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John Dolva

Cecil Rhodes

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Cecil Rhodes - Wikipedia,

The Right Honourable

Cecil John Rhodes

6th Prime Minister of the Cape Colony. In office 1890 – 1896

Monarch Queen Victoria

Governor Henry Loch

William Gordon Cameron (acting)

Hercules Robinson

Preceded by John Gordon Sprigg

Succeeded by John Gordon Sprigg

Born 5 July 1853 (1853-07-05)

Bishop's Stortford, Hertfordshire, England, United Kingdom

Died 26 March 1902 (aged 48)

Muizenberg, Cape Colony

(now South Africa)

Resting place"World's View", Matopos Hills, Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe)

20°25′S 28°28′E / 20.417°S 28.467°E / -20.417; 28.467Coordinates:

20°25′S 28°28′E / 20.417°S 28.467°E / -20.417; 28.467

Nationality British

Spouse(s) Never married

Relations Reverend Francis William Rhodes (Father)

Louisa Peacock Rhodes(Mother)

Francis William Rhodes(Brother)

Children None

Alma materBishop's Stortford Grammar School

Oriel College, Oxford

Occupation Businessman

Politician

Cecil John Rhodes DCL (5 July 1853 – 26 March 1902[1]) was an English-born

businessman, mining magnate, and politician in South Africa. He was the founder

of the diamond company De Beers, which today markets 40% of the world's rough

diamonds and at one time marketed 90%.[2] He was an ardent believer in

colonialism and imperialism, and was the founder of the state of Rhodesia, which

was named after him. Rhodesia, later Northern and Southern Rhodesia, eventually

became Zambia and Zimbabwe respectively. South Africa's Rhodes University is

named after him, and he is also known for the Rhodes Scholarship which is funded

by his estate.

Contents [hide]

1 Childhood in England

2 South Africa

3 Education

4 Diamonds

5 Politics in South Africa

6 Expanding the British Empire

6.1 Rhodes and the Imperial Factor

6.2 Treaties, concessions and charters

6.3 Rhodesia

6.4 "Cape to Cairo Red Line"

7 Political views

8 Personal relationships

8.1 Sexuality

8.2 Princess Radziwill

9 Boer War

10 Death and legacy

10.1 Rhodes Scholarship

10.2 Memorials

11 Quotations

12 Popular culture

13 Controversies

14 See also

15 Notes

16 References

17 Further reading

18 External links

[edit] Childhood in England

Rhodes was born in 1853 in Bishop's Stortford, Hertfordshire, England. He was

the fifth son of the Reverend Francis William Rhodes, a Church of England vicar

who prided himself on never having preached a sermon longer than 10 minutes, and

his wife Louisa Peacock Rhodes. He had many siblings, including Francis William

Rhodes, an army officer. A sickly, asthmatic teenager, he was taken out of

grammar school and sent to Natal, South Africa because his family thought the

hot, dry climate[clarification needed] there would improve his health. There, he

was to help his brother Herbert[Note 1] on his cotton farm.[3]

Cecil Rhodes (Sketch by Mortimer Menpes)[edit] South Africa

After a brief stay with the Surveyor-General of Natal, Dr. P.C. Sutherland, in

Pietermaritzburg, Rhodes took an interest in agriculture and joined his brother

Herbert on his cotton farm in the Umkomanzi valley in Natal. When he first came

to Africa, Rhodes supported himself with money lent by his aunt Sophia.[4] In

the colony, he established the Rhodes Fruit Farms[5] in the Stellenbosch

district.[clarification needed]

In October 1871, Rhodes left the colony for the diamond fields of Kimberley.

Financed by N M Rothschild & Sons, Rhodes succeeded in buying up all the smaller

diamond mining operations in the Kimberley area by 1888. His monopoly of the

world's diamond supply was sealed in 1889 through a strategic partnership with

the London-based Diamond Syndicate, with whom he agreed to control world supply

in order to maintain high prices.[6][7] He supervised the working of his

brother's claim and speculated on his behalf. Among his associates in the early

days were John X. Merriman and Charles Rudd, who later became his partner in the

De Beers Mining Company and Niger Oil Company.

[edit] Education

A portrait bust of Rhodes on the first floor of No. 6 King Edward Street marks

the place of his residence whilst in Oxford.Rhodes attended the Bishop's

Stortford Grammar School. In 1873, Rhodes left his farm field in the care of his

business partner, Rudd, and sailed for England to complete his studies. He was

admitted to Oriel College, Oxford, but stayed for only one term in 1873, leaving

for South Africa and returning for his second term in 1876. He was greatly

influenced by John Ruskin's inaugural lecture at Oxford, which reinforced his

own attachment to the cause of British imperialism. Among his Oxford associates

were Rochefort Maguire, later a fellow of All Souls College and a director of

the British South Africa Company, and Charles Metcalfe. His university career

engendered in him an admiration for the Oxford "system", which was eventually to

mature into his scholarship scheme: "Wherever you turn your eye—except in

science—an Oxford man is at the top of the tree".

While attending Oriel College, Rhodes became a Freemason in the Apollo

University Lodge. Although his initial view of it was not approving, he

continued to be a Freemason until his death in 1902. The failures of the

Freemasons, in his mind, later caused him to envisage his own secret society

with the goal of bringing the entire world under British rule.[3][8]

[edit] Diamonds

Whilst at Oxford, Rhodes continued to prosper in Kimberley. Before his departure

for Oxford, he and C.D. Rudd had moved from the Kimberley Mine to invest in the

more costly claims of what was known as old De Beers (Vooruitzicht) which owed

its name to Johannes Nicolaas de Beer and his brother, Diederik Arnoldus de

Beer, who were occupants of the farm, which with the entire Griqualand West

region belonged to the Voortrekker great-great-grandfather of Claudine

Fourie-Grosvenor, David Stephanus Fourie. He had allowed various Afrikaner

families including the De Beers to reside on the land after he had purchased the

entire region from the Modder River via the Vet River up to the Vaal River from

Mr. David Danser, a Koranna chief in the area, in 1839.{as per book by Eric

Rosenthal - famous South African surnames and British Intelligence Records and

Maps by F. Orpen in 1800's as well as the Official Intelligence Report by the

British government in 1879.}

In 1874 and 1875, the diamond fields were in the grip of depression, but Rhodes

and Rudd were among those who stayed to consolidate their interests. They

believed that diamonds would be numerous in the hard blue ground that had been

exposed after the softer, yellow layer near the surface had been worked out.

During this time, the technical problem of clearing out the water that was

flooding the mines became serious and he and Rudd obtained the contract for

pumping the water out of the three main mines. It was during this period that

Jim B. Taylor, still a young boy and helping to work his father's claim, first

met Rhodes.

On 12 March 1880, Rhodes and Rudd launched the De Beers Mining Company after the

amalgamation of a number of individual claims. With £200,000[9] of capital, the

company, of which Rhodes was secretary, owned the largest interest in the mine.

[edit] Politics in South Africa

In 1880, Rhodes prepared to enter public life at the Cape. With the

incorporation of Griqualand West into the Cape Colony in 1877, the area obtained

six seats in the Cape House of Assembly. Rhodes chose the constituency of Barkly

West, a rural constituency in which Boer voters predominated. Barkly West

remained faithful to Rhodes even after the Jameson Raid, and he continued as its

member until his death.

When Rhodes became a member of the Cape Parliament, the chief goal of the

assembly was to help decide the future of Basutoland, where the ministry of Sir

Gordon Sprigg was trying to restore order after a rebellion, the Gun War, in

1880. The ministry had precipitated the revolt by applying its disarmament

policy to the Basuto. In 1890, Rhodes became Prime Minister of the Cape Colony

and implemented laws that would benefit mine and industry owners. He introduced

the Glen Grey Act to push black people from their lands and make way for

industrial development. He also introduced educational reform to the area.

Rhodes' policies were instrumental in the development of British imperial

policies in South Africa, such as the Hut tax. He did not, however, have direct

political power over the Boer Republic of the Transvaal. He often disagreed with

the Transvaal government's policies, and felt he could use his money and his

power to overthrow the Boer government and install a British colonial government

supporting mine-owners' interests in its place. In 1895, Rhodes supported an

attack on the Transvaal, the infamous Jameson Raid, which went ahead with the

tacit approval of governor Joseph Chamberlain. The raid was a catastrophic

failure which forced Cecil Rhodes to resign as Prime Minister of the Cape

Colony, sent his oldest brother, Col. Frank Rhodes, to jail in Transvaal on high

treason, nearly resulted in his hanging, and led to the outbreak of both the

Second Matabele War and the Second Boer War.

