životopisy naších ostatních žen o kterých jsem informoval v předchozím článku.

A znovu, děkuji předem za připomínky.

Edited by Dalibor Svoboda, 02 September 2005 - 05:39 PM.


#6 Dalibor Svoboda

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Posted 05 October 2005 - 02:08 PM

Anglická verze ve které popisuji historii českých žen 19. a 20. století byla uveřejněna začátkem září na Education Forum v sekci Europe's Other Half.

Může být nalezena na: http://educationforu...?showtopic=4011

Otiskuji ji však též zde. Prosím tímto čtenáře se znalostí angličtiny o připomínky.
Děkuji.



A history of Czech and Czechoslovakian women during the 19th and 20th centuries.

1. The role of women in the Czech national revival and emancipation movement.

For Czech people living in the Habsburg Empire in the 19th century there were two main goals: political autonomy for the Czech parts of the Empire, and the adoption of the Czech language.
These goals are somewhat obscure today so a short explanation is in order. The official, as well as the everyday language spoken by educated Czech people and Czech entrepreneurs inside the two Czech provinces called Böhmen (Bohemia) and Mähren (Moravia), was German. Germanization started short after the Thirty Years War (1618-1648) and culminated during the first half of the 19th century. A huge proportion of the intellectual elite consisted of a large group of ethnic Germans who had been living in Czech provinces since the 13th century. The nationalist sentiments that swept through Europe in the eighteen-hundreds awaked the Czech people to the discovery and admiration of their Slavic past.
While struggling to achieve these goals, the Czechs became more politically conscious. At the same time they discovered that many different political and cultural steps had to be taken along the road in order to achieve the main goals.

The deeds and organizational skills of women such as Magdalena Dorotea Rettigová and Anna Náprstková, active during the 1820’s, contributed to a climate that worked towards the nationalist goals.

Magdalena Dorotea Rettigová (1786 - 1845) was a practical woman who encouraged young girls to become educated and go into businesses as a means of strengthening Czech patriotism. Only by being educated and having knowledge of Czech history, could such girls, through their future roles as mothers, eventually instill in their children pride and compassion for the Czech people. She promoted this vision indefatigably in her own private school, where girls, mainly from poor backgrounds, could obtain free education. Apart from practical instruction of cooking and household work, knowledge expected of girls at this time, they were also taught the Czech language and urged to read books written by Czech writers. Rettigova herself wrote novels for women and contributed short articles to magazines. A foundation for poor girls in the small town of Litomyšl was established by her and continued its task well to the end of the 19th century. Magadalena Dorotea Rettigová is today mainly known for her legendary cookery book - "A Household Cookery Book or a Treatise on Meat and Fasting Dishes for Bohemian and Moravian Lasses”. This popular book remained for a long time the only cookery book written in the Czech language and is still in print today, thus it has become one of the historical treasures of the Czech people. Historically, Rettigová is described as the First Czech Feminist but it should not be forgotten that her view of emancipation was conservative and tradition bound when compared with later generations of women striving for the same goals.

Around 1820, the salon meetings in the Madame Staël spirit, in well-to-do homes became increasingly popular with Czech intellectuals. Many women took part in these gatherings where debates, concerts and theater plays were given. One of these salons inspired the creation of the first schools for girls that was not private. It was called Budec and was set up by Antonie Reissová (1817-1852) (Czech pseudonym Bohuslava Rajská), a teacher by profession. Though the original plans for Budec were somewhat grandiose - the complex of buildings was to include a hospital and shops, the school began its activities in 1844 in a three-flat-apartment building situated in the center of Prague. Some thirty to thirty-five girls between the ages of five to eighteen were given education a few hours every evening. The quality of the teaching was high but financial difficulties forced the school to close down already in 1848.
Shortly after the failed uprising in Prague in1848 (this was a revolutionary year throughout Europe), the Czech patriotic women met in order to beg clemency for the imprisoned Czech men. At these meetings the newly established Ladies Society for Women’s Education, inspired by the Budec achievements, founded a new girls’ school under the leadership of Svatava Amerlingová (1812-1887). Although in the beginning, the teaching language used was Czech, repression by the authorities led to its abandonment and eventually bilingual education was offered.
Around the same time the founding of the Slavic Women's Society was proposed by Honorata Wišniowská-Zapová (1812-1856), a Polish woman married to the Czech writer Karel Zap. The aim of this society would be the education of girls in the spirit of Czech nationalism. The Society started its educational program in 1855 but was forced to close down soon after because of the death of Wišniowská-Zapová.

