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Martin Shackelford

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Posts posted by Martin Shackelford

  1. 'Craig Lamson' wrote:

    [...]

    Jack, Zapruder was not in full sun, he was backlit and in dark clothing. Consult your moorman in a previous post. Why did you put a person in light clothes on the pedestal to try and make your point?

    [...]

    Zapruder was backlit? roflmfao! Photographer and photo anaylyst, yeah, right..... LOL

    Yes David, from the Weigman camera position, Zapruder was backlit.

    ________

    What? If he turned with his back towards Elm Street and faced Sitzman, perhaps. Zapruder has NO backlight in that photo, the Zapruder camera position has more than adequate KEY-SIDE light from Weigman's camera position.

    What you need there Craig, is a few 5K HMI's and a 2K (all 5600) rim light "behind" Zapruder and Sizman now THAT's outdoor backlight (or the sun), then we could see whose actually ON the pedestal, (despite the piss poor quality of ALL photos/film taken that day which I do find interesting in and of itself, that we mere mortals have been allowed to view) -- nobody can positively ID him, Zapruder (based on on-the-record DP photos), not that I doubt it's probably him.

    Nope, you are wrong David, the sun was a good 120 degrees around from the Weigman camera position, which makes it backlight. There are ample examples of this in the Weigman frames.

    Craig, any chance of posting the examples in the Weigman frames so that those of us not skilled in photo analysis can get a look, or suggest a link where they can be viewed..Thanks, Steve.

    Steve...I think you will find this illustration of interest. It shows the Weigman clear

    frame lightened and colorized. THERE IS NOTHING ON THE PEDESTAL. It also

    shows Sitzman in the very light colored dress she was wearing. Such a light

    dress would have photographed in sharp contrast to the dark background, regardless

    of the direction of lighting. Mr. Light lies when he says the pedestal was BACKLIGHTED.

    The sun was in the south, not the west, as any fool can plainly see. Mr. Light surely

    knows the difference between SIDE-lighting and BACK-lighting.

    Jack

    Here is another Wiegman which seems to show a large black box

    atop the pedestal.

    Jack

    Marilyn Sitzman might object to her back being described as "a big black box." I erred in saying they were off the pedestal--I was looking at the wrong figures. Craig got it right. You were nowhere near.

    Martin Shackelford

    FOR SOME REASON THE BOARD COMBINED THESE TWO MESSAGES SENT

    SEPARATELY, AND PUT THE IMAGE WITH THE WRONG MESSAGE.

    I HAVE NO IDEA HOW THIS HAPPENED, SINCE THE MESSAGES WERE

    SENT SEVERAL MINUTES APART! THE IMAGE GOES WITH THE FIRST

    MESSAGE. The message to John had no image attached.

    Zapruder has to be still on the pedestal.

    Wiegman had his camera locked on RUN as he sprinted down Elm.

    One of his FIRST CLEAR FRAMES shows Jackie on the trunk of the

    limo, which is far from the end of the Zfilm. FOUR SECONDS LATER

    by the video frame counter, the first CLEAR FRAME of the EMPTY

    PEDESTAL is seen. In four seconds he cannot have finished filming

    and jumped down from the pedestal.

    Jack

    possibly there is a confusion with regards to the structure of these images as presented. To illustrate here is a selection enhanced to show the black area at the underpass being made up of a number of 'boxes'. This is so throughout these images. (this frame at least 57 frames after the limo has gone into the underpass)

    John...I know all about PIXELIZATION creating the appearance of rectangles.

    That may be what is happening to cause the black box. I cannot explain it.

    Even without pixelization there seems to be a solid black rectangle on top.

    How about spending some time using your powers of enhancement to study

    the Wiegman film itself instead of trying to debunk me? Repeat my studies

    yourself and tell us what you find. Lamson says he sees Zapruder and Sitzman

    SITTING on the pedestal. Tell us if that is what you find.

    Thanks.

    Jack

    Try using a less muddy copy of the Wiegman film, Jack.

