Jump to content
The Education Forum
  • Announcements

    • Evan Burton

      OPEN REGISTRATION BY EMAIL ONLY !!! PLEASE CLICK ON THIS TITLE FOR INFORMATION REQUIRED FOR REGISTRATION!:   06/03/2017

      We have 5 requirements for registration: 1.Sign up with your real name. (This will be your Username) 2.A valid email address 3.Your agreement to the Terms of Use, seen here: http://educationforum.ipbhost.com/index.php?showtopic=21403. 4. Your photo for use as an avatar  5.. A brief biography. We will post these for you, and send you your password. We cannot approve membership until we receive these. If you are interested, please send an email to: edforumbusiness@outlook.com We look forward to having you as a part of the Forum! Sincerely, The Education Forum Team
Raymond Blair

20th Century India

Recommended Posts

I teach a course of 20th century history and my nashville tennessee (USA) area students don't have much patience for delving out of western civ.

I spend every january completely out of western civilization as I am fighting Senioritis, a condition where students see college on the immediate horizon and expect to take a semester off.

Anyway.

Part of January I spend covering India from 1885 to 2004.

What would my colleagues here on the forum find to be the ten most important facts to convey and explain about this period in Indian history?

I've got my list and I wanted to hear from some other perspectives with very likely a better understanding of the subject.

Thanks in advance.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Covering India from 1885 to 2004

The ten most important facts to convey and explain about this period in Indian history

The period of 119 years can be divided into two sections at 1947. Therefore, five important facts can be taken from the period before that year and five be picked from next 57 years. That is 62:57 – 5:5 = 10

I

First of all, selection of cut off year “1885”.

In Indian history, as taught in India, the year 1885 is identified with the Indian Independence Movement and founding of Indian National Congress (INC).

It is still a debated issue. The year is made popular among historian world by the liberal historians. The nationalist historians contend that the national movement started before 1857, the Year of Mutiny or First War of Independence. However, many of them would prefer to take 1819, the end of the third Maratha War as the starting year. There are some who would like it to start with 1736 when the first mutiny in among the native infantry was reported.

However, 1885 has also been picked by leftists and subaltern historians. They do not identify it with the founding of the INC but consider it the year of maturing of the political mobilization of the Middle Class which is identified as had grown since 1857. However, among them also, there are scholars who would identify the year of Gagging Act or Vernacular Press Act 1878 passed by Lord Lytton. The terrible famine of 1876-77 which took the toll of six million souls was being celebrated by Lord Lytton with a lavish expenditure on the Imperial Darbar in 1877 and it was the Indian Press which had strongly opposed it. The act was later withdrawn and it was considered as a success of the political maturing of Indians. They consider the forming of Indian National Conference of 1873 by Surenderanath Banerjea as the turning point in this history of India.

On the whole, year 1885 was the year when the middle class (professional classes) started presenting their demands in democratic manner. The Indian National Congress was established on December 28, 1885 and held its session for three days. Nearly 72 delegates attended the session. A study of the social, educational and economic background of those delegates shows that they represented the new face of the Indian Middle Class.

Any how, year 1885 sets the tone of a history which could give us five more important phases in the period which ends with 1947.

1. The moderate period extends from 1885 to 1905. The selection of historians would guide it up to 1907 (Surat Split) or 1909 Morley Minto Reforms. However, this period was dominated by Dadabhai Naoroji, Gopal Krishan Gokhle, Ferozeshah Mehta and Bal Gangadhar Tilak. The vital fact about 1905 is Wang Bang Movement which revealed to the world the Indian tools for achieving their independence. They were Swadeshi, Boycott and Swaraj (???- Yes).

2. The period from 1905 to 1919 is identified by extremist period not only in demands of the Congress but also in the rise of the revolutionary movements. There were the nationalist activities undertaken by Bengal Dadas (big brothers) and the Ghadar Party activity of 1914. It was the period of Hindu Muslim unity in their struggle for collective bargaining.

3. It is generally identify with the Gandhian period. There is not doubt about the contribution of Gandhi. It was the period when Gandhi mobilized all the section of the Indian society behind his movement and his political tool of Satyagragha and Non-violence. But the Subaltern historians like Sumit Sarkar in his Modern India 1885-1947 has successfully identified the decade of 1920s as the crucial period in the Indian history. It was the period, when the Mill Workers of Bombay could force the Bombay Presidency to pass the tariff laws without the help of any established leader either from the National leaders of Congress or Communist leaders like Surendernath Bhardwaj or M. N. Roy. It was the also the decade when the Japanese merchandise invaded the Indian market and British government felt that the expenditure incurred on running the Indian administration was not a profitable proposition.

4. This period could be identified with 1936 to 1942. Though the starting point is the Government of India Act which was a culmination of the Indian struggle yet it also has other feature which can be called the maturity of the Indian movement for freedom. All the sections of Indian society had rallied behind the Congress movement. It included the peasants, mill workers, Indian industrialists identified with FICCI and G. D. Birla.

5. The fifth phase is definitely Quit India Movement 1942. Roosevelt was concerned about the role of India in the fight against fascist forces. Britain under Churchill was ready to sent first the Cripps Mission and then the Cabinet Mission. Wavell was ready to discuss plans for handing over the power to India before the arrival of Cabinet Mission Plan. The period ends with the Partition and Independence.

I have not intentionally identify the year 1929, for the demand Purana Swaraj as the major fact. This is how it is taught in India. But I am now a student of History and a learner. I am not going to be taught. I am learning it. I have an argument in defense of my stand. This important fact is not that important for Pakistan. For Pakistan, it is the Lahore declaration of 1940 which may be the important fact of the period. I do not know how Bangladesh would see it. The use of the word ‘Swaraj’ was already made by Bal Gangadhar Tilak in 1902 for which he underwent imprisonment in Mandala. No where I have read that he meant Dominion status for his demand. It was only in Nehru Report that such a goal was set for India but which was changed to Purana Swaraj only after one year. By attaching Purana to the word Swaraj, one can not minimize the significance of 1902 demand.

II

From 1947 onwards:

1. The first important fact was years from 1947 to 1950. Apart from partition, the three important problems were the most important for India as a young nation to survive the very next day. They were:

i. The preparation of a constitution of independent India.

ii. The problem of the rehabilitation of the refugees.

iii. The problem of merging of Princely States in the Indian Federation.

2. The next fact about India was Nehru period upto 1964. This period can be identified with three five years plans, the writing of destiny of India inside and at world level as envisaged by Jwahar Lal Nehru.

3. The third important period extends from 1965 to 1992. Yes, this period forms one unit whole. It is identified with the policies of Indira Gandhi and her twenty point programmes, nationalization of Indian banking, License Raj which was part of Nehruvian economic policy etc. It was period of transition for India and rising frustration which was more reflected in the movies of this period. In the same period, it was Rajiv Gandhi who tried to bring change in the mind set of the Indians with his young brigade. Again, I do not identify journalistic events of two wars with Pakistan, the Pokhran I etc as important. I taken into view how Pakistan and Bangladesh would evaluate this period. Going of Rakesh Sharma to space, 1984 assassination, pact with Mizos and Bodos are all the part of regular evolving of India which for me is a new India different from what it was before 1947.

4. It was year 1992, which is epoch making year. The journalistic history would stress upon Bombay Bomb Blast, rise of Mafia, political scams (which till this day have not reached anywhere and all the people involved are absolved of the charges against them). It is the period marked by Manmohanicms or the economic policies started under the guidance of Manmohan Singh and Montek Singh Ahluwalia. It ended the controlled economic scenario and brought before the world a new generation of entrepreneurs in India. It is now not the world of TATA and Birlas only. Except from Ratan Tata and Kumarmangalam Birla of A. V. Birla group, a new generation of Middle class entrepreneurs now rule the Indians firmament which includes the name of Ambani Brothers, Azim Premji, Nadan Nilekani, R. RajuSunil Bharti, Mohabir Sawhney, Anand Mahindra, Kiran Mazumdar, Ravi Venkatesan, Reddy Brothers, Subash Kumar etc. Mohindras, Birlas, Godrej, Bajaj are there, but the new names are the product of 1992.

In the same period, on the political scene, India saw the experiment of minority government practiced by P. V. Narsaminha Rao.

5. 1997 was the next important event when coalition government headed by BJP came to power. It brought the power gallery and power equation people like Chandra Babu Naidu, Jailalitha, Om Parkash Chauthala, Ram Vilas Paswan, Shibo Shoren, Sharad Pawar (after parting ways from Congress), Lalo Parsad Yadav, Ajay Singh, Mamata Banerjee (after parting ways from Congress), Dewegoda Mayawati, Mulyam Singh Yadav. If there is no Congress and their breed, then they are the real India, from the grass root level, non elite but product of new India and true India and coming face of India if Congress is not able to continue under Sonia and Rahul.

This is my extempore version.

Now come up with your list.

I will like to suggest to the latest edition of India 2005 A Reference Annual, published by Publication Divison, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. The dependable web site is www.nic.in from where you can reach the Publication Division of MIB. The same division also publish India in Last fifty years. Such things are discussed there also.

I may reproduce a part of my published book which is relevant to the selected period and useful for the students of 10+2 year in next posting.

Edited by Sumir Sharma

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Here is the part of the book relevant to your assignment. The formating is not coming as it is in original but I hope it will serve the purpose.

Chapter 8

The Foundation of the Indian National Congress

1. Political Feature of Post 1857 Period:

- The newly emerged middle class of India took over the politics of India during the post 1857 period.

- The middle class started a constitutional agitation after founding an all Indian political association called The Indian National Congress.

2. The Background of the Foundation of the Indian National Congress:

a. Causes of the rise of sense of Unity among the Indians:

- There was always a cultural unity in India.

- The British government established one centralized government over India.

- The British government gave a uniform administration, uniform system of education, English language which established a common bond.

- The social reforms which were also a result of the British rule, also brought about the sense of national unity among the Indians.

- The Indian nationalism and Indian National Congress were also the result of the British rule.

- The foundation of the Indian National Congress was a one of the first expressions of political unity in India which was caused by the British rule after 1857.

b. Role of the British rule in the rise of Indian National Congress (INC) and Nationalism: (March 00)

- The British rule exploited the Indians.

- The British rule followed a racial policy under which they discriminated between whites and blacks.

- The British rulers adopted repressive policy as a result of which Indians developed discontentment against the British rule.

c. Rise of sense of independence among the Indians:

- The study of ancient Indian history and its glory generated the sense of self respect among the Indians.

- Lord Ripon absorbed the Indians in the administration which gave the Indians the required training and confidence to run their own affairs.

- The rise of self respect combined with their discontentment with the British administration gave rise to the sense of independence.

- The rise of sense of independence gradually revealed itself in form of national movement.

d. Work of Provincial Nationalist Organisations:

- The Indians, especially the educated middle class had started forming the provincial organisation.

- The provincial organisation conveyed to the British government the demands of Indians.

- The provincial organisation performed the important work of raising the political awakening among the Indians.

- They mainly worked for the provincial problems.

- Some of the important earlier provincial and political organisations were as follows:

i. Bengal Province: Banga Bhasha Prasarika Sabha, The Land Holder’s Association, Bengal British India Society, British Indian Association and Indian Association.

ii. Bombay Presidency: Bombay Association, Bombay Presidency Association and Poona Sarvajanik Sabha.

iii. Madras Province: East India Association and Madras Mahajan Sabha.

iv. England: The Indians and some English well wishers of India had also formed the association which raised political awakening among the Indians. They were London Indian Associations, East India Association, National Indian Association and Indian Society.

d1: The Nature of the work of Earlier Association:

- The earlier association founded before the Indian National Congress were basically regional association.

- Their demands were basically related to their provinces.

- They performed the work of raising political awakening among the Indians.

- Their demands were not doubt refers to the regional problems but they were national in character.

d2: Main Achievements of the Provincial Associations:

- The provincial association laid the ground for a national level association.

- The provincial association learned that there was no coordination among their activities. This made them to feel the need of a national level association.

- Surendra Nath Banerjee founded a National Conference to act as an association at national level.

- In 1885, Indian National Congress was also founded which proved more successful and later National Conference was merged with Indian National Congress.

3. Foundation of Indian National Congress: (March 2001)

a. Significance of the study of the history of Indian National Congress:

- The Indian National Congress was founded in 1885.

- An extensive movement of independence of India was carried out under the leadership of INC.

- Finally, it was mainly under the leadership of Indian National Congress that Indian attained independence.

b. Role of Alan Octavian Hume: (Oct. 96, 99)

- Alan Octavian Hume was a retired Civil Servant.

- He was one of the founders of the Indian National Congress.

- He played an important role in the foundation of the Indian National Congress.

- The participation of Hume in the founding of the Indian National Congress helped the Indians to remove any possible opposition by the British government to forming of the Congress.

c. Theory of Safety Valve: Reasons for the support of the British government: (March 98, 00)

- The discontentment of the Indians was rising against the British rule around 1885.

- The experiences of the revolt of 1857 were fresh in the mind of the British government.

- The government wanted to provide a safety valve for the discontentment of the Indians against it.

- The British government felt that the Congress founded with its support would perform the job of a safety valve.

- When Hume placed the idea of the Congress before the government it supported it.

d. The First Session of the Indian National Congress: 1885 in Bombay:

- The first session of the Indian National Congress was held in December in 1885 in Bombay.

- Wyomesh Chandra Bannerjee was the president of the first session of the Congress held at Bombay.

4. Three periods of the history of Indian National Congress:

a: The history of the Indian National Congress is divided into three periods on the basis of the nature of demands, the form of activities and approach of the leaders towards the demands and the activities of the Indian National Congress.

b: The three periods were as follows:

i. The First period known as Moderate period: From 1885 to 1905.

ii. The second period known as Extremist period: From 1905 to 1920.

iii. The third period known as Gandhian period: From 1920 to 1947.

c: Period of Moderates (1885-1905):

- The period of Indian National Congress between 1885 and 1905 is called the Moderate Period.

- The leaders of the moderate period of the Congress are called the Moderate Leaders.

- The politics of the moderate period of the Congress is called the Moderate Politics.

- The moderate period was a period of political moderation.

- The main Moderate leaders were Wyomesh Chandra Bannerjee, Surendra Nath Banerjee, Anand Mohan Bose, Justice M. G. Ranade, Justice K. T. Telang, Badruddin Tayabajee, Dr. Bhandarkar, Firozshah Mehta, Dadabhai Nawrojee, Gopal Krishan Gokhale, Rangayya Naidu, G. Subramaniyam Iyer, Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya, Pandit Motilal Nehru, Deshbandhu Chitaranjan Dass.

5. Objectives of the Indian National Congress: (March 96, 99; Oct. 01)

- The main objective of Congress was Swaraj.

- It aimed at the overall reforms in India.

- It aimed at bringing people of various provinces together on the national level.

- It aimed at debating the various social and national issues.

- It aimed at finding proper remedies to the National issues.

- It aimed at providing the suggestions based on the Indian view for taking measures to solve the national problems.

- It aimed at working as a link between the Indians and the British government.

6. Demands of the Indian National Congress: (Oct. 98)

- Regardless of the objective of getting Swaraj which means total freedom and own rule, the demands of the Congress during the earlier days were moderate.

- It asked for increasing the number of Indians in the British administration in India.

- It asked for holding the civil services examinations in India and England simultaneously.

- It demanded the increasing the age limit for the civil services examinations.

- It asked for the control of Parliament over the bureaucracy in India.

- It demanded more elected representatives in the imperial and provincial legislature.

- It demanded more powers for Parliament and was not happy with its status as a mere debating body.

- It asked British government to reduce the expenditure on the Indian army.

7. The method of functioning of the Indian National Congress: (Methodology)

- Petition it importance as per the Moderates: The Congress placed their demands before the government in form of petition.

- The method of presenting petition did not disturb the working of the government. It saved the Congress from any negative reaction of the government.

- The petition method of was the main method of the functioning of the Congress which is known as moderate approach of the Congress.

8. Difficulties faced by Congress with change in attitude of the British Rule towards it: (Oct. 97)

- The British government had given the approval to the formation of the Congress in 1885.

- During second annual session in Calcutta (Kalkotta), Viceroy of India had even hosted a dinner for the delegates of the Congress.

- However, the attitude of the British rule changed towards the activities of the Congress due to following reasons: (Why did the attitude of the British government changed towards the Congress?)

i. The Congress became very popular among the Indians.

ii. The membership of the Congress increased every year.

iii. The Congress was quite successful in raising political awareness among the Indian masses.

iv. The British government did not relish the scenario of rising political awakening due to the activities of the Congress.

v. The British government imposed restrictions on Congress.

b: British Changed the attitude towards the Congress and imposed restrictions: (March 2001)

- The British government did not like the rising political awareness of the Indian masses due to the activities of the Congress.

- The British government did not like the rising popularity of Congress

- The British government imposed the restrictions on the Congress.

- The Congress members were made to give a guarantee of good conduct.

- The British government imposed ban on the government officers to participate in the activities of the Congress.

- The government servants like Ranade found it difficult in face government restrictions. However, they kept on participating in the activities of the government indirectly.

- The British government adopted oppressive policies towards the Congress in order to rein its activities. However, the popularity of Congress kept on increasing.

c: The Popularity of Congress increased inspite of the government restrictions:

- The British government imposed restrictions on the government servants for participating in the activities of the Congress

- The government servants like Justice Ranade, continued to guide the Congress inspite of the ban.

- The popularity of Congress further increased inspite of the numerous restrictions.

- Justice Ranade organised Indian Socialist Conference which used to organise its sessions at the same place as that of the Congress.

9. Achievements of the Moderates:

a. Activities of the Indian leaders in England:

- Dadabhai Nawrojee and Wyomesh Chander Bannerjee created a positive and favourable reputation of Indian National Congress in England.

- The activities of Dadabhai Nawrojee created favourable atmosphere for the Congress in England.

- The activities of Indian leaders in England won for Congress the support of the English Parliamentarians.

- The English Parliamentarians supported the Indian cause in the Parliament due to the works of the Congress leaders in England.

b: Indian Council Act of 1892:

- The British government passed the Indian Council Act of 1892, which was considered as one of the major achievements of the moderates.

- Under the act, the Governor General’s Council was expanded to include the Indian members for the legislative purpose.

- The power of the legislature was increased.

- The Legislative Council was empowered to discuss the budget and ask questions.

- The Act allowed the nomination of members of Indian origin from the Local bodies, Universities, Chamber of Commerce and Land Holders Associations.

- The act was mainly aimed to pacify the moderates.

- However, it was not able to satisfy the Indian National Congress.

c: Rise of Young Congress leaders:

- The moderates adopted the policy to accept whatsoever they could get from the government.

- They were not satisfied with the Indian Council Act of 1892, but the moderates accepted it.

- The young members did not approve of the policy of moderates to accept less than what was demanded. It led to dissatisfaction in the Congress also.

d: Major Contribution to the Freedom Struggle: (March 98)

- It was the activities of the moderates which laid the ground for democracy and constitutional activities in India.

- It was the activities of the moderates which prepared the base for the extremist phase of the Congress.

10. Reaction of British government- Divide and Rule Policy:

- The British government took steps to counter the activities of Congress in raising the political awareness among the Indians.

- It tried to impose bans on Congress activities.

- It became suspicious of the Congress.

- It started reforms to counter the criticism by the Congress of the British policy.

- Along with reforms it adopted the policy of Divide and Rule.

a: Divide and Rule Policy:

- The British government tried to weaken the activities of the Congress by breaking away from it the support of Muslims community.

- The British government successfully tried to convey the message to the Muslims and Muslims leaders that their interests were not safe if they joined with the Congress activities.

11. Criticism and Evaluation of Moderate Period:

- The moderates had great faith in the sense of justice of the British.

- They worked through representation and petitions only. They did not adopt any anti-law method to ask the government to accept their demands.

a: Foundation of the struggle of independence of India:

- The moderates laid the foundation of the struggle of independence of India in the following manner.

- The leaders like G. K. Gokhale, Ferozshah Mehta etc entered the Legislature and place before the government the demands of the people of India.

- The leaders like G. K. Gokhale and Dadabhai Nawrojee made constructive and effective criticism of the government policies.

- The moderate leaders also brought out the criticism of the shortcomings of the government.

- Through their method of petitions, representations and participation in Legislature, the moderates sowed the seeds of constitutional politics in the minds of the people of India.

a1: The Criticism:

- The moderates were criticized for their faith in the hope that the British would justice to them.

- The moderates were criticized that they were not able to achieve any substantial gains through their method of petition, representation etc.

- They were criticised because their criticism of British policy had not brought change in the policies of the British towards India.

b: Views of Justice Ranade on the achievements of the Congress:

- In answer to the critics of the moderates, Ranade had rightly defended the moderates by explaining their historic role in the history of struggle for freedom of India.

- He explained that they were not petitioning the British government but it was an act of raising the political awakening of the Indians towards their actual rights and status.

- It was a lesson in constitutional methods to the Indians.

- Inspite of the failure of moderates they had introduced Indians to a new type of politics.

- It was the moderates who had laid the base for the democracy in India.

c: Foundation of the Extremist Faith:

- The activities and failures of the moderates had prepared the grounds for the extremist period.

- They had increased the discontent of the Indians by criticizing the British government on the economic issues.

d: Main Critic of British government on Economic Policies:

- The moderates were the first leaders to criticize the economic policies on scientific line.

- They increased the discontent of the people by laying before them the real harmful effects of the economic policies of the British rule.

e: Contribution of Dadabhai Nawrojee:

- It was Dadabhai Nawrojee who had criticised the economic policies of the Indians on the scientific lines.

- Dadabhai Nawrojee proved that British government was responsible for the poverty in India.

- He explained that how the British rule took away raw material from India and forced the Indians to by British factory products.

- He explained that how the British had ruined the traditional Indian indigenous industries for the benefit of British industry by their Indian economic policies.

- He explained that how the British government was economically exploiting the Indians.

- Dadabhai proved on statistical basis that how the expenditure on railways and telegraphs, the expenses incurred on the wars, the salaries of the officers and British Indian military were only meant for benefit for the government.

- Dadabhai brought to the notice of the Indians that how different expenditures out the Indian treasury only meant to benefit England.

- Through the above explanations and criticism, Dadabhai Nawrojee gave his Economic Drain Theory.

f: New messages and Game Plans for the future of Freedom Struggle:

- Ranade also supported the version of the economic drain of the India by the British.

- Dadabhai gave agitation method in the following words, “Agitate and continue to agitate”.

- Dadabhai gave the new programme in 1906 which was, “Swaraj, Swadeshi, National Education and Boycott.”

- The programme given in 1906, became the programme of Extremist Congress group during 1906 to 1919.

- The moderate period was immediately followed by an Extremist phase of Congress during which the Indian National Movement became aggressive and acquired a concrete shape.

Facts and Figures to Remember

1. Political Feature of Post 1857 Period A new middle class of India took over the political activities of India.

2. The Background of the Foundation of the Indian National Congress:

A sense of unity among the Indians became strong. The British

helped the rise of the Congress. The desire of independence

arose among the Indians. Many political associations before the

rise of Congress paved the way for the rise of Congress.

3. Foundation of Indian National Congress:

Role of Alan Octavian Hume; the safety valve theory, INC formed on December 31, 1885 at Mumbai. Wyomesh Chandra Bannerjee was its first president.

4. Three periods of the history of Indian National Congress:

Moderate period (1885 –1905) Extremist period (1905 – 1920) Gandhian Period (1920 – 1947)

5. Objectives of the Indian National Congress:

Overall reforms, bringing together of Indians, debate on social and national issues, remedies to the National issues, coordination between Indians and the British Government.

6. Demands of the Indian National Congress:

Moderate demands, involvement of Indians in the British administration in India, holding of civil services examination in India also, increase in the age limit for the civil services examination, control of Parliament over the bureaucracy in India, representation in imperial and provincial legislature, more powers for Parliament, reduction in the expenditure on the Indian army.

7. The method of functioning of the Indian National Congress: (Methodology)

Petitions its importance as per the Moderates

8. Difficulties faced by Congress with change in attitude of the British Rule towards it:

Restrictions imposed on the activities of Congress.

9. Achievements of the Moderates:

Achievements of W. C. Bannerjee and Dadabhai Nawrojee in India and England, won over the English Parliamentarians for the issues raised by the Indian National Congress. Indian Council Act 1892, spread of awareness among the young Indians, prepared grounds for democratic political activities and rise of extremist form of democratic political activities.

10. Reaction of British government- Divide and Rule Policy:

Numerous bans of the activists of Congress, started reforms to counter the Indian National Congress activities, Divide and Rule policy by encouraging rift among Indians on the basis of religion, castes and classes.

11. Criticism and Evaluation of Moderate Period:

Main founder of the struggle for Independence of India, criticised for their faith in British administration that it would do justice to Indians.

Exercise

Text Book and Question Bank Questions

1A. Fill in the blanks

i. ____ was one of the founders of the Indian National Congress. (Alan Octavain Hume, Lord Ripon, Lord Dufferin)

ii. The first session of the Indian National Congress was held at ______. (Delhi, Calcutta, Mumbai)

iii. The four fold programme of the Congress was announced from the Congress platform by ______. (Justice Ranade, Dadabhai Nawrojee, Hon. Gokhale)

1B.

Match the followings

a:

i. Foundation of Indian National Congress Surendranath Banerjee.

(March 2001)

ii. President of the first session of the

Congress A. O Hume

iii. The Economic Drain W. C Bannerjee.

Dadabhai Nawrojee

2. Write the answer of the following in 2-3 sentences.

i. What were the objectives of the Indian National Congress at the outset? (March 96, 99)

ii. What were the demands of the Moderates? (Oct. 98)

iii. Which policies were adopted by the British to dissipate the increasing strength of the Indian National Congress? (Oct. 97)

3. Give Reasons in two-three sentences.

i. The British government also supported the foundation of the Indian National Congress. (March 98, 00)

ii. The role of Hume was beneficial to the Indian leaders. (Oct. 96, 99)

iii. The government imposed restrictions on the Congress.

iv. The Indian leaders accepted the leadership of Sir Allen Hume in the foundation of the Indian National Congress. (Oct. 99)

v. The Indian Nationalism and Indian national Congress were the results of the British rule.

vi. Lord Ripon is called a liberal Governor General.

vii. It became difficult for Justice Ranade to take active part in the functioning of Indian National Congress.

viii. A few years after the establishment of Indian National Congress, the British Government imposed restrictions on it. (March 2001)

ix. The policies of the British Government were responsible for the poverty in India.

x. The British government policy of sympathy toward Indian National Congress came to an end.

4. Write answer of the following in 5-6 sentences.

i. Explain Dadabhai Nawrojee’s Economic Drain theory.

ii. What were the demands of Congress during the Moderate period?

iii. What was the contribution of moderates to India’s freedom struggle?

iv. Trace the policies the Indian National Congress and the Congress leadership during the period between 1885-1905.

v. Explain the background of the foundation of the Indian National Congress

Or

Methods of functioning of the Indian National Congress during the moderate Phase.