Anna Naprstková (1788 -1873), a business woman who ran a brewery / distillery and an adjoining inn, the U Halánků, sheltered a growing nationalist movement especially after the revolution year of 1848. Both her sons, Ferdinand and Vojtěch, being outspoken nationalists, were often investigated by police. The younger son, Vojtěch left home in secret for the United States of America where he finished his law studies. When he returned to Prague, after ten years abroad, his public speeches and presentations about activities established by American women created a wave of admiration and raised the conciseness of many who heard him. Around 1864 he organised an exhibition of American sewing machines (until then unknown in Prague) together with demonstrations on how to use them. The exhibition was much visited by women.
The American Ladies’ Club or American Club of Bohemian Women (as the Czech name put it “Americký klub dám”), founded by philanthropist Vojtěch Náprstek (1826-1894), which was established 1865 held its first meetings on the premises of “U Halánků”.
The club offered lectures, not only on questions of women’s emancipation, but also about other subjects such as astronomy, medicine, biology philosophy, literature, history etc. thus contributing to strengthen women’s will for emancipation. The free lectures were given to ladies only on Sunday mornings; men were allowed to listen to them from the lobby. During the twenty years of these activities almost 27 000 listeners were registered. The members of the American Ladies’ Club could also use Náprstek´s library which contained, besides Czech books, books written in foreign languages. All these activities brought Vojtěch Náprstek the nickname “the women’s advocate”.
The American Ladies’ Club inspired the creation of similar clubs in provincial towns too. Although the importance of the club gradually diminished towards the end of century, it continued its activities long into the 20th century.

The second half of the 19th century, as it concerned women in the Czech national revival movement, belonged to the writers.

Božena Němcová (1820 -1862) was one of the few writers at this time who satisfied the spiritual needs of the Czechs. In her most well-known novel “The Grandmother” (“Babička”), Němcová describes the life of a village in the pre-natal period of modern Czech society. The main character of the novel is the writer’s grandmother, whose aims in life and whose moral values were well defined and taken to heart by the village inhabitants. Through her writing, Božena Němcová provided “fairy tales” for a young Czech urban society searching for new values - tales that indicated the values that they should be true to. Her influence may still be felt today as she is known as “Our lady Božena Němcová” by modern poets.

In her novel The First Bohemian Woman (“První Češka”), Karolina Světlá (1830 -1899) described the prejudices held by the large part of Czech society that was not yet in a patriotic frame of mind and that was against the efforts being made to awaken the spirits of Czechs to a more nationalist way of thinking. Světlá, though mainly a poet and writer, was also throughout her active life in the forefront of the intellectual movement in favour of Czech women. In 1870 she was one of the founders of the Czech Women’s Production Association (Ženský výrobní spolek český), which, with the help of donations made by more than two thousands women members and augmented by various grants, supported the Society for the Industrial and Commercial Education of Bohemian Girls founded in 1871. The Society ran practical education courses aimed at spreading knowledge about home industries run by women. After receiving generous grants from the Bohemian Medical Association, the Society founded the first school of nursing in the Habsburg Empire. Another association, “Vesna” with goals similar to the Czech Women’s Production Association was established in Mähren soon afterwards.