[edit] Expanding the British Empire

[edit] Rhodes and the Imperial Factor

Cartoon by Edward Linley Sambourne, published in Punch after Rhodes announced

plans for a telegraph line from Cape Town to Cairo.Rhodes used his wealth and

that of his business partner Alfred Beit and other investors to pursue his dream

of creating a British Empire in new territories to the north by obtaining

mineral concessions from the most powerful chiefs. Rhodes' competitive advantage

over other mineral prospecting companies was his combination of wealth and the

'imperial factor', his use of the British Government: he made friendships with

its local representatives, the British Commissioners, and through them organised

British protectorates over the mineral concession areas via separate but related

treaties, conferring both legality and security for mining operations. He could

then win over more investors. Imperial expansion and capital investment went

hand in hand.[10]

The imperial factor was a double-edged sword: Rhodes did not want it to mean

that the bureaucrats of the Colonial Office in London would interfere in the

Empire in Africa. He wanted British settlers and local politicians and

governors, like himself, to run it. This put him on a collision course with many

in Britain, as well as with British missionaries who favoured what they saw as

the more ethical direct rule from London. But Rhodes won because he would pay to

administer the territories north of South Africa against future mining profits,

the Colonial Office did not have the funds to do it, and his presence would

prevent the Portuguese, the Germans or the Boers from moving in to south-central

Africa.

Rhodes' companies and agents cemented these advantages by obtaining many mining

concessions, as exemplified by the Rudd and Lochner Concessions.[10]

[edit] Treaties, concessions and charters

Rhodes had already tried and failed to get a mining concession from Lobengula,

king of the Ndebele of Matabeleland. In 1888 he tried again. He sent John

Moffat, son of the missionary Robert Moffat, who was trusted by Lobengula, to

persuade the latter to sign a treaty of friendship with Britain, and to look

favourably on Rhodes' proposals. His agent, Francis Thompson, who had travelled

to Bulawayo in the company of Charles Rudd and Rochfort Maguire, assured

Lobengula that no more than ten white men would mine in Matabeleland, but this

was left out of the actual document Lobengula signed, the Rudd Concession.

Furthermore it stated that the mining companies could do anything necessary to

their operations. When Lobengula discovered later what the concession really

meant, he tried to renounce it, but the British Government ignored him.[10]

Armed with the Rudd Concession, in 1889 Rhodes obtained a charter from the

British Government for his British South Africa Company (BSAC) to rule, police

and make new treaties and concessions from the Limpopo River to the great lakes

of Central Africa. He obtained further concessions and treaties north of the

Zambezi, such as those in Barotseland (the Lochner Concession with King Lewanika

in 1890, which was similar to the Rudd Concession), and in the Lake Mweru area

(Alfred Sharpe's 1890 Kazembe concession). Rhodes also sent Sharpe to get a

concession over mineral-rich Katanga, but met his match in ruthlessness: when

Sharpe was rebuffed by its ruler Msiri, King Leopold II of Belgium obtained a

concession over Msiri's dead body for his Congo Free State.[11]

Rhodes also wanted Bechuanaland Protectorate (now Botswana) under the BSAC

charter but three Tswana kings including Khama III travelled to Britain and won

over British public opinion for it to remain governed by London. Rhodes

commented: "It is humiliating to be utterly beaten by these niggers".[10]

The British Colonial Office also decided to administer British Central Africa

(Nyasaland, today's Malawi) owing to the presence there of Scottish missionaries

trying to end the slave trade. Rhodes paid much of the cost so that the British

Central Africa Commissioner, Sir Harry Johnston (and his successor, Alfred

Sharpe) would assist with security in the BSAC's north-eastern territories.

Johnston shared Rhodes' expansionist views, but he and his successors were not

as pro-settler as Rhodes and disagreed on dealings with Africans.

[edit] Rhodesia

The BSAC had its own police force, which was used to control Matabeleland and

Mashonaland, in present-day Zimbabwe. The company had hoped to start a "new

Rand" from the ancient gold mines of the Shona, but the gold deposits were on a

much smaller scale, so many of the white settlers who accompanied the British

South Africa Company to Mashonaland became farmers. When the Ndebele and the

Shona—the two main, but rival tribes—separately rebelled against the coming of

the white settlers, the British South Africa Company defeated them in the two

Matabele Wars (1893–94; 1896–97). Shortly after learning of the assassination of

the Ndebele spiritual leader, Mlimo, by the American scout Frederick Russell

Burnham, Rhodes walked unarmed into the Ndebele stronghold in Matobo Hills and

persuaded the Impi to lay down their arms, thus ending the Second Matabele

War.[12]

By the end of 1894, the territories over which the BSAC had concessions or

treaties, collectively called "Zambesia" after the Zambezi River flowing through

the middle, comprised an area of 1,143,000 km² between the Limpopo River and

Lake Tanganyika. In May 1895, its name was officially changed to "Rhodesia",

reflecting Rhodes' popularity among settlers who had been using the name

informally since 1891. The designation Southern Rhodesia was officially adopted

in 1898 for the part south of the Zambezi which later became Zimbabwe, and the

designations North-Western and North-Eastern Rhodesia were used from 1895 for

the territory which later became Northern Rhodesia, then Zambia.[13][14]

Rhodes decreed in his will that he was to be buried in Matobo Hills, so when he

died in the Cape in 1902 his body came up by train to Bulawayo. His burial was

attended by Ndebele chiefs, who asked that the firing party should not discharge

their rifles as this would disturb the spirits. Then, for the first and probably

the only time, they gave the white man the Matabele royal salute "Bayete".

Rhodes is buried alongside both Leander Starr Jameson and the 34 white soldiers

killed in the Shangani Patrol.

[edit] "Cape to Cairo Red Line"

Map showing almost complete British control of the Cape to Cairo route,

1914Main articles: Cape to Cairo Railway and Cape to Cairo Road

One of Rhodes' dreams (and the dream of many other members of the British

Empire) was for a "red line" on the map from the Cape to Cairo. (On

geo-political maps, British dominions were always denoted in red or pink.)

Rhodes had been instrumental in securing southern African states for the Empire.

He and others felt the best way to "unify the possessions, facilitate

governance, enable the military to move quickly to hot spots or conduct war,

help settlement, and foster trade" would be to build the "Cape to Cairo

Railway".

This enterprise was not without its problems; France had a rival strategy in the

late 1890s to link its colonies from west to east across the continent, and the

Portuguese produced the "Pink Map" representing their claims to sovereignty in

Africa.

[edit] Political views

Cecil Rhodes wanted to expand the British Empire because he believed that the Anglo-Saxon race was destined to greatness. In his last will and testament, Rhodes said of the British,

"I contend that we are the finest race in the world and that the more of the world we inhabit the better it is for the human race."[cite this quote] He wanted to make the British Empire a superpower in which all of the white countries in the empire, including Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Cape Colony, would be represented in the British Parliament. Rhodes included Americans in the Rhodes scholarships and said that he wanted to breed an American elite of philosopher-kings who would have the USA rejoin the British Empire. Rhodes also respected the Germans and admired the Kaiser, and allowed Germans to be included in the Rhodes scholarships. He believed that eventually Great Britain, the USA and Germany together would dominate the world and ensure peace together.[4]

On domestic politics within the United Kingdom, Rhodes was a supporter of the

Liberal Party.[4] Rhodes' only major impact on domestic politics within the

United Kingdom was his support of the Irish nationalist party, led by Charles

Stewart Parnell (1846–1891). He contributed a great deal of money to the Irish

nationalists,[3][4] although Rhodes made his support for the Irish nationalists

conditional upon an autonomous Ireland still being represented in the British

Parliament.[4] Rhodes was such a strong supporter of Parnell that even after the

Liberals and the Irish nationalists had disowned Parnell because of his adultery

with the wife of another Irish nationalist, Rhodes continued to support him.[3]

Rhodes was much more tolerant of the Dutch-speaking whites in the Cape Colony

than were the other English-speaking whites in the Cape Colony. He supported

teaching Dutch as well as English in public schools in the Cape Colony and even

lent money to support this cause. Also, while Prime Minister of the Cape Colony,

he helped to remove most of the legal disabilities that English-speaking whites

had imposed on Dutch-speaking whites.[4] He was a friend of Jan Hofmeyr, leader

of the Afrikaner Bond, and became Prime Minister of the Cape Colony largely

because of Afrikaner support.[3][4] Rhodes advocated greater self-government for

his country, the Cape Colony, in line with his preference for the empire to be

controlled by local settlers and politicians rather than by London (see "Rhodes

and the imperial factor" above).

Confusingly for the modern reader, self government of the type Rhodes supported

was known as "colonialism". The opposed policy, direct control of a colony from

London, was known as "imperialism". This should be kept in mind when reading

documents from this time.

[edit] Personal relationships

[edit] Sexuality

Rhodes never married, pleading that "I have too much work on my hands" and

saying that he would not be a dutiful husband.[15] However, some writers and

academics[16][17] have suggested that there are reasons to believe that Rhodes

may have been homosexual, although the amount of direct evidence is scarce. In

particular, in discussing this issue the scholar Richard Brown observed: "there

is still the simpler but major problem of the extraordinarily thin evidence on

which the conclusions about Rhodes are reached. Rhodes himself left few

details... Indeed, Rhodes is a singularly difficult subject... since there

exists little intimate material - no diaries and few personal letters."[18]

Brown also comments: "On the issue of Rhodes' sexuality... there is, once again,

simply not enough reliable evidence to reach firm, irrefutable conclusions. It

is inferred, fairly convincingly (but not proved), that Rhodes was homosexual

and it is assumed (but not proved) that his relationships with men were

sometimes physical. Neville Pickering is described as Rhodes' lover in spite of

the absence of decisive evidence."[18] Regardless of the nature of their

friendship, Rhodes' was clearly close to Pickering since he returned from

negotiations for Pickering's 25th birthday in 1882; on that occasion, Rhodes

drew up a new will leaving his estate to Pickering.[15] Two years later,

Pickering suffered a riding accident. Rhodes nursed him faithfully for six

weeks, refusing even to answer telegrams concerning his business interests.