    Martin Shackelford

    AGAIN THE BOARD HAS COMBINED TWO OF MY POSTINGS FROM SEVERAL

    MINUTES APART AND PUT THE WRONG IMAGE WITH THE WRONG MESSAGE.

    .....from a film copy of Wiegman clear frame showing Jackie on the trunk.

    Jack

    ABOVE WAS THE FIRST MESSAGE. SEVERAL MINUTES LATER I SENT THE

    MESSAGE BELOW.

    John wrote:

    On the whole it is in the eye of behiolder and therefore borderline as any sort of evidence that Zapruder was not there. However there appears to be much clear evidence that he was.

    Jack asks:

    Please give examples of the "CLEAR EVIDENCE". Please do so without

    citing other photos which may have been retouched. (see attachment)

    Jack

    I WILL NOW ATTEMPT TO ADD THE TWO IMAGES.

    JACK

    THE SECOND IMAGE DID NOT ATTACH. TRYING AGAIN. WHAT IS GOING ON?

    JACK

    ANOTHER ATTEMPT TO POST THE IMAGE WHICH WOULD NOT POST.

    JACK

    Once again a "cute" headline is used to obscure the faulty nature of the "evidence" presented.

    Martin Shackelford

  2. [...]

    Jack, Zapruder was not in full sun, he was backlit and in dark clothing. Consult your moorman in a previous post. Why did you put a person in light clothes on the pedestal to try and make your point?

    [...]

    Zapruder was backlit? roflmfao! Photographer and photo anaylyst, yeah, right..... LOL

    Zapruder wore a white shirt. Sitzman wore a light beige dress.

    Jack

    A white shirt UNDER a dark coat, Jack.

    Martin Shackelford

  3. The Nix film has been altered.

    Jack, You got any evidence to back this assertion?

    What about the Muchmore film was that altered too?

    Unfortunately, in the White/Fetzer universe, everything that contradicts their claims is altered evidence.

    Martin Shackelford

    One other thought comes to mind, How do you control all the other Film/photographs taken in D/P that day. It would be physically impossible to confiscate all of them, so how could you possibly know that a day, week, month or year one, or more of them is not going to surface, and blow the faked Z Film out of the water. If you cant exercise total control of the wider environment, you cant be sure of the outcome.

    Steve...COMPLETE CONTROL WAS EXERCISED by the govt. All KNOWN films

    and photos WERE in their hands for extended periods. They had plenty

    of time to attempt making all of them show what was wanted. If you know

    of ANY evidence film not in the govt's hands, please let us know.

    Jack

    Jack, my point exactly, all KNOWN films and photo's, but how could the authorities be absolutely certain, as they had to be, that ALL Film/ photos were in their hands to ensure that they agreed with the faked Z film, the short answer? they couldn't, not without a veritable army of men to confiscate ALL camera's, if just one slips through, and shows scenes different to zapruder then the games up. At the very least they are taking a huge risk. Jack I know of no evidence of film not seen by the Gov, but that does not invalidate my point. BTW, what part do you believe Zapruder played in this if he didn't take the film, EG willing accomplice.

    In fact, photos published the same day were not first in the hands of the government.

    Also, the Muchmore film was included in a UPI newsreel before the government received a copy of the film. UPI also used the Nix film in a newsreel. Jack has to ignore many things to support his claims.

    Martin Shackelford

    One other thought comes to mind, How do you control all the other Film/photographs taken in D/P that day. It would be physically impossible to confiscate all of them, so how could you possibly know that a day, week, month or year one, or more of them is not going to surface, and blow the faked Z Film out of the water. If you cant exercise total control of the wider environment, you cant be sure of the outcome.

    Point well taken, and understood, Stephen. However, prior the Geraldo show screening -- who cared about the contents of the Z-film? Nobody but the Warren Commssion saw the extant camera original Zapruder film run after Feb '64, if that late and IF what THEY saw was the alledged camera original in the first place!