Eliška Krásnohorská (1847 -1926) is another woman for whom the Czech revival and emancipation of women were important. Writer, poet, journalist, translator and a friend of many important cultural figures in Bohemia at that time, she chided the composer Bedřich Smetana for his faulty use of the Czech language offering him at the same time her own work at librettos for his operas. She subsequently wrote librettos for “Kiss” (Hubička), “The Devil´s Wall”(Čertova stena) and “Secret” (Tajemství), which today are beloved treasures of Czech culture.
Eliška Krásnohorská supported and participated actively in the Czech Women’s Production Association and the American Ladies Club. She edited Women’s Letters (Ženské listy) a monthly women’s journal which was affiliated to the Czech Women’s Production Association. This was a radical magazine and dealt with education offered in schools run by Associations. It also printed articles on the situation of women in society. In her booklet, The Women Question, published in 1870, Eliška Krásnohorská put forward the ideas of equal opportunities for women in education, as well as professional and economic life.
Despite opposition ("God will punish you for this sin against his eternal law. If we continue corrupting Czech girls, you will be doomed," wrote one of her opponents), she successfully propagated for the creation of the first high school for Czech girls which would enable them to continue with university studies. Her petition, signed by 4,810 people, was handed over to the Reichrat (the Habsburg Empire’s Parliament in Vienna) on March 1890 and the Minerva High School for Girls opened in September 1890 with 51 students. Though the education was excellent, it was not before 1907 that the final exam could be taken in the girls’ school. Up till then, it had to be taken at the nearby boy’s high school. For some years, young women educated at Minerva were not allowed to register for studies at the Habsburg Universities. They could attend the lectures as guests, but were not allowed to sit the exams and subsequently could not obtain a university degree. The only European exception was the University of Zurich. The first Czech lady physician Bohuslava Kecková took her exams there but was not accepted as a member of the medical society when she returned home. It was not until 1897 that women were permitted to attend university in a normal way, first at the faculty of arts and a few years later at the faculty of medicine. The first female Czech-educated physician, Anna Honzáková (1875 -1940) obtained permission to sit her university exams in 1900 after already having attended lectures for five years. Anna Honzáková graduated on the 17th of March 1902 closely watched by proud and cheerful Czech women.


2. The Suffragette movement.

During 1990 a split within the vast group of actively engaged women began. The older and more conservative women propagated mainly for education and participation in cultural and enlightening events for women. This group of women expressed their views and debated in magazines such as Women’s Letters and Women’s Horizon.
Although the question of women’s suffrage, raised by Vojtěch Náprstek in a speech at the Prague Council in May 1887, was immediately rejected, it continued to draw attention from radical segments of society. The Social Democratic party integrated women’s right to vote
into its program of 1897. Also, the first Congress of Czech Women, held in May 1897, appreciative of the good work carried out by the American Ladies’ Club, wanted to bring the women’s suffrage issue to the forefront of the debate.

In 1903, the Czech Women´s club (Ženský klubu český), was established by those women who were politically active. Besides lectures, very often delivered by newly graduated Czech women, the Women’s Club also spread information about women’s questions outside the capital. The woman behind the Czech Women´s Club, Františka Plamínková (1875 – 1942), was a former teacher of mathematics and physics. She was also a reporter during the Balkan war of 1912. Františka Plamínková, with the help of the Committee for Women´s Suffrage (Výbor pro volební právo žen) which started its activities around 1905, took part in the struggle for the vote for women.
The members of this committee discovered that while women were banned from voting, the law did not expressly ban them from being elected. On the basis of this discovery the writer Božena Vítková-Kunětická, was, in 1912, elected as the first female deputy of the Diet of the Czech Kingdom. Though this was viewed as a great success by Czech women, Vítková-Kunětická was never allowed to take her seat in the assembly. Count Thun, the Governor of the Czech provinces forbade her to do so on the grounds that the election laws were unclear.

As in other countries involved in the First World War, women’s capacity for intellectual as well as physical work was well proven when they replaced those men who left to fight. Because of the turmoil of war these abilities were never confirmed in law or in everyday life.


3. The women’s movement in Czechoslovakia. 1918-1938.

After the war, the constitution of the newly created Czechoslovak Republic granted women complete and equal political rights.