Question : 5 Write the answer of following in 20 lines

i. Describe the stages of Indian National Congress with the help of following points. (March 98)

1) Background of the Indian National Congress.

2) Foundation.

3) Policy of the British.

ii. Describe the importance of the moderate politics with the help of the following points.

1) The base for freedom struggle.

2) The seeds of constitutional politics.

3) Criticism of government politics.

Other Important Examination Question

1A. Fill in the blanks

i. The middle class started a constitutional agitation after founding an all Indian political association called _______. (National Conference, Indian National Congress, All Party National Conference.)

ii. The London Indian Association, East India Association, National Indian Association and Indian Society were founded in ______. (London, Kolkatta, Mumbai).

iii. Swaraj, Swadeshi, National Education and Boycott was the new programme adopted by Congress in ______. (1906, 1907, 1909)

1B.

Match the followings

i. Surat Split (March 00, 01) 1907

ii. Dababhai as president of Congress 1906

iii. Moderate period 1885 – 1905

iv. Extremist Period 1905 - 1920

1C

Writing the following events in the ascending order sequence.

i. Moderate period

ii. Extremist period

iii. Gandhian period

2. Write the answer of the following in 2-3 sentences.

i. What was the main feature of Moderate Politics?

ii. Write any two main contribution of Dadabhai Nawrojee to the Nationalist movement of India.

iii. What was the message of Dadabhai Nawrojee for the agitation for National movement?

3. Give Reasons in two-three sentences.

i. Attitude of the British government changed towards the Moderates.

ii. There was rise of sense of unity among the Indians in the later part of the 19th century.

iii. The British government supported the foundation of Indian National Congress in its beginning.

4. Write answer of the following in 5-6 sentences.

i. What were the objectives of the Indian National Congress?

ii. What were the demands of Moderates?

iii. What were the major achievements of the Moderates?

Question : 5 Write the answer of following in 20 lines

1. Why did the attitude of the British Government changed towards the Congress during the Moderate period?

Chapter 9

Period of Extremist Politics

1. The period of Extremist Politics:

- The period from 1905 to 1920 is known as the period of Extremist Politics in the India’s struggle for period.

- The Main Characteristics: The extremist thoughts along with agitational methods and raising of the political consciousness among the Indians were the main characteristics of this period.

2. Background of Extremist Politics:

a: Rise of Extremist Thoughts among Younger Generation of India:

- The year 1905 is identified in the history of freedom struggle of India as the starting year of the extremist politics.

- The background for the period after 1905 was laid before that.

- The extremist from of politics grew among the younger generation of India.

- The young generation nurturing extremist thoughts on belonged to the second half of the nineteenth century.

- The young generation of India of nineteenth century had experienced (i) British repression, (ii) the economic exploitation by the British administration and (iii) racial discrimination at the hands of the British. (For example the episode of insult to Gandhiji on a train in South Africa)

b: Influence of the Extremist Movement on the young generation of India:

- The young generation of India intensely observed the extremist movements and happenings which had taken place at international level.

- The victory of Japan an Asian country in 1905 over Russia a leading Western power had arrested the attention of the young generation of India.

- The victory of Japan became a source of inspiration and instilled self-confidence in the young generation of India.

c: Dissatisfaction with the Achievements of the Moderates:

- The young generation of India did not appreciate and liked the moderates attitude and policies towards the British administration.

- The young generation contended that the policies of the moderates were not having the desired effect on the British administration.

- The leaders of extremist thoughts strong advocated the need of adopting the agitational form of movement against the repression and exploitation of the British administration.

d: Factor of Lord Curzon:

- In 1905 divided Bengal with a hidden motive of weakening the national movement headed by the moderates.

- The act of Curzon strengthened the extremist ideology among the young generation which took over the leadership of national movement.

3. Explanation of Extremism:

a. The main objective of Extremist ideology was to achieve Swaraj.

- They placed the demand of Swaraj more aggressively.

- Lokmanya Tilak, the extremist leader spoke in categorical terms thus, “Swaraj is my birth right and I shall have it.”

b: Methods adopted by the Extremists:

- The methods adopted by extremists were more aggressive.

- They tried to raise the political awareness of the people in order to pressurize the British administration.

- They adopted the method of agitation in opposing the British government.

Hence, the aggressive attitude, agitational methods of protest and raising the political consciousness of the Indians were the main methods of working of the people.

c: Reaction of the British government to the Extremist Methods:

- The British government did not like the activities of the extremists of the national movement.

- The British government increased repression.

d. Extremist Leaders:

- The main Extremist leaders were following:

- In Bengal: Bipinchandra Pal and Aurbindo Ghosh.

- In Punjab: Lala Lajpat Rai.

- In Bombay Presidency: Lokmanya Tilak.

- In Madras Province: V. O. Chidambaram Pilley, Subramania Iyer and Subramania Siva.

- The Congress Leaders: Lokmanya Tilak was more influential in extremist group of Congress.

4. Progress of Extremist Politics

Activities of the Extremist and British Reaction:

a. Earlier Means adopted by Extremists for protest:

- The extremists used newspapers, national festivals and national education as means to protest against the British rule to achieve Swaraj.

- The extremists used various means to raise the political awareness among the Indians.

b. Newspapers as means of protest and political education:

- Lokmanaya Tilak started Kesari and Maratha.

- Bipinchanddra Pal started New Indian National Congress Aurobindo Ghosh started Bande Mataram.

- They used their newspapers to raise the political awareness.

c. Festivals as means of protest and political education. (Oct. 01)

- Lokmanya Tilak organised Ganesh Festival and Shiva Jayanti.

- The festival chosen by Tilak aimed at inspiring the national consciousness among the masses by bringing them together.

- The aim of festivals was to bring people together regardless of their various differences among them.

- In order to protest against the division of Bengal, the people adopted the custom of Rakhi and bathing for bringing national unity against the partition of Bengal.

- The national festivals played an important role in spreading the political thought among the masses.

d. Use of art forms to raise the political consciousness:

- The Mela and art forms of Indian origin was organised during Ganesh festival to spread the political thoughts.

- The various art forms during the festivals were used to spread awareness about the contemporary activities.

e. Education as the means of political awareness and protest:

- The seeds of nationalism were sowed through the means of education which the extremist tried to organise on national level.

- The sense of pride in one’s nation was developed through the medium of education.

- The syllabi were framed which were based on the fusion of western values and Indian culture.

f. Success of the means adopted by Extremist in spreading national awareness:

- In the beginning the political movement was confined to a section of educated middle class.

- The extremists spread the awareness of the political movement to the masses through the means of newspapers, national education and national festivals and art forms.

- They also succeeded in spreading the movement to the working class.

5. The Reason for Wang-Bhang or Anti-Bengal Partition Movement: (March 96)

- The reason of Anti-Bengal Partition movement was to protest against partition of Bengal undertaken by Lord Curzon with the political motive of weakening the national movement.

a. Causes of the Bengal partition: (March 98)

- The Bengal Presidency constituted of present Bangladesh, and three Indian states of West Bengal, Orissa and Bihar.

- It was difficult for the administration to govern such a large province. Hence there was an administrative need to divide the province into smaller administrative units.

- Lord Curzon divided it into two provinces namely West Bengal and East Bengal.

- Lord Curzon formed the two new provinces with a political motive of paralyzing the National movement which had its strong base in Bengal.

- The division defined by Lord Curzon was done on communal lines. It was not done as per the administrative requirement and practicability.

- The division was thus mainly aimed at weakening the national movement in Bengal on the bases of the policy of divide and rule by communal division between Hindu and Muslims.

b. Policy of Divide and Rule failed in case of Bengal partition:

- Curzon had divided the Bengal Province on the communal lines between Hindu and Muslims.

- Curzon hope to divide the province on communal lines and thus weaken the national movement which was very strong in Bengal.

- However, totally opposite to what Curzon expected took place.

- As a result of partition the National movement became more strong in Bengal.

- The people in Bengal started demonstrating and held procession against the partition of Bengal.

- The movement soon received a strong support from whole of India.

- The movement against the partition of Bengal which started in 1905 came to known as Wang-Bang Movement or the anti-Bengal Partition movement.

c. Programmes of the Extremists:

- The new programme of Congress dominated by extremist activities was framed during the period when the anti-Bengal partition movement started.

- At the Congress session in 1906, Dadabhai Nawrojee announced the Four Point Programme of the Congress which was as follows: (March 98)

i. Swarajya

ii. Swadeshi

iii. National Education

iv. Boycott

- The four point programme of 1906 was used to spread the anti-Bengal Partition movement throughout India.

- The extremist used the Swadeshi and boycott as more effective weapons against the British oppression and policies.

d. Swadeshi and Boycott in practice and their relevance for the national movement:

- The programme of Swadeshi and Boycott were used successfully even before 1906.

- The extremist Congress leaders used Swadeshi and boycott more successfully as a protest against the policies of the British government.

- The Swadeshi and boycott had relevance for the whole country and it became the cause of making anti-Bengal Partition movement a national movement.

- Under the Swadeshi movement, the bonfire of foreign of goods were made all over the country.

- The imports of the British declined substantially due to Swadeshi movement.

- The Indian industry got encouragement during the Swadeshi movement and Indian industry grew during that period.

- Under the National Education Programme, the education of the Indians was given encouragement and it became an important part of the national movement.

- Many schools were opened all over the country under the National Education Programme of the extremist leaders.

- The anti-Bengal Partition movement popularized the National movement for freedom.

6. Surat Split of Congress 1907: (Oct. 97; March 98, 00, 01) (imp.)

- The extremist ideology became more popular and appreciated by the whole country and it started dominating the Congress programmes.

- The increase in the popularity of the extremist ideology became the cause of differences between the moderates and extremists with in the Congress.

- The moderates was strongly against the boycott programme of the extremists whereas the extremist found it more effective method of protest.

- A split took place in the National Congress at Surat in 1907 which is known as Surat Split of 1907.

- The Surat Split of 1907 took place due to differences between the moderates and extremists on the issue of boycott as a programme of Congress and the issue of the Presidentship of Congress.

b. Effects of Surat Split of 1907:

- As a result of Surat Split, the Congress was divided between the extremists and moderates.

- It weakened the National Movement which was being headed by the National Congress at that time.

- The Surat Split went in favour of the British government which was trying to weaken Congress.

- The British government had earlier failed to divide Muslims and Hindus on communal lines as per their Divide and Rule policy but Surat Split achieved it for them.

- Even the Bengal partition was mainly a part of their Divide and Rule policy in order to weaken the National Movement. The Surat Split achieved it for them.

7. Foundation of the Muslim League: (Oct. 99)

- The Muslim League was founded in 1906.

- The foundation of Muslim League was a caused by the Divide and Rule policy of British by which the British tried to weaken the National Movement.

- The anti-Bengal Partition Movement was exploited by the British government to convince the Muslim community that the Indian National Congress could not lead the Muslims in India.

- Therefore, Muslim League was founded in 1906 with the support of the British government.

8 Divide and Rule Policy of British:

a. British Reactionary Activities:

- The National Movement increased with force with the passage of time.

- With the rise of National Movement, the British government also increased its oppression on the Indians.

- The British government tried to finish the Congress after the Surat Split by arresting the leaders.

- The British government arrested Lala Lajpat Rai after the Surat Split and exiled without trial.

- Lokmanya Tilak was sentenced to six years rigorous imprisonment and put behind bars in Mandalay Jail in Myanmar.

- Chidambaram Pilley was sentenced to six years imprisonment.

- Bipinchandra Pal was sentenced to six months imprisonment.

- Aurobindo Ghosh was tried for rebellion.

b. British Reforms – A strategy to weaken the National Movement:

- The British had adopted the divide and rule policy and oppression to suppress the National Movement.

- The British government also adopted the policy of political reforms in India with an aim to make the National Movement meaningless by introducing the reforms which the movement was demanding.

- Indian Council Act of 1909 was passed to appease the Indian Muslims and moderates of Congress party under the divide and rule policy.

- The British government tried to win over the moderates by reforms which they demanded and thereby tried to make the extremists’ demand irrelevant.

c. Indian Council Act 1909 – Aims and Relevance: (Oct. 99)

- The Indian Council Act of 1909 is also called Morley-Minto Reforms.

- The 1909 Act was called Morley Minto Reform because Morley and Minto initiated it.

- Morley was the Secretary of State. Minto was the Viceroy of India.

- The 1909 Act increased the number of members in the Central and Provincial Legislature. It was a long standing demand of the moderates.

- The powers of the members of Legislature were also increased. It was also a longstanding demand of the moderates.

- The moderates were not happy with the rights granted in the Act of 1909 but they accepted it. The British government was able to appease the moderates and that ensured that moderates and extremist would not join.

- By winning moderates with the concessions in 1909 Act, the British government was able to weaken the National movement for some time.

- By the communal award given under the clause of separate electorate to the Muslims, the British government was able to win over the Muslims.

- By the political reforms introduced in the Act of 1909, the British government was able to win over moderates and Muslim League. It helped the British government to weaken the National Movement for some time.

d. The Important Example of Divide and Rule in the Act of 1909:

- It was through the Act of 1909, that the feature of election was introduced for the first time in India by the British government.

- The Muslims were allowed the separate electorate. It was a major example of divide and rule by which the British government tried to divide Muslims and Hindus on communal lines.

- The clause of the separate electorate to the Muslims is also known as communal award.

- The communal award was considered as the first laying stone of Pakistan.

- By the communal award the British government succeeded in weaning away the Muslims from the Congress.

- By the communal award, the British government was able to win over the support of the Muslims League.

9. Slackness in the activities of the Congress – A period of Lull between 1908 and 1914 – A period of rise of Revolutionary Movement in India:

- The period of 1908 to 1914 is known in the history of struggle for Independence of India as a period of lull in the activities of the Congress.

- This period is also identified with the rise of the Revolutionary movement for the struggle of freedom.

- During the period, there were strong differences between the Congress and Muslim League on national issue.

- During the period there was division between moderates and extremists with in the Congress on the national issues and ideology of Congress.

- During this period, the Muslim League was known to have worked in cooperation with the British government.

- During this period, the moderates who were not fully satisfied with the Act of 1909, had accepted the concession given to the country by the Act.

- During the period, the extremist of Congress had remained out of activity because most of their leaders were either in jails or abroad.

- It was the period the revolutionary activities had emerged in India and they were on rise.

- During this period, Aurobindo Ghosh had separated himself from the National Movement and adopted spiritualism.

- The Extremist leaders like Bipinchandra Pal and Lala Lajpat Rai had remained in foreign countries.

- This period is known for vacuum in the activities of the extremists.

10. Lokmanya Tilak and the year 1915: 1916–The year of Lucknow Pact:

- In 1914, Lokmanya Tilak returned to India from Mandalay after completing his imprisonment.

- In 1915, Gopal Krishan Gokhale and Firozshah Mehta had died. With that, a big vacuum was created in the Congress especially in the moderate group.

- A view developed in 1915, that in order to reactivate the National Movement, the Extremists and Moderates should join.

- In the Congress Session of 1915, the Congress passed the resolution of unity between Extremists and Moderates was passed.

- In the Lucknow Session of the Congress in 1916, the Congress accepted Lokmanya Tilak as its leader.

- In the Lucknow Session, the Congress accepted the resolution of Swarajya as the only aim of National Struggle.

b. Lucknow Pact 1916: Unity between Muslim League and Congress:

- The Lucknow Pact was signed between Congress and Muslim League.

- Under the Lucknow Pact, Tilak was able to get the support of Muslim League for the aim of Swaraj.

- The Lucknow Session of 1916 is known for two successes of Tilak – the unity within Congress and the unity of purpose with the Muslim League.

11. Home Rule Movement:

- Lokmanya Tilak had started the Home Rule Movement in Maharashtra.

- He had borrowed the idea from Dr. Annie Besant who had started Home Rule Movement in Chennai (Madras).

- It was a part of the attempt of Tilak to strengthen the resolution of Swaraj through agitation.

b. Objectives of Home Rule Movement:

- The objective of Home Rule Movement to perpetuate the agitation for Swaraj throughout a year.

- The leaders toured the whole country to create awareness about the Swaraj.

- The leaders under Home Rule movement tried to organise the people by touring the whole country.

- Lala Lajpat Rai spread the message of Hume Rule movement in the United States.

c. Annie Besant and the Home Rule Movement:

- Annie Besant was an Irish lady.

- She had liking for the Indian culture and the Indian people.

- She was the first to propagate the idea of Home Rule movement when she found that the National Movement had slackened.

- She started the Home Rule Movement in Chennai.

- Lokmanya Tilak followed her example when he established Home Rule Movement in Maharashtra.

- The objectives of perpetuating the National agitation and organise the people were laid by Annie Besant.

d. Home Rule Movement and the attitude of the British government:

- When the Home Rule Movement was started in India, Britain was fully engrossed in the World War I.

- The Home Rule Agitation put the British government in trouble during the course of the crucial war.

- The British government adopted oppressive methods against the Home Rule Movement.

- Tilak was tried for sedition for the second time. However, the court acquitted him.

- Annie Besant was also tried and found guilty. She was sentenced to imprisonment.

- Tilak intensified the agitation against the British government by extensively using the tool of Swadeshi and boycott.

- It was during the course of such agitation that Tilak spoke about the idea of Civil Disobedience Movement.

- The Home Rule Movement became very popular and its membership increased.

12. 1917: August Declaration and the Mont-ford Act:

- The August Declaration was made on August 20, 1917.

- It was announced by the Secretary of State for India Mr. Montagu.

a. The contents of the August Declaration:

- As per the declaration the future objective of political reforms in India were announced.

- The British Parliament assured that they would establish “self governing institutions in India”.

- On the basis of the declaration a draft of constitutional reforms was framed by Mr. Montagu and the Viceroy of India, Lord Chelmsford.

- It led to passing of the Government of India Act of 1919 which is also known as Mont-ford Act 1919.

- It was formed on the grounds that the British government had conceded to give Swarajya to India as demanded by the extremists in 1915 resolution.

- It envisaged that the constitutional reforms would be introduced in stages and finally the Swarajya to India be imparted.

- It expected that British Parliament would decide the time to introduce the installments of the reforms and the time of introducing the reforms.

b. The Contents of Mont-ford or Montague-Chelmsford Act 1919:

- The Montagu-Chelmsford Act or Government of India Act 1919 was based on the contents of the August 1917 declaration of Mr. Montagu.

- The Act was passed by the British Parliament in 1919.

- The Act legislated that a part of Provincial administration would be entrusted to the elected Indian representatives.

c. Reaction of Lokmanya Tilak and others to The 1919 Act:

- Lokmanya Tilak showed his total dissatisfaction with the constitutional reforms brought by the Act.

- He complaint that the British rule had introduced limited reforms.

- He complaint that even the powers delegated through reforms were meaningless as the British rule had established many control on the exercise of the powers by the Indians.

- The extremists under the leadership of Lokmanya Tilak showed complete dissatisfaction with the 1919 Act and resolved to continue their agitation for Swarajya.

- The moderates however showed satisfaction with constitutional reforms introduced by the 1919 Act.

13. Rowlatt Act – A double game of reforms followed with Repressive rule:

- Along with the 1919 Act, the British government also passed the Rowlatt Act.

- As per the Rowlatt Act, any Indian could be arrested on mere suspicion and imprisoned without trial.

- It Rowlatt Act was a worst type of repressive rule introduced by the government along with the constitutional reforms of 1919 Act.

- The Public meetings were banned.

- It later became the cause of Jalianwalla Baugh tragedy.

b. The Result of repressive Rowlatt Act – The Jalianwalla Baugh tragedy: Opposition of Indians to the Act. (March 00)

- The Indians were highly annoyed by the Rowlatt Act which curtailed their civil liberty.

- A meeting was held in Punjab on April 13, 1919 at Jalianwalla Baugh.

- The British administration sprayed bullets on the gathering of Jalianwalla Baugh and killed hundreds of innocent peoples.

- The Indians were angry with the British government.

- The British government established the Commission of Inquiry to look into the matter. The government tried to pacify the Indians.

c. The Appeal of the King of Britain:

- The British government tried to pacify the Indians and desired that they should participate in the constitutional reforms.

- The King of Britain appealed to Indians to participate in the working of the 1919 Act.

- The political prisoners were released to create the atmosphere for the political activity to implement the reforms of the 1919 Act.

d. Responsive Cooperation – A response of Lokmanya Tilak: (Oct. 98, March 2001)

- The British government tried to make an easy atmosphere.

- Lokmanya Tilak declared the policy of Responsive Cooperation.

- Under the new policy of Tilak, it was decided that the Indians would continue cooperate with government as long as the government was responsive to the Indian demands.

14. Contribution and Importance of the Extremist Movement:

a. Raised the discontentment among the Indians in the political sphere:

- Before the extremist period, lead by Tilak, the leaders like Dadabhai Nawrojee and Justice Ranade had created a sense of discontentment against the economic policies of the British government by giving the theory of economic drain.

- The Extremist transformed the discontentment of the Indians to the sphere of politics. It was their major contribution to the history of Indian National Movement.

- They further increased the discontentment of the Indians against the British government by spreading political awareness among the Indians.

- Lokmanya Tilak came to be called ‘the father of the Indian discontentment’.

b. Raised the Sense of Nationalism:

- The extremists through their programmes of National education and National festivals and the journalistic activities raised the sense of nationalism among the Indians.

- The extremists made the Indians realise that they were being subjugated by a foreign power. They raised their sense of self respect.

- They made the Indians aware of their glorious past. It helped the Indians to develop the sense of identity and confidence.

c. Role of Lokmanya Tilak:

- Tilak brought the different forces together for the common national interests. He brought moderates near to extremists. He also brought Muslim League nearer to the activities of the Congress.

- It was the extremist under the leadership of Lokmanya Tilak, who laid the foundation of the mass movement. Gandhiji later lead the mass movement and achieved Independence for India.

- It was the political philosophy of Tilak which sowed the seed of Civil Disobedience and Non-cooperation. Gandhiji executed it on a wider scale.

-

Facts and Figures to Remember

1. Period of Extremist Politics: A period between 1905 and 1920 of Congress political activities.

2. Background of Extremist Politics: Factor of Younger generation of India. influence of extremist movement of the world, dissatisfaction with the achievements of the Moderates. Factor of Lord Curzon.

3. Explanation of Extremism: Swaraj – the main demand; methods of Extremists, reaction of British towards the Extremists, Main leaders of Extremist Congress – Lal, Bal and Pal.

4. Progress of Extremist Politics: a: Methods: newspapers, national festivals, national education.

b. Newspapers: Kesari, Maratha, Bande Mataram

c. Festivals: Ganesh Featival, Shiva Jayanti, Rakhi, Ritual Bathing,

b. Use of Art forms.

e. Use of national Education

5. Wang Bhang or Anti-Bengal Partition Movement:

Causes of Bengal partition, Programmes of Extremists against the partition of Bengal, use of Swadeshi and Boycott for anti-partition movement.

5A. Four Point Programme of 1906 Dadabhai Nawrojee announced the programme of Swarajya, Swadeshi, National Education and Boycott.

6. Surat Split of Congress 1907: Congress got divided on the issues of programmes between Extremist and Moderates.

7. Foundation of the Muslim League: Established in 1906.

8. Divide and Rule Policy of British: British Reactionary Activities, British Reforms with an aim to weaken the National Movement, Indian Council Act 1909 (Communal Award)

9. Slackness in the activities of Congress: A period of Lull between 1908 and 1914

10. Lokmanya Tilak and Lucknow Pact: Congress Session of 1915, Lucknow Session of 1916 and Lucknow Pact.

11. Home Rule Movement: Role of Lokmanya Tilak and Dr. Annie Besant. Objectives of Home Rule Movement, Response of British Government towards the Home Rule Movement.

12. August Declaration 1917 and The Mont-Ford Act:

Claimed to give self governing institutions to India; Led to passing of Government of India Act 1919. Congress rejected the Act.

13. Rowlatt Act: Started Repressive rule; led to Jalianwalla Baugh tragedy, Tilak adopted the policy of Responsive cooperation.

14. Contribution of the Extremist Movement:

Raised the discontentment among the Indians in the political sphere; Raised the sense of Nationalism; contribution of Tilak.

Exercise

Text Book and Question Bank Questions

1A

Write the following events in the chronological order. (March 99)

i. Establishment of the Muslim League.

ii. Split in Indian National Congress(March 2001)

iii. Partition of Bengal

iv. Home Rule Movement

v. Lucknow Pact.

2. Write the answer of the following in 2-3 sentences.

i. Why did Lokmanya Tilak organise national festivals? (Oct. 01)

ii. What were the provisions made by the Government of India Act 1919?

iii. What is Responsive Cooperation? (Oct. 98; March 2001)

3. Give Reasons in two-three sentences.

i. Lord Curzon divided the province of Bengal. (March 98)

ii. The Indian National Congress was split in 1907. (Oct. 97; March 98, 00)

iii. The Act of 1919 could not satisfy Lokmanya Tilak.

iv. Lokamanya Tilak was not satisfied with the Act of 1919.

v. Lokamanya Tilak organised national festivals.

vi. Tilak intensified his agitation against the Government in 1916.

vii. Lord Curzon partitioned Bengal.

viii. The Moderate leaders accepted ‘Morley-Minto Reforms’, though they were not satisfied with it.

ix. The extremists started educational institutions in India.

x. The anti-Bengal partition movement greatly popularized the national movement.

xi. Among the followers of the Indian National Congress, the leadership of Lokamanya Tilak proved effective.

xii. The leaders of the Home Rule League toured through out the country.

xiii. The ‘Wang Bhang’ movement spread all over India within a short period.

xiv. The Indian Council Act of 1892 was passed.

xv. After 1906, the influence of the extremist leaders was felt in the Congress.

xvi. The Indian Council Act of 1909 is known as the ‘Morley-Minto Reforms’.

xvii. In 1906, Muslim League was founded. (Oct. 99)

xviii. The extremist leaders started National education.

4. Write answer of the following in 5-6 sentences.

i. Give information about the Wang-Bhang movement.

ii. Describe the importance of the Extremists Era.

iii. Explain the British policy of Divide of Rule.

iv. Explain the provisions of the Indian Councils Act of 1909. (Oct. 99)

v. How did the Extremists strive for achievement of Swaraj?

vi. Give information about the Home Rule League movement. (March 2001)

vii. Describe the contribution of the Extremist Movement.

viii. Why did the division of Indian National Congress prove to be beneficial to the British?

Question : 5 Write the answer of following in 20 lines

i. Give an account on Lokmanya Tilak’s contribution to the National Movement with the help of the following points.

1) Four fold programme of the Freedom movement.

2) The Home Rule Movement.

3) The role in Lucknow session.

4) The Father of Unrest.

ii. Describe the importance of the era of Extremist between 1905 top 1920 with the help of following points.

1) Extremist policy.

2) Extremist leadership.

3) Contribution of Extremists.

Other Important Examination Question

1A. Fill in the blanks

i. The period from 1905 to 1920 is known as _______. (Moderate, Extremist, Gandhian).

ii. Japan defeated Russia in ______ which attracted the attention of Indian nationalist. (1905, 1892, 1910)

iii. Kesari and Maratha were the two ______ of Lokmanaya Tilak. (newspapers, horses, buildings).