    Prints of prints of prints, ad nauseum are what researchers viewed/saw projected when they went to the archives for a "preview" of the film -- No side by side comparisons of ANYTHING (relating to OTHER DP films - not even in question at the time)

    All the pissing and moaning by "preservers of Dealey Plaza Photographic history", he-he, if they wanted to deliver a "knock out" punch to the pro-alteration camp, they know whats required... they won't, because they can't. Any, ANY attempt on their part to clean up alledged Z-film/eye witness testimony - discrepancy would create a torrent of questions, most notably bringing the SBT theory (which ALSO drags in the Moorman5 photo and early SS/FBI re-enactments) into question and THAT will NEVER happen -- best they can do is stay below the radar screen (which means have others do your posting for you) and send in pissants, in a attempt to discredit those that question the *DP photographic record 'status quo' along with 6th floor museum endorsements...*

    DH

    This is simple nonsense, David. You suggest that the film wasn't viewed between 1963 and 1975 except by the Warren Commission, but that is completely false. It was viewed by many at Time-LIFE and shown to friends of Time-LIFE personnel very quickly. A good print was available for viewing at the National Archives by end of 1964, and many researchers viewed it there--frames slides were also available for viewing, as was the FBI frame album. The film was shown repeatedly at the Clay Shaw Trial in 1969. After that, bootleg copies were widely circulated. Mark Lane showed the film in his lectures. Robert Groden began showing the film at conferences in 1973. Copies were cheaply available to anyone who wanted to view one. Penn Jones and others sold a great many of them. Robert Groden sold sets of frame slides from 132-486.

    Martin Shackelford

    Richard Hotelett: The car never stopped did it!

    Dan Rather: Thc car never stoppcd, it never paused.

    Those who argue film alteration are always very selective in their citation of Rather. They insist that his account is precisely the content of the "real" Zapruder film--and at the same time they argue that the film is altered because it doesn't show the limousine stopping--ignoring this quote from the same description.

    Martin Shackelford

    Colby is not aware that Wiegman, who caught several clear frames

    of the pedestal, SHOWS THE PEDESTAL WITH NOBODY ON TOP.

    Apparently in the dragnet of films, the govt missed this.

    In FULL SUNLIGHT, Wiegman should have shown SOMETHING

    on top of the pedestal. Below, Wiegman is compared to Betzner.

    Both are in b/w just seconds apart.

    Jack

    In the Wiegman frame below which shows NOBODY ON THE PEDESTAL,

    I have moved the man in the hardhat from the curb to the pedestal

    to show what a person in FULL SUNLIGHT would look like.

    Jack

    "A few seconds" is all it took, Jack, for Zapruder to step down off the pedestal. Is it your claim that Zapruder wasn't up there filming?

    Martin Shackelford

    Colby is not aware that Wiegman, who caught several clear frames

    of the pedestal, SHOWS THE PEDESTAL WITH NOBODY ON TOP.

    Apparently in the dragnet of films, the govt missed this.

    In FULL SUNLIGHT, Wiegman should have shown SOMETHING

    on top of the pedestal. Below, Wiegman is compared to Betzner.

    Both are in b/w just seconds apart.

    Jack

    In the Wiegman frame below which shows NOBODY ON THE PEDESTAL,

    I have moved the man in the hardhat from the curb to the pedestal

    to show what a person in FULL SUNLIGHT would look like.

    Jack

    ------------------------------------

    Jack:

    As I remember the Pergola area, the Zapruder "pedestal" is farther to the right, and just out of that photo.

    _____________________

    Jack has the pedestal located correctly--he is just playing games with the time factor.

    Martin Shackelford

    This is probably a stupid question, but would it not have been simpler to claim that the film showed nothing but static?Or that a technician made a terrible mistake and wiped the whole thing, sure questions would have been asked, and blame apportioned, but in the long run the film would have been nothing but a faded memory. Seems like an awful lot of trouble and risk to go through to produce a film that still makes it look like JFK took a frountal shot..