Pickering died in Rhodes' arms, and at his funeral Rhodes was said to have wept

hysterically.[16]

The South African writer, T.V. Bulpin in his 'The White Whirlwind' suggested

that Rhodes had been castrated as a treatment for tuberculosis.

[edit] Princess Radziwill

In the last years of his life, Rhodes was stalked by Polish princess Catherine

Radziwiłł, born Rzewuska, married into a noble Polish-Lithuanian dynasty called

Radziwiłł. Radziwiłł falsely claimed that she was engaged to Rhodes, or that

they were having an affair. She asked him to marry her, but Rhodes refused. She

got revenge by falsely accusing him of loan fraud. He had to go to trial and

testify against her accusation. He died shortly after the trial in 1902. She

wrote a biography of Rhodes called Cecil Rhodes: Man and Empire Maker. Her

accusations were eventually proven false.[3][19]

[edit] Boer War

During the Boer War Rhodes went to Kimberley at the onset of the siege, in a

calculated move to raise the political states on the government to dedicate

resources to the defence of the city. The military felt he was more of a

liability than an asset and found him intolerable. In particular, Lieutenant

Colonel Kekewich disliked Rhodes because of Rhodes' inability to cooperate with

the military;[20] Rhodes insisted that the military adopt his plans and ideas

instead of following their orders.[3][21] Despite the differences, Rhodes'

company was instrumental in the defense of the city, providing water,

refrigeration facilities, constructing fortifications, manufacturing an armoured

train, shells and a one-off gun name Long Cecil.

Rhodes used his position and influence to lobby the British government to

relieve the siege of Kimberley, claiming in the press that the situation in the

city was desperate. The military wanted to assemble a large force to take the

Boer cities of Bloemfontein and Pretoria, however they were compelled to change

their plans and send three separate smaller forces to relieve the sieges of

Kimberley, Mafeking and Ladysmith.[22]

[edit] Death and legacy

Funeral of Rhodes in Adderley St, Cape Town on 3 April 1902Although Rhodes

remained a leading figure in the politics of southern Africa, especially during

the Second Boer War, he was dogged by ill health throughout his relatively short

life. Rhodes died in 1902, and was considered at the time one of the wealthiest

men in the world. He was laid to rest at World's View, a hilltop located

approximately 35 kilometres (22 mi) south of Bulawayo, in what was then

Rhodesia. Today, his grave site is part of Matobo National Park, Zimbabwe.

In 2004, he was voted 56th in the SABC3 television series Great South Africans.

In his first will[clarification needed], of 1877, (before he had accumulated his

wealth),

Rhodes wanted to create a secret society that would bring the whole

world under British rule.[3]

The exact wording of the will is:[cite this quote]

"To and for the establishment, promotion and development of a Secret Society, the true aim and object whereof shall be for the extension of British rule throughout the world, the perfecting of a system of emigration from the United Kingdom, and of colonisation by British subjects of all lands where the means of livelihood are attainable by energy, labour and enterprise, and especially the occupation by British settlers of the entire Continent of Africa, the Holy Land, the Valley of the Euphrates, the Islands of Cyprus and Candia, the whole of South America, the Islands of the Pacific not heretofore possessed by Great Britain, the whole of the Malay Archipelago, the seaboard of China and Japan, the ultimate recovery of the United States of America as an integral part of the British Empire, the inauguration of a system of Colonial representation in the Imperial Parliament which may tend to weld together the disjointed members of the Empire and, finally, the foundation of so great a Power as to render wars impossible, and promote the best interests of humanity."

(ed - being : "...he believed that the Anglo-Saxon race was destined to greatness. In his last will and testament, Rhodes said of the British,

...."I contend that we are the finest race in the world and that the more of the world we inhabit the better it is for the human race."[cite this quote] He wanted to make the British Empire a superpower in which all of the white countries in the empire, including Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Cape Colony, would be represented in the British Parliament. Rhodes included Americans in the Rhodes scholarships and said that he wanted to breed an American elite of philosopher-kings who would have the USA rejoin the British Empire. Rhodes also respected the Germans and admired the Kaiser, and allowed Germans to be included in the Rhodes scholarships. He believed that eventually Great Britain, the USA and Germany together would dominate the world and ensure peace together.[4]")

Rhodes' will left a large area of land on the slopes of Table Mountain to the

South African nation. Part of this estate became the upper campus of the

University of Cape Town, another part became the Kirstenbosch National

Botanical Garden, while much was spared from development and is now

an important conservation area.

[edit] Rhodes Scholarship

Rhodes House in 2004.In his last will and testament, he provided for the establishment of the famous Rhodes Scholarship,[23] the world's first international study programme. The scholarship enables students from territories under British rule, formerly under British rule, or from Germany, to study at the University of Oxford.[citation needed]

[edit] Memorials

Rhodes memorial at Devil's Peak, Cape TownRhodes Memorial stands on Rhodes'

favourite spot on the slopes of Devil's Peak, with a view looking north and east

towards the Cape to Cairo route. Rhodes' house in Cape Town, Groote Schuur, has

recently[when?] been inhabited by the President of the R.S.A. Jacob

Zuma.[citation needed]

His birthplace was established as a museum in 1938, now known as Bishops

Stortford Museum.[24] The cottage in Muizenberg where he died is a South African

national monument.

Rhodes University College, now Rhodes University, in Grahamstown, was

established in his name by his trustees and founded by Act of Parliament on 31

May 1904.

The residents of Kimberley elected to build a memorial in Rhodes' honour in

their city, which was unveiled in 1907. The 72-ton bronze statue depicts Rhodes

on his horse, looking north with map in hand, and dressed as he was when met the

Ndebele after their rebellion.[25]

[edit] Quotations

Rhodes famously declared: "To think of these stars that you see overhead at

night, these vast worlds which we can never reach. I would annex the planets if

I could; I often think of that. It makes me sad to see them so clear and yet so

far."[26]

"We must find new lands from which we can easily obtain raw materials and at the

same time exploit the cheap slave labor that is available from the natives of

the colonies. The colonies would also provide a dumping ground for the surplus

goods produced in our factories."[27][28]

"Pure philanthropy is very well in its way but philanthropy plus five percent is

a good deal better."[29]

"I contend that we are the first race in the world, and that the more of the

world we inhabit the better it is for the human race...If there be a God, I

think that what he would like me to do is paint as much of the map of Africa

British Red as possible..."[30]

"In order to save the forty million inhabitants of the United Kingdom from a

bloody civil war, our colonial statesmen must acquire new lands for settling the

surplus population of this country, to provide new markets... The Empire, as I

have always said, is a bread and butter question"[31]

"To be born English is to win first prize in the lottery of life."[32]

[edit] Popular culture

Mark Twain's summation of Rhodes ("I admire him, I frankly confess it; and

when his time comes I shall buy a piece of the rope for a keepsake"), from

Chapter LXIX of Following the Equator, still often appears in collections of

famous insults.[33]

The will of Cecil Rhodes is the central theme in the science fiction book

Great Work of Time by John Crowley, an alternate history in which the Secret

Society stipulated in the will was indeed established. Its members eventually

achieve the secret of time travel and use it to restrain World War I and

prevent World War II, and to perpetuate the world ascendancy of the British

Empire up to the end of the Twentieth Century. The book contains a vivid

description of Cecil Rhodes himself, seen through the eyes of a traveller from

the future British Empire.

In the British film Rhodes of Africa (1936, directed by Austrian filmmaker

Berthold Viertel), Rhodes was portrayed by American actor Walter Huston.[34]

In 1996, BBC-TV made an eight-part television drama about Rhodes called

Rhodes: The Life and Legend of Cecil Rhodes. It was produced by David Drury

and written by Antony Thomas. It tells the story of Rhodes' life through a

series of flashbacks of conversations between him and Princess Catherine

Radziwill and also between her and people who knew him. It also shows the

story of how she stalked and eventually ruined him. In the movie, Cecil Rhodes

is played by Martin Shaw, the younger Cecil Rhodes is played by his son Joe

Shaw, and Princess Radziwill is played by Frances Barber. In the movie Rhodes

is portrayed as ruthless and greedy. The movie also strongly suggests that he

was homosexual.[35]

The Wilbur Smith "Ballantyne" series of novels feature Rhodes. These novels

also strongly suggest that he was homosexual.[citation needed]

In 1901, Rhodes bought Dalham Hall, Suffolk. In 1902 Colonel Francis William

Rhodes erected the village hall [36] in the village of Dalham, to commemorate

the life of his brother, who had died before taking possession of the estate.

Rhodes was a peripheral but influential character in the historical novel The

Covenant by James A. Michener.