1B.

Match the followings

i. Lord Curzon Division of Bengal

ii. Tilak Swaraj is my birth right.

iii. Lala Lajpat Rai Punjab

iv. Bipinchandra Pal Bengal

v. Aurbindo Ghosh Bengal

vi. Wang-Bhang Movement Anti-Bengal Partition Movement.

1C

Writing the following events in the ascending order sequence.

i. Wang-Bhang Movement

ii. Partition of Bengal

iii. Surat Split

iv. Indian Council Act of 1909

vi. August Declaration of 1917.

vii. Jalianwalla Bagh incidence.

2. Write the answer of the following in 2-3 sentences.

i. What were main programmes of Extremist Movement and what was their main demand?

ii. What is the importance of period between 1908 and 1914 in the history of Extremist movement in freedom struggle for India?

iii. What are the main features of Lucknow Pact 1916?

iv. Which were the four points announced by Dadabhai Nawrojee in Congress Session of 1906? (March 98)

3. Give Reasons in two-three sentences.

i. Lokmanya Tilak adopted responsive cooperation policy towards 1919 Act.

ii. Lokmanya Tilak was called the father of the Indian discontentment.

iii. King of Britain appealed to Indians to participate in the reforms of 1919 Act.

4. Write answer of the following in 5-6 sentences.

i. What was the contribution of Annie Besant in the Home Rule Movement?

ii. What was the result of implementation of Rowlatt Act?

iii. What were the main features of Mont-ford Act 1919.

Question : 5 Write the answer of following in 20 lines

i. Write a note on Home Rule Movement in freedom struggle of India.

ii. What were the main features of Extremist period?

Explain with the help of following points:

a. The demands of the Extremists.

b. Differences with the Moderates.

c. Main methods for protests.

d. Main contributions of Extremists.

iii. Describe the ‘Wang-Bhang’ movement with the help of the following points. (March. 96).

a. Necessity of the partition of Bengal.

b. Aims of the British behind the partition.

c. Wang-Bhang Movement. (Anti-Bengal Partition Movement)

Edited by Sumir Sharma

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

The Concluding part:

Chapter 10

The Non-Cooperation Movement (V. Imp )

1. Political Condition in India in 1919:

- The First World War brought poverty, callousness of the British administration along with increased oppression of Indians.

- There was deep resentment among the Indians.

- Lokmanya Tilak who led the Indians under the banner of Congress died in August 1919.

2. Main Role of Gandhiji after 1919:

- Gandhiji gave expression to the discontentment of the Indians against the British administration through his own political tools of Satyagraha and mass agitation.

- The period after 1919, which ended with freedom for India in 1947, was dominated by the thinking, personality and activities of Gandhiji.

a. Gandhiji Entry into Indian Political:

a1. Earlier Career of Gandhiji – His period in South Africa:

- South Africa was a colony of British Colonial Empire.

- Gandhiji went to South Africa in 1893 to practice law there.

- South Africa a large population of Indians who had gone there to run industries, trade and other activities.

a2. The Oppressive Policies of the British in South Africa: The first Success of Gandhiji:

- The white administration of South Africa adopted a racial discriminating policy towards the non-whites.

- By a resolution of 1906, the South African government had made in compulsory for the non-whites to carry an identity card.

- The Administration numerous restrictions on the freedom of the non-whites.

- The Administration did not give legal recognition to the traditional marriages of the Indians.

- Gandhiji started a Satyagraha and succeeded in forcing the White government to change their policies towards the non-whites.

b. Philosophy of Satyagraha:

- Satyagraha is a political method of organizing a mass movement.

- It was a new form of philosophy in the realm of modern politics.

b1. The Main Values:

- Non violence, truth, love, sympathy, compassion and self confidence are the main values and soul of the philosophy of Satyagraha.

- The values and philosophy of Satyagraha were borrowed from the Indian culture and heritage.

b2. Wider appeal of Satyagraha Philosophy:

- The core of Satyagraha Philosophy is humanism.

- The philosophy of Satyagraha has universal appeal.

- The philosophy can be easily put to practice and give good results.

- It is a philosophy which can be practiced anywhere and during every era.

b3. The significance and value of Satyagraha Philosophy:

- The philosophy of Satyagraha helps a common man to fight the injustice with confidence and with moral force.

- It makes a common man fearless.

- This philosophy works on a logic that a Satyagrahi faces the injustice with calmness and non-violence. It had direct appeal to the conscience of the oppressor.

- A Satyagrahi works with compassion and love towards the oppressor. The oppressor is thus made to realise the Truth. Finally the Truth wins.

b4. Significance:

- The Philosophy of Satyagraha raised the importance of values in the politics.

- The philosophy insisted on the purity of means.

- It is a very effective arm against the injustice in an individual, social and political life for an unarmed person.

- This philosophy is also successfully practiced by the leaders of other countries.

- The Black American leader Martin Luther King fought for the protection of the civil rights of the Blacks in America with the weapon of Satyagraha.

3. Gandhiji’s Earlier Satyagraha in India:

- Gandhiji returned to India from South Africa in 1915 after successfully using Satyagraha against the oppressive police of the South African government.

- Before entering the Indian politics in a more active manner, Gandhiji used Satyagraha between 1917 and 1918 on three occasions in India.

a: The first three Satyagraha of Gandhiji:

- Gandhiji used Satyagraha for the first time in India at Champaran, Ahmedabad and Kheda.

b: Champaran Satyagraha: (March 00; Oct. 01)

- In Champaran (Bihar), the Indian farmers were forced to sow indigo at loss on their land.

- They were forced to sell their Indigo at fixed price and they suffered losses. They were becoming poor day by day due to this forced cultivation.

- Gandhiji launched Satyagraha against this injustice practice.

- Gandhiji succeeded in ending this injustice. It was the first success of Satyagraha in India under the leadership of Gandhiji.

c: Ahmedabad Mill Workers Satyagraha:

- The mill workers of Ahmedabad demanded bonus and increase in wages because the mills had made profit during the period of First World War.

- The mill owners refused to accept their demand.

- Gandhiji preached the weapon of strike and fast to press their demands.

- Gandhiji also went on fast to press the demands of mill workers.

- The mill owners accepted the demand of their mill workers and Satyagraha philosophy against succeeded.

d: Kheda Peasants Satyagraha: (Oct. 98) (March 2001)

- The crops in Kheda district of Gujarat failed.

- However, the British government insisted upon the collection of revenue.

- Gandhiji advised the farmers of Kheda not to pay the tax and resist the injustice while observing non-violence.

- The peasants of Kheda experienced the oppression of the British government. However, they observed non-violence and did not pay the revenue.

- Finally, the British government attended to the grievance of the farmers. The non-violence of Satyagraha again triumphed.

4. The Indian’s Dissatisfaction with British Government – Coming of Rowlatt Act:

a: General dissatisfaction:

- There was discontentment among the people against the British government because of the price rise, increase in rate of taxation and political problems.

- The revolutionary activities were on rise inspite of the oppression of the British government.

b: Oppression in Punjab:

- During the First World War the British government had introduced conscription in the army in Punjab.

- The British government forced Punjab to part with its grains in order to feed its own English army involved in the world war in Europe.

- The people were highly dissatisfied with the oppressive policies of the British government similar to one which it had adopted in Punjab.

c: Repression of the revolutionary movement:

- Inspite of the oppressive policies and repression of the British government the revolutionary movement in India was on rise.

- The government failed to check the rise in the revolutionary movement.

- The unrest among the people was one the rise.

d: Rowlatt Act:

- The unrest among the people and revolutionary movement were on rise.

- The British government wanted to suppress the trend with great force.

- The British government appointed a committee under the chairmanship of Rowlatt.

- On the recommendation of the Rowlatt committee, the Rowlatt Act was passed in 1919.

- As per the terms of the Rowlatt Act any person could be imprisoned without trial.

- As per the Act, the proceedings against the person would be carried out in secret.

e: Events leading to Jalianwalla Baugh tragedy: Indians opposed the Rowlatt Act.

- In order to suppress the rising unrest among the Indians, the British government enacted the Rowlatt Act in 1919.

- Under the Rowlatt Act, the Indians were denied the civil liberties.

- Gandhiji gave a call to the Indians to observe the band on April 6, 1919. (March 98; Oct. 98)

- The people overwhelmingly responded to the call of Gandhiji.

- In Punjab, Dr. Kitchlu and Dr. Satyapal were sentenced for organising the band in response to the call of Gandhiji.

- The people of Punjab protested against the prohibitory orders which followed the arrest of the leaders.

- The people of Punjab in Amritsar gathered in Jallianwalla Baugh on April 13, 1919 in defiance of the prohibitory orders.

- General Dyre, the officer in charge of executing the prohibitory laws order fire on the unarmed crowd gathered in the Jallianwalla Baugh without warning.

- In that inhuman massacre hundreds of people died and many were injured.

f: Events after the Jalianwalla Baugh tragedy:

- Curfew was imposed immediately after the firing in Jallianwalla Baugh.

- The medical aid was not allowed to reach the people in Jallianwalla Baugh.

- The oppressive Arms act was applied to whole of Punjab.

- Numerous people were arrested.

- There was great commotion of dismayed Indian nation against the massacre.

- Rabindranath Tagore surrendered his Knighthood conferred by the British Crown in protest. (March 2001)

- Gandhiji declared the British government as a devil and announced that the Indian nation would not cooperate with a devilish British government.

- The British government was confounded by the magnitude of the anger of the Indians as a one united nation.

- In order to satisfy the Indians the government appointed the Hunter commission to look into the Jallianwalla happenings.

- General Dyre justified his act in a shameless manner before the commission.

- General Dyre was left without being made accountable for the human tragedy.

g: Significance of Jalianwalla Baugh tragedy:

- The Indians were highly pained by the attitude towards the Jallianwalla Baugh tragedy.

- They saw the ugliest fact of the British imperialism in Jallianwalla Baugh tragedy.

- The British government worked on the theory that it was enough capable of suppressing any movement of the Indians with the use of bullets.

- However, inspite of the inhuman policies of the British, the Indians kept of increasing their pace of their movement for National freedom.

- It formed the background, on which the country-wide non-cooperation movement started soon after.

5. Khilafat Movement:

- The Khalifa was the head of the Muslims of whole of the world.

- The Sultan of Turkey was the Khalifa.

a. Turkey in the First World War:

- In the First World War, Turkey fought along with German against England.

- England wanted the support of the Indians and Indian Muslims in her war efforts.

- England assured the Indian Muslims that the position of Khalifa of Turkey would not be changed even if Turkey was defeated in the war.

b. Betrayal of Indian Muslims:

- In the First World War, Turkey was defeated.

- In the Treaty of Serves, Turkey was severely punished.

- Britain did not fulfill her promise with the Indian Muslims when she punished Turkey.

- The Indians Muslims felt cheated and they started agitation against the British rule.

c. Khilafat Movement:

- The Indian Muslims had felt cheated when England severely dealt with Turkey in the Treaty of Serves.

- The Indian Muslims started an agitation.

- They formed a Khilafat Committee to decide upon the programme of agitation.

- Gandhiji proposed to the Committee to adopt the programme of non-violent and non-cooperation movement against the British rule.

- The leaders of Khilafat committee accepted the proposal.

- Gandhiji also proposed to Congress to start a Non-cooperation movement along with Khilafat movement.

- Gandhiji was in favour of Hindu-Muslim unity in the Non-cooperation Movement.

- The leaders of Khilafat Movement were Maulana Mohammed Ali, Maulana Shaukat Ali, Hazarat Mohani and Kakim Azmal Khan.

- Thus Khilafat Movement was started against the British rule.

6. Non-cooperation Movement:

a: Reason for giving call for the Non-cooperation Movement:

- The Non-cooperation plan was an idea of Gandhiji.

- Gandhiji believed that the strength of the British government was the cooperation of Indians to British administration.

- If the Indians withdrew the cooperation then British administration would collapse.

- The argument of Gandhiji was that the people support an administration either because of fear or out of ignorance.

- On the basis of his argument, Gandhiji proposed to the Indians to become fearless and withdraw cooperation to the British government. Thus, he gave a proposal for Non-cooperation Movement.

b: Resolution of Nagpur Session - December 1920:

- In the Nagpur Session of the Indian National Congress in December, the resolution of Non-cooperation was passed.

- The main features of the Non-cooperation Resolution of Nagpur Session were as follows:

i. To boycott the government courts and to establish tribunals outside the courts and to give justice.

ii. To boycott government schools and colleges and establish national schools.

iii. To boycott the elections to the provincial legislatures to be conducted under 1919 Act.

iv. To boycott foreign clothes. To adopt Swadeshi clothes especially khadi.

v. To start anti-liquor campaign.

c: Activities of Indians under Non-cooperation Movement:

c1: Lawyers gave up their Legal Practice:

- The leading Indian lawyers of the country like C. R. Da, Motilal Nehru, M. R. Jaykar, Saifuddin Kitchlu, Vallabhbhai Patel, C. Rajgopalacharya etc boycotted the courts as per the programme of Non-cooperation.

- The leading lawyers of the country gave up their lucrative legal practices in order to devote their whole time to the activities of the Non-cooperation movement.

c2: National Educational Institutions:

- New educational institutions like Jamia Milia Islamia, the Kashi Vidyapeeth and the Gujarat Vidyapeeth were established.

- In Maharashtra, the new educational institutions were established in Pune, Akola, Khamgaon, Jalgaon and Hipparga.

- The National educational institutions did the additional work of preparing devoted workers for the struggle of Swarajya.

c3: A Strong Attack on English Cloth – A Symbol of British Power:

- Bonfires of the English clothes were made.

- The demonstrations before the shops selling the English clothes were organized.

- There was steep fall in the import of English cloth between 1920-21 and 1921-22. It came down from import of Rs 102 crore to 57 crores with in one year.

- It was Gandhiji’s answer to British rule. He expressed the discontentment of the Indians not by violent attack on the British but giving a strong jolt to the import of British clothes which was a symbol of British Power.

c4: Widespread and strong demonstration of India Nation:

- The demonstrations were held throughout India.

- In November 1921, when the Crown Prince of Great Britain visited India, he was greeted with demonstrations and hartals everywhere.

7. Zenda Satyagraha 1923:

- Zenda Satyagraha, in which the flag of Indian National Congress was unfurled to demonstrate the protest showing the Non-cooperation was another form of Non-cooperation.

- It was undertaken in Nagpur.

- Women in large numbers participated in Zenda Satyagraha.

8. Women Participation:

- It was the first movement, in which the Indian women took very active part.

- They participated in large numbers in Zenda Satyagraha.

- They participated in large numbers in morning processions of Satyagraha in which Tricolour flags were unfurled.

9. Mulshi Satyagraha 1921-1924: Senapti Panduran Mahadeo Bapat – Peasant led Movement – issue of Dam and compensation:

- Mulshi Satyagraha was organised by the peasants of Mulshi Taluka in Pune district.

- It was the longest Satyagraha of the Non-cooperation movement of 1920.

- The Mulshi Satyagraha was based on local issue also.

- The local issue concerned with building of a dam across a river for generating hydro electricity which was planned by British government.

- The private Company which was entrusted with executing the project did not pay any compensation to the peasants on whose land they were raising the dam nor they made arrangements for their rehabilitation.

- The leaders of Satyagraha against the injustice to peasants of Mulshi was Senapti Panduran Mahadeo Bapat.

- Bapat was sentenced to six month imprisonment.

- Many peasants who had participated in the movement were also imprisoned.

b: Significance of Mulshi Satyagraha:

- It gave the message by its longer duration inspite of the oppression of the government that the British could not afford to overlook the demands of the people.

- It were such types of demonstrations which had made Non-cooperation Movement a real and nation wide movement.

10. Withdrawal of Non-cooperation Movement: 1922 – Chaurichaura Incidence: (Oct. 99; 01)

a. Increase in oppression by the British to curtail the Movement:

- The British government was under the impression that it could suppress the revolt with bullets.

- The British government increased its oppression on Indians to curtail the Non-cooperation Movement.

- The participants of the movement were imprisoned.

b. Gandhiji Declaration: An announcement on February 1, 1922 from Bardoli:

- Gandhiji was not terrified by the rising oppression of the British government.

- Gandhiji made an announcement on February 1, 1922 from Bardoli.

- Gandhiji demanded from the government in his February declaration from Bardoli that

i. The freedom of the press should be immediately restored.

ii. The political prisoners should be released within one week.

iii. If the above demands would not be met then he would start a civil disobedience movement.

iv. Under the Civil disobedience movement the taxes would not be paid to the government.

c. Chaurichaura Incidence:

- In Chaurichaura district in Gorakhpur district of U. P., just after the Bardoli declaration, the police fired on the people.

- It infuriated the people.

- The irrigated and angered mob attack the police station.

- In the attack, the police station was burnt by the people in which 22 policemen were killed.

d. Gandhiji withdrew the call of Civil disobedience Movement:

- Gandhiji had always espoused for a peaceful non violent movement.

- Chaurichaura incidence was against the principles of Gandhiji which gave him the message that people were not ready to undertake a non-violent movement.

- Gandhiji withdrew the Civil disobedience Movement when he found that people would not remain peaceful if the movement started.

- Other Congress leaders highly criticised the decision of Gandhiji because they had found that the people all over the country had given astounding response to his call and they were ready to start a movement.

- However, Gandhiji remained firm on his decision and withdrew the movement.

e. Gandhiji Arrested:

- Gandhiji was arrested on March 10, 1922 after he had withdrawn the movement.

- He was tried for treason and sentenced to six years imprisonment.

- Similar punishment on similar grounds was imparted to Lokmanya Tilak in 1908.

- Gandhiji openly declared that he felt honoured because he had been imparted the same punishment which was imparted to Lokmanya Tilak.

11. Constructive Programme: (March 00, Oct. 01)

- A constructive programme was also a part of non-cooperation movement.

- It was based on Khadi, Swadeshi, upliftment of women, upliftment of lower classes and participation of the peasants.

a. Main Programmes:

- Under the constructive programme following constructive works were undertaken:

i. Cotton was grown.

ii. Yarn was spun on Charakha.

iii. Khadi cloth was manufactured out of hand made yarn.

iv. Movement against the liquor prohibition was launched.

v. The programmes for health and sanitation were launched in the villages.

b. Stress on Rural India:

- There was great stress on increasing the participation of the peasants during the non-cooperation movement because of the following reasons:

i. Agriculture was the main occupation of the Indians.

ii. The majority of the Indian population lived in the rural areas.

iii. The rural population was mainly dependent upon agriculture for their livelihood.

iv. The involvement of the rural people would have taken freedom movement on a large scale.

v. The movement included the programmes of the upliftment and welfare of the peasantry.

c. Women participation in the Movement:

- Gandhiji considered the participation of women highly essential for the success of the freedom movement.

- Women participated in the Non-cooperation movement in the following manner:

i. Women spread the message of Khadi.

ii. Women participated in picketing before the liquor shops and the shops selling foreign clothes.

iii. Women participated in morning processions and Zenda Satyagraha.

iv. The Constructive programme played a major role in the emancipation of the women.

d. Direct attack on the Social Evils of India:

- Gandhiji targeted the social evils prevalent in India like Untouchability, castism, inequality, religious difference etc.

- Gandhiji had found that the social evils had kept India divided.

- Gandhiji wanted forge unity in India by removing the social evils.

e. Hindu-Muslim Unity:

- Gandhiji wanted to bring Hindu-Muslim unity by removing social unity.

- Gandhiji felt that Hindu-Muslim unity would bring the national unity.

f. Significance of the Constructive Work:

- The constructive work was part of the Non-cooperation movement.

- The workers of the constructive work were recognised as the workers of the independence movement of India.

12. Formation of Swaraj Party: (March 97; Oct. 97; 98; 01)

- A group of Congress leaders was of the opinion that Non-cooperation movement and Satyagraha were not the only means of fighting the British government.

- This group suggested an alternate mean of participating in the elections and to enter the legislature to obstruct the government from inside and to expose the real motives of the policies of the British government.

- They were not in favour of boycotting the legislature.

- In order to enter the elections to be held under the Act of 1919, these leaders formed the Swaraj Party with in Congress in 1922..

- These leaders were C. R. Das, Motilal Nehru, N. C. Kelkar and some other leaders.

- They also continue the National movement for Independence by participating in the elections because Congress activities had come to halt when Gandhiji withdrew Civil Disobedience movement.

12a. The Activities of Swaraj party: (March 00)

- The Swaraj Party won elections in Bengal and Central Provinces.

- Motilal Nehru, Madam Mohan Malviya, N. C. Kelkar were elected to the central legislature.

- They continue the political battle for independence on the floor of legislature at a time when the Congress activities had slowed down.

- In the legislature, Swaraj Party leaders placed before the government the difficulties and the expectations of the Indian people.

- They also exposed the injustice done by the Bureaucracy of British administration to the Indians on the floor of the Legislature.

- The Swaraj Party, through its resolution, asked the British government to call a Round Table Conference to constitute a future constitution of India.

13. Simon Commission:

a. Reason of Formation:

- The Simon Commission was appointed by the British government in 1927.

- The Simon Commission was appointed as per a clause of 1919 Act wherein it was laid down that the British government would review the working of the 1919 Act after ten years before introducing the nest installment of Political reforms.

b. Opposition to the Commission and consequences: (Oct. 99)

- The Simon Commission was constituted only of English members. No Indian was given representation on the commission.

- The Congress boycotted the commission because it consisted only English members.

- Other Indian Political parties also adopted the attitude similar to Congress towards the Simon Commission.

- The Indians greeted Simon Commission with demonstrations and hartals wherever it visited in India during 1928.

- The Simon Commission faced the slogans of “Simon Go Back” everywhere when they toured India.

- In November 1928, Lala Lajpat Rai was badly injured in a Lathi charge on the demonstrators against the Simon Commission.

- Lala Lajpat Rai prophesied that with every stroke of Lathi that he received, were nails struck in the coffin of the British Empire.

- Later Lajpat Rai succumbed to his injuries inflicted during Lathi charge.

- The death of Lala Lajpat Rai highly infuriated the Indians.

- The revolutionary leaders Bhagat Singh and Rajguru shot death Saunders who had order Lathi charge in which Lala Lajpat Rai had received mortal blows.

14. Bardoli Satyagraha 1927: Sardar Vallabbhai Patel:

- Bardoli Satyagraha was organised by Vallabbhai Patel in Bardoli in Gujarat.

- It was organised in 1927.

- It was organised against the injustice of British government against the peasants of Gujarat.

- Gujarat was suffering because of famine.

- British government had increased the land tax by 25 % instead of giving remission in tax due to famine.

- Vallabbhai Patel organised ‘no tax’ movement of the peasants.

- The government reacted by confiscating the cattle and household goods of the peasants.

- The peasants suffered many hardships including imprisonment but they did not withdraw the ‘no tax’ campaign.

- Finally the government bowed to the pressure of the peasants.

- An inquiry ordered by the government declared that the increase in tax was not correct.

- The tax was reduced.

- The peasants of Gujarat started calling Vallabbhai as Sardar Vallabbhai Patel for the successful leadership of Bardoli Satyagraha.

- Gandhiji termed the success of Bardoli Satyagraha as one step forward in attainment of Swarajya.

15. Nehru Report August 1928: (Oct. 96)

- The British Prime Minister Burkenhead had taunted the Indians by declaring that the Indian leaders wee incapable of forming a common plan of political reforms.

- The Indian political leaders took up the challenge of writing a common plan of political reforms for India.

- The Indian National Congress constituted a committee to prepare a commonly accepted proposal of a constitutional reforms in India.

- The committee also sought the participation of other political leaders.

- The report which that committee submitted is known as the Nehru Report.

15a. Main Features of Nehru Report:

- The Nehru Report demanded following things apart from other reforms:

i. Fundamental rights to the Indians.

ii. Dominion Status to India.

15 b. Contention of Mohammed Ali Jinnah and His Fourteen Demands:

- To the committee writing the proposal of constitutional reforms, Mohammed Ali Jinnah proposed reservation of seats for Muslims in Muslim dominated provinces.

- The proposal was not acceptable to many other political leaders and it was not included in the Nehru report.

- Muslim League opposed the Nehru Report.

- Jinnah wrote his objections against the Nehru Report which was called the Charter of Fourteen Demands or the Delhi demand.

16. The Demand for Complete Independence: (Oct. 96)

- Jwahar Lal Nehru presided over the 1929 session of the Indian National Congress held at Lahore.

- It was held after one year from the ultimatum given to the British government in which the Congress had demanded Dominion Status for India within one year.

- The session passed a resolution in which complete independence was demanded.

- It called upon Indians to observe January 26, 1930 as the independence day of India.

- It called upon Indians to take oath to achieve complete independence for India.

- It declared that it was a fundamental right of the Indians to enjoy freedom and make all round development.

- It declared that the Indians had the right to abolish the government which denied them the right for freedom and overall development.

- On January 26, 1930, all over Indian people celebrated Independence day, took oath of achieving the complete independence of India and unfurled Tricolour.

- The Lahore Session of 1929 also passed resolution of Civil Disobedience.

- The Lahore Session entrusted the job of deciding the details of the Civil Disobedience.

16a. Significance of Lahore Session 1929:

- It decided that the complete Independence was the aim of struggle.

- The Civil Disobedience Movement would be headed by Gandhiji.

- It demonstrated a spirit of determination and enthusiasm among the Indians to fight the British imperialism.

Facts and Figures to Remember

1. Political Condition in India in 1919: Poverty and resentment among the Indians, Tilak died in August 1919.

2. Main Role of Gandhiji after 1919: Experience in South Africa – the first success of Satyagraha. Philosophy of Satyagraha;

3. Gandhiji in India: Champaran, Ahmedabad and Kheda the first Satyagraha experiment in India.

4. Indian dissatisfaction with British government:

Coming of Rowlatt Act, general dissatisfaction of Indians; Oppression in Punjab (Jalianwalla Tragedy), Importance of Jalianwalla Baugh.

5. Khilafat Movement: Started due to betrayal of Indian Muslims in the First World War; Gandhiji supported the movement,

6. Non-Cooperation Movement: An idea of Gandhiji; Causes of starting the movement; Nagpur Session 1920; massive participation by the Indians, starting of National Educational Institutions, Boycott of the English goods and institutions.

7. Zenda Satyagraha Started in Nagpur in 1923; known for the large participation of women.

8. Women Participation Women participated for the first time in the national struggle during the Non- Cooperation Movement.

9. Mulshi Satyagraha 1921-24 Led by Senapti Panduran Mahadeo Bapat in Pune district, a peasant movement, main issue was the compensation for land for dam.

10. Withdrawal of Non-Cooperation Movement: (Oct. 01)

Withdrawn in 1922, Chaurichaura incidence was the cause, Gandhiji was arrested.

11. Constructive Programme: A part of Non-cooperation Movement, stress on self economic development, prohibition and village upliftment through economic activities and hygiene programmes, encouragement to women participation, attack on social evils, Hindu Muslim unity.