    I am definitely in the midst of a subject I have somewhat intentionally stayed away from (Zapruder Film controversy) but didn't the History Channel show a 'unedited' version of the Zapruder film a couple of years ago? Was it the MPI Video 'Image of an Assassination?'

    FWIW - I think there is an incredible lack of awareness regarding CIA technology circa 1963. And it is ironic how the 'temperature goes up', when 'certain aspects of the assassination' get brought up. I still havent quite figured that out, except it appears to be related to 'rejection of very cherished perceptions.'

    A complete copy (no missing frames) of the Z film can be found in Robert Groden's DVD "The Assassination Films."

    Martin Shackelford

    Colby wrote:

    One thing that's odd is that Jack White claims that (at least one of) Mary Moorman's Polaroids were altered and then uses one of the Poloroids as evidence that the Z-film was altered!

    Anyone who says this clearly does not comprehend the subject!

    Mary Moorman took a GENUINE Polaroid while standing in the street,

    not on the grass. This is provable by anyone.

    That genuine Polaroid was altered by ADDING or CHANGING two persons

    on the pedestal to represent Zapruder/Sitzman.

    The proof of this is a COMPARISON of the Badgeman image and the

    Zapruder image, BOTH FROM THE SAME POLAROID. (see attachment)

    Badgeman, standing in the SHADE, is clear, crisp and sharp.

    Zapruder, standing in FULL SUNLIGHT, is fuzzy and indistinct.

    Focus is not involved, since both are at infinity from Mary's position.

    It is logical to assume that the sharp Badgeman image, which is compatible with

    the rest of the photo is GENUINE, and the fuzzy Zapruder image is added by

    retouching.

    Jack

    Tink Thompson just wiped the floor with Jim Fetzer when Fetzer supported this claim on another forum.

    All of the photographic evidence shows Mary Moorman was standing in the grass, not the street.

    Martin Shackelford

    Colby is not aware that Wiegman, who caught several clear frames

    of the pedestal, SHOWS THE PEDESTAL WITH NOBODY ON TOP.

    Apparently in the dragnet of films, the govt missed this.

    In FULL SUNLIGHT, Wiegman should have shown SOMETHING

    on top of the pedestal. Below, Wiegman is compared to Betzner.

    Both are in b/w just seconds apart.

    Jack

    In Wiegman, Zapruder is just off the pedestal, a short distance to the right of it.

    Martin Shackelford

    Colby is not aware that Wiegman, who caught several clear frames

    of the pedestal, SHOWS THE PEDESTAL WITH NOBODY ON TOP.

    Apparently in the dragnet of films, the govt missed this.

    In FULL SUNLIGHT, Wiegman should have shown SOMETHING

    on top of the pedestal. Below, Wiegman is compared to Betzner.

    Both are in b/w just seconds apart.

    Jack

    Jack,

    It was always my impression that Zapruder climbed off the pedestal nearly immediately after completing his film. Wiegman, I thought, caught the pedestal later -- after A.Z. had climbed off.

    I also reviewed the Nix film -- seems to show A.Z. filming exactly as expected.

    Is your contention that Abraham Zapruder was *not* the one who shot the film?

    Also -- I was under the impression that the Badgeman image was the byproduct of some *extensive* photographic enhancement. Have these techniques ever been applied to the Zapruder pedestal area?

    Frank...your "impression" is wrong. During his very short run, Wiegman

    captured both the empty pedestal and the limo not yet to the underpass

    (see attachment). The empty pedestal frame and the underpass frame

    are a split second apart. Zapruder filmed the limo entering the underpass,

    so MUST be on the pedestal when Wiegman films while running.

    On Badgeman...he can be seen on the ORIGINAL, which I have copied.

    There was NO EXTENSIVE PHOTO ENHANCEMENT. All I did was copy the

    image making an OPTIMUM EXPOSURE (bracketing).

    The Nix film has been altered.

    Nobody knows who shot the Z film...but it likely was NOT Abe.