[edit] Controversies

Rhodes has been portrayed by Dr. C. Magbaily Fyle, Ph.D. as a violent and

brutal racist who used forced labour tactics as a means of founding De Beers

and other portions of his lucrative success.[37]

[edit] See also

Find more about Cecil Rhodes on Wikipedia's sister projects:

Quotations from Wikiquote

Source texts from Wikisource

Images and media from Commons

British South Africa Company

British South Africa Police

Origin of 'Rhodesia'

Leander Starr Jameson

Pioneer Column

Rhodes University

John Ruskin

Frank W. Rhodes

[edit] Notes

^ This is not the same person as Herbert Rhodes

[edit] References

^ "Death Of Mr. Rhodes", The Times, 27 March 1902; pg. 7

^ Martin Meredith, Diamonds Gold and War, (New York: Public Affairs, 2007):162

^ a b c d e f g h Thomas, Anthony (November 1997). Rhodes: The Race for

Africa. London Bridge. ISBN 0-563-38742-4.

^ a b c d e f g Flint, John (November 1974). Cecil Rhodes. Little Brown and

Company. ISBN 0-316-28630-3.

^ Rhodes bio, including mention of Rhodes Fruit Farms. Paul Roos Gymnasium

website.

^ Edward Jay Epstein (1982). The Rise and Fall of Diamonds. Simon and

Schuster. ISBN 0671412892. http://books.google.com/books?id=yxRkAAAAIAAJ.

Retrieved 2008-11-27.

^ Lilian Charlotte Anne Knowles (2005). The Economic Development of the

British Overseas Empire. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0415350484.

http://books.google.com/books?id=SoaY8HBBcKQC.

^ http://www.apollo357.com/index.php/history/1870-1914

^ £200,000 (1880) = ~£12.9m (2004) =~ $22.5m (The Purchasing Power of British

Pounds from 1264 to 2006)

^ a b c d Parsons, Neil, A New History of Southern Africa, Second Edition.

Macmillan, London (1993), pp 179–181.

^ See article on Msiri for details and references.

^ Farwell, Byron (2001). The Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Land Warfare:

An Illustrated World View. W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 539. ISBN 0393047709.

http://books.google.com/books?visbn=039304...kD9Dvz2C_Vfz3X8.

^ "First Records-№ 6. The Name Rhodesia", The Northern Rhodesia Journal, Vol

II, No. 4 (1954) pp101–102.

^ Gray, J.A. "A Country in Search of a Name", The Northern Rhodesia Journal,

Vol III, No. 1 (1956) pp75–78.

^ a b Plomer, W., Cecil Rhodes, London, 1933.

^ a b Robert Aldrich and Garry Wotherspoon (2001). Who's Who in Gay and

Lesbian History. Routledge. pp. 370-371. ISBN 0415159822.

http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=giM73n_...cad=0#PPA370,M1.

Retrieved 15 April 2009.

^ Thomas, Antony (1996) Encyclopaedia of National Biography University of

Oxford.

^ a b Brown, Richard, Review: The Colossus. The Journal of African History,

Vol.31 No.3 (1990) pp.499-502.

^ Roberts, Brian (1969). Cecil Rhodes and the princess. Hamilton. ISBN

0-241-01603-7.

^ Phelan, T. (1913). The Siege of Kimberley. Dublin: M.H. Gill & Son, Ltd.

http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/13777.

^ Pakenham, Thomas (1992) The Boer War Avon Books ISBN 0380720019

^ J. Lee Thompson (2007). Forgotten patriot. Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press.

p. 157. ISBN 0838641210.

http://books.google.com/books?id=PDMcYymUie8C&pg=PA131.

^ Cecil Rhodes & William Thomas Stead (1902). The last will and testament of

Cecil John Rhodes: with elucidatory notes to which are added some chapters

describing the political and religious ideas of the testator. "Review of

Reviews" Office. http://www.archive.org/details/lastwilltestamen00rhodiala.

^ Bishops Stortford Museum

^ Paul Maylam (2005). The Cult of Rhodes. New Africa Books. p. 56. ISBN

0864866844. http://books.google.com/books?id=VbD_mokWhL8C&pg=PT66.

^ S. Gertrude Millin, Rhodes, London, 1933, p.138

^ Wong, Melody. "Teaching a "Racist and Outdated Text": A Journey into my own

Heart of Darkness". Western Washington University.

http://www.wce.wwu.edu/Resources/CEP/eJour...n001/a025.shtml. Retrieved

2008-09-20.

^ Britten, Sarah (2006). The Art of the South African Insult. 30° South

Publishers. pp. 167. ISBN 9781920143053.

^ Johari, J. C. (1993). Voices of Indian Freedom Movement. Anmol Publications

PVT. LTD. pp. 207. ISBN 9788171582259.

^ "BBC World Service". BBC World Service.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/specials...ca/page26.shtml.

Retrieved 2009-06-13.

^ William Simpson (2000). "Googleooks entry". Europe, 1783-1914. Routledge.

http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=AGxlZbf...lt&resnum=1.

Retrieved 2009-06-13.

^ "England on guard as world takes aim in Twenty20 stakes". The Telegraph. 31

May 2009.

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/cricket/t...y20-stakes.html.

Retrieved 2009-06-13.

^ Complete Works of Mark Twain. Following the Equator (Part 2). Chapter XIII.

Cecil Rhodes' Shark and his First Fortune; Chapter LXIX. The Most Imposing Man

in British Provinces;

^ Rhodes of Africa (1936).

^ Peter Godwin (1998-01-11). "Rhodes to Hell". Slate.

http://www.slate.com/id/3305/. Retrieved 2007-01-07.

^ "Dalham Village Hall Commemoration Plaque by Colonel Frank Rhodes".

http://www.dalham.com/plaque.jpg.

^ Fyle, C. M. Introduction to the History of African Civilization: Colonial

and Post-Colonial Africa Vol. II. University Press of America, 2001.

[edit] Further reading

Ziegler, Philip (2008). Legacy: Cecil Rhodes, the Rhodes Trust and Rhodes

Scholarships. Yale: Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300118353.

Cecil Rhodes by Princess Catherine Radziwill at Project Gutenberg

Robert I. Rotberg & Miles F. Shore (1988). The founder: Cecil Rhodes and the

pursuit of power. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195049683.

http://books.google.com/books?id=9gRzAAAAMAAJ.

Vindex (F. Verschoyle) (1900). Cecil Rhodes. Chapman and Hall, limited.

http://books.google.com/books?id=tGcdUr3Lg...s_brr=1#PPR1,M1.

[edit] External links

Wikisource has original text related to this article:

Author:Cecil Rhodes

Banquet in Rhodes' honour held in London 1895

Africa Stage: Monica Dispatch - 30 June 1999 at www.worldtrek.org

Cecil John Rhodes at www.sahistory.org.za

Rhodes, Cecil John. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-07 at

www.bartleby.com

Rhodes Memorial, Cape Town Photo Gallery by Don at pbase.com at www.pbase.com

Photographs of Rhodes Memorial, Cape Town, South Africa

Rondebosch.net official site

Cecil John Rhodes: historic overview of his Life and times

Cecil Rhodes at Find a Grave

Political offices

Preceded by

Sir John Gordon SpriggPrime Minister of the Cape Colony

1890–1896Succeeded by

Sir John Gordon Sprigg

Persondata

NAMERhodes, Cecil John

ALTERNATIVE NAMES

SHORT DESCRIPTIONEnglish businessman and politician in colonial South

Africa

DATE OF BIRTH5 July 1853

PLACE OF BIRTHBishop's Stortford, Hertfordshire, England.

DATE OF DEATH26 March 1902

PLACE OF DEATH

...

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Cecil Rhodes - Wikipedia,

The Right Honourable

Cecil John Rhodes

6th Prime Minister of the Cape Colony. In office 1890 – 1896

Monarch Queen Victoria

Governor Henry Loch

William Gordon Cameron (acting)

Hercules Robinson

Preceded by John Gordon Sprigg

Succeeded by John Gordon Sprigg

Born 5 July 1853 (1853-07-05)

Bishop's Stortford, Hertfordshire, England, United Kingdom

Died 26 March 1902 (aged 48)

Muizenberg, Cape Colony

(now South Africa)

Resting place"World's View", Matopos Hills, Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe)

20°25′S 28°28′E / 20.417°S 28.467°E / -20.417; 28.467Coordinates:

20°25′S 28°28′E / 20.417°S 28.467°E / -20.417; 28.467

Nationality British

Spouse(s) Never married

Relations Reverend Francis William Rhodes (Father)

Louisa Peacock Rhodes(Mother)

Francis William Rhodes(Brother)

Children None

Alma materBishop's Stortford Grammar School

Oriel College, Oxford

Occupation Businessman

Politician

Cecil John Rhodes DCL (5 July 1853 – 26 March 1902[1]) was an English-born

businessman, mining magnate, and politician in South Africa. He was the founder

of the diamond company De Beers, which today markets 40% of the world's rough

diamonds and at one time marketed 90%.[2] He was an ardent believer in

colonialism and imperialism, and was the founder of the state of Rhodesia, which

was named after him. Rhodesia, later Northern and Southern Rhodesia, eventually

became Zambia and Zimbabwe respectively. South Africa's Rhodes University is

named after him, and he is also known for the Rhodes Scholarship which is funded

by his estate.