12. Swaraj Party: Party of Congress leader favouring participation in the elections. Main leaders were C. R. Dass, Motilal Nehru and Kelkar.

13. Simon Commission: It was formed as per a clause of 1919 Act; Indians boycotted it because it did not have any Indian representative on it; “Simon Go Back” was the response of the Indians; it became the cause of the death of Lala Lajpat Rai.

14. Bardoli Satyagraha 1927: Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel organised it; it was launched for Redressal of the peasant’s problems, it took the form of no tax campaign.

15. Nehru Report August 1928: It was a proposal of constitutional reforms in India made by all the political parties of India. it was named after Moti Lal Nehru.

15a. Features of Nehru Report: It demanded Dominion Status for India and Fundamental Rights for Indians.

15b. Fourteen Demands of Jinnah: Jinnah had raised objections against the contents of the Nehru Report which came to known as Fourteen Demands.

16. Demand of Complete Independence: In Lahore Session of 1929, Congress demanded complete independence for India.

Exercise

Text Book and Question Bank Questions

1A. Fill in the blanks

i. Orders to fire at the unarmed innocent crowd gathered for meeting at the Jallianwalla Bagh were issued by ____. (General Dyer, O’dweyr, Chelmsford)

ii. In December 1920, at the ____ session of the Congress the resolution of Non-Cooperation Movement was passed. (Kolkatta, Nagpur, Lucknow).

iii. In 1927, ______ decided to launch the Bardoli Satyagraha. (Vallabhbhai Patel, Gandhiji, Pandit Nehru)

1B.

Match the followings

i. Rabindra Nath Tagore(March 2001) Khilafat Movement

ii. Mulana Mohammed Ali renounced his Knighthood.

and Mulana Shaukat Ali

iii. Jwahar Lal Nehru Mulshi Satyagraha

iv. Vallabhbhai Patel Zenda Satyagraha

v. Senapati Bapat Bardoli Satyagraha

The Lahore Session of the

Indian National Congress

1C

Writing the following events chronologically.

a. (Oct. 99)

i. The beginning of the Non-Cooperation Movement.

ii. Mulshi Satyagraha.

iii. The Simon Commission visited India.

iv. Gandhiji was arrested.

1D

Choose the correct alternatives from those given below and complete the statements.

1. Movements of peasants launched at Champaran and Kheda were successful because _________.

1. they followed the way of Satyagraha.

2. It was an armed movement.

3. they applied to and requested the government.

2. The government appointed Hunter Commission to enquire into the Jallianwalla Bagh massacre because _______.

1. the Indians demanded the enquiry.

2. the British government realised it fault.

3. the Indians showed their discontent.

3. The Simon Commission was boycotted by the Indians because ______.

1. the commission was appointed very late.

2. no Indian was associated with it.

3. the appointment of the commission was illegal.

2. Write the answer of the following in 2-3 sentences.

i. Why did the peasants from Champaran launch a Satyagraha? (March 00; Oct. 01)

ii. Why did the peasants from Kheda district start no tax campaign? (March 2001)

iii. Why was the Nehru Report prepared in 1928? (Oct. 96)

iv. What were the main objectives of the Non-Cooperation Movement? (Oct. 96)

3. Give Reasons in two-three sentences.

i. Indians boycotted the Simon Commission in 1928. (March 98; Oct. 98)

ii. The Hindu Muslim unity was clearly visible during the Non-cooperation Movement.

iii. Peasants of Champaran staged Satyagraha.

iv. Simon Commission was appointed.

v. In 1928, the Nehru Report was prepared.

vi. Gandhiji withdrew the Non co-operation Movement in 1922. (Oct. 99)

vii. Swaraj Party was formed in 1922. (March 97; Oct. 97; 98; 00; 01)

viii. The Indians protested against the Rowlatt Act. (March 00)

ix. The peasants of Mulshi staged a Satyagraha.

x. People of Punjab agitated against British Government at the time of the First World War.

xi. The Indian Muslims launched Khilafat Movement.

xii. Barrister Jinnah opposed the Nehru Report.

xiii. Gandhiji launched Satyagraha campaign successfully against injustice in South Africa.

xiv. Mahatma Gandhi entered into Indian Politics.

xv. The peasants of Kheda district started the “no tax campaign”. (March 2001)

xvi. In the Lahore Session of 1929, a resolution demanding the complete Independence was passed.

xvii. The philosophy of Satyagraha empowers the common-man to fight any injustice.

xviii. Mahatma Gandhi supported the Khilafat Movement.

4. Write answer of the following in 5-6 sentences.

i. Why did Gandhiji emphasis on the constructive programme of the Non-cooperation movement?

ii. What is meant by the Khilafat Movement? Why did Mahatma Gandhiji support it?

iii. Briefly describe the Mulshi Satyagraha.

iv. What were the significant feature of Mahatma Gandhi’s Non-cooperation Movement?

v. State the significance of Lahore Congress Session of 1929.

vi. What were the features of programme of Non-cooperation movement of 1920? (March 96)

vii. What was the main contribution of Swarajist Party? (March 97)

Question : 5 Write the answer of following in 20 lines

i. Describe the nature of the Constructive Programme, which constituted a part of the Non-cooperation Movement with the help of the following points. (March 97; 98; 00 Oct. 97; 98; 01)

1) Objectives.

2) Programme

3) Participation of the people.

4) Effects.

ii. Describe the significance of the Lahore Session of the Indian National Congress held in the 1929 with the help of the following points. (Oct. 96)

1) Resolution

2) Policy

3) Leadership

4) Programme.

iii. Give an account of Jallianwalla Baugh Massacre with the help of following points. (March 96; Oct. 99)

1) Discontent in Punjab.

2) Rowlatt Act.

3) Massacre.

iv. Give an account of Gandhiji’s Non–cooperation Movement with the help of the following points.

1) Objectives of the Movement.

2) Programme of the Movement.

3) Response of the people.

4) Withdrawal of the movement.

v. State the contribution of Dr. Ambedkar to the cause of Dalit Movement with the help of following points.

1) Nature of the Movement.

2) Role of Dr. Ambedkar.

3) Effects of the movement.

Other Important Examination Question

1A. Fill in the blanks

i. Lokmanya Tilak died in August ____. (1919, 1920, 1918)

ii. The period after 1919 was dominated by ______. (Gandhiji, Jawahar Lal Nehru, Vallabhbhai Patel)

iii. The first three Satyagrahas led by Gandhiji organised between _______. (1917 and 1918, 1919 and 1920, 1930 and 1931)

iv. The Champaran Satyagraha highlighted the issues of _____. (mill workers, farmers, Indian industrialists)

v. The Ahmedabad Satyagraha highlighted the issues of _____. (mill workers, farmers, Indian industrialists)

vi. The Kheda Satyagraha highlighted the issues of _____. (mill workers, farmers, Indian industrialists)

1B.

Match the followings

i. Champaran Bihar indigo farmers.

ii. Ahmedabad Gujarat mill workers.

iii. Kheda Gujarat farmers.

1C

Writing the following events in the ascending order sequence.

i. Champaran Satyagraha

ii. Ahmedabad Satyagraha

iii. Kheda Satyagraha

2. Write the answer of the following in 2-3 sentences.

i. What were the main political features of the Indian politics in 1919?

ii. What were the main political activities of Mahatma Gandhi in South Africa?

iii. What was the effect of Rowlatt Act in Punjab?

iv. Who were the main leaders in Punjab who worked against the implementation of Rowlatt Act?

v. What was the man issue of Mulshi Satyagraha?

vi. What were the works done by Swaraj Party? (March 00)

3. Give Reasons in two-three sentences.

i. Khilafat movement started after the Treaty of Serves.

ii. Civil disobedience Movement was withdrawn in 1922.

iii. Swaraj Party was formed.

iv. Simon Commission was opposed by the Indians.

v. Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-cooperation Movement. (Oct. 01)

vi. The Congress and the political parties boycotted the Simon Commission. (Oct. 99)

4. Write answer of the following in 5-6 sentences.

i. What was the main significance of Satyagraha philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi?

ii. What were the reasons for giving call for the Non-Cooperation Movement?

iii. What were the main features of the Nagpur Session of December 1920?

Question : 5 Write the answer of following in 20 lines

i. What were the main activities of protest by the Indian on the start of Non-Cooperation Movement?

ii. What were the main features of the constructive programmes adopted by Mahatma Gandhi in 1923?

iii. Discuss the participation of women in the freedom struggle during the period led by Mahatma Gandhi.

Chapter 11

The Armed Revolt

1. Background of the Revolutionary Politics:

- The 1857 revolt was an armed revolt which took place on a large scale spread over a vast area and participated by different sections of Indian society.

- The 1857 armed revolt failed.

- In 1885, the Indian National Congress was founded which started a movement of constitutional politics.

- Along with constitutional politics a parallel movement of armed revolt was also active.

- The main aim of both the movements was the independence of India. One adopted the path of constitutional means and the other the path of armed movement.

2. Main features of Revolutionary Politics and means of their activities:

- The main objective of the revolutionaries was the freedom of India.

- They adopted the means of conveying their dissatisfaction with the British rule by killing the British officers.

- The killing of British officers was their protest against the unjust and oppressive British regime.

- The revolutionaries formed secret societies and worked through those secret societies to achieve their aims.

- They bought arms and weapons for their armed activities.

- They published newspapers in foreign countries to spread and say their viewpoint.

- They helped the revolutionary work in India from the foreign lands.

- The revolutionary leaders like Swatantryaveer Sarvarkar wrote books like the biography of Joseph Mazzini and the book, ‘The Indian War of Independence: 1857’. Similarly, Aurobindo Ghosh, Sachindranath Sanyal, Bhagat Singh and others also wrote similar tracts. They enthused the Indians for the armed struggle by such writings.

- They were pro-socialism, anti-capitalist and anti-imperialist. Bhagat Singh propagated a republican government and a society free from exploitation. (March. 97)

3. Revolutionaries of Maharashtra:

a. Vasudeve Balwant Phadke:

- Vasudev Balwant Phadke organised an armed revolt against the British government in 1876 in Maharashtra.

b. Chaphekar Brothers:

- Damodar Chapekar shot dead Mr. Rand, the Plague Commissioner of Poona on June 22, 1897.

- The three Chapekar brothers, Damodar, Balkrishna and Vasudev, were sentenced to death.

- The activity of Chapekar brothers was not guided by any association affiliation. However, many revolutionary associations came up in Maharashtra after the activity of Chapekar brothers.

4. The social background of the Revolutionary leaders:

- Most of the revolutionaries were educated and belonged to the middle class of India.

- They were highly influenced by the revolutionary national movements of 19th century world.

- They had visited foreign countries for higher education where they came under the influence of the ideology of revolutionary nationalism.

5. Activities of Revolutionaries in Foreign countries:

- Most of the revolutionaries had visited foreign countries for higher education.

- They pleaded for India in the foreign countries.

- They also helped the Indian revolutionary activities in India from their countries of visit.

- The leading revolutionaries who operated from foreign countries were Sardarsingh Rana, Madam Bhikaji Kama, Lala Hardyal, Dr. Pandurang Khankhoje, Raja Mahendra, Shyamaji Krishna Varma, Sarvarkar brothers, Madan Lal Dhingra etc.

b. Shyamaji Krishna Varma:

- Shyamaji Krishna Varma was settled in England.

- He gave shelter to revolutionary men who visited foreign countries especially England.

- He guided them and helped them in their revolutionary activities.

- He established a hostel called ‘India House’ in London. (March 2001)

- Even the leading revolutionary Sarvarkar when visited England, joined the India House revolutionary group.

c. Savarkar: (March 97)

- Vir Savarkar had participated and experienced the revolutionary activities in India before 1900.

- In 1900, he founded a revolutionary association called ‘Mitra Mela’ at Nashik.

- In 1904, he founded Abhinav Bharat, which spread his activities to wider region.

- Along with his Babarao Savarkar, he guided the revolutionary activities in India.

- In 1906, when he visited England, he joined and then dominated the activities of India House which had spread it activities to France also.

d. Activities of Revolutionaries from France:

- Senapti P. M. Bapat, Hemachandra Das and others who had gone to England shifted to France because of their revolutionary activities.

- Madam Kama guided their activities in France.

- In France, the Indian revolutionaries learned bomb making from the Russian revolutionaries who had taken asylum in France.

- They brought the knowledge of bomb making in India to use it against the British administration.

6. Revolutionaries of Bengal: (Oct. 97)

- In Bengal, Aurobindo Ghosh encouraged the youth towards the revolutionary activities through his paper ‘Vande Mataram’.

- Barinder Kumar Ghosh and Bhupendranath started the newspaper ‘Yugantar’ for the spread of revolutionary ideas.

- Barinder Kumar Ghosh and his associates founded revolutionary association ‘Anushilan Samiti’.

7. Bomb Culture of Revolutionaries:

- Khudiram Bose and Prafulla Chaki were the first revolutionaries which used bomb for the first time in the struggle of Indians for freedom.

- Khudiram Bose and Prafulla Chaki tried to kill Kingsford in Bengal. They failed in their target. Prafulla Chaki committed suicide. Khudiram Bose was sentenced to death.

- Alipur Bomb Case: The British government arrested many revolutionary on finding a bomb factory in Alipur. It became popular as Alipur Bomb Case. Babarao Savarkar was sent for life imprisonment in Andaman.

- Anant Kanhere, Karve and Deshpande were hanged to death for killing Jackson, the collector of Nashik in 1909.

- In case of killing of Magistrate Jackson, V. D. Savarkar was sentence to life-imprisonment.

- By 1910, the British government was successful in containing most of the revolutionary activities involving use of firearms.

8. Suppression of Revolutionaries by the British government: Revolutionary Movements of 1912 – 1915 (Gadar Movement):

- The revolutionary activities resurfaced in 1911.

- In December 1912, a bomb was throne on Governor-General Hardinge, when he entered Delhi on Delhi becoming the capital of British India.

- Master Amir Chand, Avadhbihari, Balmukund and Vasant Kumar were sentenced to death for throwing bomb in Delhi on the governor-general.

- Rasbihari Bose escaped the arrest. He continued his activities like in Punjab and finally reached Japan.

a. Gadar Movement:

- When the suppression of the revolutionaries in India increased, Lala Hardyal shifted to America.

- In America, Lala Hardyal organised the activities of Indians in America and Canada.

- He founded Gadar Party.

- The Gadar Party planned to raise an arm revolt in India with the help of revolutionaries in India.

- However, the British government learnt about the conspiracy of the Gadar Party in time.

- The British government hanged Vishnu Pingle, Kartar Singh Sarabha, Bakshis Singh in the case of Gadar party revolt in 1915.

- Rasbihari Bose, who had also participated in the Gadar activities, escaped to Japan.

9. Hindustan Republican Association:

- Sachindranath, Jogesh Chatterji, Ashfaq-ulla-Khan, Thakur Roshan Singh, Ramprasad Bismil, Rajendra Nath Lahiri etc founded the Hindustan Republican Association, a revolutionary body, in 1924.

- The association aimed at uprooting the British government.

- The association wanted to establish a Republic of India.

- The activist of the association were caught in the famous case of Kakori rail looting case.

10. Meerut Conspiracy Case:

- The communist had great hold on the Trade Unions of India.

- On March 20, 1929, communist leaders like S. A. Dange, Nimkar, Mirajkar Ahamd, Joglekar, Sone Batliwala, Philip Sprat were arrested.

- The communist leaders were arrested on the charge conspiracy against the British government in a communist conference held in Meerut.

- The British government prosecuted them and sentenced to various punishments. The case became famous as Meerut Conspiracy Case.

11. Hindustan Socialist Republic Association:

- Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, Chandrashekar Azad, Kundanlal Gupta etc formed a revolutionary association named ‘Hindustan Socialist Republic Association in 1928.

- The aim of the association was to form a socialist and republican government in India.

a. Bhagat Singh Exploded the Bomb in the Assembly: (Oct. 97) (March 98; 00)

- The British administration proposed a bill to curtain the rights of workers and political rights of the citizens.

- The Bill also aimed at suppression anti-British movement.

- Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt exploded bomb in the legislature. (Oct. 01; March 00)

- In October 1929, Lala Lajpat Rai succumbed to his injuries received during the Lathi charge on demonstrations against the Simon Commission.

- Saunders, the British officers who had ordered the Lathi charge was shot dead.

- The shooting of Saunders was blamed on Bhagat Singh and he was arrested while he was throwing un-harming bombs in the assembly.

- In 1931, Bhagat Singh hanged to death.

- Chandrashekhar Azad also died in an encounter with the British police.

12. Chittgaon Armory Looting Case: Women Revolutionaries:

- In April 1930, the revolutionaries in Bengal looted an armory in Chittgaon.

- In this robbery case, latter Suraysen and Tarakeshwar Dutt were hanged.

- Ganesh Ghosh, Kalpana Dutt were sentenced to life imprisonment.

a. Pritilata Waddedar:

- In 1932, Pritilata Waddedar killed an officer in the Officer’s club.

b. Shanti Ghosh and Suniti Chaudhari:

- Shanti Ghosh and Suniti Chaudhari, who were school going girls killed the district Magistrate of Komilla.

c. Veena Das:

- In 1932, during the convocation ceremony of Calcutta university, Veena Das shot at the Governor of Bengal.

13. Revolutionary of Punjab- Udham Singh:

- General Michel O’dwayer had ordered the killing of Jallianwalla Baugh.

- In 1940, Udham Singh killed Michel O’dwayer.

-

Facts and Figures to Remember

1. Background of the Revolutionary Politics:

Revolt of 1857 was revolutionary activity. Revolutionary movement revived with the rise of INC in 1885 with an aim of complete independence of India.

2. Features and Means of Revolutionary Politics:

Main objective was the complete freedom of India.

The means included the killing of the oppressive British officers, formation of secret societies, use arms and ammunition, publish newspapers in foreign countries, use print media for the spread of Indian nationalism, propagate ideas of socialism, anti-capitalism and anti-imperialism.

3. Revolutionaries in Maharashtra: Vasudeve Balwant Phadke, Chaphekar Brothers.

4. Social Background of Revolutionary Leaders:

They were from educated middle class. Under the influence of revolutionary national movements of the world.

5. Revolutionaries in Foreign countries: Sardarsingh Rana, Madam Bhikaji Kama, Lala Hardyal, Dr. Pandurang Khankhoje, Raja Mahendra, Shyamaji Krishna Varma, Sarvarkar brothers, Madan Lal Dhingra etc. Senapti P. M. Bapat, Hemachandra Das, Madam Kama etc were active in France.

6. Revolutionaries in Bengal: Aurbindo Ghosh, Barinder Kumar Ghosh, Bupendranath etc.

7. Bomb Culture of Revolutionaries: Khudiram Bose and Prafulla Chaki were first to use the bomb in the service of freedom struggle. Alipur Bomb Case, Nasik Bomb Case, British took successful strict steps against Bomb culture.

8. British reaction to Revolutionary activities and Gadar Movement:

Viceroy escaped bomb during new wave of revolutionary movement in 1911, Rasbihari Bose continued such activities in Punjab and Japan and ultimately established INA with Subash Chandra Bose. Gadar Movement in Punjab tried to carry the armed revolt.

9. Hindustan Republican Association: Started in 1924 and aimed at uprooting British government. Famous for Kakori rails looting.

10. Meerut Conspiracy Case: It was a conspiracy case against the communist leaders like Dange etc in 1929.

11. Hindustan Socialist Republic Association:

Formed in 1928 and famous for Chandershekar Azad, Bhagat Singh

12. Chittgaon Armory Looting Case and Women Revolutionaries:

It took place in 1930 in Bengal. It is known for women activist like Kalpana Dutt. Other revolutionary women were Pritilata Waddedar, Shanti Ghosh, Suniti Chaudhari, Veena Das etc.

13. Udham Singh- Revolutionary of Punjab:

In 1940, Udham Singh killed Michel O’dwayer who had ordered Jallianwalla Baugh massacre.

Exercise

Text Book and Question Bank Questions

1A. Fill in the blanks

i. ______ founded a hostel called ‘India House’ in London. (Shyamji Krishna Varma, Lala Hardayal, Madam Bhikaji Kama)(Oct. 01)

ii. The Indian youth was persuaded for revolutionary activity through the paper “Vande Mataram” published by _____. (Aurobindo Ghosh, Bhupendranath, Khudiram Bose).

iii. _______ who also participated in the uprising of the Gadar Party, succeeded in escaping to Japan. (Rasbhihari Bose, Bhagat Singh, Vishnu Ganesh Pingle) (Oct. 96)

1B.

Match the followings

a.

i. The assassination of Rand Damodar Chapekar

ii. The establishment of Abhinav Bharat

Association Ramprasad Bismil

iii. The establishment of Gadar Party Lala Hardayal(March 2001)

iv. Hindustan Socialist Republic Association Chandershekar Azad.

V. D. Savarkar.

1C

Writing the following events in the chronological order. (March 97; Oct. 01)

i. Vasudeo Balwant Phadke staged armed uprising.

ii. The newspaper ‘Yugantar’ was started.

iii. Anant Kanhere was hanged.

iv. An attack was made on police armoury in Chittgaon.

2. Write the answer of the following in 2-3 sentences.

i. What revolutionary activities did V. D. Savarkar do in India and abroad? (March 97)

ii. How did Gadar Party try to plan uprising in India against the British Government?

iii. How did revolutionaries bring the technique of manufacturing bombs in India?

iv. What were the political and social aims of the revolutionaries? (March 99)

3. Give Reasons in two-three sentences.

i. ‘India House’ was the main centre of Indian revolutionaries in Europe.

ii. The leaders of the Meerut Conspiracy case were sentenced to various punishments.

iii. Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, and Rajguru assassinated the British officer Saunders.

iv. Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt exploded bombs in the legislature. (Oct. 97; 01) (March 99)

v. Khudiram Bose was hanged.

vi. A new Revolutionary body called Hindustan Republic Association was founded in 1924.

vii. The three Chaphekar brothers were hanged. (Oct. 98)

viii. Armed revolutionary movement became intense in Bengal in 1906.

ix. The Gadar party attempted to stage an uprising against the British Government.

x. The second Round Table Conference was unsuccessful.

4. Write answer of the following in 5-6 sentences.

i. Give an account of the work dome by the Indian revolutionaries with the help of following points.

1. Objectives

2. Means

3. Revolutionary Organisation

Question : 5 Write the answer of following in 20 lines

1. Give a brief account of the activities of the revolutionaries in Bengal.

2. Give a brief account of the activities of the revolutionaries in foreign countries.

Other Important Examination Question

1A. Fill in the blanks

i. The Indian National Congress started the movement of _______ politics. (Constitutional, revolutionary, socialist)

ii. Sarvarkar wrote the biography of ______ and ‘The Indian War of Independence: 1857. (Mazzini, Garibaldi, George Washington).

iii. Chaphekar Brothers belonged to ______. (Maharashtra, Punjab, Bengal).

vi. In 1909, the collector f Nasik, Jackson was killed by _____. (Anant Kanhare,Khudiram Bose, Bhupendranath) (Oct. 99)

1B.

Match the followings

i. Shyamaji Krishna Varma Indian House in London.

ii. Lala Hardayal Vancouver.

iii. Senapti P. M. Bapat France.

1C

Writing the following events in the ascending order sequence.

i. Gadar Movement

ii. Meerut Conspiracy Case

iii. Alipur Bomb Case.

2. Write the answer of the following in 2-3 sentences.

i. What was the aim of Bhagat Singh to explode the Bomb in Assembly?

ii. What was the main activity of Udham Singh?

iii. Which were the main newspapers of Aurobindo Ghosh and Barinder Kumar Ghosh?

3. Give Reasons in two-three sentences.

i. Bhagat Singh exploded a bomb in the Assembly.

ii. Babarao Savarkar was sent for life imprisonment in Andaman.

iii. Shyamji Krishna Varma had founded “India House”.

4. Write answer of the following in 5-6 sentences.

i. Write about the women participation in revolutionary movement.

ii. What was the Meerut Conspiracy Case.

Question : 5 Write the answer of following in 20 lines

1. Write on the activities of the Revolutionaries in Foreign countries.

Edited by Sumir Sharma

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Chapter 12

Civil Disobedience Movement (V. Imp)

1. Background of Civil Disobedience Movement:

- In 1928 session the Congress had given an ultimatum of one year to the government to accept the demand of the Congress for constitutional reforms.

- In 1929, the British government had showed no respect to the demand of the Congress.

- The Congress decided to intensify the mass movement.

- The Congress entrusted all the powers to Mahatma Gandhi to decide the nature and time of the mass of movement.

- Mahatma Gandhi decided to start a Civil Disobedience movement as the mass movement.

2. Civil Disobedience Movement: (Oct. 96; March 98; Oct. 98)

a. Salt Satyagraha:

- The British government had monopoly over the production of Salt and collected tax on salt.

- Mahatma Gandhi decided to break the Salt law and launched the Salt Satyagraha.

b. Why Salt?

- The Salt was available in nature in abundance.

- The British government had monopoly over the Salt and collected tax over its sale.

- Salt was vital element used by every human being.

- The consumption of salt does not vary with the increase in the prices because it is an essential item of food any person.

- In case of increase of tax on salt, it badly effects the pocket of the poor people.

- The breaking of salt law would have carried message to every section of the society.

c. Events during the Dandi March:

- Dandi was a sea beach of Gujarat.

- Mahatma Gandhi started his Civil disobedience by a march with his followers from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi on March 12, 1930.

- The motive of his march was to break salt law at Dandi.

- On his way, he addressed people of numerous villages.

- He asked the people to join the civil disobedience movement fearlessly.

- His addresses spread far and wide and carried his message.

- His call was well received by the people and they joined the civil disobedience in their own regions in different manners.

- On April 5, 1930, Mahatma Gandhi reached Dandi after covering a distance of 385 kilometers.

- On April 6, 1930, Mahatma Gandhi broke the salt law at Dandi.

d. Salt Satyagraha at Other Places:

- The Salt Satyagraha was launched on the beaches of Maharashtra, Bengal, Orissa, Gujarat and Madras.

- In non-coastal regions, other laws were broken to launch Civil disobedience movement in those regions.

e. Jungle Satyagraha:

- In many regions, especially tribal population areas, the Jungle laws were broken to launch the Civil disobedience movement.

- The Jungle laws were unjust acts which interfered in the traditional forest rights of many people and effected them economically.

f. ‘No rent’ movement:

- In Uttar Pardesh, Karnataka and Gujarat, people started no rent movement to launch the Civil disobedience movement.

- Under no rent movement they refused to pay land revenue.

g. British Oppression:

- The police of British administration Lathi charged the Satygrahis at many places.

- The police even opened fired on peaceful demonstrators.

- Many Satyagrahis were arrested and prosecuted.

h. Women Participants in the Satyagraha:

- Women participated in Satyagraha and Civil disobedience movement in large numbers.

- The leading names among the major participants were Sarojini Naidu, Kamaladevi Chatopaddhyaya, Kamala Nehru, Hemprabha Das and Sucheta Kripalani.

i. Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan – Khuda-i-Khidmatgar:

- Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan belonged to North West Frontier Province.