The women’s movement during the long peace period that lasted for twenty years between the wars during which the democratic Republic of Czechoslovakia existed, centred round the Womens National Council, established by Františka Plamínková in 1923. Another prominent woman engaged in the work for the Women’s National Council was Milada Horáková (1901 – 1950) a lawyer in charge of social and women’s issues with the Prague City Council
Though the Czechoslovak constitution of 1920 gave Czech women full equality, the laws passed down from the Habsburg Empire still discriminated against women in many sectors such as the labor market. Thus, the prime task of lawyer Milada Horáková, from her position inside the Women’s National Council, was to take care of proposals for new, more modern laws.
Another woman who dealt with discrimination of women was Františka Zemínková (1882 – 1962) a member of the Czechoslovak National Socialist Party. The ranks of the party were made up of industrial and farm workers as well as shopkeepers and small entrepreneurs. A large proportion of railway workers and state employees were also members. The party had a good following among teachers and the intelligentsia too. The Czechoslovak National Socialist Party was the only party seriously competing with Social Democrats for workers’ votes. When she was fifteen years old, Františka Zemínková became a member of the party, the same year it was established in 1897. She was one of the co-founders of the Committee for Women´s Suffrage and later, during the First World War, she was co-organizer of the women’s hunger demonstrations throughout the Czech provinces. Immediately after the establishment of the Republic, she became a member of the first Revolutionary National Assembly 1918-1920 and later a MP for the Czechoslovak National Socialist Party in the Czechoslovak parliament from 1920-1939. As a vice chairman of her party and chairman of the women’s section, Františka Zemínková untiringly worked for women’s rights in society.

Thus all three argued, fought and formulated proposals and legislation, the goals of which were to improve the every-day-life of women. The celibacy imposed on women teachers was abolished in 1918. The tireless fights for the granting of equal rights for women inside of marriage and in professional life were in many cases successfully and became law.

Also the creation of Women’s Homes in Prague-Smíchov for unmarried women and the house Ve Smečkách 26, in Prague built by the Women´s Club Building Society, where activities of the Women´s Club were hosted, are two good examples of these successes. The women´s home was partly financed by funds raised by women themselves and designed without cost by woman architect, Milada Petříková-Pavlíková. The home contained an assembly hall, smaller lecture halls, club rooms, a library, a dining hall and accommodation. The Women´s Club used the opportunities afforded by the many activities practiced there to teach practical democracy through lectures, debates, seminars, concerts and foreign language teaching. These possibilities were also offered to other women’s organisations working inside the republic.

All of these women, Plamínková, Zemínková and Milada Horáková also took part in women’s conferences around Europe. Františka Plamínková became vice president of the International Woman’s Council after she twice held a speech on women rights in the League of Nations in Geneva.

Valuable supporters for these improvements were Charlotte Garrigue Masaryk(1850-1923), the wife of the first Czechoslovakian president and her daughter Alice Masaryk (1879-1966).

Charlotte Garrigue was born In Brooklyn, New York; after marrying University professor Thomas Masaryk in 1878. She rapidly learned the Czech language, studied its associated literature, history and music and became a striking personality in the intellectual life of Prague. The Czech women’s movement at that time attracted her attention and she decided to lend it her support by translating into Czech the book by John Stuart Mill, Subjection of Women. It was only natural that she should influence her husband with the Czech women’s striving for gender equality. Thomas Masaryk admitted at a later occasion that he was “only a peddler” of his wife’s thoughts concerning women’s rights. Charlotte co-authored his book Polygamy and Monogamy, in which he spoke up for women’s equality.
During a worker’s demonstration in 1906, Charlotte Garrigue Masaryk made open demands for free and equal suffrage together with a secret ballot.
At the outbreak of the great war of 1914, when her husband stayed abroad trying to advance the cause of Czech liberation through the Czechoslovak National Council the Habsburg authorities held the family under close surveillance. The daughter, Alice Masaryk was arrested and sentenced to death on suspicion of her nationalist activities. The sentence was later reduced to twelve years incarceration. Fortunately, through pressure from the American government, Alice Masaryk was released from prison after having served only eight months.

Alice was a well educated young woman who attended the Minerva grammar school before taking up studies at the Faculty of Medicine from which she later decided to change to the faculty of Arts. She graduated as a doctor of History in 1903. After Czechoslovakia attained independent, Alice Masaryk was elected as a deputy to the National Assembly. In February 1919 she was one of the founders of the Czechoslovak Red Cross. She remained the chairwomen of this organization for the next twenty years. Alice Masaryk also chaired the Committee of the Worldwide Conference of Social Workers, was involved in the temperance movement, helped establish Mother´s Day in Czechoslovakia and instigated Red Cross Easter Silence in 1926.