    Jack

    As must be clear to anyone, the three frames were taken at slightly different times. Add to that the fact that Wiegman shows the limo beyond the point where it passed out of Zapruder's line of sight--Jack doesn't take into account the substantially different angle from which the film was taken. By the time Wiegman panned to the pedestal, Zapruder had just stepped down from it.

    Martin Shackelford

  4. Pamela,

    You should do more research before making these claims. Since you were NOT there and HAVE NOT seen the tapes I cannot understand why you would even write what you have.

    I was invited to bring my video camera by Howard Platzman. I have the email. Everyone knew we would be filming.

    [False: Only Howard and Debra knew she was bringing a camera I

    was surprised, as were Judyth, Anna, her daughter, and Dr. Riehl.]

    --Martin]

    My communications with Anna were initiated by her when she called me to vent about Judyth. Whether she knew Judyth or Lee Oswald does not change the fact that Anna cannot vouch for Judyth's claims regarding her secret lab activities or assassination knowledge. Anna was shocked when told of those claims.

    [Anna is a witness to the love affair. No one has ever claimed that she

    can verify the other matters.--Martin]

    I have responded to these same accusations from you on other forums and now you come here to fresh territory and spread them again. If you have decided to support Judyth Baker that is your choice. It is mine to not believe her. It doesn't make her case any stronger when you attack me. You are only hurting your own reputation as a serious researcher.

    Sincerely,

    Debra

    In fact, it hurts no one's reputation to point out falsehoods and misleading statements--except perhaps the reputation of the person making those statements.

    Martin Shackelford

  5. Eugene B. Connolly has asked the following question:

    Having studied Ancient History - Roman and Greek I was reading an article on the assassination of Julius Caesar on 15th March, 44 BC in which it is claimed that Caesar had an idea, indeed ideas- forebodings - that he would be assassinated. Caesar was once asked how he would like to die. In his answer Caesar said he didn't mind how he died as long as he died quickly and without pain.

    It seems that President Kennedy in a discussion on the life and assassination of Abraham Lincoln was asked how he would deal with an assassination attempt on himself. Kennedy replied - like Caesar - that he didn't care if death came as long as it came quickly and without pain.

    My question is: Did Kennedy have any feelings or forebodings - premonitions - that he would be assassinated? Did he ever express these feelings to anyone?

    Kennedy did comment that it would be easy for someone with a rifle in a building--but he also said that anyone willing to give his life to kill the President could do it.

    Martin Shackelford

  6. In reading recent posts about the suspicious deaths involving members of the CIA, (William Colby), and various other witnesses to the events of the JFK assassination,  it seems that the powers that be are more than capable of orchestrating hits on people and making it look like an accident, or some other kind of plausible, albeit untimely death.

    Why is it then that the assassination of JFK occurred in such an open forum, with masses of potential for it to go wrong, requiring an enormous cover up that could leave the USA government embarrassed for decades if exposed. This leading to the potential of multiple hits on witnesses who may know anything about the operation.

    Why was it not done as boat accident, a plane fault, poisoned pills even, (for which the idea was suggested for Castro).  As I've read - there are so many better options to assassinate JFK, why would the conspirators, if they were members of such high society, opt for the most difficult assassination option?

    Hard to determine the motive without knowing who the conspirators were, as the motives could vary widely. One person who seemed to have no motive, having spoken only favorably of JFK, was Lee Oswald.

    Martin Shackelford

  7. It is interesting that whenever a forum provides an opportunity to discuss Judyth's account in an open manner, it is suddenly inundated with attacks posts from three sources:

    1) Team McAdams, including Dave Reitzes.

    2) The Della Rosa group, including Dixie and Bernice.

    3) The Lancer group, including Dave Weaver.

    Apparently the idea that Judyth might be taken seriously far too threatening to any of them to be permitted.

    But I'm sure Dixie and the other "sensitive" attack artists will find my post offensive.