Contents [hide]

1 Childhood in England

2 South Africa

3 Education

4 Diamonds

5 Politics in South Africa

6 Expanding the British Empire

6.1 Rhodes and the Imperial Factor

6.2 Treaties, concessions and charters

6.3 Rhodesia

6.4 "Cape to Cairo Red Line"

7 Political views

8 Personal relationships

8.1 Sexuality

8.2 Princess Radziwill

9 Boer War

10 Death and legacy

10.1 Rhodes Scholarship

10.2 Memorials

11 Quotations

12 Popular culture

13 Controversies

14 See also

15 Notes

16 References

17 Further reading

18 External links

[edit] Childhood in England

Rhodes was born in 1853 in Bishop's Stortford, Hertfordshire, England. He was

the fifth son of the Reverend Francis William Rhodes, a Church of England vicar

who prided himself on never having preached a sermon longer than 10 minutes, and

his wife Louisa Peacock Rhodes. He had many siblings, including Francis William

Rhodes, an army officer. A sickly, asthmatic teenager, he was taken out of

grammar school and sent to Natal, South Africa because his family thought the

hot, dry climate[clarification needed] there would improve his health. There, he

was to help his brother Herbert[Note 1] on his cotton farm.[3]

Cecil Rhodes (Sketch by Mortimer Menpes)[edit] South Africa

After a brief stay with the Surveyor-General of Natal, Dr. P.C. Sutherland, in

Pietermaritzburg, Rhodes took an interest in agriculture and joined his brother

Herbert on his cotton farm in the Umkomanzi valley in Natal. When he first came

to Africa, Rhodes supported himself with money lent by his aunt Sophia.[4] In

the colony, he established the Rhodes Fruit Farms[5] in the Stellenbosch

district.[clarification needed]

In October 1871, Rhodes left the colony for the diamond fields of Kimberley.

Financed by N M Rothschild & Sons, Rhodes succeeded in buying up all the smaller

diamond mining operations in the Kimberley area by 1888. His monopoly of the

world's diamond supply was sealed in 1889 through a strategic partnership with

the London-based Diamond Syndicate, with whom he agreed to control world supply

in order to maintain high prices.[6][7] He supervised the working of his

brother's claim and speculated on his behalf. Among his associates in the early

days were John X. Merriman and Charles Rudd, who later became his partner in the

De Beers Mining Company and Niger Oil Company.

[edit] Education

A portrait bust of Rhodes on the first floor of No. 6 King Edward Street marks

the place of his residence whilst in Oxford.Rhodes attended the Bishop's

Stortford Grammar School. In 1873, Rhodes left his farm field in the care of his

business partner, Rudd, and sailed for England to complete his studies. He was

admitted to Oriel College, Oxford, but stayed for only one term in 1873, leaving

for South Africa and returning for his second term in 1876. He was greatly

influenced by John Ruskin's inaugural lecture at Oxford, which reinforced his

own attachment to the cause of British imperialism. Among his Oxford associates

were Rochefort Maguire, later a fellow of All Souls College and a director of

the British South Africa Company, and Charles Metcalfe. His university career

engendered in him an admiration for the Oxford "system", which was eventually to

mature into his scholarship scheme: "Wherever you turn your eye—except in

science—an Oxford man is at the top of the tree".

While attending Oriel College, Rhodes became a Freemason in the Apollo

University Lodge. Although his initial view of it was not approving, he

continued to be a Freemason until his death in 1902. The failures of the

Freemasons, in his mind, later caused him to envisage his own secret society

with the goal of bringing the entire world under British rule.[3][8]

[edit] Diamonds

Whilst at Oxford, Rhodes continued to prosper in Kimberley. Before his departure

for Oxford, he and C.D. Rudd had moved from the Kimberley Mine to invest in the

more costly claims of what was known as old De Beers (Vooruitzicht) which owed

its name to Johannes Nicolaas de Beer and his brother, Diederik Arnoldus de

Beer, who were occupants of the farm, which with the entire Griqualand West

region belonged to the Voortrekker great-great-grandfather of Claudine

Fourie-Grosvenor, David Stephanus Fourie. He had allowed various Afrikaner

families including the De Beers to reside on the land after he had purchased the

entire region from the Modder River via the Vet River up to the Vaal River from

Mr. David Danser, a Koranna chief in the area, in 1839.{as per book by Eric

Rosenthal - famous South African surnames and British Intelligence Records and

Maps by F. Orpen in 1800's as well as the Official Intelligence Report by the

British government in 1879.}

In 1874 and 1875, the diamond fields were in the grip of depression, but Rhodes

and Rudd were among those who stayed to consolidate their interests. They

believed that diamonds would be numerous in the hard blue ground that had been

exposed after the softer, yellow layer near the surface had been worked out.

During this time, the technical problem of clearing out the water that was

flooding the mines became serious and he and Rudd obtained the contract for

pumping the water out of the three main mines. It was during this period that

Jim B. Taylor, still a young boy and helping to work his father's claim, first

met Rhodes.

On 12 March 1880, Rhodes and Rudd launched the De Beers Mining Company after the

amalgamation of a number of individual claims. With £200,000[9] of capital, the

company, of which Rhodes was secretary, owned the largest interest in the mine.

[edit] Politics in South Africa

In 1880, Rhodes prepared to enter public life at the Cape. With the

incorporation of Griqualand West into the Cape Colony in 1877, the area obtained

six seats in the Cape House of Assembly. Rhodes chose the constituency of Barkly

West, a rural constituency in which Boer voters predominated. Barkly West

remained faithful to Rhodes even after the Jameson Raid, and he continued as its

member until his death.

When Rhodes became a member of the Cape Parliament, the chief goal of the

assembly was to help decide the future of Basutoland, where the ministry of Sir

Gordon Sprigg was trying to restore order after a rebellion, the Gun War, in

1880. The ministry had precipitated the revolt by applying its disarmament

policy to the Basuto. In 1890, Rhodes became Prime Minister of the Cape Colony

and implemented laws that would benefit mine and industry owners. He introduced

the Glen Grey Act to push black people from their lands and make way for

industrial development. He also introduced educational reform to the area.

Rhodes' policies were instrumental in the development of British imperial

policies in South Africa, such as the Hut tax. He did not, however, have direct

political power over the Boer Republic of the Transvaal. He often disagreed with

the Transvaal government's policies, and felt he could use his money and his

power to overthrow the Boer government and install a British colonial government

supporting mine-owners' interests in its place. In 1895, Rhodes supported an

attack on the Transvaal, the infamous Jameson Raid, which went ahead with the

tacit approval of governor Joseph Chamberlain. The raid was a catastrophic

failure which forced Cecil Rhodes to resign as Prime Minister of the Cape

Colony, sent his oldest brother, Col. Frank Rhodes, to jail in Transvaal on high

treason, nearly resulted in his hanging, and led to the outbreak of both the

Second Matabele War and the Second Boer War.

[edit] Expanding the British Empire

[edit] Rhodes and the Imperial Factor

Cartoon by Edward Linley Sambourne, published in Punch after Rhodes announced

plans for a telegraph line from Cape Town to Cairo.Rhodes used his wealth and

that of his business partner Alfred Beit and other investors to pursue his dream

of creating a British Empire in new territories to the north by obtaining

mineral concessions from the most powerful chiefs. Rhodes' competitive advantage

over other mineral prospecting companies was his combination of wealth and the

'imperial factor', his use of the British Government: he made friendships with

its local representatives, the British Commissioners, and through them organised

British protectorates over the mineral concession areas via separate but related

treaties, conferring both legality and security for mining operations. He could

then win over more investors. Imperial expansion and capital investment went

hand in hand.[10]

The imperial factor was a double-edged sword: Rhodes did not want it to mean

that the bureaucrats of the Colonial Office in London would interfere in the

Empire in Africa. He wanted British settlers and local politicians and

governors, like himself, to run it. This put him on a collision course with many

in Britain, as well as with British missionaries who favoured what they saw as

the more ethical direct rule from London. But Rhodes won because he would pay to

administer the territories north of South Africa against future mining profits,

the Colonial Office did not have the funds to do it, and his presence would

prevent the Portuguese, the Germans or the Boers from moving in to south-central

Africa.

Rhodes' companies and agents cemented these advantages by obtaining many mining

concessions, as exemplified by the Rudd and Lochner Concessions.[10]

[edit] Treaties, concessions and charters

Rhodes had already tried and failed to get a mining concession from Lobengula,

king of the Ndebele of Matabeleland. In 1888 he tried again. He sent John

Moffat, son of the missionary Robert Moffat, who was trusted by Lobengula, to

persuade the latter to sign a treaty of friendship with Britain, and to look

favourably on Rhodes' proposals. His agent, Francis Thompson, who had travelled

to Bulawayo in the company of Charles Rudd and Rochfort Maguire, assured

Lobengula that no more than ten white men would mine in Matabeleland, but this

was left out of the actual document Lobengula signed, the Rudd Concession.