- He organised a group called Khuda-I-Khidamtgar.

- The members of Khuda-i-Khidamtgar wore red shirts.

- Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan launched civil disobedience movement in North West Frontier Province.

- Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan was also called Frontier Gandhi.

- When British government asked its Gadhwal regiment to fire upon the followers of Gaffar Khan, they refused to fire saying that they would not fire upon their brothers.

j. Evaluation of Civil Disobedience Movement:

- Louis Fischer, an American journalist who had covered the Satyagraha had given his evaluation that if the Indian people stood up with the same fearlessness and self-respect, they would throw off the British colonial rule.

- More than ninety thousand Satyagrahis went to jail during the civil disobedience movement.

- Mahatma Gandhi was arrested on May 4, 1930.

- The participation of the workers in national movement was remarkable.

k. Protests of Mill Workers of Solapur and Mumbai:

- On May 6, 1930, the mill workers of Solapur observed hartal in protest against the arrest of Mahatma Gandhi.

- The mill workers also condemned the arrest of Mahatma Gandhi.

- The mill workers of Mumbai also protested against the arrest of Mahatma Gandhi.

- The collector of Solapur had even ordered fire on the protesting people. (March 2001)

- The martial law was also imposed at many places. (March 2001)

- The leaders like Malappa Dhanshetty, Srikrishna Sarada, Jagannath Shinde and Kurban Hussain were executed by the government.

- In Mumbai, Babu Genu sacrificed his life by throwing himself under a truck carrying imported clothes during the boycott movement against the foreign clothes in Mumbai as a protest under civil disobedience movement.

- The participation of workers was astounding.

3. A Step Forward:

- The Civil Disobedience Movement was a step forward in the struggle against the British rule.

a: Larger participation by rural and urban population:

- The urban youth had participated in large numbers in the movement.

- The peasants and urban workers had also participated in large numbers.

- The employees and businessmen had also participated in large numbers.

b: Larger participation by the women population of India.

- The women from rural and urban centers had participated in large numbers.

- It was biggest participation of women population of India in the freedom struggle of India.

c: Bigger setback to economic interests of Britain in India:

- The Civil disobedience movement gave bigger economical setback to British interests in India.

- The import of clothes from Britain declined by 50%.

- The collection of excise on liquor declines steeply.

d: A decisive Movement:

- The Civil disobedience Movement had decided one thing that the freedom of India was the foregone conclusion. It was now only the question that when would that Independence be achieved.

- It was decisive because people from all the strata of the society participated in the movement.

- Mahatma Gandhi achieved a remarkable milestone by spreading the consciousness for national freedom to the peasants, tribes and women which had made the movement a true national movement.

4. The First Round Table Conference 1930:

- Ramsay Macdonald, the Prime Minister of England convened the First Round Table Congress to discuss the new political reforms in 1930.

- At the time, when the first Round Table Conference was convened, the Civil disobedience was active and most of the Congress leaders were behind the bars.

- The Muslim League, leaders of various parties and the representatives of Princely states attended the First Round Table Conference.

- Only the Congress did not participate in the Conference.

- The Conference failed to reach a consensus because of the absence of Congress.

- Governor-General realised that nothing fruitful would come out without the participation of Congress. Therefore, he started a dialogue with Mahatma Gandhi.

5. Gandhi-Irwin Pact: (Oct. 99)(Imp.)

- Mahatma Gandhi and Irwin, the Governor-General of India reached a settlement in 1931 which is famous as Gandhi-Irwin Pact.

- As per the terms of the pact, the Congress accepted to suspend the Civil Disobedience Movement.

- The Congress also accepted to participate in the second Round Table Conference as per the pact.

- The government also released all the Satyagrahis to make the atmosphere conducive for the dialogues in the Conference.

- The government also allowed the people of coasts to manufacture the salt.

5a. Karachi Session of March 1931:

- Karachi Session of Congress was held on March 29, 1931.

- In the session, Gandhi-Irwin pat was accepted.

- The session empowered Mahatma Gandhi to participated in the Second Round Table Conference as the single representative of the Congress.

- The Congress all declared by a resolution that the complete independence was the sole objective of their movement.

- Karachi Session is also historic because during this session the Fundamental Rights and national economic programme were adopted for the future India.

6. The Second Round Table Conference:

- Mahatma Gandhi left India on August 15, 1931 for England to participate in the Second Round Table Conference.

- Mahatma Gandhi clearly put forward the only demand of complete independence of India in the conference.

- He demanded immediate grant of dominion status to India as a surety for the complete Independence to India in near future.

a: Hurdles during the Second Round Table Conference:

- There was no consensus on the issue of minority representation in the Conference.

- Each group was demanding separate electorate and special rights.

- The British government showed inclination to accept the demands like separate electorate which was actually aimed at dividing the Indian nation.

- The British government straightway refused to accept the demand of the Congress for the complete independence.

- Mahatma Gandhi was highly disappointed with the attitude of the British government and left for India without getting any fruitful results.

- Mahatma Gandhi returned to India empty handed in December 1931.

b: Repression Under Lord Wellington:

- During the course of the Second Round Table Conference, Lord Wellington took over as the Viceroy of India.

- He unleashed a policy of repression in India.

- He banned Congress and its affiliates.

- When Mahatma Gandhi reached India he was arrested in January 1932.

- The workers of Congress party were also put behind the bars.

7. The Communal Award 1932 – Third Round Table Conference: (Oct. 97)(Imp.)

- The Indian National Congress did not participate in the Third Round Table Conference.

- There was again no consensus on the issue of representation to the communities.

- Prime Minister of England, Ramsay Macdonald tried to resolve the issue by imposing his own plan which is called the Communal Award.

a: Communal Award – A plan of Ramsay Macdonald at the Third Round Table Conference:

- Communal Award was a plan of Ramsay Macdonald proposed in the Third Round Table Conference on the issue of separate representations to the communities.

- According to this plan, Muslims, Christians and Sikhs were given separate electorates.

- The seats were reserved for the minority communities in the Legislature.

- Dalits were recognised as a separate community and for the first time seats were reserved for them in the Legislature.

b: Poona Pact 1932: (Oct. 96; Oct. 99; March 99)(Imp.)

b1: Causes of Poona Pact:

- Mahatma Gandhi was in Yerawada Jail when the Communal Award was given in the Third Round Table Conference.

- Mahatma Gandhi went on a fast on September 20, 1932 as a protest against the granting of separate electorates for the Dalits.

- Babasaheb Ambedkar had represented the Dalits to the Third Round Table Conference.

- The leaders of the Congress approached Babasaheb Ambedkar to reconsider the demand for separate electorates.

- Babasaheb Ambedkar considered it in the national interest to decline the offer of the British and made compromise with the Congress on the issue of separate electorate.

- On September 25, 1932, Poona Pact was signed between Gandhiji and Dr. Ambedkar.

b2: Terms of Poona Pact:

- The separate electorate for Dalits was cancelled.

- 148 seats were reserved for the Dalits in the quota of general seats.

- British government recognised to the terms of Poona Pact.

b3: End of Civil Disobedience Movement:

- Mahatma Gandhi was released after the Poona Pact on the health grounds.

- The Civil Disobedience Movement was withdrawn.

8. Indian National Congress, Other Socialist groups and the Socialist Ideology:

a: Causes of the rise of Social Ideology:

- The Indian youth was influenced by the philosophical currents of Europe.

- India was an industrially a backward country but made to suffer all the adverse effects of European industrial advance.

- Apart from the social and economic adverse effects due to European industrial advance, India also suffered social inequality because of its own traditional social structure.

- It was further suffering economic inequality and exploitation due to British economic policies.

- The social and economic inequality coupled with the attractiveness of the social philosophies of Europe, the Indian youth was attracted towards the socialist ideology.

b: Indian Youth and Socialism:

- Most of the young leaders of India wanted to give a socialist direction to the Indian independence movement.

- The leading young leaders in favour of socialist ideology were Jwahar Lal Nehru, Subhash Chandra Bose, Acharya Narendra Dev and Jay Prakash Narayan.

- They influenced the Congress to work for the improvement of the conditions of the working class and to get requited acts passed.

- The inclusion of the Fundamental Rights and Economic policies in the manifesto of the Congress during Karachi Session of 1932 was mainly a work of Jwahar Lal Nehru.

- Other important leaders with the socialist inclination were Achyutrao Patwardhan, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia, Yusuf Meheralli, N. G. Gore and S. M. Joshi.

c: Congress Socialist Party:

- In 1934, the Congress Socialist Party was formed within the Indian National Congress.

- The Congress Socialist Party was formed due to the efforts of Acharya Narendra Dev, Jay Parkash Narayan and Dr. Lohia.

- This party mainly worked for the peasants.

d: Other Parties dominated by Socialist Ideology:

- Communist Party under the leadership of Comrade Dange also favoured a socialist direction to the independence movement of India.

- Radical Humanist Party of Manvendra Nath Roy also favoured a socialist agenda for the future independent India.

- The Leftist Parties played a major role in leaving a great influence of socialist ideology on the mind of the Indian youth of earlier 20th century.

- As a result of Congress Socialist Party and the Leftist parties, the national independence movement was influenced by the socialist thought.

e: Contribution of the Socialist Ideology to the National Movement:

- The issues like the agricultural labourers, socialist economy, equitable distribution of wealth, communization of means of production etc became important issue even before the independence of India.

- The issues raised by the socialist ideology became the inseparable part of the manifesto of the Indian National Congress and played a major role in deciding the policies of the Independent India.

9. Dalit Movement:

- The main objective of the Dalit Movement was a establish a society in India based on social equality.

- Mahatma Phule was the first Dalit leader who started the Dalit Movement.

a: Role of Mahatma Phule:(Imp.) (Oct. 97)

- Mahatma Phule wanted to create a society based on equality.

- He worked for the improvement of the conditions of Dalits and the weaker sections of the society.

- He criticized the Brahmin class and elite classes for exploiting and oppressing the Dalits and other weaker sections of the society.

- He strongly condemned the caste system.

- He preached in his book, ‘Sarvajanik Satyadharma’ that every individual should stand against the social evils of ritualism, casteism, superstitions and all the social inequalities.

- He gave more stress on education as a factor in improving the conditions of individual.

- He was the first reformer to open schools for the Dalit girls and boys.

- He also convinced the government to open schools for the Dalits.

- He established his organization ‘Satyashodhak Samaj’ in 1873. Through his organisation he brought social reforms and social consciousness.

- Through his organisation and life time works he gave direction to the Dalit Movement in India.

- Dr. Ambedkar respected him as his guru.

b: Dalit Reformers of different provinces:

- In Tamil Nadu, Nadar Mahajan Sangh was established in 1910.

- A political organisation for the Dalit section of Tamil Nadu was established in 1915-16 in Tamil Nadu.

- C. N. Mudaliar, T. N. Nair, and Tyagaraja Reddy were chief founders of the Dalit movement in Tamil Nadu and Justice Party.

- Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar gave a revolutionary character to Dalit movement in Maharashtra.

10. Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar and the Dalit Movement:

a: Ambedkar’s view on Dalit upliftment and main contribution:

- Dr. Ambedkar believed that the day the oppressed classes decided to overthrow their slavery, for them the slavery would end.

- He had given a revolutionary character to the Dalit Movement to obtain from them the same social rights that were enjoyed by the other sections of the society.

- He was able to bring before the people the social problems of Dalits.

- He prepared the Dalits to launch agitation for securing their social, religious and political rights.

- He believed that the Untouchability was perpetuating because the Dalits were helping it to continue by tolerating it.

- He strongly condemned the Dharmashastras and traditions which perpetuated Untouchability.

b. Main Activities of Dr. Ambedkar for Dalit Movement:

b1: Mahad Satyagraha:

- Mahad Satyagraha was launched in Raigad district of Maharashtra.

- It was launched to establish the right of Dalits to obtain water from Chavdar Lake in Mahad on the right of equality of humans.

- It was launched on March 20, 1927.

- During the Satyagraha, Dr. Ambedkar brought before the world the inhuman injustice done to the Dalits.

- He advised the British government that it was the duty of the government to protect the rights granted to Dalits by law.

b2: Burning of Manusmriti:

- On December 25, 1927, Dr. Ambedkar burnt Manusamriti.

- Dr. Ambedkar considered Manusamriti responsible for the social inequality and the downtrodden conditions of the Dalits.

b3: Issue of Temple Entry:

- The restriction of the Dalits to enter the temples was another method of perpetuating the social inequality.

- Dr. Ambedkar used Satyagraha against the restriction on the entry of Dalits in the temples to establish their right to equality in the society.

- On March 2, 1930, Dr. Ambedkar and his followers offered Satyagraha for entry into Kala Ram Temple at Nashik.

- They used Temple Satyagraha to launch a wider agitation to raise awareness among the Dalits about their rights and inspire them to achieve their right to equality in the society.

- The temple Satyagraha was withdrawn after achieving success in getting entry in the temple.

b4: Issue of Political Rights:

- Dr. Ambedkar also gave significant important to political rights of the Dalits.

- He sought the right to franchise, representation in the legislature, participation the administration etc for the Dalits.

- He achieved a considerable success in securing the political rights for the Dalits by Poona Pact of 1932.

b5: Associations founded by Dr. Ambedkar:

- Dr. Ambedkar founded the Independent Labour Party in August 1936.

- The aim of the Independent Labour Party was to solve the problems of the workers and peasants.

- Dr. Ambedkar founded Bharatiya Bahishkrit Shikshan Prasarak Mandal.

- The aim of Bharatiya Bahishkrit Shikshan Prasarak Mandal was spread education among the Dalits.

- He established the Scheduled Caste Federation to work in the social and political field.

b6: Importance of Education as per Dr. Ambedkar:

- Dr. Ambedkar founded Bharatiya Bahishkrit Shikshan Prasarak Mandal for spreading education among the Dalits.

- Dr. Ambedkar considered education important for developing self confidence among the Dalits and for promoting their welfare.

- He himself founded educational institutions in Mumbai, Aurangabad and other places.

- The main message to Dalits on education was ‘Learn, organise and agitate’.

- He gave maximum importance to three principles of self respect, self reliance and self upliftment which for him could be achieved through education along with political rights.

b7: Journals of Dr. Ambedkar:

- Dr. Ambedkar founded journals like Mook Nayak, Bahiskrut Bharat and Janata.

- He used the journals to spread the social awakening and spread his message.

b8: Inclinations of Dr. Ambedkar:

- Dr. Ambedkar denounced Hinduism because it discriminatory attitude towards the lower classes.

- On October 14, 1956, he adopted Buddhism.

b9: Achievements of Dr. Ambedkar:

- Dr. Ambedkar obtained political and social rights for the Dalits.

- The major achievement of Dr. Ambedkar was that he succeeded in getting an identity and self respect for the Dalits.

- He adopted the means of constitutional movements and self reliance among the weaker section.

- Through his movement for Dalits, he made the upper classes to introspect and think about the social inequality.

- He even allowed the upper caste people to join him who were against untouchibility and who had sympathy for the Dalits.

- The main achievement was that he established harmony in the demands of the Dalits and the society.

11. Movements in the Princely States and the Freedom Struggle:

a: Princely States:

- The British had established full control over whole of India by 1848.

- There were some territories which were under the Indian rulers and not under the British rule.

- Such rulers within India were forced to accept the British rule.

- The British divided the territories under their direct control into provinces.

- The territories which were under the control of Indian rulers but they were under the dominance of the British rule were called the princely states.

b: Pitiable conditions of people of Princely states:

- The people under the British provinces were given some political rights and participation in the administration after the Acts of 1919 and 1935.

- The people under the Princely States did not have the rights equal to the rights enjoyed by the British provinces.

- The rulers of princely states had imposed a number of restrictions on the rights of their subjects.

c: The National Movement in Princely States:

- The national movement in princely states started after 1920 after the non-cooperation movement which had taken place in the British provinces only.

- Under the national movement, the subjects of the princely states established people’s organisation.

- The people’s organisation started by the people of princely states for the national movement were called ‘Praja Mandals’ or ‘Praja Parishads’. The national movement in the princely states are also called Praja Mandal movements.

d: Nature of the Praja Mandal Movements:

- The people of Praja Mandal fought against the Feudalism and colonialism.

- The people of Praja Mandal movement fought against their feudal princes and the British administration simultaneously for their rights.

- The main demand of the Praja Mandal movements was the democratic rights.

e: Activities of Praja Mandal Movements:

- The people of the Praja Mandal Movements implemented the constructive programmes of the Indian National Movement in their princely states.

- They established schools, used khadi, encouraged cottage industries and started agitation against the Untouchability.

f: The National Movement Associations in Princely States:

f1: The Hitvardhak Sabha

- The Hitvardhak Sabha was founded in Poona in May 1921.

- The aim of this association was to solve the problems of the people of southern princely states.

f2: Akhil Bhor Sansthan Praja Sabha:

- Wamanrao Patwardhan founded Akhil Bhor Sansthan Praja Sabha in Bhor region in November 1921.

- The aim of this Sabha was to fight for the problems related to people of Bhor region.

f3: All India Association of the People’s Council:

- In the Bombay session of All India Association of the People’s Council in 1927, the princely states national movement was made a national level movement.

- The Bombay session of the Council demanded the responsible government and rights of citizenship for the people of Princely States.

- The Madras Session of Congress also adopted the demands of Bombay session of All India Association of People’s Council.

- In the Karachi Session of the Council in 1936, the Council rejected the clause of the 1935 Act wherein the nomination of Princes of the Princely states to the Imperial Legislature was allowed.

- The Karachi Session of the Council demanded that the right of election of representative should rest with the subjects of the princely states.

- The Council and other people’s movement also struggled for the farmers loans, taxes etc in the princely states.

g: The Liberal Prince of Aundh:

- Balasaheb Pant Pratinidhi, the ruler of Aundh was a liberal ruler.

- He formed a Representatives’ Council.

- He allowed 50% representation to the people of his state to the Council.

- In 1926, he allowed the power to legislate and to pass resolutions to the Council.

- In 1929, he declared the subjects of his states would get the right of self rule within next five years.

- He also formed a committee to frame a constitution of the modern political principles.

- His work was highly appreciated by the All India Association of People’s Council.

h: Merging of State’s Movement with the National Movement.

- The Indian National Congress joined hands with the People’s Council and made it a part of national movement.

- They worked with the aim of ending the British rule in India and integrating the princely states with India.

- As a result of the merging of the People’s movement with the national movement, the princely states integrated with the independent India after 1947.

- The important People’s movement were launched in Manipur, Travancore, Mysore and Rajkot.

- The movement for integration with India in Hyderabad was the most aggressive movement.

12. Freedom Struggle in the State of Hyderabad:

a: The State of Hyderabad:

- The State of Hyderabad was the largest princely states of India in terms of population and territory.

- The ruler of the State of Hyderabad was called the Nizam of Hyderabad.

- The State of Hyderabad included the Marathwada, parts of Andhra Pardesh and Karnatak.

- The Nizam of Hyderabad was highly supported and helped by the British administration.

b: Non-cooperation Movement and the State of Hyderabad:

- The Non-cooperation Movement also influenced the State of Hyderabad.

- The Nizam of Hyderabad crushed the non-cooperation movement and Khilafat movement in Hyderabad.

c: People’s Councils in the State of Hyderabad:

- In 1921, Andhara Sabha in Andhra Pradesh and Karnatak Council in Karnatak were founded.

- In 1937, Maharashtra Council in Marathwada was founded.

- The aim of such councils was to work in the social and the cultural spheres.

- These councils demanded responsible political system, expansion of private schools and vernacular education.

- These councils placed before the country the problems of the people inspite of the restrictions in the State of Hyderabad.

d: Role of Marathi Press:

- The Marathi press played an important role in spreading the political consciousness among the people of the State of Hyderabad.

- A. K. Waghmare played a major role in activities of the Marathi press inspite of the all the restrictions imposed by the State of Hyderabad.

e: The Rise of Hyderabad State Congress:

- The Hyderabad State Congress was founded in the State of Hyderabad in September 1938.

- The arrival of the State Congress started the first phase of the political struggle in the State of Hyderabad.

- The leaders of the State Congress declared the party as a secular, national and open to all the castes and tribes.

- The party declared the aim of communal harmony and unity as its objective.

f: Reaction of Nizam of Hyderabad towards the State Congress: (March 00)

- The Nizam of Hyderabad felt a threat from the Hyderabad State Congress.

- He banned the State Congress.

- In October 1938, Swami Ramanand Tirath launched a Satyagraha against the ban on the State Congress.

- Arya Samaj and Hindu Maha Sabha also launched a Satyagraha at the same time for their own demands in the state of Hyderabad.

- Nizam of Hyderabad was thus forced to introduce some reforms but he did not raise the ban.

- Finally in 1940, the State Congress launched the individual Satyagraha against the ban.

g: Repressive Policies of the State of Hyderabad and the Freedom Struggle: (March 00)

- The State of Hyderabad had imposed ban on the National Song ‘Vande Mataram’.

- However, the students took lead to make it a song of national freedom movement inspite of the ban. Nizam was not able to stop them.

- The students of the Government College of Aruangabad were main activists in spreading the song of Vande Mataram.

- Later the student movement was merged with the national movement and freedom struggle in the State of Hyderabad became strong.

- Govindbhai Shroff played an important role in making the freedom movement strong in Hyderabad after it had acquired momentum due to the activities of the student.

h: Hyderabad Sate Congress and Quit India Movement of 1942: (March 96)

- When the Quit India Movement of 1942 started by the Indian National Congress, the Hyderabad State Congress itself as a part of the movement.

- In August 1942 it placed following demands before the Nizam of Hyderabad:

i. Responsible government under the Nizam.

ii. Integration of the State of Hyderabad with Independent India.

iii. Grant of Civil Rights to the people of the State of Hyderabad

iv. Removal of ban on the Hyderabad State Congress in Hyderabad.

- The State Congress organised a massive Satyagraha in the State of Hyderabad.

- Many arrests were made.

- In 1946, All India Association of People’s Council also demanded from the Nizam to revoke the ban on the Hyderabad State Congress.

- By the end of the Second World War, the conditions that emerged, made the situation of the Nizam of Hyderabad very difficult.

- Finally n July 1946, the Nizam raised the ban from the Hyderabad State Congress.

13. The Movement for Integration of Hyderabad with Independent India:

a. India Became Independent:

- In 1947, India was declared independent.

- The Princely States were allowed the option to remain independent or to join with India.

- The Nizam decided to remain independent.

b: State Congress decided to merge with India:

- The Hyderabad State Congress did not accept the decision of the Nizam of Hyderabad.

- The people of Hyderabad also wanted to join the Indian federation.

- The Congress decided to observe August 7, 1947, as the day of merger.

- The people and the State Congress faced the attack of Razakar.

c: Terrorism of Razakar: (March 00)

- The decision of the Nizam to remain independent was supported by a communal organisation called ‘Ittehadul Musalmina’.

- The leader of Ittehadul Musalmina was Kasim Razavi.

- Kasim Razavi was known as Razakar.

- Razakar raised a fundamentalist armed organisation when the State Congress raised the demand of merger with India.

- The army of Razakar started terrorizing the people in the villages.

- Nizam supported the activities of Razakar and his organisations.

- Govindrao Pansare of Nanded district was killed in the attacks of Razakar.

- Shoebulla Khan a journalist was also killed by Razakar.

d: People of Hyderabad celebrated August 15, 1947:

- Inspite of the terrorism of Razakar and oppression of Nizam, the people of Hyderabad continued the agitation for merger with India.

- They established armed camps to encounter the attacks of Razakar.

- Digambarrao Bindu and Dr. Melkote headed the movement of merger.

- Swami Ramanand Tirtha was in prison.

- The people celebrated the independence of India on August 15, 1947, without caring for the repression by the Nizam of Hyderabad.

Facts and Figures to Remember

1. Background of Civil Disobedience Movement:

Ultimatum of one year for constitutional reforms in Congress Session of 1928; Mahatma Gandhi was given the leadership to lead a mass movement.

2. Civil Disobedience Movement: Started in form of Salt Satyagraha, Dandi March – March 12, 1930 to April 5, 1930 and breaking of Salt law on April 6, 1930 at Dandi by Mahatma Gandhi, Satyagraha in Maharashtra, Bengal, Orissa, Gujarat and Chennai by breaking Salt laws, Satyagraha by breaking Jungle laws, Satyagraha by ‘no- rent’ movement in Uttar Pardesh, Karnataka and Gujarat, Participation of Women, Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan and his Khuda-i-Khidmatgar, Satyagraha protest of Mill workers of Solapur and Mumbai and British started oppression by arresting peaceful Satyagrahis.

3. A Step Forward: Whole of India in Urban and rural area participated, youth, mill workers and peasants participated, women participated, British economic interests were substantially harmed by the movement, and finally it was decided finally by the movement that the struggle was for the complete independence and all the section of Indian society had one view on it.

4. The First Round Table Conference 1930:

Ramsay Macdonald, the Prime Minster of England called in London in 1930. All other political parties except Congress participated. Congress was running the Civil Disobedience movement at that time.

5. Gandhi-Irwin Pact: The pact was signed in 1931 to bring Congress to the Second Round Table Conference. Congress suspended the Civil Disobedience Movement and the British Government released the Satyagrahis.

5a. Karachi Session of March 1931: It approved the Gandhi-Irwin Pact and allowed Mahatma Gandhi to participate in the Conference with sole demand of complete independence. The session also accepted the Fundamental Rights and national Economic programme.

6. The Second Round Table Conference:

Mahatma Gandhi left India on August 15, 1931 for the Conference. Mahatma Gandhi demanded full independence for India but British did not want to accept this demand. Mahatma Gandhi returned empty handed. Viceroy Wellington unleashed a policy of repression in India.

7. The Communal Award 1932 – Third Round Table Conference:

Prime Minister of England, Ramsay Macdonald issued Communal Award to settle issue of representation of the communities. It was his plan to divide the country on the bases of religious communities of India.

7b. Poona Pact: Babasaheb Ambedkar declined the Communal Award in the national interest and made compromise with the Congress on the issue of separate electorate.

On September 25, 1932, Poona Pact was signed between Gandhiji and Dr. Ambedkar. After this Civil Disobedience movement was withdrawn.

8. Indian national Congress, Other Socialist Groups and the Socialist Ideology:

Social philosophy of Europe influenced the thought of Indian youth. Jwahar Lal Nehru, Subhash Chandra Bose, Acharya Narendra Dev and Jay Prakash Narayan were among them. They brought Fundamental Rights and Economic policies on the manifesto of the Congress (Karachi Session 1932).

Congress Socialist party was formed in 1934.

Dange lead Communist Party of India, Manvendra Nath Roy (M. N. Roy) headed Radical Humanist Party.

Socialist thoughts planned a socialist India of future and brought the problems of agricultural labourers, socialist economy etc on the national level even during the freedom struggle.