    Martin Shackelford

  8. My Year 10 (aged 14-15) are now starting on a piece of coursework: 'Why is JFK remembered so positively?'. I have attached the questions they came up with in groups. Answers and different views from experts would be great for when we start back in September or for pupils to look at over the Summer.

    Question: How important was JFK’s contribution to the civil rights cause? Did he do more than any President before or since?

    It cannot be said that JFK did more for civil rights than any President before or since. His presidency did relatively little for civil rights in a practical sense, but he put the moral authority of his office behind the concept, which laid the groundwork for later progress. During the campaign, he talked about things that a President could accomplish "with the stroke of a pen," through executive orders (the way FDR integrated the armed forces during World War Two, and Truman took further actions), but when this hadn't happened after months of waiting, civil rights organizations began mailing pens to the White House.

    The major civil rights acts were passed during the administration of Lyndon Johnson, a master politician who knew how to use the Kennedy legacy to get them through.

    Martin Shackelford

  9. My Year 10 (aged 14-15) are now starting on a piece of coursework: 'Why is JFK remembered so positively?'. I have attached the questions they came up with in groups. Answers and different views from experts would be great for when we start back in September or for pupils to look at over the Summer.

    Question: Would JFK have been re-elected? If so, by what kind of margin?

    With a year to go before the election, and many factors having effects on an election, this is really impossible to say. What we do know is that JFK and Barry Goldwater liked each other personally, and were looking forward to an issue-based campaign. My own guess would be that, all things being equal, Kennedy might have done better in 1964 than he did in 1960.

    Martin Shackelford

  10. My Year 10 (aged 14-15) are now starting on a piece of coursework: 'Why is JFK remembered so positively?'. I have attached the questions they came up with in groups. Answers and different views from experts would be great for when we start back in September or for pupils to look at over the Summer.

    Question: How dangerous was the disagreement between the Soviet Union and the USA over Berlin? Was this potentially more dangerous than the Cuban Missile Crisis?

    I don't think it was as dangerous, though it could have been had either side used poorer judgement than they did. As it was, the Soviets did grave damage to their image with the Berlin Wall, and Kennedy was wise enough to underline that rather than respond militarily. Reagan used the symbolism of the wall to great effect in the 80s as well. The most dangerous time in Berlin was in 1948--after the Berlin Airlift, things largely remained in a state of suspension until the end of the Cold War in 1989.

    Martin Shackelford

  11. My Year 10 (aged 14-15) are now starting on a piece of coursework: 'Why is JFK remembered so positively?'. I have attached the questions they came up with in groups. Answers and different views from experts would be great for when we start back in September or for pupils to look at over the Summer.

    Question: To what extent did JFK improve relations between the USA and the Soviet Union after the Cuban Missile Crisis?

    I'd say considerably. He gave Khrushchev a way out of the Cuban Missile Crisis, which enabled both men to negotiate a Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in 1963, over the objections of military on both sides of the Cold War, and paved the way for continued improvements in relations. This also resulted in feelers going out for improved relations with Cuba, but Kennedy's assassination ended that, as Lyndon Johnson opposed such moves.

    Martin Shackelford

  12. My Year 10 (aged 14-15) are now starting on a piece of coursework: 'Why is JFK remembered so positively?'. I have attached the questions they came up with in groups. Answers and different views from experts would be great for when we start back in September or for pupils to look at over the Summer.

    Question: Did the press know about JFK’s affairs – especially with Marilyn Monroe? If so, why did they keep quiet about it? Why didn’t JFK’s private life create a scandal?

    It is not certain that JFK had an affair with Marilyn Monroe, though he may have. I suspect that some of the press knew something about the affairs he did have, but in those days, such things weren't reported--just as the affairs of Harding, FDR and Eisenhower hadn't been reported--and Nixon is also rumored to have had affairs. This disinclination to report affairs has only changed in recent years.

    Martin Shackelford

  13. My Year 10 (aged 14-15) are now starting on a piece of coursework: 'Why is JFK remembered so positively?'. I have attached the questions they came up with in groups. Answers and different views from experts would be great for when we start back in September or for pupils to look at over the Summer.