Of course there have been other types of women, who did not follow the conventions of that time. Throughout their lives, these women established a new set of behavioural rules and new standards for the appearance of women. One such woman was Milena Jesenská (1896-1942).
After her studies at Minerva grammar school where she was known as being one of the most highly emancipated girls, Milena began to write and became renowned as a woman journalist writing for one of the major Czech morning papers. Of course Milena did have good support from her aunts. One of them was a translator of English, the other was a novelist called Růžena who even dared to treat the women’s point of view on eroticism in her writing, something that was extremely courageous and outrageous to do at the time.

In the twenties, when Milena, together with her friends, swept through the streets of Prague with their hair flying freely, without the habitual corset, dressed in bright-coloured clothes, their legs bare of stockings and their bare feet stuck into comfortable sandals - so clearly influenced by the dancer Isador Ducan they were subjects for gossip. Times were definitely changing however and women such as Milena saw themselves as equals in society with the rights to have and to express their own views as well as to show their unimpeded feelings and spirits.

Then there was Eliška Junková (1900 -1994) “the Czech racing queen of the Jazz Age”!
Knowledgeable in German, English and French and co-driver with her lover, Vincent “Cenek” Junek, she was known as “smíšek” because of the ever-present smile which graced her lips. She dreamt as young of visiting far-off places but remained instead with her husband to take part in car races. At first they took part in races in Czechoslovakia only but later they competed throughout Europe. In 1923, her husband presented her with a cigar-shaped racing car, an Italian Bugatti Type 30. By 1926 Eliška’s skills as a racing driver had developed to such an extent that she was quite able to compete against the best male drivers in races all over Europe.
Her capability of memorizing a course by walking around it before the event turned her technical driving skills into successes. In the Targa Florio race in Sicily, she carefully noted all 1500 bends in the sixty-seven-mile-long course which helped her beat many other drivers. Her greatest success however was winning a trophy at the Nuremberg ring in Germany. In 1928 her husband Cenek was killed in their brand new Bugatti at the German Grand Prix in which he was sharing the driving with Eliska. Devastated by the loss, she gave up racing and sold off all their racing cars.
Eliška set out for Ceylon with her new touring car given to her by Ettore Bugatti.


4. The occupation of Czechoslovakia, 1939-1945.

In 1938, the Munich Pact signed by France, Great Britain, Italy and Germany gave a vital one third of Czechoslovakia, inhabited mostly by German-speaking Czechs, to Hitler’s Third Reich.

At this time Františka Plamínková wrote an open letter to Adolf Hitler in which she used an often quoted phrase, “…with unshaken belief that despite military supremacy the “truth prevails” …..”

(“Truth Prevails” has been the motto of the state of Czechoslovakia from its creation in 1918). On the15th of March 1939, the rest of what remained of the Czech parts of Czechoslovakia were incorporated into the Protectorate of Böhmen und Märhren by the occupying German forces. Františka Plamínková was imprisoned immediately after this occupation in March 1939. However, international outcry forced the Germans to release her this time.
The first resistance against the occupation was carried out by officers from the disbanded Czech army and the members of the gymnastic movement Sokol, many of whom were women.
In May 1942, Reichsprotecter Reinhard Heydrich, was assassinated by Czech commandos sent from Great Britain. During the process of hunting down the hidden parachutes, 1,331 Czechs, among them more than 200 women, were caught and executed.
It is appropriate to name at least a few of these women if only to commemorate their memories: Liboslava Fafková (1921-1942), Milada Frantová (1906-1942), Taťána Hladěnová (1920-1942), Věra Junková (1917-1942), Marie Moravcová (1898-1942) and Jindriška Nováková (1928-1942).
Among them was also Františka Plamínková who was rearrested and executed by Nazi firing squad in Prague-Kobylisy on 30th of June 1942.
Many others were condemned to a life of misery and horror in concentration camps and Nazi prisons. Milada Horáková was one of these unfortunates as was Milena Jesenská who died in Ravensbrück in 1944.