9. Dalit Movement: This movement wanted to establish an Indian society based on social equality. Mahatma Phule was its first leader. Nadar Mahajan Sangh formed by Mudaliar, T. N. Nair and T. Reddy lead this movement in Tamil Nadu. Babasaheb Ambedkar gave this movement a revolutionary character.

10. Dr. Ambedkar and Dalit Movement: Organised Dalits for securing social, religious and political rights.

By Mahad Satyagraha, he obtained the right to obtain water from Chavdar Lake (March 20, 1927)

December 25, 1927, burnt Manusamriti.

On March 2, 1930 secured entury to Kala Ram Temple at Nashik through Satyagraha.

Sought right to franchise, representation in the legislature, participation the administration etc for the Dalits.

Independent Labour Party (1936), Bhartatiya Bahiskrit Shikshan Prasarak Mandal and Scheduled Caste Federation were major organisation started by Babasaheb Ambedkar for uplift of Dalits.

Learn, organise and agitate for self respect, self reliance and self upliftment (The three principles) were shown as means to be acquired from education.

Mook Nayak, Bahiskrut Bharat and Janata were the main journals of Dr. Ambedkar.

Adopted Buddhism in 1956.

11. Movements in the Princely States and the Freedom Struggle:

The Indian territories under the Indian rulers but indirectly under the control of the British administration were called Princely states.

The National movement in such states started in 1920. The subjects of Princely state organised Praja Mandals and Praja Parishads for organising the national movement.

By the establishement of All Indian Association of the people’s Council in 1927, Praja Mandal movement became a national level movement. Congress gave recognition to Princely states movement at Madras Session. They fully joined with Congress activity to achieve the independence for India.

12. Freedom Struggle in the State of Hyderabad:

State of Hyderabad was the largest Princely state and strongly supported the British administration.

Non-cooperation Movement and Khilafat movement were organised in Hyderabad also.

People’s councils were organised for the upliftment of the people of the Hyderabad.

In 1938, Hyderabad State Congress was founded and given recognition by the Indian National Congress.

People of Hyderabad participated in Quit India movement of 1942. All through their nationalist activities, the people of Hyderabad faced the repression of Nizam of Hyderabad.

13. The Movement for Integration of Hyderabad with Independent India:

When India got independence in 1947, the Hyderabad State Congress decided to merge with India but Nizam wanted to remain independent. They faced the repression at the hands of Nizam and his supporters called Razakar.

Exercise

Text Book and Question Bank Questions

1A. Fill in the blanks

i. Acharay Narendra Dev, Jayprakash Narayan and Dr. Lohia within the Congress formed the Congress _____ Party in 1934. (Socialist, Communist, Humanist)

ii. The Congress Session held at ___ in 1931, accepted the Gandhi-Irwin Pact in 1931. (Karachi, Allahabad, Mumbai)

iii. In Maharashtra at _______ Martial Law was invoked by the collector. (Solapur, Satara, Pune). (Oct. 96; Oct. 98; March 97; March 99; 00)

iv. Gandhiji broke the Salt Act at _______ on April 6, 1930. (Dandi, Dharasana Salt factory, Sabarmati) (Oct. 01)

1B.

Match the followings

a.

i. Mahatma Jotiba Phule Satyashodhak Samaj.

ii. Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Independent Labour Party

iii. The Frontier Mahatma Gandhi Khuda-i-Khidmatgar

iv. Babu Genu Justice Party

The boycott movement against imported cloth.

1C

Writing the following events in chronological order.

i. Pune Pact

ii. Formation of the Congress Socialist Party

iii. The establishment of Hyderabad State Congress

iv. Mahad Satyagraha.

2. Write the answer of the following in 2-3 sentences.

i. Why was the issue of Salt was made the centre of civil disobedience movement by Gandhiji?

ii. Why was Gandhi-Irwin Pact signed? (Oct. 99)

iii. How did Dr. Ambedkar establish the right of Dalits to use water from public water sources?

iv. What were the principal demands of the Hyderabad State Congress in 1942? (March 96)

v. Who declared the Communal Award? What was its main purpose? (Oct. 97)

3. Give Reasons in two-three sentences.

i. The Nizam was forced to merge the Hyderabad State in the Indian union.

ii. Completely disillusioned, Gandhiji returned to India from the Second Round Table Conference. (March 97)

iii. Mahatma Phule is known as the champion of the Dalit movement. (Oct. 97)

iv. Dr. Ambedkar paid special attention to the education for the Dalits.

v. Martial Law was imposed in Solapur on May 6, 1930.

vi. The Salt Satyagraha received the overwhelming support of the masses.

vii. Mahatma Phule opened schools for Dalit girls and boys.

viii. The first Round Table conference failed.

ix. Gandhiji decided to break the Salt Act.

x. Mahatma Phule founded the ‘Satyashodhak Samaj’.

xi. Gandhiji was disappointed after the Second Round Table Conference.

xii. In 1934, within the Congress, the Congress Socialist Party was formed.

xiii. The Nizam imposed a ban on the State Congress.

xiv. In 1946, the Nizam revoke the ban on the Hyderabad State Congress.

xv. Dr. Ambedkar established the Bhartiya Bahishkrit Shikshan Prasarak Mandal.

xvi. Gandhiji started fast at Yerawada Jail.

xvii. Gandhiji chose salt for the Civil Disobedience Movement.

xviii. The Pune Pact was signed between Gandhiji and Dr. Ambedkar. (Oct. 96; 97; March 99, 00)

xix. Pune Pact was signed in 1932.

xx. Dr. Ambedkar struggled hard to get social rights for the Dalits.

xxi. The leaders of the national Congress requested Dr. Ambedkar to reconsider the reservation issue.

xxii. What were the steps taken by the Indian Government to solve the problem of the integration of Princely States? (March 2001)

xxiii. Martial Law was imposed in Solapur. (March 2001)

4. Write answer of the following in 5-6 sentences.

i. What demands were put forward by Hyderabad State Congress to the Nizam in 1942?

Question : 5 Write the answer of following in 20 lines

i. Give an account of Civil Disobedience Movement with the help of the following points. Oct. 96; 98; March 98)

1) Salt Satyagraha.

2) Movement in the North-West Frontier Province.

3) Importance of the Movement.

ii. Give an account of Civil Disobedience Movement with the help of the following points.

1) Nature of the Movement.

2) Effects of the Movement.

3) Leadership.

iii. Give an account of the Communal Award with the help of the following points.

1) Declaration of the Communal Award.

2) The provisions of the Award.

3) Gandhiji’s reaction to the Award.

iv. Explain the merger of Hyderabad with India with the help of the following points:

1) The Role of Nizam

2) The Role of Razakar

3) Police Action

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Chapter 13

Quit India (Imp.)

1. The Passing of Government of India Act 1935:

- The Government of India Act 1935 was the result of Round Table Conference.

- It allowed Indians to participate in the political processes.

- It introduced principle of election on a wider scale.

- It allowed the elected Indian representatives to run the administration at province level.

- It laid the foundation of democracy.

- It was a step towards improvement after 1919 Act.

2. The provision of the Government of India Act 1935:

a: Federalism:

a1: - The Indian provinces under the British rule and Princely states under the Indian rulers would form a federation.

- The Princely states were allowed the option to remain outside proposed Indian Federation.

a2: The powers of administration were divided into two lists at Center. One list was called Reserved List and the other was called Transferred List.

- The Indian representatives in administration at provincial level could make laws only on the items included in the Transferred List.

- The reserved list items were completely under the jurisdiction of the Governor-General.

b: Province:

b1: - The Provincial autonomy was established by the act. It was achieved by scrapping the Dyarchy feature of 1919 Act and all the subjects of administration were transferred to the elected representatives at provincial level.

- The Governor-General had the veto powers over the functions of the representatives of the people.

- Two new provinces – Sindh and Orissa were created. Myanmar (Burma) was separated from India.

3. Provincial Elections and the Congress Ministry:

a: Congress attitude towards 1935 Act:

- The Indian National Congress rejected the Act of 1935.

b: Why did Congress participate in 1936 elections:

- The Congress was not satisfied with the 1935 Act. It had rejected it.

- The Congress wanted to demonstrate to the British government that the Congress had the popular support.

- The Congress also wanted to use the opportunity to spread the awareness about its national programmes.

Thus, the Congress which had rejected 1935 Act, participated in the election process held under the act.

c: Success of the Congress:

- The Congress fought elections which took place as per the 1935 Act.

- The Congress won and formed ministries in eight provinces out of eleven provinces.

- The Congress formed ministries in Bombay Presidency, Madras Province, Orissa, Central Province, Bihar, Uttar Pardesh, North-West Frontier Province and Assam.

d: The Achievement of Congress Ministries: (Oct. 98) (March 2001)

- The Tenancy Act and similar beneficial acts were past during the tenure of Congress rule.

- The Congress ministries introduced many welfare programmes in the field of water supply, public health, village development, welfare of Dalits and primary education.

- The Congress ministries promoted Khadi and village industries.

- The Congress ministries removed restrictions on the newspapers.

- The Congress ministries introduced civil reforms.

- The Congress ministries released many political prisoners.

The Congress ministries did commendable work during their first and a small tenure in government. They earned the appreciation for doing great deal of work inspite of all the shortcomings of the 1935 Act.

e. The Congress ministries resigned: (Oct. 97, March 00)

- The Second World War started in 1939.

- The British Crown declared that the British India government was participating in the war against Germany without taking into confidence the elected representatives of India.

- As a protest against the arbitrary declaration of war, the Congress ministries resigned by the end of 1939.

4. The Faizpur Session of the Indian National Congress:

a: Significance and Importance of Faizpur Session of the Congress:

- Faizpur was a rural area in Jalgaon district of Maharashtra.

- It was for the first time that Indian National Congress held its session at Faizpur in December 1936.

- A large number of peasants participated in the session.

- The Faizpur Session was important for the Congress which had been raising demands for the welfare of the peasants and struggled for them.

b: Main resolutions of the Faizpur Session:

- The Session passed a large number of resolutions for the welfare of the peasants.

- A 50% reduction in land revenue assessment and in rent was demanded.

- The Session demanded the deferment of the recovery of loans from farmers.

- The Session demanded the fixing of adequate minimum wages to the agricultural labourers.

- It demanded no extra taxes should be imposed on the farmers.

- The President of the Session, Jwahar Lal Nehru asked the workers and the peasants to participate in the activities of the Congress.

5. The Second World War and the Indian National Congress:

- The Second World War started in September 1939.

a: The Policy of the Congress towards the World War:

- The working committee of the Congress declared its policy on the Second World War in September 1939.

a1: Main features of the Policy of Congress on the World War II:

- The working committee declared that the Congress was against Nazism and Fascism.

- It declared that the Congress was against the Imperialism and Colonialism.

- It declared that India would not take part in the war from the side of England

- It emphasized that England had denied freedom to her Indian possession in contradiction to her claim that it was fighting for the freedom of the democratic nations. Therefore, the Congress announced that it would not fight for England.

- The Congress further declared that England should clearly state that her aim in the war was to end colonialism and imparting of independence to India.

- The Congress emphasized that if England did not assure that she was fighting for the end of colonialism in India and elsewhere then, India would not participate in the war.

- The Congress also clarified that if England wanted to end colonialism, then an independent India would fully support her efforts to protect the democracy.

- The Congress also expressed its opposition to the war and supported democracy, independence and fraternity.

In short, the Congress declared a policy of opposing imperialism, Nazism and Fascism which it had declared in its earliest sessions also.

a2: Attitude of the British towards the policy of the Congress towards the World War II:

- British did not care about the policy of the Congress and the demands of the Congress.

- British announced that India was a party to her war efforts.

- As the British had not responded to the demands of the Congress, The Congress ministries in various provinces resigned in October-November 1939.

b: Ramgarh Session of the Congress-March 1940:

- In the Ramgarh Session of the Congress in March 1940, Jawahar Lal Nehru demanded independence of all the British colonies along with the independence of India.

- In July, the working committee in another meeting demanded that the British should setup an interim National government at the Centre as a step towards the independence of India.

- It was also decided that during the period of crises, no mass movement would be started.

c. Individual Satyagraha:

- It had been adopted as a policy decision by the working committee of the Congress that in hour of crises due to the World War, no mass movement would be started.

- Mahatma Gandhi declared that they would definitely propagate against the war but it would be done through peaceful means of non-violence.

- Gandhiji was not in favour of any mass movement but suggest an alternative in form of Individual Satyagraha.

- On August 17, 1940, the Individual Satyagraha was launched.

- Acharya Vinoba Bhave was chosen as the first Satyagrahi by Mahatma Gandhi.

- Other important Satyagrahis were Jawahar Lal Nehru, Vallabhbhai Patel, and Maulana Abul Kalam Azad.

- By May 1941, twenty five thousands Congress workers had offered Individual Satyagraha. Most of the Satyagrahis were put behind the bars when they offered the Satyagraha.

6. Cripps Mission:

a: Reasons for sending Cripps Mission:

- By the end of 1941, the World War had extended to the East.

- Japan had reached upto the eastern borders of India after conquering Singapore, and Mayanmar by the end of March 1942.

- England was highly worried about the loss of the Indian colony where she was not getting the support of the Indians.

- President of America, Franklin D. Roosvelt pressurized England to enlist the support of Indians for the war efforts.

- The pressure of President of America and looming danger of Japan forced England to solicit the support of the Indians in her war efforts.

- In order to get the support of the Indians, the Prime Minister of England sent Sir Strafford Cripps, minister in his cabinet to negotiate with the Indian leaders.

b: Main Features of the Cripps Mission Plan:

i. Britain would grant a dominion status to India as soon as possible and would establish a Federal government in the dominion of India.

ii. As soon as possible after the war, Britain would establish a Constituent Assembly for India to frame a constitution for India.

iii. All the provinces would have the right to self-determination and permitted to decide that whether they would like to join the government framed under the new constitution whenever that would be formed.

iv. The Princely states were allowed the right to self-determination. If they did not wish to join the proposed federation, a separate treaty with British government would singed with the Princely states. The princely states would then sign it as independent states.

v. As long as the war continued, all the departments except the War department would be transferred to the Indian representatives.

b. Strong resentment of the Congress and straightway rejection of the Cripps Plan  the proposal - A Post Dated Cheque: (March 97) (Oct. 97) (Imp.)

- The Congress straightaway rejected the Cripps proposal because of the following reasons.

i. The proposal intended to give a dominion status to India only after the end of the war. The Congress had already demanded complete independence for India.

ii. All the proposed powers were to be implemented after the end of the war. No body knew at that time that when and with what results would the war end.

iii. The proposal desired to extend the right of self-determination to the provinces and the princely states. In other words, it had in its design to divide India. Had the Congress accepted it then it would have laid the ground for the future partition of India.

iv. Mahatma Gandhi had rightly commented on its nature by a pithy statement that the proposal was a “post dated cheque on a crumbling bank”. As every proposed feature was to be implemented on some undecided future date, it was compared to post dated cheque.

v. Jinnah of Muslim League had also rejected it because it had not clearly mentioned creation of Pakistan.

vi. The talks failed and Sir Cripps returned to England without achieving anything.

7. Quit India Movement: (V. Imp.) (March 97) (Oct. 98; 01)

a: Resolution of CWC on July 14, 1942:

- After the failure of the Cripps Mission, the Indian National Congress decided to launch a non-violent mass movement.

- On July 14, 1942, the Congress Working Committee passed a resolution to end the British rule in India.

- The working committee demanded the complete independence for India.

- The working committee resolved that if the British government did not accept the demand of the Congress then it would launch non-violent movement for the independence of India.

b: Gowalia Tank Announcement of Gandhiji – August 7, 1942:

- In continuation of the resolutions of July 14, 1942, the working committee meeting was held on August 7, 1942 at Gowalia Tank in Mumbai.

- In his speech during at Gowalia Tank Gandhji asked the people to join the non-violent struggle for independence.

c: Launch of Quit India Movement – Do or Die – August 8, 1942:

- On August 8, 1942, the Quit India Resolution was passed and the movement was launched.

- In the resolution the Congress asked the British government to leave India.

- Gandhiji was entrusted with the leadership of the non-violent movement to end the British rule in India.

- While launching the Quit India Movement Gandhiji asked the people to consider themselves free from that day onwards.

- Gandhiji also asked the people to prepare for the great sacrifice with the motive of ‘Do or Die’ in order to achieve the independence.

d: British Oppression from August 9, 1942:

- British government reacted to Quit India resolution in an oppressive manner.

- On August 9, 1942, Gandhiji was arrested.

- Later the members of the Congress Working Committee which included Jwahar Lal Nehru, Mulana Abul Kalam Azad etc were also arrested.

- The British government banned the Congress.

- The government used its force to suppress the movement with cruelty.

- The government banned the press.

- The government fired upon the demonstrators.

- The government even used machine guns from the aeroplanes at places in Bihar and even dropped bombs at certain places.

- The government inflicted severe torture to the imprisoned demonstrators.

- The demonstrators were even publicly flogged.

- The government imposed collective fines in villages as punishment for participating in the demonstrations.

- The government used army along with police to fire upon the people and many people were killed in firing.

e: People became their own masters:

- People became very angry when they found that all their leaders were thrown behind the bars.

- People however, continued the Quit India Movement in absence of their leaders in their own ways.

f: Quit India Movement in the hands of People:

- People showed their anger in their own ways when they found that government had arrested all their leaders on the launch of the Quit India Movement.

- People organised hartals and demonstrations all over India.

- The students boycotted their schools and colleges.

- The workers stopped their works in the factories.

- People attacked and burned the government properties which were the symbol of the British Imperialism.

- People also burned police stations, railways stations, post offices etc.

- People also looted the government treasuries which had been filled by oppressing them.

- People disrupted the transport and communication system by removing railway lines and cutting the electric and telegram wires.

g: Establishment of parallel governments:

- At many places, people had taken government in their hands for many days.

- People gave a big challenge to the sovereignty of the British government by running parallel governments for number of weeks before the British government could demolish their system.

- The parallel governments were established in Midnapur in Bengal, Balia in Uttar Pardesh, Satara in Maharashtra, Satara in Orissa etc.

- The Parallel governments by the Indians tried to overthrow the illegal and oppressive British government.

- The Parallel governments tried to deliver justice to the worker and peasants.

- The Parallel governments started collective revenue, maintained law and order and performed other functions of a government.

- The Parallel governments also raised armed units of the peasants.

h: Underground Activities of the Congress leaders:

- Many Congress leaders went underground to escape the arrest by the British government.

- They continued the movement from their hideouts.

- The socialist group performed the main role in such activities.

h1: Activities of the Socialist group of the Congress:

- The leaders of the socialist group of the Congress directed the underground activities during the Quit India Movement.

- Jayaprakash Narayan was the leading leader who directed the secret underground activities.

- Some of the important leaders who undertook the underground activities were Achyutrao Patwardhan, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia, N. G. Gore, S. M. Joshi, Aruna Asaf Ali, Usha Mehta and many others.

- The main activities of the underground leaders were as follows.

i. They operated secret radio stations.

ii. They disrupted the transport and communication systems.

iii. They printed and distributed propaganda literature.

h2: The Quit India Movement and Maharashtra:

- The people of Maharashtra had taken a very active part in the Quit India Movement.

- The people of Chimur, Ashti, Yawali, Mahad, Ahmadnagar, Pathardi, Gargoti and Nandurbar made a significant contribution in the movement.

- The people of Maharashtra had virtually crippled the British administration for some time.

- Krantisinha Nana Patil managed to run a Parallel government in Satara for quite a long time.

8. Netaji Subash Chandra Bose:

a: Founder of Forward Block:

- Among the young leaders of the Indian National Congress, Netaji Subash Chandra Bose was one of the most important leaders.

- He was chosen President of Congress Session of Haripura in 1938 and even the next year in 1939 again, the President of Congress Session of Tripura.

- He was a strong votary of the policy of undertaking a revolutionary programme to overthrow the British rule during the World War period.

- He however, had conflict of opinion with the senior leaders of the Congress because of his more aggressive programmes.

- He resigned from the Congress and founded his own party called Forward Block in May 1939.

b: Views of Subash Chandra Bose on the programmes to attain Independence:

- Subash Chandra Bose was of the view that the Congress should not support any of the groups which were fighting the World War as all of them were imperialists.

- In March 1940, during the session of Forward Block Subash Chandra Bose asked the people not to help the British government either with their money or by any other means.

- He was of the opinion that along with the non-violent movement against the British government, the Indians should also undertake armed revolution and even take the help of the enemies of England to end the British rule in India.

c: Action of British government against Subash Chandra Bose:

- The British government arrested Subash Chandra Bose for his activities against the war efforts of Britain.

- He was placed under house arrest when he went on fast unto death in the prison.

d: Free India Centre was founded:

- Subash Chandra Bose had developed a strong view that an armed revolution should also be carried out along with the non-violent movement to end the British rule in India.

- He was also of the view that the Indians should take the help of the enemies of Britain to end their rule in India.

- Subash Chandra Bose escaped to Germany from his house arrest in India.

- In Germany, he founded Free India Centre.

e: Subash Chandra Bose in Germany: (Oct. 96)

- In Germany, Subash Chandra Bose founded Free India Centre.

- He called upon the Indians from the Berlin radio to launch an armed struggle against the British rule for the independence of India.

- In Germany, he received invitation of Rasbihari Bose from Japan and he left for Japan in a German submarine.

f: Activities of Rasbihari Bose and Indian National Army:

- Rasbihari Bose was an Indian revolutionary who had actively participated in the revolutionary activities in India.

- After the failure of Gadar Party Movement, he had shifted to Japan in 1915.

- In Japan he found that many Indians well established in trade and commerce had sympathy for the independence movement of India.

- He established Indian Independence League in 1924 with the help of Indians living in Japan.

- Japan had arrested many Indian soldiers of British Indian army when she defeated Britain.

- Rasbihari Bose with the help of Captain Mohan Singh organised the Indian National Army out of the Indian soldiers imprisoned by Japan.

- He invited Subash Chandra Bose to take over the organisation of Indian National Army.

g: Netaji Subash Chandra Bose in Japan: (Oct. 96)

- When Subash Chandra Bose was in Germany he received an invitation from Rasbihari Bose to come to Japan.

- Subash Chandra Bose came to Japan and took over the leadership of Indian National Army.

- Subash Chandra Bose came to known as Netaji Subash Chandra Bose after he had taken over the charge of Indian National Army.

- On October 21, 1943, Netaji established the Azad Hind Government in Singapore after negotiations with Japan.

- Netaji and his followers took pledge to fight till India got independence.

h: Azad Hind Government: (March 99)

- Netaji Subash Chandra Bose established the Azad Hind Government in Singapore on October 21, 1943.

- The Azad Hind Government was extended recognition by Japan, Germany and Italy.

- The flag of Indian National Army (Azad Hind Fauj) under the Azad Hind Government was tricolor.

- The way of greeting in Indian National Army was Jai Hind.

- The war cry of Indian National Army was Chalo Delhi.

- The independent women unit of Indian National Army was called Rani Jhansi Regiment.

- The Rani Jhansi Regiment of Indian National Army was Dr. Lakshmi Swaminathan who was also a minister in Azad Hind Government.

- The Indian National Army constituted soldiers of different Indian communities which included Sikhs, Muslims, Hindus and members of different castes.

- Netaji as the head of the Azad Hind government an Indian National Army declared war against USA and England.

- Netaji gave a call to the Indians in the following way, “Give me blood and I shall give you independence.”

i: Achievements of Indian National Army under Azad Hind Government: (March 2001)

- In November 1943, Azad Hind Government got Indian islands of Andaman and Nicobar.

- Netaji named the islands as Shahid and Swaraj respectively.

- Netaji then envisaged a role for Indian National Army in the independence of India.

- Netaji raised the economic resources for the expenses of his army, government and the plan to fight for the independence of India from Indians and East Asia.

- The INA (Indian National Army) mainly fought on the support of people.

- The INA fought in the Arakan province of Myanmar in 1944.

- In May 1944, the INA stepped on the soil of India for the first time at Mowdoc in Assam.

- The flag of the Azad Hind Government was unfurled for the first time on the soil of India at Mowdoc in Assam (older Assam).

- After Mowdoc, the INA captured Kohima.

- After Kohima, the INA attacked Imphal.

j: INA activities came to an end: Netaji died on August 18, 1945 in a plane crash:

- By August 1945, the activities of INA came to an end without achieving the final goal of the independence of India.

- British forces had grown powerful when USA joined her forces.

- The combined forces of USA and Britain forced Japan to withdraw his attention from India and concentrate on Pacific Ocean where she fought against USA.

- By 1944, Britain and USA had emerged as a winning party.

- In absence of Japan support, the INA had to face the situation on its own but it did not have enough resources.

- The INA withdrew but kept its dream of freeing India from the tutelage of England alive.

- However, the activities of INA came to an end when Netaji died.

- Netaji died on August 18, 1945 in a plane crash near Formosa near Taiwan while flying to Tokyo.

- Japan had also surrendered when America bombed it with two atom bombs.

9. The INA Trial: Dhillon Sehgal Shahnawaz: A great inspiration to the Indians in the British armed forces:

- The British government had arrested many INA soldiers.

- They were tried in the military court.

- Lawyers like Jawahar Lal Nehru, Bhulbhai Desai and Tej Bhadur Sapru defended the officers and soldiers.

- Three officers, namely Dhillon, Sehgal and Shahnawaz were found guilty of treason and sentenced them to life imprisonment along with other soldiers.

- It sent a great consternation in India and people collectively raised a strong voice against the government.

- The government was forced to suspend the punishment.

- The INA trials and their results became a great source of inspiration for the Indian people and the Indians in the British armed forces to work for the independence of India.

10. The Naval Mutiny and the Royal Air Force Mutiny: February 1946:

a: Causes of revolt of Indian soldiers:

- The Indians in the British forces were not satisfied with their British employer.

- They were discriminated against.

- The spirit of national movement for independence also swayed the Indian soldiers.

- The discontentment of the Indian soldiers erupted in form of a revolt against their British employer in 1946.

b: Warships Talwar and Hindustan and Arrest of B. C. Dutta:

- The revolt of the Indian soldiers started from the Indian Navy.

- It was started by the officers and sailors of the warship Talwar which docked in Mumbai.

- It started on February 18, 1946.

- It was started when a sailor B. C. Dutta was arrested.

- B. C. Dutta was arrested because he had painted anti British slogans like Jai Hind and Quit India.

- The naval personnel came on to the roads against the arrest of B. C. Dutta.

- The people of India showed solidarity with the sailors.

- The revolt took place on the warship Hindustan which was docked at Karachi.

c: British learned a lesson while trying to stop the Revolt:

- The British government brought out army to quell the revolt.

- The Indian soldiers in the Indian army refused to fire upon their Indian brother.

- The British administration was forced to deploy the English soldiers.

- The People of Mumbai also joined in to fight with the English soldiers.

- However, Vallabhbhai Patel asked the Indian sailors and soldiers to return to their barracks. The Indian soldiers accepted his command.

- The British government learnt a lesson that the Indian armed forces listen more to the Indian National Congress than their immediate British employers.

- The British government learnt that it was not possible for them to continue their rule in India.