    Question: What was JFK’s greatest achievement?

    I would say his ability to go against the counsel of his advisors during the Cuban Missile Crisis, which prevented a nuclear war. That, to my mind, was his peak achievement.

    Martin Shackelford

  14. Question: How do people in America today view JFK? Is he seen as a hero? Is his reputation growing/declining? Why?

    There's no unified view, though he's generally well-regarded, I think. The conservatives appear to be very upset by that, in fact, and delight in bashing the Kennedys. This could become awkward, as California's Republican actor-governor is married to one. Fox New Network has done a lot of Kennedy-bashing. The affairs, of course, have gotten a lot of attention, and conservatives would, it seems, die before admitting that he might have been planning a withdrawal from Viet Nam. I think, however, that after a period of flux, his reputation is again growing.

    Martin Shackelford

  15. Could someone tell me very briefly what evidnce there is for and agaist Judyth Baker?

    Please-just facts, not opinions.

    Bill Byas

    Evidence that she had a background in cancer research, and relating to increasing the strength of a cancer--strong.

    Evidence that she worked at Reily Co. at the same time as Oswald--strong

    Evidence that she was involved with Oswald personally--three witnesses from that summer, plus several people with whom she talked about the relationship from 1964 on.

    Evidence that she was involved with a cancer project involving David Ferrie--a good circumstantial case--she knows a lot of unpublished information about both Ferrie and Dr. Mary Sherman, and there are reports of a young woman being seen around there that summer--unusual for Ferrie, given his orientation.

    As for the JFK conspiracy material, that's credible if she knew Oswald, as she's repeating what he told her.

    Martin Shackelford

  16. Did the activities of the peace movement help the NLF (Vietcong) gain control of South Vietnam?

    Not really. Fighting an insurgency from within a country, when it is supported by the majority of the population, is next to impossible. The U.S. admitted in the 1950s that the majority of the Vietnamese supported Ho Chi Minh and the NLF, but used that as an argument to support the minority government, though Ho had been a U.S. ally during World War Two. It was clear to Lyndon Johnson by early 1964 that the war was unwinnable, but he lacked the imagination or the political courage to just get out. As a result, 50,000 Americans and countless Vietnamese died as the war went on for another bloody eleven years. Withouit the peace movement, the slaughter might have continued even longer. The Vietnamese won, the dominoes didn't fall, and the waste of it all became even more starkly apparent.

    Martin Shackelford

  17. Question: Could JFK have done anything to stop the Bay of Pigs invasion?

    Yes. He could have said no. It couldn't have happened without his approval. Unfortunately, he was newly elected, and the plan had been authorized (in a better form) by President Eisenhower, an experienced military man. JFK wasn't clearly told that the plan presented to him was modified from the one approved by Eisenhower, and went ahead with it, to his later regret. He accepted full responsibility, however, and moved on from there.

    Martin Shackelford

  18. My Year 10 (aged 14-15) are now starting on a piece of coursework: 'Why is JFK remembered so positively?'. I have attached the questions they came up with in groups. Answers and different views from experts would be great for when we start back in September or for pupils to look at over the Summer.

    Question: Did JFK play the key role in ending the Cuban Missile Crisis? Was the final decision his or did he follow advice from others?

    The final decision always rests with the President. As Harry Truman said, "The buck stops here"--he can't pass it any higher. Of course, the President always relies on advisors before making decisions. Most of JFK's advisors recommended military action against Cuba, an armed invasion, but we know now that this would have triggered the use of battlefield nuclear weapons against the U.S. mainland, and resulted in countless deaths. Fortunately, JFK took the advice of a minority, including his brother Robert, who recommended a naval blockade, and this turned the crisis around. Had he simply followed the advice of the majority, there would likely have been a nuclear war.

    Martin Shackelford

  19. Question: Was JFK aware of the plots to kill Castro? If so, did he do anything to try and stop them?

    John and Robert Kennedy seem to have been aware of the anti-Castro plots, and to have supported them--upset only upon learning that the CIA had become enmeshed with the Mafia in the process. They ordered this aspect stopped, but with mixed success.