5. The communist took power in Czechoslovakia in February 1948.

After the communist takeover on 28th of February 1948 all women’s organization were forbidden or, if suitable, were incorporated into the communist dominated Czechoslovakian Women’s Association (Československý svaz žen). At the same time, all properties owned by women’s organizations were confiscated through the process of nationalisation.
Women’s questions were now considered to be solved by a superior Marxist doctrine that made all people, including the two genders, equal.

I feel it appropriate that the last words in this resume should go to two women I mentioned previously in this article.

Františka Zemínková together with Milada Horáková were arrested by the communist authorities in 1949 and put on trial in 1950. They were unjustly charged with high treason and espionage in one of the so called “communist trials”, with which the Czechoslovak authorities indulged themselves during the 1950’s. Františka Zemínková was sentenced to twenty years imprisonment. She was released from prison by presidential amnesty in 1960 only to die shortly afterwards.
Milada Horáková was sentenced to death and hanged immediately after the trial in 1950.

Edited by Dalibor Svoboda, 05 October 2005 - 02:22 PM.


#7 Dalibor Svoboda

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Posted 17 October 2005 - 07:38 PM

Nedávno jsem dostal mail od Jirky Janečka z Drnholce. Obsahoval slohovou práci, prý žáka šesté třídy. Líbila se mně. Poprosil jsem Jirku o uveřejnění. Jeho odpovědˇ byla:

Ahoj,
zverejni ten pribeh, ale pripis k tomu, ze se jedna zatim o anonymniho autora, ze by nas zajimalo, kdo je skutecnym autorem. Z jihu Moravy zdravi jj


Slohová práce žáka 6. třídy ZŠ na téma: "Moji rodiče"

Rodiče se dělí na dvě části: na matku a otce. Matka se ještě dělí na ženu v domácnosti a v zaměstnání. Doma se matka skládá z manželky, matky, kuchařky, uklízečky, pradleny, nákupčího, účetní, vychovatelky a milenky (to mi napověděla ségra Jana, co chodí do devítky, ale když to maminka slyšela, tak řekla, atˇ to tam nepíšu, že lhát se nemá). Maminka to umí ještě rozvést dál a používá slova jako otrok, služka, děvka pro všechno - myslím si ale, taková slova se do slohu žáka 6. třídy nehodí.

Matka sa vyznačuje tím, že se zázračně nachází na více místech najednou, umí najednou myslet na sto věcí a přitom deset věcí najednou dělá. Vidím na vlastní oči, jak po návratu z práce dá vařit vodu na sporák a
mezi tím zadělá těsto na nudle. Přitom jí samozřejmě běží pračka, do které neustále chodí vyměnovat prádlo, pro mě vymýšlí věty oznamovací, rozkazovací a tázací a naší Olinku zkouší z malé násobilky. Že přitom přebalí a nakrmí malého Káju, toho si ani nevšimnu. Dvě oči mi na to nestačí!!!

Protože když potom zasednu k večeři, je už namletý mák i ořechy, navařené nudle a já mám na kolenou tepláků čerstvě zašité díry. Olinka má umyté vlasy a prádlo visí na balkóně. Zbytečně si mamku prohlížím - fakt má pouze dvě ruce ... a přece, když přijde z práce, má v jedné malou i velkou kabelku, ve druhé má dvě tašky s nákupem a to by mě tedy zajímalo, čím drží Karlíka ve fusaku !!!

Otec, ten se neskládá, ani nerozděluje. Nachází se doma, nebo v práci, ale doma ho najdete málokdy. Mimo snídaně a večeře, kdy sedí u stolu v kuchyni, se nachází v obýváku na gauči a bývá zakrytý novinama. Po sobě zanechává vždy ty stejné stopy. Rozevřené a poházené noviny na zemi vedle gauče, všude drobky od toho, jak u toho mlsá, na stole troje brýle, pět ovladačů na spotřební elektroniku, hrnek od kafe, od čaje a sklenici od piva a politý ubrus. Na rozdíl od mamky (i když má taky dvě ruce), přichází domů vždy s prázdnýma rukama, někdy se přihlouple směje a usíná na gauči dřív, než přečte noviny. Jestli umí násobilku to nevím, ale psát asi neumí, protože žákajdu mi ještě nikdy nepodepsal. Ještě jsem ani nestihnul prozkoumat, proč patří do kategorie "rodiče", protože na rodičovském sdružení taky ještě nikdy nebyl.