Furthermore it stated that the mining companies could do anything necessary to

their operations. When Lobengula discovered later what the concession really

meant, he tried to renounce it, but the British Government ignored him.[10]

Armed with the Rudd Concession, in 1889 Rhodes obtained a charter from the

British Government for his British South Africa Company (BSAC) to rule, police

and make new treaties and concessions from the Limpopo River to the great lakes

of Central Africa. He obtained further concessions and treaties north of the

Zambezi, such as those in Barotseland (the Lochner Concession with King Lewanika

in 1890, which was similar to the Rudd Concession), and in the Lake Mweru area

(Alfred Sharpe's 1890 Kazembe concession). Rhodes also sent Sharpe to get a

concession over mineral-rich Katanga, but met his match in ruthlessness: when

Sharpe was rebuffed by its ruler Msiri, King Leopold II of Belgium obtained a

concession over Msiri's dead body for his Congo Free State.[11]

Rhodes also wanted Bechuanaland Protectorate (now Botswana) under the BSAC

charter but three Tswana kings including Khama III travelled to Britain and won

over British public opinion for it to remain governed by London. Rhodes

commented: "It is humiliating to be utterly beaten by these niggers".[10]

The British Colonial Office also decided to administer British Central Africa

(Nyasaland, today's Malawi) owing to the presence there of Scottish missionaries

trying to end the slave trade. Rhodes paid much of the cost so that the British

Central Africa Commissioner, Sir Harry Johnston (and his successor, Alfred

Sharpe) would assist with security in the BSAC's north-eastern territories.

Johnston shared Rhodes' expansionist views, but he and his successors were not

as pro-settler as Rhodes and disagreed on dealings with Africans.

[edit] Rhodesia

The BSAC had its own police force, which was used to control Matabeleland and

Mashonaland, in present-day Zimbabwe. The company had hoped to start a "new

Rand" from the ancient gold mines of the Shona, but the gold deposits were on a

much smaller scale, so many of the white settlers who accompanied the British

South Africa Company to Mashonaland became farmers. When the Ndebele and the

Shona—the two main, but rival tribes—separately rebelled against the coming of

the white settlers, the British South Africa Company defeated them in the two

Matabele Wars (1893–94; 1896–97). Shortly after learning of the assassination of

the Ndebele spiritual leader, Mlimo, by the American scout Frederick Russell

Burnham, Rhodes walked unarmed into the Ndebele stronghold in Matobo Hills and

persuaded the Impi to lay down their arms, thus ending the Second Matabele

War.[12]

By the end of 1894, the territories over which the BSAC had concessions or

treaties, collectively called "Zambesia" after the Zambezi River flowing through

the middle, comprised an area of 1,143,000 km² between the Limpopo River and

Lake Tanganyika. In May 1895, its name was officially changed to "Rhodesia",

reflecting Rhodes' popularity among settlers who had been using the name

informally since 1891. The designation Southern Rhodesia was officially adopted

in 1898 for the part south of the Zambezi which later became Zimbabwe, and the

designations North-Western and North-Eastern Rhodesia were used from 1895 for

the territory which later became Northern Rhodesia, then Zambia.[13][14]

Rhodes decreed in his will that he was to be buried in Matobo Hills, so when he

died in the Cape in 1902 his body came up by train to Bulawayo. His burial was

attended by Ndebele chiefs, who asked that the firing party should not discharge

their rifles as this would disturb the spirits. Then, for the first and probably

the only time, they gave the white man the Matabele royal salute "Bayete".

Rhodes is buried alongside both Leander Starr Jameson and the 34 white soldiers

killed in the Shangani Patrol.

[edit] "Cape to Cairo Red Line"

Map showing almost complete British control of the Cape to Cairo route,

1914Main articles: Cape to Cairo Railway and Cape to Cairo Road

One of Rhodes' dreams (and the dream of many other members of the British

Empire) was for a "red line" on the map from the Cape to Cairo. (On

geo-political maps, British dominions were always denoted in red or pink.)

Rhodes had been instrumental in securing southern African states for the Empire.

He and others felt the best way to "unify the possessions, facilitate

governance, enable the military to move quickly to hot spots or conduct war,

help settlement, and foster trade" would be to build the "Cape to Cairo

Railway".

This enterprise was not without its problems; France had a rival strategy in the

late 1890s to link its colonies from west to east across the continent, and the

Portuguese produced the "Pink Map" representing their claims to sovereignty in

Africa.

[edit] Political views

Cecil Rhodes wanted to expand the British Empire because he believed that the Anglo-Saxon race was destined to greatness. In his last will and testament, Rhodes said of the British,

"I contend that we are the finest race in the world and that the more of the world we inhabit the better it is for the human race."[cite this quote] He wanted to make the British Empire a superpower in which all of the white countries in the empire, including Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Cape Colony, would be represented in the British Parliament. Rhodes included Americans in the Rhodes scholarships and said that he wanted to breed an American elite of philosopher-kings who would have the USA rejoin the British Empire. Rhodes also respected the Germans and admired the Kaiser, and allowed Germans to be included in the Rhodes scholarships. He believed that eventually Great Britain, the USA and Germany together would dominate the world and ensure peace together.[4]

On domestic politics within the United Kingdom, Rhodes was a supporter of the

Liberal Party.[4] Rhodes' only major impact on domestic politics within the

United Kingdom was his support of the Irish nationalist party, led by Charles

Stewart Parnell (1846–1891). He contributed a great deal of money to the Irish

nationalists,[3][4] although Rhodes made his support for the Irish nationalists

conditional upon an autonomous Ireland still being represented in the British

Parliament.[4] Rhodes was such a strong supporter of Parnell that even after the

Liberals and the Irish nationalists had disowned Parnell because of his adultery

with the wife of another Irish nationalist, Rhodes continued to support him.[3]

Rhodes was much more tolerant of the Dutch-speaking whites in the Cape Colony

than were the other English-speaking whites in the Cape Colony. He supported

teaching Dutch as well as English in public schools in the Cape Colony and even

lent money to support this cause. Also, while Prime Minister of the Cape Colony,

he helped to remove most of the legal disabilities that English-speaking whites

had imposed on Dutch-speaking whites.[4] He was a friend of Jan Hofmeyr, leader

of the Afrikaner Bond, and became Prime Minister of the Cape Colony largely

because of Afrikaner support.[3][4] Rhodes advocated greater self-government for

his country, the Cape Colony, in line with his preference for the empire to be

controlled by local settlers and politicians rather than by London (see "Rhodes

and the imperial factor" above).

Confusingly for the modern reader, self government of the type Rhodes supported

was known as "colonialism". The opposed policy, direct control of a colony from

London, was known as "imperialism". This should be kept in mind when reading

documents from this time.

[edit] Personal relationships

[edit] Sexuality

Rhodes never married, pleading that "I have too much work on my hands" and

saying that he would not be a dutiful husband.[15] However, some writers and

academics[16][17] have suggested that there are reasons to believe that Rhodes

may have been homosexual, although the amount of direct evidence is scarce. In

particular, in discussing this issue the scholar Richard Brown observed: "there

is still the simpler but major problem of the extraordinarily thin evidence on

which the conclusions about Rhodes are reached. Rhodes himself left few

details... Indeed, Rhodes is a singularly difficult subject... since there

exists little intimate material - no diaries and few personal letters."[18]

Brown also comments: "On the issue of Rhodes' sexuality... there is, once again,

simply not enough reliable evidence to reach firm, irrefutable conclusions. It

is inferred, fairly convincingly (but not proved), that Rhodes was homosexual

and it is assumed (but not proved) that his relationships with men were

sometimes physical. Neville Pickering is described as Rhodes' lover in spite of

the absence of decisive evidence."[18] Regardless of the nature of their

friendship, Rhodes' was clearly close to Pickering since he returned from

negotiations for Pickering's 25th birthday in 1882; on that occasion, Rhodes

drew up a new will leaving his estate to Pickering.[15] Two years later,

Pickering suffered a riding accident. Rhodes nursed him faithfully for six

weeks, refusing even to answer telegrams concerning his business interests.

Pickering died in Rhodes' arms, and at his funeral Rhodes was said to have wept

hysterically.[16]

The South African writer, T.V. Bulpin in his 'The White Whirlwind' suggested

that Rhodes had been castrated as a treatment for tuberculosis.

[edit] Princess Radziwill

In the last years of his life, Rhodes was stalked by Polish princess Catherine

Radziwiłł, born Rzewuska, married into a noble Polish-Lithuanian dynasty called

Radziwiłł. Radziwiłł falsely claimed that she was engaged to Rhodes, or that

they were having an affair. She asked him to marry her, but Rhodes refused. She

got revenge by falsely accusing him of loan fraud. He had to go to trial and

testify against her accusation. He died shortly after the trial in 1902. She

wrote a biography of Rhodes called Cecil Rhodes: Man and Empire Maker. Her

accusations were eventually proven false.[3][19]

[edit] Boer War

During the Boer War Rhodes went to Kimberley at the onset of the siege, in a

calculated move to raise the political states on the government to dedicate

resources to the defence of the city. The military felt he was more of a

liability than an asset and found him intolerable. In particular, Lieutenant

Colonel Kekewich disliked Rhodes because of Rhodes' inability to cooperate with

the military;[20] Rhodes insisted that the military adopt his plans and ideas

instead of following their orders.[3][21] Despite the differences, Rhodes'

company was instrumental in the defense of the city, providing water,

refrigeration facilities, constructing fortifications, manufacturing an armoured

train, shells and a one-off gun name Long Cecil.