    Martin Shackelford

  20. Question: What were JFK’s plans for the CIA, had he been re-elected?

    There are many theories and claims on this. The New York quoted JFK as talking about splintering the CIA into a thousand pieces. The most likely change, however, would have been removing the CIA's paramilitary function, and transferring that to the Department of Defense, as the CIA was never very good at it.

    Martin Shackelford

  21. Question: Is there any link between the assassinations of JFK, Malcolm X, Martin Luther King and Robert Kennedy?

    This has long been a question, but no definite link has ever been established, despite being frequently theorized. An individual being in both Dallas (JFK) and Los Angeles (RFK), theories about CIA involvement in the assassinations of JFK, RFK and Malcolm X, talk about Army intelligence involvement in the JFK and King assassinations, etc. So far, however, no real evidence linking them. One of the things I always thought more than a bit of a coincidence was that King and RFK weren't killed when they came out against the Viet Nam War, but they were killed after both had come out in support of a campaign of economic justice, the Poor People's Campaign. And Malcolm X wasn't killed when he was spouting anti-white rhetoric, but when he began talking about inter-racial coalition-building. In each case, organizing the powerless against the powerful. So there are, at least, thematic links in those cases.

    Martin Shackelford

  22. Question: Is there clear evidence that the CIA and the mafia worked together? If so, where, how and why?

    Yes, the CIA use of the Mafia in assassination plots was exposed during Congressional investigations by the Church Committee of the Senate during the mid-1970s. The Mob was first enlisted under the Eisenhower administration in 1959, involving Jimmy Hoffa as a go-between. Richard Nixon was the White House Action Officer on the project, which was a prelude to the planned invasion of Cuba. When John Kennedy inherited the project, the Castro assassination plots were a part of it. Robert Kennedy became upset when he learned the CIA was using the Mafia, and told them to stop. Mafia figures involved in the second stage included Santos Trafficante of Florida, Johnny Rosselli of Chicago and Los Angeles, and Sam Giancana of Chicago. An Internet search should produce considerable detail on this whole disturbing history.

    Martin Shackelford

  23. Were the autopsy photos actually published? And if yes, were they analysed by any other organisations except the Warren Commission?

    Officially, the autopsy photographs and X-rays remain classified, and are only available for examination by researchers who have Kennedy family permission to examine them. This has been only a trickle over the years.

    Unofficially, some autopsy photos have leaked out, and have been published. Robert Groden published five color autopsy photos. Mark Crouch obtained ten black and white copies of autopsy photos from retired Secret Service agent James Fox in 1982. Some of these were first published by David Lifton in an edition of his book Best Evidence in 1988, and have since been published in other books. The set is also available from the research journal JFK/Deep Poliltics Quarterly, as photos or on a CD-ROM.

    Officially, the Warren Commission never saw the autopsy photos, though reportedly Earl Warren looked at them and decided not to make them a part of the record. The photos were examined by the Clark Panel in 1968, a Justice Department-appointed panel, and later by the House Select Committee on Assassinations, which published portions of some of the photos, and drawings based on some of the photos.

    Martin Shackelford

  24. The House Select Committee of Assassinations) was highly critical of the Secret Service:

    "The Secret Service was deficient in the performance of its duties. The Secret Service possessed information that was not properly analyzed, investigated or used by the Secret Service in connection with the President's trip to Dallas; in addition, Secret Service agents in the motorcade were inadequately prepared to protect the President from a sniper."

    So, my question is, was it obligatory at that time for the SS to check all the buildings that the President's car was going to pass? If yes, is there any evidence whether it was done or not?

    Reply: Not really. The Secret Service didn't have the manpower to check every building along a lengthy motorcade route. They relied to some degree on other federal agencies as well as local police, but even this additional assistance would not have been sufficient to check every building.

    Martin Shackelford

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