Facts and Figures to Remember

1. The Passing of the Government of India Act 1935:

The contents of Government of India Act 1935 was result of Round Table Conferences. It laid the foundation of democracy in India.

2. The Provision of the Government of India Act 1935:

Federalism and Provincial autonomy were the core of the various provision of the Government of India Act 1935. The powers between Federation and Provinces were categorised in three lists. The Princely States were allowed to remain out of its provisions.

3. Provincial Elections and the Congress Ministry:

Congress declined it but participated in elections under the Act to spread the awareness about its national programmes. The Congress formed governments in nine provinces. The Congress governments achieved success in the field of village industries, making of newspapers independent, introduced civil reforms etc. The Congress ministries resigned when the British announced the participation of India in the World War II.

4. The Faizpur Session of the Indian National Congress:

It was the first Congress Session to be held in rural area and held in December 1936. It adopted the welfare programmes for the peasant

5. The Second World War and the Indian National Congress:

The Congress declared that it was against Nazism and Fascism. However, it refused to participate in war efforts of Britain because Britain had not granted freedom to India. it asked the government to end the colonialism. In Ramgarh Session of 1940, Congress demanded the freedom of all the British colonies.

In its effort to protest against the attitude of Britain during the World War, Congress adopted the programme of Individual Satyagraha and Vinoba Bhave was the first Satyagrahi.

6. Cripps Mission: Under the pressure from President Roosevelt of America, Britain sent Cripps mission to enlist the support of Indians for the war efforts.

Cripps Mission offered dominion status for the Indian provinces and right of self-determination to the Princely states.

Congress and Muslim League rejected the Cripps Mission proposals and Gandhi ji called it a post dated cheque.

7. Quit India Movement: In its July 14, 1942, Congress Working Committee resolved to end the British rule in India.

On August 7, 1942, at Gowalia Tank in Mumbai, Gandhji decided to launch a non-violent struggle to implement the July resolution.

On August 8, 1942, he gave the slogan of Do and Die for complete Independence and Quit India Movement was thus launched.

British government responded with oppression of Indians with all possible means.

Indian public adopted various means of protest like establishing parallel governments, burning British government symbols like railways, police stations etc.

Congress and socialist leaders adopted the means of underground activities like operating secret radio, distribution of propaganda material etc.

People of Maharashtra participated in this movement in large numbers from all the areas.

8. Netaji Subash Chandra Bose: Subash Chandra Bose established Forward Block after disassociating from Congress in 1939. He gave the plan of revolutionary movement against the British administration in place of non-violent movement.

Subashji first went to Germany and then reached Japan. In Japan with Rasbihari Bose, he established Azad Hind Government in Singapore. Then he established Indian National Army. He gave the slogans of Jai Hind and Chalo Delhi.

INA was able to conquer Andaman and Nicobar and called them Shahid and Swaraj. His army also entered Kohima and Assam. Netaji died in a plane crash on August 18, 1945.

9. The INA Trial: The British government tried INA officer, Shahnawaz, Dhillon and Sehgal for sedition. Nehru, Desai and Sapru fought their case. Under the Indian public pressure, INA officers were acquitted.

10. The Naval Mutiny and the Royal Air Force Mutiny:

The British Indian revolted on the warships Talwar and Hindustan in 1946. B. C. Dutta was first to start this revolt by writing pro India slogans. However, the rebels returned to their barracks only on the suggestion of Indian leader Sardar Patel. It gave message to the British government that their army was not with them.

Exercise

Text Book and Question Bank Questions

1A. Fill in the blanks

i. _________ provided the leadership to the underground movement in Quit India Movement. (Jay Parkash Narayan, Acharya Narendra Dev, Dr. Lohia)

ii. _______ raised the Indian National Army. (Subash Chandra Bose, Rasbihari Bose, Lala Hardayal) (Oct. 97; Oct. 99)

iii. The Act of 1935 granted _____. (Dominion Status, Complete Independence, Provincial autonomy)

iv. ________ was chosen as the first Satyagrahi for the Individual Satyagraha. (Acharya Vinoba Bhave, Jawahar Lal Nehru, Vallabhbhai Patel)

v. Azad Hind government was established by ______. (Subash Chandra Bose, Rasbihari Bose, Lala Hardayal) (March 00)

1B.

Match the followings

a.

i. Jawahar Lal Nehru Faizpur Session of Indian National Congress

ii. Netaji Subash Chandra Bose ‘Rani of Jhansi’ Regiment

iii. Dr. Lakshmi Swaminathan The Naval Mutiny in Mumbai

iv. B. C. Dutt The Naval Mutiny in Karachi

Azad Hind Government.

b. (March 97)

i. Midnapur Maharashtra

ii. Balia Orissa

iii. Talcher Uttar Pardesh

iv. Satara Madhya Pardesh

Bengal

1C

Writing the following events in chronological order. (Oct. 98)

i. Cripps Mission

ii. Individual Satyagraha

iii. The provincial Congress ministries resigned

iv. Establishment of Azad Hind Government.

2. Write the answer of the following in 2-3 sentences.

i. Why did Indian National Congress decide to take part in the elections held under the 1935 Act?

ii. What was Jawahar Lal Nehru’s demand at the Ramgarh session of the Indian National Congress in 1940?

iii. Why did Subash Chandra Bose decide to go to Japan from Germany? (Oct. 96; 99; 01)

iv. What was Subash Chandra Bose’s view regarding the British policy at the out break of the World War II?

v. Give details about the implementation of programmes of public welfare done by the provincial Congress Ministries. (Oct. 98) (March 2001)

3. Give Reasons in two-three sentences.

i. The Indian officers and ratings on the British warship ‘Talwar’ in Mumbai mutinied.

ii. The ‘Indian National Congress rejected the Cripps’ proposal. (March 96) (Oct. 97)

iii. The British Government kept Subhash Babu under house arrest.

iv. Indian National Army failed in the freedom struggle.

v. Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose decided to go to Japan from Germany. (March 2001)

vi. The British Government cancelled the sentence of the INA officers.

vii. The Indian Congress at Faizpur was significant.

viii. The Congress Ministries in the provinces resigned at the end of 1939. (Oct. 97)

ix. Congress Ministries resigned on November 1, 1939. (March 00)

x. The British Prime Minister sent Sir Strafford Cripps to India in 1942.

xi. The Congress and the Muslim League rejected the Cripps Proposals. (March 96) (Oct. 97)

4. Write answer of the following in 5-6 sentences.

i. What were the changes brought about in Indian administration in accordance with 1935 Act?

ii. What measures were taken by the British government to suppress the ‘Quit India’ Movement?

iii. What demands did the peasants put before the Faizpur Congress Session?

iv. State the main features of the Faizpur Congress Session.

v. Mention the work of the underground leaders during the ‘Quit India’ Movement?

vi. What was the “The Cripps Mission Plan?”

vii. State the provisions of the Act of 1935.

Question : 5 Write the answer of following in 20 lines

i. Give an account of the Salt Satyagraha with the help of the following points.

1) Reasons for launching of Salt Satyagraha.

2) Places where Salt Satyagraha was launched.

3) Women’s participation.

ii. Mention the contribution of Azad Hind Sena (Indian National Army) with the help of the following points. (March 2001)

1) Background of the foundation of the Azad Hind Sena.

2) Struggle of Azad Hind Sena.

3) The retreat of Azad Hind Sena.

iii. Describe the movement of 1942 with the help of the given points.

1) The resolution of the Congress Working Committee.

2) Quit India Resolution.

3) People’s participation.

iv. Write a note on the Indian National Army with the help of the given points.

1) Foundation of the Indian National Army.

2) Work of Indian National Army.

3) Imprisonment of the Indian National Army’s officers.

4) The Trial of Indian National Army officer.

v. Give a detailed account of the 1942 Quit India Movement with the help of the following points. (March. 97)

1) Background of the Movement.

2) Quit India Resolutions.

3) The work of the underground leaders.

vi. State the contribution of Netaji Subash Chandra Bose to the Indian Freedom struggle.

1) Establishment of Forward Block.

2) Establishment of the Azad Hind Government.

3) Contribution to the Freedom Struggle.

vii. Give an account of “Indian National Army” with the help of the following points. (March 99)

1) Foundation of the Indian National Army.

2) Contribution of Indian National Army.

3) Participation of people

4) Failure of Indian National Army.

5) Trial of INA officers and soldiers.

viii. Mention the contribution of Subash Chandra Bose in India’s Freedom Movement with the help of the following points.

1) Role of Netaji in World War II.

2) His Organisational work.

3) Contribution of Azad Hind Sena.

ix. Give an account of the “Quit India” movement of 1942 with the help of following points. (March 97; Oct. 01)

1) The objectives of the Movement. (Oct. 98)

2) “Quit India’ resolution.

3) Main events of the Movement.

x. Mention the contribution of Subash Chandra Bose in India’s freedom movement with the help of the following points.

1) Foundation of Azad Hind Sena.

2) Slogans and work.

3) Participation of the masses.

xi. Write about the clauses of Government of India Act 1935.

Chapter 14

Towards Independence (1945-1947)

1. Lesson Learnt By Britain:

- The Quit India Movement gave a lesson to British administration that it had to take the demand of complete independence of India seriously.

- The British Parliament transferred the power to India on August 15, 1947.

- The British Parliament passed through following phases and steps before transferring the power to the Indians.

2. Step one: The Wavell Plan: Failed due to adamant stand of Jinnah of Muslim League: (March 98)

- Lord Wavell was the Viceroy of India in 1945.

- He framed a plan for the constitutional reforms for India as per the new policy.

- He called the meeting of all parties of India to discuss the plan at Shimla. It is also called the Shimla Conference.

a: Main features of the Wavell Plan: (Oct. 01)

- The main features of the Wavell Plan were as follows:

i. It proposed to reconstitute the Executive Council of the Viceroy. All the members of the Council except the Viceroy and the Commander-in-Chief were to be Indians.

ii. It proposed that there would be equal numbers of Muslims and Hindus in the proposed new Executive Council of Viceroy.

iii. All the departments except the Home department would be looked after by the Indians.

b: Wavell Plan failed due to adamant stand of Barrister Jinnah of Muslim League:

- The Indian National Congress suggested the name of Mulana Abul Kalam Azad as one of the representative for the Executive Council.

- Barrister Jinnah of Muslim declared that only Muslim League had the right to suggest the names of Muslim members to the Council.

- The Congress being a secular party did not accept the proposal.

- Even Lord Wavell did not accept the claim of Barrister Jinnah.

- The Shimla Conference was not able to reach any solution because Jinnah was adamant on issue of Muslim members.

- The Shimla Conference failed and the Wavell Plan was abandoned.

3. Step two: Independence to India declared by Attlee:

a: Labour Party under Attlee came into power in Britain:

- After the Second World War, the Labour Party came into power in Britain and Attlee became the Prime Minister of Britain.

- The Labour Party changed the policy of Britain towards India.

b: New Policy of Attlee on March 15, 1946:

- On March 15, 1946, the Prime Minister of Britain announced the new policy of Britain towards India.

- He declared that Britain would try to transfer power to India as early as possible and thereby give independence to India.

- He also declared that the issue of minority rights would not permitted to become hindrance in the way of independence to India.

c: Importance Attlee’s declaration of March 15, 1946:

- It was for the first time that the word ‘independence of India’ was used while declaring the policy of Britain in the British Parliament.

- In the declaration it was also accepted that the Indians had the right to write their own constitution.

4. Step three: The Cabinet Mission Plan: Lord Pethic Lawrence, Sir Strafford Cripps and A. V. Alexander:

a: The Commission or the Cabinet Mission:

- In line with the new policy Attlee sent a commission to India to discuss the issue of the writing the constitution by the Indians.

- The members of the members of the Commission were the ministers in the British Cabinet of Attlee.

- The plan which the commission brought for Indians was called Cabinet Mission Plan.

- The members of the commission were Lord Pethic Lawrence, Sir Stafford Cripps and A. V. Alexander.

b: The Cabinet Mission Plan: (Oct. 98)

- The main features of the Cabinet Mission Plan were as follows:

i. A Federation of India would be established. All the British India Provinces and the Indian Princely States could be the member of the Federation of India.

ii. The departments(ministries) of Home, Foreign affairs and Communication would be with the Federal government of India and rest of the departments would be with the provinces.

iii. A Constituent Assembly would be formed to write the constitution of India.

iv. The proposed Constituent Assembly would consist of elected members on the basis of the population of provinces.

v. The Indian Federation would be divided into three divisions (or the three lists) for the administrative purposes.

The three divisions as suggested by the Cabinet plan were as follows:

A: It would consist Madras, Bombay, the United Province (U.P.), Bihar, Central Provinces and Orissa. They were identified as the provinces having Hindu majority.

B: It would consist Punjab, North-West Province, Sindh and Baluchistan. They were identified as Muslim majority areas.

C: It would consist Bengal and Assam.

vi. The representatives of the each division would prepare a separate constitution for the regions of their division. They would also prepare the constitution for the Federation of India.

vii. A newly organised and restructured Executive Council of Viceroy would be formed in which the representatives of the leading and important political parties would be included.

viii. The newly restructured Executive Council consisting of Indian representative of political parties of India would work as the Interim government. The Interim government would rule till the new constitution was prepared.

c: Criticism of Cabinet Mission Plan and attitude of Indian Political parties: (March 2001)

- The division of India into three lists were arbitrary and given by Cabinet Mission as per their own ideas.

- The Interim Government at Center did not have any power and was weak.

- There was not mention of Independence of India. It only referred to writing of the constitution and Interim Government.

- The Indian political parties like Indian National Congress found it full of shortcomings.

- However, the India National Congress accepted to participate in constitution writing because it declared that it was the first opportunity for the Indians to write their own constitution.

- The Muslim League accepted the Cabinet Mission Plan showed desire to participate in the constitution writing.

d: Election of the Constituent Assembly and Success of Congress: (March 99, 2001)

- The election to the Constituent Assembly was held in July 1946.

- The Congress had not approved the Cabinet Mission Plan but participated in it because the party declared that it was the first opportunity for the Indians to write their own constitution. (March 99)

- The Muslim League, which was quite satisfied with the Cabinet Mission Plan participated in the election.

e: The Results of the Election to the Constitution Assembly and the Role of Muslim League:

- The election to the Constitution Assembly was held in July 1946.

- The Indian National Congress got a thumping majority in the election.

- The Muslim League, which had showed great enthusiasm for the fighting election, discarded the Cabinet Mission Plan after the result of election was declared. It was a shock to the Muslim League that the Indian National Congress had majority in the Constitution Assembly.

5. Step four: Direct Action Day of the Muslim League:

a: Changed Attitude of the Muslims League towards the Cabinet Mission Plan:

- When the Cabinet Mission Plan was announced, the Muslim League had approved it.

- However, latter the Muslim League rejected the plan on the complaint that the plan had not accepted the demand of Pakistan in clear terms.

b: Direct Action day call by Barrister Jinnah – August 16, 1946:

- When Muslim League found that the Cabinet Mission had not accepted their demand for Pakistan, it decided to adopt the path of violence to attain the goal of Pakistan.

- Barrister Jinnah gave the call of Direct Action. He declared August 16, 1946, as the day of Direct Action.

- On August 16, 1946, the workers of Muslim League started violence, arson and looting.

- It started in Bengal and soon spread over whole of India.

- It continued till the day of the partition of India.

- It was able to convey the message to the country that what would happen if the demand of Muslim League for a separate Pakistan was not accepted.

c: Role of Mahatma Gandhi during the riots of Direct Action:

- Mahatma Gandhi tried to the violence.

- He did not care for his life and visited the places of rioting and asked the people to maintain peace.

- However, the violence continued till the day of partition of India.

6. Step five: Provisional government:

- The violence after the announcement of Direct Action day was continuing when Viceroy of India, Lord Wavell announced the installing of the Provisional Government as per the results of the July 1946 election.

- Lord Wavell installed Provisional Government headed by Pandit Jwahar Lal Nehru on September 2, 1946. (March 2001)

- Pandit Jwahar Lal Nehru included Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Dr. Rajendra Parsad, C. Rajgopalachari, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, John Mathai and others in his government.

- The representatives of the Muslim League were also invited but they refused to join.

- However, in October 1946, Muslim League joined the Provisional government headed by Pandit Nehru.

- On joining the government, Muslim League started hindering the working of the government because it did not want that the government should work smoothly.

7. Step Six: Declaration of Attlee of February 28, 1947:

- On February 28, 1947, after the Constitution Assembly had started its work in November 1946 and the Provisional government had taken over with riots still going on, Attlee made the following declaration on February 28, 1947:

i. England would leave India before June 1948.

ii. In case the Indians were not able to decide on their constitution, then British would either hand over the government to Central government or to the provincial governments.

iii. The Princely states would become independent again when the British would leave India after relinquishing the power.

iv. Lord Mountbatten was made the Viceroy of India in place of Lord Wavell. Lord Mountbatten was sent only to execute the transfer of the power to the Indians before leaving India.

8. Step seven: The Mountbatten Plan:

- Lord Mountbatten was made Viceroy of India in place of Lord Wavell by the February 28 declaration of the Prime Minister Attlee of Labour Party.

- He reached India in March 1947.

- He held discussions with the chief political leaders of India after reaching India.

- He drafted a proposal of transfer of power after meeting the Indian leaders.

- He obtained approval for his proposal from the British government.

- On June 3, 1947, he declared his proposal for the transfer of power which is known as Mountbatten Plan. The main items of the proposal were as follows:

i. It was declared that the partition of India was must as there was no unanimity among the Indians on their constitution.

ii. India would be divided in two states – India and Pakistan.

iii. The Muslims and Non-Muslims of members of legislatures of Punjab and Bengal would decide the partition of their respective provinces.

iv. A plebiscite would be held in North West Frontier, British Baluchistan and Silhet district of Assam to decide with which new country they would be joined.

v. The Sindh Assembly would be authorised to decide its amalgamation either with India or Pakistan.

vi. The British administration would leave India in August 1947 after handing over the power to India and Pakistan which would be then independent sovereign countries.

vii. A boarder commission would be decided to mark the borders between India and Pakistan.

viii. The Princely States were made free to decide either to join one of the two countries or they wanted to remain independent.

9. Step eight: Acceptance of Partition: (March 97) (Oct. 96; 01)

- The Indian National Congress was not in favour of partition.

- The Muslim League was bent upon having a separate country.

- When the Indian National Congress accepted to settle the problem by accepting the partition, the partition took place.

- The Muslim League formed Pakistan on the basis of religion.

- The Indian National Congress formed India on the basis of its secular policy.

10. Step Nine: The Indian Independence Act:

- On the basis of the Mountbatten Plan, the British Parliament passed the Indian Independence Act on July 18, 1947.

- The main features of the Indian Independence Act of July 18, 1947, which came into force in India on August 15, 1947 were as follows: (March 96; 97; 00, 01) (Oct. 01)

i. On August 15, 1947, two independent and sovereign countries – India and Pakistan will come into existence.

ii. From August 15, 1947, the King of England will not call himself as the Emperor of India.

iii. The Constituent Assemblies of India and Pakistan will prepare their respective constitutions.

iv. Both India and Pakistan will have their separate Governor-Generals who will rule the respective states till their own constitution come into force.

v. The British rule also end its control over the Indian Princely States from August 15, 1947 onwards.

vi. After August 15, 1947, the Princely states will be independent. They will have the right to decide in favour of amalgamation with either of the two countries. They have the right to remain independent if they decide so.

vii. The British Parliament will cease to have the right to make laws for India after August 15, 1947.

11. Step Ten: The Arrival of Independence:

a: August 15, 1947:

- At the midnight of August 14, 1947, that is August 15, India became Independent.

- The celebration of independence of India was made in Delhi.

- The Indian Tricolour was unfurled after dismantling the Union Jack, the flag of British nation.

- Pandit Jwahar Lal Nehru became the first Prime Minister of India.

- The independence was the result of the collective efforts of the Indians which had continued for 150 years.

- 1947 was the culmination of the independence war which had started in 1857.

b: “Tryst with Destiny” the first speech of first Prime Minister of independent Republic of India:

- The following lines were the opening part of the speech of the first Prime Minister Jwahar Lal Nehru of the independent Republic of India. It was delivered at the midnight of August 14, 1947 in the Parliament House of independent India.

- “Long years ago we made a tryst with destiny, and now the time comes when we shall redeem our pledge, not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially. At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to the new, when an age ends, and when the soul of a nation, long suppressed, finds utterance. It is fitting that at this solemn moment we take the pledge of dedication to the service of India and her people and to the still larger cause of humanity.”

Facts and Figures to Remember

1. Step One – Wavell Plan: Wavell, the Viceroy of India in 1945, suggested a plan of constitutional reforms in India. Congress and League were not able to compromise and it failed.

2. Step Two – Independence to India declared by Attlee:

Attlee, Prime Minister of Britain and leader of Labour Party of England declared independence to India in his March 15 1946 statement.

3. Step Three – Cabinet Mission Plan: The Cabinet Mission Plan offered a Federation of India, Constituent Assembly to frame constitution for India etc.

The Cabinet Mission gave three lists in which the Indian provinces were divided which were not acceptable to Indians.

The elections for the Constitution Assembly was held in which Congress participated and succeeded.

League refused to participate in the interim government.

4. Step Four – Direct Action Day of the League:

League announced August 16, 1946 as a direct Action day when riots started on communal basis in different states.

5. Step Five – Establishment of Provisional Government:

Lord Wavell installed Provisional Government headed by Pandit Jwahar Lal Nehru on September 2, 1946. It was headed by Jwahar Lal Nehru. In October 1946, Muslim League also joined it.

6. Step Six – Declaration of Attlee of February 1947:

On February 28, 1947, Prime Minster Attlee that England would leave India after June 1948.

7. Step Seven – Mountbatten Plan: Mountbatten became Viceroy of India in March 1947. He gave a plan of partition of India and independence of India by August 1947.

8. Step Eight – Acceptance of Partition: The partition of India was accepted under which Pakistan was to be formed on basis of religion and India on the basis of secular model.

9. Step Nine: The Indian Independence Act:

The Indian Independence Act was passed in the British Parliament on July 18, 1947 allowing India and Pakistan to write their own constitution.

10. Step Ten: Arrival of Independence: India became independent on August 15, 1947. On the midnight of August 14, 1947 Prime Minister Jwahar Lal Nehru gave his famous speech known as Tryst with Destiny speech as the first Prime Minister of Independent India.

Exercise

Text Book and Question Bank Questions

1A. Fill in the blanks

i. In June 1945, an All Party Conference was organised in Shimla to consider the ____ plan. (Wavell, Cripps, Cabinet Mission)

ii. The British administrators had used the word ‘Independence’ for the first time in _____. (Attlee’s announcement, Cabinet Mission Plan, Mountbatten Plan)

iii. The provisional government of India was led by ______ . ( Jawahar Lal Nehru, Rajgopalachari, Vallabhbhai Patel)

2. Write the answer of the following in 2-3 sentences.

i. State the provisions of the Wavell Plan. (Oct. 99; 01)

ii. What were the important points of Attlee’s announcement?

iii. State any two features of the Mountbatten Plan? (Oct. 98)

iv. What were the shortcomings of Cabinet Mission Plan? (March 2001)

v. Who had appointed the Provisional Government? Why did the Muslim League create a number of problems in its operations? (Oct. 96) (March 97)

3. Give Reasons in two-three sentences.

i. Muslim League rejected the Cabinet Mission Plan.

ii. The National Congress approved the Cabinet Mission Plan. (March 99)

iii. The Wavell Plan was abandoned. (March 98)

iv. The provisional government was established on September 2, 1946.

v. On July 18, 1947, the British Parliament passed the Indian Independence Act.

vi. The All Party Conference at Simla failed.

vii. Indian National Congress found shortcomings in the Cabinet Mission Plan.

viii. Muslim League created problems in the operations of Provisional government.

ix. The Indian National Congress accepted the partition of India. (Oct. 01)

4. Write answer of the following in 5-6 sentences.

i. Sate the provisions of the Mountbatten Plan.

ii. State the features of the Indian Independence Act. (March 00)

iii. Why did Muslim League plan to take “Direct Action”?

iv. Sate the provisions of the Indian Independence Act. (March 2001)

v. State the nature of Cabinet Mission Plan.

vi. State the provisions of Wavell Plan. Why did it fail?

Question : 5 Write the answer of following in 20 lines

i. Give information about the Mountbatten Plan with the help of the points given below.

1) Transfer of power.

2) Division of the states.

3) Administration of the state.

ii. Give an account of the Indian Independence Act with the help of the following points.

1) Background.

2) Provisions. (March 96; 97)

3) Celebrations of Independence.

Other Important Examination Question

1A. Fill in the blanks

i. Lord Wavell was Viceroy of India in ______. (1935, 1945, 1926)

ii. _____ became the Prime Minister of Britain after Second World War. (Attlee, Churchill, Macdonald)

iii. The Cabinet Mission included Lawrence, Alexander and ______. (Cripps, Wavell, Mountbatten)

1B.

Match the followings

i. Cripps Mission 1928

ii. Wavell Plan 1945

iii. Cabinet Mission 1946

1C

Writing the following events in the ascending order sequence.

i. Cripps Mission

ii. Round Table Conference

iii. Government of India Act 1935

iv. Quit India Movement

v. Wavell Plan

vi. Cabinet Mission Plan

vii. Election of Constituent Assembly. (March 2001)

viii. Mountbatten Plan.

ix. Independence of India.

2. Write the answer of the following in 2-3 sentences.

i. Why did Mahatma Gandhi launch Quit India Movement?

ii. Why did the Wavell Plan fail?

iii. What was Direct Action Day of Muslim League?

3. Give Reasons in two-three sentences.

i. Wavell Plan was abandoned.

ii. Congress participated in the elections to the Constituent Assembly.

iii. Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru gave his speech popular as “Tryst with Destiny”.

Question : 5 Write the answer of following in 20 lines

1. Write about ten important steps towards the independence of India.

2. State the features of Mountbatten Plan. (March 99) (Oct. 99)

3. What was the nature of Cabinet Mission Plan? (Oct. 98)

4. Describe the provisions of the Indian Independence Act. (March 00, Oct. 01)

Edited by Sumir Sharma

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Kindly note: The ten step towards freedom in previous chapter, chapter 14 is my version. It is not subscribed by anyone as far as I know and it is part of a published work under HolyFaith International, New Delhi.

I never knew that it would take so much of time. Anyhow,

Here is the last chapter:

Chapter 15

India after Independence

1. Three main problems of the independent India: (March 99)

- The newly independent India faced three main problems in the very beginning. They were as follows:

i. The preparation of a constitution of independent India.

ii. The problem of the rehabilitation of the refugees.

iii. The problem of merging of Princely States in the Indian Federation.

2. Constitution of India:

- The constitution of India was framed by the Constituent Assembly.

- The Constituent Assembly was established as per the Cabinet Mission Plan.

- As per the Cabinet Mission Plan, elections were held in July 1946, Indian representatives were elected and they formed the Constituent Assembly which wrote the Constitution of India. It succeeded in writing the constitution by November 1949 and that constitution came into force on January 26, 1950.