Rhodes used his position and influence to lobby the British government to

relieve the siege of Kimberley, claiming in the press that the situation in the

city was desperate. The military wanted to assemble a large force to take the

Boer cities of Bloemfontein and Pretoria, however they were compelled to change

their plans and send three separate smaller forces to relieve the sieges of

Kimberley, Mafeking and Ladysmith.[22]

[edit] Death and legacy

Funeral of Rhodes in Adderley St, Cape Town on 3 April 1902Although Rhodes

remained a leading figure in the politics of southern Africa, especially during

the Second Boer War, he was dogged by ill health throughout his relatively short

life. Rhodes died in 1902, and was considered at the time one of the wealthiest

men in the world. He was laid to rest at World's View, a hilltop located

approximately 35 kilometres (22 mi) south of Bulawayo, in what was then

Rhodesia. Today, his grave site is part of Matobo National Park, Zimbabwe.

In 2004, he was voted 56th in the SABC3 television series Great South Africans.

In his first will[clarification needed], of 1877, (before he had accumulated his

wealth),

Rhodes wanted to create a secret society that would bring the whole

world under British rule.[3]

The exact wording of the will is:[cite this quote]

"To and for the establishment, promotion and development of a Secret Society, the true aim and object whereof shall be for the extension of British rule throughout the world, the perfecting of a system of emigration from the United Kingdom, and of colonisation by British subjects of all lands where the means of livelihood are attainable by energy, labour and enterprise, and especially the occupation by British settlers of the entire Continent of Africa, the Holy Land, the Valley of the Euphrates, the Islands of Cyprus and Candia, the whole of South America, the Islands of the Pacific not heretofore possessed by Great Britain, the whole of the Malay Archipelago, the seaboard of China and Japan, the ultimate recovery of the United States of America as an integral part of the British Empire, the inauguration of a system of Colonial representation in the Imperial Parliament which may tend to weld together the disjointed members of the Empire and, finally, the foundation of so great a Power as to render wars impossible, and promote the best interests of humanity."

(ed - being : "...he believed that the Anglo-Saxon race was destined to greatness. In his last will and testament, Rhodes said of the British,

...."I contend that we are the finest race in the world and that the more of the world we inhabit the better it is for the human race."[cite this quote] He wanted to make the British Empire a superpower in which all of the white countries in the empire, including Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Cape Colony, would be represented in the British Parliament. Rhodes included Americans in the Rhodes scholarships and said that he wanted to breed an American elite of philosopher-kings who would have the USA rejoin the British Empire. Rhodes also respected the Germans and admired the Kaiser, and allowed Germans to be included in the Rhodes scholarships. He believed that eventually Great Britain, the USA and Germany together would dominate the world and ensure peace together.[4]")

Rhodes' will left a large area of land on the slopes of Table Mountain to the

South African nation. Part of this estate became the upper campus of the

University of Cape Town, another part became the Kirstenbosch National

Botanical Garden, while much was spared from development and is now

an important conservation area.

[edit] Rhodes Scholarship

Rhodes House in 2004.In his last will and testament, he provided for the establishment of the famous Rhodes Scholarship,[23] the world's first international study programme. The scholarship enables students from territories under British rule, formerly under British rule, or from Germany, to study at the University of Oxford.[citation needed]

[edit] Memorials

Rhodes memorial at Devil's Peak, Cape TownRhodes Memorial stands on Rhodes'

favourite spot on the slopes of Devil's Peak, with a view looking north and east

towards the Cape to Cairo route. Rhodes' house in Cape Town, Groote Schuur, has

recently[when?] been inhabited by the President of the R.S.A. Jacob

Zuma.[citation needed]

His birthplace was established as a museum in 1938, now known as Bishops

Stortford Museum.[24] The cottage in Muizenberg where he died is a South African

national monument.

Rhodes University College, now Rhodes University, in Grahamstown, was

established in his name by his trustees and founded by Act of Parliament on 31

May 1904.

The residents of Kimberley elected to build a memorial in Rhodes' honour in

their city, which was unveiled in 1907. The 72-ton bronze statue depicts Rhodes

on his horse, looking north with map in hand, and dressed as he was when met the

Ndebele after their rebellion.[25]

[edit] Quotations

Rhodes famously declared: "To think of these stars that you see overhead at

night, these vast worlds which we can never reach. I would annex the planets if

I could; I often think of that. It makes me sad to see them so clear and yet so

far."[26]

"We must find new lands from which we can easily obtain raw materials and at the

same time exploit the cheap slave labor that is available from the natives of

the colonies. The colonies would also provide a dumping ground for the surplus

goods produced in our factories."[27][28]

"Pure philanthropy is very well in its way but philanthropy plus five percent is

a good deal better."[29]

"I contend that we are the first race in the world, and that the more of the

world we inhabit the better it is for the human race...If there be a God, I

think that what he would like me to do is paint as much of the map of Africa

British Red as possible..."[30]

"In order to save the forty million inhabitants of the United Kingdom from a

bloody civil war, our colonial statesmen must acquire new lands for settling the

surplus population of this country, to provide new markets... The Empire, as I

have always said, is a bread and butter question"[31]

"To be born English is to win first prize in the lottery of life."[32]

[edit] Popular culture

Mark Twain's summation of Rhodes ("I admire him, I frankly confess it; and

when his time comes I shall buy a piece of the rope for a keepsake"), from

Chapter LXIX of Following the Equator, still often appears in collections of

famous insults.[33]

The will of Cecil Rhodes is the central theme in the science fiction book

Great Work of Time by John Crowley, an alternate history in which the Secret

Society stipulated in the will was indeed established. Its members eventually

achieve the secret of time travel and use it to restrain World War I and

prevent World War II, and to perpetuate the world ascendancy of the British

Empire up to the end of the Twentieth Century. The book contains a vivid

description of Cecil Rhodes himself, seen through the eyes of a traveller from

the future British Empire.

In the British film Rhodes of Africa (1936, directed by Austrian filmmaker

Berthold Viertel), Rhodes was portrayed by American actor Walter Huston.[34]

In 1996, BBC-TV made an eight-part television drama about Rhodes called

Rhodes: The Life and Legend of Cecil Rhodes. It was produced by David Drury

and written by Antony Thomas. It tells the story of Rhodes' life through a

series of flashbacks of conversations between him and Princess Catherine

Radziwill and also between her and people who knew him. It also shows the

story of how she stalked and eventually ruined him. In the movie, Cecil Rhodes

is played by Martin Shaw, the younger Cecil Rhodes is played by his son Joe

Shaw, and Princess Radziwill is played by Frances Barber. In the movie Rhodes

is portrayed as ruthless and greedy. The movie also strongly suggests that he

was homosexual.[35]

The Wilbur Smith "Ballantyne" series of novels feature Rhodes. These novels

also strongly suggest that he was homosexual.[citation needed]

In 1901, Rhodes bought Dalham Hall, Suffolk. In 1902 Colonel Francis William

Rhodes erected the village hall [36] in the village of Dalham, to commemorate

the life of his brother, who had died before taking possession of the estate.

Rhodes was a peripheral but influential character in the historical novel The

Covenant by James A. Michener.

[edit] Controversies

Rhodes has been portrayed by Dr. C. Magbaily Fyle, Ph.D. as a violent and

brutal racist who used forced labour tactics as a means of founding De Beers

and other portions of his lucrative success.[37]

[edit] See also

Find more about Cecil Rhodes on Wikipedia's sister projects:

Quotations from Wikiquote

Source texts from Wikisource

Images and media from Commons

British South Africa Company

British South Africa Police

Origin of 'Rhodesia'

Leander Starr Jameson

Pioneer Column

Rhodes University

John Ruskin

Frank W. Rhodes

[edit] Notes

^ This is not the same person as Herbert Rhodes

[edit] References

^ "Death Of Mr. Rhodes", The Times, 27 March 1902; pg. 7

^ Martin Meredith, Diamonds Gold and War, (New York: Public Affairs, 2007):162

^ a b c d e f g h Thomas, Anthony (November 1997). Rhodes: The Race for

Africa. London Bridge. ISBN 0-563-38742-4.

^ a b c d e f g Flint, John (November 1974). Cecil Rhodes. Little Brown and

Company. ISBN 0-316-28630-3.

^ Rhodes bio, including mention of Rhodes Fruit Farms. Paul Roos Gymnasium

website.

^ Edward Jay Epstein (1982). The Rise and Fall of Diamonds. Simon and

Schuster. ISBN 0671412892. http://books.google....id=yxRkAAAAIAAJ.

Retrieved 2008-11-27.

^ Lilian Charlotte Anne Knowles (2005). The Economic Development of the

British Overseas Empire. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0415350484.

http://books.google....id=SoaY8HBBcKQC.

^ http://www.apollo357...story/1870-1914

^ £200,000 (1880) = ~£12.9m (2004) =~ $22.5m (The Purchasing Power of British

Pounds from 1264 to 2006)

^ a b c d Parsons, Neil, A New History of Southern Africa, Second Edition.