Pan učitel řekl, abychom se při psaní této slohové úlohy zamysleli nad prací svých rodičů.
Ve škole přidělují žáka, který řádně nepracuje a neučí se k dobrému a usilovnému žákovi. Myslím si tedy, že při svatbách přidělují chlapy k ženám, aby je něčemu dobrému naučili a měli na ně kladný vliv.
Mojí mamince se to zatím nepodařilo..........

Edited by Dalibor Svoboda, 19 October 2005 - 07:25 PM.


#8 Dalibor Svoboda

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Posted 12 June 2007 - 07:36 AM

Historie českých žen 19. a 20. století je nyní uveřejněna na vebové stránce projektu E-HELP

http://www.school-po...p?GroupId=59838

pod rubrikou

A history of Czech and Czechoslovakian women during the 19th and 20th centuries

V této části jsou tez publikovany, životopisy čtyř českých žen dvacátého století. Jedná se o životopisy Emmy Destinové, Mileny Jesenské Marie Čermínové a dr.Milady Horákové.

Připomínky a návrhy na vylepšení jsou vítány.

Edited by Dalibor Svoboda, 12 June 2007 - 07:38 AM.


#9 Dalibor Svoboda

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Posted 20 June 2007 - 09:16 AM

Životopisy českých žen jsou pouze jednou a menší částí projeku E-Help. Minulý rok jsem začal dělat filmované intervju s ženami, které by svýmy prožitýmy životy pomohly zviditelnět českou historii 20 století.

V ůnoru lonského roku jsem natočil jednohodinové intervju s paní Danou Zátopkovou a druhý den potom s bývalou politickou vězkyní Julií Hruškovou. Na podzim toho samého roku mně dovolila paní dr. Nadežda Kavalírová, předsedkyně Svazu politických věznů intervju pár dní pred mojím odjezden do Hořic kde jsem navštívil a udělal intervju s paní Hanou Truncovou, která též strávila mnoho let v komunistických lágrech.

Poslední intervju jsem natočil letos v zimě ve Stockholmu s paní Slávkou Hejzlarovou.

Všechny ženy měly co vypravovat. Já nyní jenom doufám, že jejich rozličné osudy se vejdou bez újmy do 30 minutového filmu, který je mojím úkolem sestříhat.

#10 Dalibor Svoboda

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Posted 03 January 2009 - 12:39 PM

Nesestříhané 56 minutové intervju s paní Danou Zátopkovou je možné si prohlédnout na adrese:

http://www.vimeo.com/1818605

#11 Vladimir Havlicek

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Posted 27 January 2009 - 10:28 PM

České Evy...
V souslosti s architektem Janem Kaplickým a předsednitvím ČR v EU se v médiích objevila, pro většinu českých občanů neznámá Eva Jiřičná, skvělá architektka světové proslulosti. Neznámá.. protože nebyla v českých médiích a přitom ve světě velmi známá (viz např. http://www.ejal.com/ ).

Podobně mediálně zapadla nebo spíš byla delší dobu zapadnuta Eva Romanová, kterou starší pamatují v tanečním páru na ledě Eva a Pavel Romanovi, mistři světa i olympijští vítězi v krasobruslení. A poté co odešli pracovat za oceán, jako by přestali existovat i když na ně pamětníci nezapoměli. (viz např. http://www.osobnosti...va-romanova.php )

Další takřka zapomenutá, nebo nepřípomínaná mistryně světa a olympijská vítězka Eva Bosáková (viz např. http://www.osobnosti...va-bosakova.php nebo http://zivotopisyonl...vitezka-z-rima/ )
Zvláštní je vliv médií ale i paměť lidí.

#12 Vladimir Havlicek

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Posted 13 November 2010 - 10:37 AM

Neobyčejný osud neobyčejné ženy MUDr. Vlasty Kálalové di Lottiové znají čtenáři díky knize Ilony Borské: Doktorka z domu trubačů a několika odkazů na webu:
http://cs.wikipedia....asta_Kálalová
http://instinkt.tyde...bacu_25639.html
http://www.knihovnic...mu-trubacu.html




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