Macmillan, London (1993), pp 179–181.

^ See article on Msiri for details and references.

^ Farwell, Byron (2001). The Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Land Warfare:

An Illustrated World View. W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 539. ISBN 0393047709.

http://books.google.com/books?visbn=039304...kD9Dvz2C_Vfz3X8.

^ "First Records-№ 6. The Name Rhodesia", The Northern Rhodesia Journal, Vol

II, No. 4 (1954) pp101–102.

^ Gray, J.A. "A Country in Search of a Name", The Northern Rhodesia Journal,

Vol III, No. 1 (1956) pp75–78.

^ a b Plomer, W., Cecil Rhodes, London, 1933.

^ a b Robert Aldrich and Garry Wotherspoon (2001). Who's Who in Gay and

Lesbian History. Routledge. pp. 370-371. ISBN 0415159822.

http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=giM73n_...cad=0#PPA370,M1.

Retrieved 15 April 2009.

^ Thomas, Antony (1996) Encyclopaedia of National Biography University of

Oxford.

^ a b Brown, Richard, Review: The Colossus. The Journal of African History,

Vol.31 No.3 (1990) pp.499-502.

^ Roberts, Brian (1969). Cecil Rhodes and the princess. Hamilton. ISBN

0-241-01603-7.

^ Phelan, T. (1913). The Siege of Kimberley. Dublin: M.H. Gill & Son, Ltd.

http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/13777.

^ Pakenham, Thomas (1992) The Boer War Avon Books ISBN 0380720019

^ J. Lee Thompson (2007). Forgotten patriot. Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press.

p. 157. ISBN 0838641210.

http://books.google....mUie8C&pg=PA131.

^ Cecil Rhodes & William Thomas Stead (1902). The last will and testament of

Cecil John Rhodes: with elucidatory notes to which are added some chapters

describing the political and religious ideas of the testator. "Review of

Reviews" Office. http://www.archive.o...tamen00rhodiala.

^ Bishops Stortford Museum

^ Paul Maylam (2005). The Cult of Rhodes. New Africa Books. p. 56. ISBN

0864866844. http://books.google....okWhL8C&pg=PT66.

^ S. Gertrude Millin, Rhodes, London, 1933, p.138

^ Wong, Melody. "Teaching a "Racist and Outdated Text": A Journey into my own

Heart of Darkness". Western Washington University.

http://www.wce.wwu.edu/Resources/CEP/eJour...n001/a025.shtml. Retrieved

2008-09-20.

^ Britten, Sarah (2006). The Art of the South African Insult. 30° South

Publishers. pp. 167. ISBN 9781920143053.

^ Johari, J. C. (1993). Voices of Indian Freedom Movement. Anmol Publications

PVT. LTD. pp. 207. ISBN 9788171582259.

^ "BBC World Service". BBC World Service.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/specials...ca/page26.shtml.

Retrieved 2009-06-13.

^ William Simpson (2000). "Googleooks entry". Europe, 1783-1914. Routledge.

http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=AGxlZbf...lt&resnum=1.

Retrieved 2009-06-13.

^ "England on guard as world takes aim in Twenty20 stakes". The Telegraph. 31

May 2009.

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/cricket/t...y20-stakes.html.

Retrieved 2009-06-13.

^ Complete Works of Mark Twain. Following the Equator (Part 2). Chapter XIII.

Cecil Rhodes' Shark and his First Fortune; Chapter LXIX. The Most Imposing Man

in British Provinces;

^ Rhodes of Africa (1936).

^ Peter Godwin (1998-01-11). "Rhodes to Hell". Slate.

http://www.slate.com/id/3305/. Retrieved 2007-01-07.

^ "Dalham Village Hall Commemoration Plaque by Colonel Frank Rhodes".

http://www.dalham.com/plaque.jpg.

^ Fyle, C. M. Introduction to the History of African Civilization: Colonial

and Post-Colonial Africa Vol. II. University Press of America, 2001.

[edit] Further reading

Ziegler, Philip (2008). Legacy: Cecil Rhodes, the Rhodes Trust and Rhodes

Scholarships. Yale: Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300118353.

Cecil Rhodes by Princess Catherine Radziwill at Project Gutenberg

Robert I. Rotberg & Miles F. Shore (1988). The founder: Cecil Rhodes and the

pursuit of power. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195049683.

http://books.google....id=9gRzAAAAMAAJ.

Vindex (F. Verschoyle) (1900). Cecil Rhodes. Chapman and Hall, limited.

http://books.google.com/books?id=tGcdUr3Lg...s_brr=1#PPR1,M1.

[edit] External links

Wikisource has original text related to this article:

Author:Cecil Rhodes

Banquet in Rhodes' honour held in London 1895

Africa Stage: Monica Dispatch - 30 June 1999 at www.worldtrek.org

Cecil John Rhodes at www.sahistory.org.za

Rhodes, Cecil John. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-07 at

www.bartleby.com

Rhodes Memorial, Cape Town Photo Gallery by Don at pbase.com at www.pbase.com

Photographs of Rhodes Memorial, Cape Town, South Africa

Rondebosch.net official site

Cecil John Rhodes: historic overview of his Life and times

Cecil Rhodes at Find a Grave

Political offices

Preceded by

Sir John Gordon SpriggPrime Minister of the Cape Colony

1890–1896Succeeded by

Sir John Gordon Sprigg

Persondata

NAMERhodes, Cecil John

ALTERNATIVE NAMES

SHORT DESCRIPTIONEnglish businessman and politician in colonial South

Africa

DATE OF BIRTH5 July 1853

PLACE OF BIRTHBishop's Stortford, Hertfordshire, England.

DATE OF DEATH26 March 1902

PLACE OF DEATH

...

This page was last modified on 1 October 2009 at 06:54. Text is available

under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms

may apply. See Terms of Use for details.

Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a

non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

EDIT : edit

bump

Edited by John Dolva

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http://usssp.com/clipart/ScoutDoc/B-P/baden1.pdf

Baden-Powell's last message to Scout Leaders:

"To my Brother Scouters and Guides: Cecil Rhodes said at the end of his life (and I, in my turn, feel the truth of it), "So

much to do and so little time to do it." ... "

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What is your opinion about Rhodes and his ultimate goal of 'reacquiring' America thru peaceful means? With our foreign policy in the last 50 years or so, it appears that he didnt need to reacquire anything, the U.S. just followed standard Empirical rule.

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What is your opinion about Rhodes and his ultimate goal of 'reacquiring' America thru peaceful means? With our foreign policy in the last 50 years or so, it appears that he didnt need to reacquire anything, the U.S. just followed standard Empirical rule.

Yeah, well, did he really suggest acquiring the United States? He died in 1902.

He was a white Supremacist as the Prime Empire Builder of his time. In the quote above he refers to the aquisition of colonies and the slave labour and resources to be gained by a god given right of the people of the United States and England (which is probably more the City of London but that's another story) with a concession to Germany. So, I suppose that means yes. Of course, he was talking about the ruling class of these nations (that through the racist angle expressed itself as O.R.I.O.N. : our race is our nation) as being a grouping without the usually accepted borders which today expresses itself in the blatantly hypocritical bleatings about rights, democracy and respect for sovereignty while trampling on it on a global scale with a nuclear attack capability and disdain for the rights of any nation that does not toe its line. I think the closeness of English and United States elite show that some borders don't really exist and their other actions support the notion that, for them, there are no borders.

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What is your opinion about Rhodes and his ultimate goal of 'reacquiring' America thru peaceful means? With our foreign policy in the last 50 years or so, it appears that he didnt need to reacquire anything, the U.S. just followed standard Empirical rule.

Yeah, well, did he really suggest acquiring the United States? He died in 1902.

He was a white Supremacist as the Prime Empire Builder of his time. In the quote above he refers to the aquisition of colonies and the slave labour and resources to be gained by a god given right of the people of the United States and England (which is probably more the City of London but that's another story) with a concession to Germany. So, I suppose that means yes. Of course, he was talking about the ruling class of these nations (that through the racist angle expressed itself as O.R.I.O.N. : our race is our nation) as being a grouping without the usually accepted borders which today expresses itself in the blatantly hypocritical bleatings about rights, democracy and respect for sovereignty while trampling on it on a global scale with a nuclear attack capability and disdain for the rights of any nation that does not toe its line. I think the closeness of English and United States elite show that some borders don't really exist and their other actions support the notion that, for them, there are no borders.

The bits that particularly interests me about Rhodes is the Racism, the reasons, the location, the events in conteamporary times a well as later and to now when, again, the Congo theme is current in paralell with the Kennedy assassination. There are photos of the CIA mercenaries in action in the Congo at the time. I wonder if anyone has ever bothered to try to identify these people (some in NAZI uniforms treting the people they have killed like a hunting trophy. The nations with colonialist independence and neo-colonialist interests probably intersect with nations like Belgium and other colonial powers just like the spanish revolution in reverse happening today and its impact on the spread of fascism and therefore possibly this thread from Rhodes to now is, the intersection, :the movement of these mercenaries

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