3. Constituent Assembly:

a: Formation of Constituent Assembly:

- The Constituent Assembly was formed as per the Cabinet Mission Plan.

- The elections were held in July 1946 to elect the Indian representatives for the Constituent assembly.

- After the elections, the 296 elected member formed the Constitution Assembly.

- The prominent leaders of the Constitution Assembly were Jwahar Lal Nehru, Vallabhbhai Patel, Govind Vallabh Pant, Mulana Azad, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar, Barrister Jaykar and Kanhaiyalal Munshi.

- The prominent women members of the Assembly were Rajkumari Amrit Kaur, Hansaben Mehta, Sarojini Naidu and others.

- The seventy three members of Muslim League headed by Barrister Jinnah did not participate in the proceedings of the Constitution Assembly.

- The Constitution Assembly had the representatives of Sikh and Muslim communities.

b: Structure of Constituent Assembly:

- There were 296 members of Constituent Assembly.

- There were representatives of Muslim and Sikh communities in the assembly.

- There were seven women representatives.

- The Muslim League did not participate in the proceedings of the Assembly.

- Dr. Rajindra Parsad was the elected President of the Constitution Assembly.

- There were eleven committees to work on different aspects of writing the constitution.

- Dr. Ambedkar headed the Draft Committee.

c: Completion of the Work:

- The Constitution Assembly completed its work on November 26, 1949 when it formed and accepted the constitution of India.

- The Assembly worked for 1082 days to write the Constitution of India.

- The Constitution of India came in force on January 26, 1950.

4. The Nature of the Constitution: (March 96)

a: Main Objectives achieved by the Indian Constitution:

- A democratic state based on the rule of law was established in India by the constitution for the first time in the history of India.

- The constitution gave a balanced consideration to the diversity of India.

b: Impact of Indian History on the Constitution: The Borrowed features of India: (March 96)

- Many provisions of the Government of India Act 1935 had been incorporated in the writing of the Indian constitution.

- The features of Federal structure, bicameral Legislature, state legislature, the Supreme Court and the list of the fundamental rights were influenced by the recommendations given in the Nehru Report of 1928.

- The values observed during the Indian national movement had been absorbed in the spirit of Indian Constitution.

c: A Lengthy Constitution: Lay out of the Contents: (March 96) (Oct. 96)

- The Indian Constitution is one of the longest constitutions of the world.

- It has 22 parts called chapters.

- It has 395 articles spread over 22 parts.

- It has presently 12 schedules regarding different matters.

5. The Special Features of the Indian Constitution: (Oct. 97; 99; 01)

a: The Preamble:

- The preamble to the Indian Constitution is one of its special feature.

- It is in the preamble that the declaration has been made that the people of India will secure in

the Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic Republic of India,

Justice, Liberty, Equality etc.

b: Secularism: What is it? (Oct. 96) (March 96)

- The Indian Constitution has ensured to the people of Republic of India the freedom to follow their respective religious beliefs.

- The Indian Constitution has ensured that the aims and objectives of the Centre as well as the states will not be influenced by any religious ideology. It will not be a theocratic state.

c: Fundamental Rights:

- The Constitution of India has given a specific and detailed list of the Fundamental Rights which the India people will enjoy.

- The Constitution has empowered the Supreme Court and the High Courts of the states to safeguard the fundamental rights of the Indian citizens.

d: Directive Principles:

- The Directive Principles for the Central and State governments has been incorporated in the constitution with an objective to make the Indian State a Welfare State.

- The Central and State governments are expected to follow them though they are not legally bound to follow them.

e: Federal form of Government:

- The Republic of India is a federation of 28 states and 7 Union Territories.

- For the administrative purpose the legislative subjects have been divided into the Union List, the State List and the Concurrent List.

6. The Rehabilitation of the Refugees:

a: Coming of Refugees after the Independence:

- The partition of India was preceded by a horrifying communal riots.

- The riots continued even after the partition.

- Due to the riots after the partition nearly one and half crore refugees belonging to Hindu and Sikh community migrated to India.

b: The hardships of Refugees and the problem faced the government in their rehabilitation:

- The Hindu and Sikhs refugees who had arrived in India had suffered great hardships and massacre of their relatives and loss of their properties and livelihood during the riots.

- The Indian government was morally bound to provide them food, clothing, shelter, education, health services, employment and business.

- The Indian government was facing the resource crunch already and the added responsibility of the rehabilitation of the refugees pressurized the India trade, communication and industrial organisation.

c: The Programmes of Rehabilitation of the Refugees:

- The Central and State governments shared the responsibility of the refugees collectively.

- The refugees were settled in different parts of the country and gradually they were absorbed in local social life.

- The government provided them food and shelter immediately.

7. Assassination of Gandhiji:

a: Role of Mahatma Gandhi:

- The riots continued in India even after the partition.

- Gandhiji was great supporter of Hindu Muslim unity.

- He visited Bengal to stop the riots.

- Lord Mountbatten had called him “one man armies” because he tried to stop the riots without the help of any one as the rest of the leaders were jostling with the problem of establishing the power after the partition.

- He was assassinated on January 30, 1948 because he wanted to establish the Hindu Muslim unity in the riot areas and over whole of the country.

b: Contribution of Mahatma Gandhi:

- Gandhiji died while trying to establish the Hindu-Muslim unity.

- He had united all Indians through his ideology of non-violence and truth.

- He successfully fought the British imperialism.

- He had played the most significant role in the independence of India.

8. Integration of Princely States: (March 2001)

a: Danger of Independent Princely States after the independence of India.

- When India got independence on August 15, 1947, there existed the Princely States within the territories of India.

- The Princely states had also became independent along with India when the British ended their treaties with them.

- The existence of large number of Princely states became another danger for the newly independent India.

b: Role of Vallabhbhai Patel: Steps taken by the Indian Government. (March 2001)

- Vallabhbhai Patel was the first Home Minister and Deputy Prime Minister of the newly independent India.

- He was quick to recognise the grave danger of the existence of Princely states within the territorial limits of India.

- The Indian government drafted an agreement of integration which was to be signed with those Princely states.

- Vallabhbhai Patel persuaded most of the Kings, Nawabs and rulers of Princely states to sign the agreement of integration and managed to merge their territories within the Federation of India.

- He was helped by the support of the subjects of the Princely states themselves who desired to integrate with the Federation of India.

- However, three states namely, Hyderabad, Junagarh and Jammu and Kashmir presented a problem as their ruler resisted the integration with the Federation of India.

8A. Junagarh:

- Junagarh was a state in Saurashtra region of Gujarat.

- The people of the Junagarh state desired to join with India.

- The Nawab of Junagarh however started secret negotiation with Pakistan and kept his people and the Government of India in dark about his real objectives.

- Pakistan announced to the India that Junagarh was going to join with Pakistan.

- When the people of the state learned about it, they arose in strong opposition to the decision of their rulers.

- The neighbouring states also denounced the decision of the ruler of Junagarh.

- When Nawab and his Diwan found that they were being opposed from all the quarters, they fled India and took shelter with Pakistan.

- A referendum was held in Junagarh state and as per the result of the referendum, Junagarh state was integrated with India.

8B. Hyderabad: (Oct. 96; 98)

a: Nizam of Hyderabad adopted Anti-India stand:

- Nizam adopted anti-India stand on the independence of India.

- He decided to declare Hyderabad an independent state.

- He did not send the representatives of his state to the Constitution Assembly.

- In July 1947, he presented before Lord Mountbatten the demand to annex Madhya Prant and part of Berar which Lord Mountbatten refused to accept.

- In August 1947, he tried to make a deal with India on conditions but Vallabhbhai Patel refused to listen him before the integration of Hyderabad with India.

- Nizam did not accept the proposal of Lord Mountbatten to ascertain the view of public of Hyderabad State on the issue of integration with India under the supervision of English officers.

- He tried to dupe India and the Governor General Mountbatten by simultaneously undertaking secret negotiations with Pakistan when he was negotiating with Indian government.

b: Encouragement of Razakar to Nizam:

- Kasim Razvi, the leader of fundamentalist group Razakar encouraged Nizam to oppose India.

- Kasim Razvi suggested Nizam to continue his anti-Indian activities by advising him that India which was engaged in her own problems could not take any action against him.

- Nizam extended the loan of 20 crore to Pakistan under the encouragement of Kasim Razvi.

- Nizam also banned the Indian currency in his state.

- Kasim Razvi stepped up his anti-Indian propaganda.

- Kasim Razvi along with Nizam started oppressing people.

- Nizam organised attacks on the India trains.

c: Police Action of September 1948 by India against Hyderabad:

- India government was compelled to use force against due to the anti-India activities of Nizam of Hyderabad. (Oct. 01)

- On September 13, 1948, Indian government undertook a police action against the State of Hyderabad.

- On September 17, 1948, the forces of Nizam of Hyderabad surrendered to the Indian forces.

- After that Hyderabad was integrated with the Republic of India.

e: Andhra Pardesh and Reorganization of Sates Act of 1956:

- In 1956, the Indian Parliament passed the Reorganization of States Act and Andhra Pardesh was created out of the State of Hyderabad.

- The Telegu speaking regions were merged with Andhra Pardesh, the Kannada speaking regions were merged with Karnatak and Marathi speaking Marathwada was merged with Maharashtra.

8C. Jammu Kashmir:

a: King Hari Sigh of Kashmir decided to remain independent:

- The State of Kashmir was located at a very strategic place between India and Pakistan.

- It was a state with majority of Muslim population.

- The king of State of Kashmir was Hari Singh Dogra.

- Lord Mountbatten had suggested to Hari Singh to join either of the two countries for the peace of the region.

- However, King Hari Singh decided to remain independent.

b: Pakistan pressurized Kashmir:

- Pakistan pressurized Kashmir to join with Pakistan.

- Pakistan confiscated the trade material of Kashmir.

- Pakistan discontinued the supply of oil to Kashmir.

- Pakistan stopped the train between Siyalkot and Jammu.

- Pakistan sent infiltrators in Poonch and Baramullah section of Kashmir.

- Pakistan threatened to follow with an armed raid.

c: Hari Singh signed a treaty of merger with India:

- King Hari Singh of Kashmir was threatened and pressurized by Pakistan to merge with it.

- When Hari Singh faced with problem of tribal intruders sent by Pakistan, he signed treaty of integration of Kashmir with India.

- The people of Kashmir also wanted to integrate with India.

- Sheikh Abdullah of National Conference also worked for the integration of Kashmir with India.

d: Indian army saved Kashmir from Pakistan Attack:

- Kashmir signed treaty of integration with India.

- On October 27, 1947, the Indian army entered Kashmir to flush out the intruders from Kashmir.

- Nearly one hundred planes were pressed into service to bring troops and arms in Leh and Ladakh.

- The Indian soldiers fought the war at the height of 23900 feet.

- The armed forces officers like Major General Kalwant Singh, Major General Thimayya, Major General Atma Singh, Air Commander Meher Singh, Major Somnath Sharma, Brigadier Osman etc earned name and respect for their country and saved Kashmir.

- India also brought the matter before the United Nations.

- Under the supervision of the United Nations, the cease-fire was implemented on January 1, 1949.

- India was able to save 2/3 of the territory of Kashmir and integrated it with India.

- The rest of the territory of Kashmir is still under the illegal possession of Pakistan.

9. Merger of French and Portuguese Colonies:

9a: French Colonies in India:

- At the time of independence of India on August 15, 1947, France had in her possession some territories of India.

- Chandranagar, Pondicherry, Carical, Mahe and Yenam were under the control of France.

- France had observed the Indian National Movement and recognised the spirit of nationalism of Indians.

- France started negotiations with India for peaceful settlement of the Indian territories.

- It was decided to hold plebiscite in the French occupied Indian territories.

- In the Plebiscite the people of French occupied Indian territories decided in favour of merger with India. The result of the plebiscite was implemented and they were integrated with India.

9b. The Liberation of Goa:

bi: History of Portuguese colonies in India:

- Goa came in contact with Portugal in 15th century.

- It was in 1498, that Vasco de Gama came to India.

bii: The National Movement in Goa: T. N. Cunha and Goa Congress:

- The national movement in Goa for independence from the Portuguese rule started in 1928.

- T. B. Cunha founded Goa Congress Committee in 1928.

- In 1929, the Indian National Congress gave it recognition to Goa Congress as its own branch.

- The freedom movement in Goa got momentum in 1945 after the end of the Second World War.

biii: Oppression of Portuguese Rulers:

- In 1930, Portuguese passed the Colonies Act as per which the important rights of citizens were denied to the Goans.

- Dr. T. N. Cunha formed the Goa Youth League in Mumbai in 1945 and apprised the whole Indian nations about the oppression of Goans by the Portuguese rulers.

- Dr. Cunha gave held a meeting in Goa inspite of the ban and he was imprisoned for 8 years.

biv: Role of Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia in Goa Liberation:

- Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia made a speech in Madgaon inspite of the ban.

bv: Role of Mohan Ranade:

- Mohan Ranade tried to organised an armed revolt against the Portuguese rule in 1948 after bringing unity among the Goans.

- The Portuguese rulers arrested Mohan Ranade and imprisoned him for 12 years.

c: Satyagraha and Armed Revolt for the Liberation of Goa:

- The Goans adopted the means of Satyagraha and Armed revolt to liberate Goa.

- They were helped by the Nationalist leaders of Maharashtra also.

ci: Liberation of Dadra and Nagarhaveli:

- The young members of Azad Gomantak Dal launched the armed attacked on Dadra and Nagarhaveli.

- Vishvanath Lavande, Rajabhau Vakankar, Sudhir Phadke, Kajrekar also took part in the armed revolt.

- Azad Gomantak Dal liberated Dadra and Nagarhaveli by an armed revolt in 1954.

cii: Satyagraha of 1954:

- In 1954, Satyagraha was launched in Goa.

- Nanasaheb Gore, Senapti Bapat, Peter Alvaris, Sudhatai Joshi and others presented Satyagraha in Goa.

- Nanasaheb and Senapti Bapat were beaten badly by the Portuguese police and thrown behind the bars.

ciii: Satyagraha of 1955 and Goa Liberation Movement:

- The different political parties sent more Satyagrahis to Goa.

- The Satyagrahis from Maharashtra and other different states of Goa also joined in Goa.

- Some of the known Satyagrahis were Hirve Guruji, Karnal Singh, Manda Yalgi, Kamila Upasani, Prabha Sathe, Shanta Rao became martyrs.

- With the martyrdom of Satyagrahis at the hands of oppressive Portuguese police the Goa Liberation Movement became more intense and more stained with blood.

cvi: Cautious Policy of the Government of India:

- The Goa Liberation movement had become very intense and stained with blood because of the atrocities of the Portuguese repressive policy.

- It seems that Portugal would not leave India unless some strong action was taken against them.

- There was danger that in case of using hard option like military, the problem of Goa could become internationalized.

- The Government of India did not want that the Goa problem should attract the international interference which would not have in the good interest of the newly born Republic of India.

cv: India finally used force and liberated Goa:

- The Government of India took every precaution to save the situation from becoming an international issue.

- All the peaceful efforts to dislodge the adamant Portugal from the Indian territory failed.

- Finally the Government of India used the military option.

- In December 1961, the Indian army entered Goa and recaptured Goa from the Portugal.

cvi: Goa became the integral part of India on December 19, 1961:

- The Indian army recaptured Goa in December 1961.

- On December 19, 1961, Goa became the integral part of India.

Facts and Figures to Remember

1. Three main problems of the Independent India:

Preparation of Constitution, Rehabilitation of Refugees and merging of the Princely States in the Indian Federation were the three main problems of the newly independent India.

2. Constitution of India: Framed by a Constituent Assembly elected by an election in July 1946. It was completed in November 1949 and came into force on January 26, 1950.

3. Constituent Assembly: It was formed by 296 members elected by an election in July 1946. Dr. Rajinder Prasad was its President and Dr. Ambedkar was chairman of the drafting committee of the Assembly. It completed its work of writing the constitution for India in 1082 days by November 26, 1949.

4. The Nature of the Constitution: It established a democratic India, with a federal structure, bicameral legislature, state legislatures, Supreme Court and gave fundamental rights to the Indians.

5. The Special Features of the Indian Constitution:

It has a Preamble, ensures a secular state and Fundamental Rights and other liberal features of a civilized society.

6. The Rehabilitation of the Refugees: Centre and State governments shared the responsibilities of the refugees who had suffered due to communal rights. They were provided food, clothing, shelter, education, health services and opportunities for employment and business.

7. Assassination of Gandhiji: Gandhiji was assassinated while trying to establish the Hindu- Muslim Unity on January 30, 1948.

8. Integration of Princely States: Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, the Home Minister and Deputy Prime Minister integrated most of the Princely States in the Federation of India. Junagarh state was integrated with India after a referendum. Hyderabad was integrated after a police action in September 1948. Jammu and Kashmir was integrated with India after the King Hari Singh signed a merger with India in 1948.

9. Merger of French and Portuguese Colonies (Pondicherry and Liberation of Goa) :

Pondicherry was allowed by France to merge in India after a plebiscite. The people of Goa fought a war of liberation against the Portuguese government with the support of India and finally, in December 1961, India captured Goa with the support of people of Goa.

Exercise

Text Book and Question Bank Questions

1A. Fill in the blanks

i. The Chairman of the Draft Committee of the Constituent Assembly was _____. (Dr. Ambedkar, Jawahar Lal Nehru, Dr. Rajinder Parsad.

ii. Elected President of the Constituent Assembly, was _____. (Dr. Rajinder Parsad, Dr. Ambedkar, K. Munshi)

iii. One of the famous women members of the Constituent Assembly was ______. (Smt. Sucheta Kriplani, Smt. Hansaben Mehta, Smt. Dasgupta)

1B.

Writing the following events in chronological order.

i. The U. N. ceasefire was implemented in Jammu and Kashmir.

ii. The Princely state of Junagarh was integrate with India.

iii. The amalgamation of Hyderabad with India.

iv. The Constituent Assembly came into existence.

v. The Assembly adopted the Constitution.

2. Write the answer of the following in 2-3 sentences.

i. What is the contribution of Dr. T. B. Cunha in the Liberation of Goa?

ii. What do you understand from secularism? (Oct. 96) (March 97)

iii. What steps did the Indian Government take to solve the problem of refugees?

iv. How had the spirit of Indian National Movement influenced the Indian Constitution? (March 96)

3. Give Reasons in two-three sentences.

i. August 16, 1946 was observed as Direct Action Day by Muslim League.

ii. In 1947, there were many big and small princely states in India.

iii. The Indian government decided to treat Nizam of Hyderabad with force.

iv. The Indian Constitution is one of the lengthy ones in the world. (March 96) (Oct. 96)

v. The Indian National Congress accepted the Partition of India.

vi. There was tremendous strain on Indian economy after Independence.

vii. Rehabilitation of refugees was the main problem before the Indian Government.

viii. The Indian Government had to handle the problem of merger of Goa cautiously.

ix. The princely state of Junagarh was integrated with India.

x. On February 20, 1948, the Junagarh State was integrated with India.

xi. A liberation movement started against the Portuguese in Goa.

xii. The Indian constitution is one of the lengthy one in the world.

xiii. The Indian Government took action against the Nizam.

xiv. It became obligatory for Indian Government to take Police Action against Nizam. (Oct. 01)

4. Write answer of the following in 5-6 sentences.

i. State the main phases of the integration of Jammu-Kashmir State.

ii. State the special feature of the Indian Constitution. (Oct. 01)

iii. What steps did the Indian government take to solve the problem of the integration of princely state?

iv. Give an account of the integration of Hyderabad into India with the help of the following points.

1. Nizam and the movement for integration.

2. Atrocities of the Razakars.

3. Police Action.

v. How did the Indian Army avert Pakistan’s invasion on Kashmir?

vi. Describe the work done by the India Army in liberating Goa.

vii. How was the Princely State of Junagarh integrated in India?

viii. How was integration of Jammu and Kashmir brought about?

ix. Why did the Indian Government decide to conduct police action in Hyderabad State?

x. How did the French colonies merge into Indian Union?

xi. Give the special features of Indian Constitution with the help of the following points. (Oct. 97, 99, 01)

1. The Preamble. (Oct. 97, 99, 01)

2. The Fundamental Rights. (Oct. 97, 99, 01)

3. Directive Principles. (Oct. 97, 99,01)

4. Secularism (Oct. 97, 99)

5. Federal Form of government. (Oct. 97, 99)

Question : 5 Write the answer of following in 20 lines

i. Explain the main features of the Indian constitution, with the help of the followings points.

1) The Preamble.

2) The Fundamental Rights.

3) The Directive Principles.

ii. Describe the making of the Indian Constitution with the help of the following points.

1) Foundation of Constituent Assembly.

2) Draft Committee.

3) Preamble.

iii. Describe the Goa liberation movement with the help of the following points.

1) Foundation of Goa Congress Committee in 1928.

2) Goa Youth League and Azad Gomantak Dal.

3) Satyagrahis from Maharashtra.

iv. Give a detailed account of the liberation of Goa.

Other Important Examination Question

1A. Fill in the blanks

i. The election to the constituent assembly was held in July ___. (1946, 1950, 1952)

ii. There were ______ elected members formed the Constituent Assembly. (296, 540, 280)

iii. Gandhiji died while trying to establish the Hindu-Muslim _____. (state, assembly, unity)

2. Write the answer of the following in 2-3 sentences.

i. What were the three main problems of the Independent India.

ii. Which three main states were joined after 1947 as the problem of merging of remaining part of Indian territories?

iii. Which political body had written the constitution of India and when?

3. Give Reasons in two-three sentences.

i. Referendum was held in Junagarh state.

ii. Police action was initiated against Hyderabad.

iii. King Hari Singh singed a treaty of merger with India.

vi. India used force against Portugal government in Goa.

Question : 4 Write the answer of following in 20 lines

1. Write how Hyderabad was integrated into India. (Oct. 96; 98)

2. Write how Kashmir was integrated into India.

3. Write how Junagarh was integrated into India.

4. Write how Goa was integrated into India.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

I would definitely say you have provided a comprehensive answer.

I will try to print this material out to set behind my lecture notes to answer questions that hopefully arise in the future.

I think my brief list of things that I make sure to explain include

INC

Mulsim League

Jawaharlal Nehru

Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Amristar Massacre

Salt March

Lahore Resolution

Quit India Movement

Government of India Act/ Indian Constitution

non-alignment

Kashmir

Indira Gandhi

1971 War

Golden Temple

Tamils/Rajiv Gandhi

Write large it is a week of class material at 45 minutes per class.

Edited by Raymond Blair

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
INC

Mulsim League

Jawaharlal Nehru

Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Amristar Massacre

Salt March

Lahore Resolution

Quit India Movement

Government of India Act/ Indian Constitution

non-alignment

Kashmir

Indira Gandhi

1971 War

Golden Temple

Tamils/Rajiv Gandhi

Your list is fine.

Just few points even if you are done with your lecture on them.

In India, Amritsar (Right spellings) is generally popular as Jalianwala Bagh Tragedy.

The Salt March is more popular as Dandi March, Dandi refering to the place where Gandhi broke the Salt law.

Rest is OK. Personally I am against commenting about the lecturer's contents and methods but I am just wondering that it would have been good, had you included Mizo Accord with Rajiv Gandhi.

I am interested in knowing that what are your views on Kashmir and how you presented it in your lectuer.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

This seems to be the problem I faced when bringing my Serb friend instead of my Croat friend to speak to my class several years ago.

BTW, in class I spell Amritsar correctly.

I don't teach much about Kashmir.

It had a hindu prince and a Muslim majority.

War broke out and it was paused by a UN cease fire

in the 1971 war Pakistan let East Pakistan go and focused on winning in Kashmir (failed)

it has been an unstable border with standing armies and guerilla fighting since 1948.

the problem persists to this day, but it is better than 2002 (?) when there were obvious nuclear (nukular :)) tests for intimidation and parliamentary bombings.

My kids ask if there is a connection between Kashmir and a Led Zeppelin song, and Kashmir and some of their sweaters. Tho rarely do both questions come from the same student.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
My kids ask if there is a connection between Kashmir and a Led Zeppelin song, and Kashmir and some of their sweaters.  Tho rarely do both questions come from the same student.

Look into an article titled “A Briton Once Asked: Can India be regained again?” on my blog http://www.sumir-history.blogspot.com in February 2005 archive.

The contents in it are related to your query. There are some detailed references to the history events but in different course and pattern. Though it can be termed as ‘a funny activity’ in writing such a piece yet I have tried to say few things which carries stuff.

Secondly, the nature of the activity in writing as carried out there can be a useful activity for the students for discussion if they are carried out in classes.

My kids ask if there is a connection between Kashmir and a Led Zeppelin song, and Kashmir and some of their sweaters. Tho rarely do both questions come from the same student.”

I do not have any knowledge about Led Zeppelin Song. It is new to me. I will like to learn about it. It is a new query for me.

As far as Kashmir and Sweaters are concerned, Well, Angora wool and Pashmina wool shawls and sweaters are the most cozy and warm wears. I understand that they are known for their quality over whole of the world.

But the Animal protection groups have discouraged Pashmina shawls because it causes loss of an animal breed. It is acquired from a type of a goat if I am right in my information. However Angora wool is acquired from a rabbit but it is a difficult to raise that breed. Both the items are quite costly and it become costlier when it reach European and American Markets.

Kashmiries are known artisans and embroiders. They are famous for carpet weaving with intricate patterns adopting different styles. If you ever visit Srinagar, or J&K government emporiums, you may get classic pieces of work of art on garments by Kashmiris.

I once wrote an article on Ludhiana. I had even started a research work on Growth of Ludhiana as an Industrial Town. During that activity, I had collected good material on Ludhiana. I had observed in some sources that the cause of rise of Ludhiana was attributed to migration of Kashimiries to Ludhiana in 1830s. This was the period, when British East India Government was playing tough with Ranjit Singh. They had raised a fortification on the banks of Satluj opposite to a fort of Ranjit Singh on the other side at Phillaur (my place of residence). As they had placed a garrison at Ludhiana, they needed stores for their army. The enterprising traders tried to procure it for the British forces. They were asked to produce some hosiery work for which the Ludhiana traders took the help of those migrants which by coincidence were camping in Ludhiana. It was an offshoot of this enterprise that emboozened signs used by armed forces all over the world on their uniforms are obtained from Malerkotla. At that time, Ludhiana was under the control of Kalhas of Raikot and they had relations in Muslim royal families of the region and some of them had converted to Sikhism. It is an open secret that you find Dhillons, Dhaliwals, Tiwanas etc among the Sikhs, Rajput Jats, Rajput Gujaratis and Muslims.

Kashmir had been manufacturing center of woolen garments since the ancient time. There is reference to it in Arthasashtra by Kautilya of Maurya Period. Similarly, a list of garments being exported from Kashmir had been included in Rajtrangani of Kalhana written in 12 c. A. D.

Zain-ul-Abadin, the Akbar of Kashmir, was known to have promoted the garment industry in Kashmir. Even before that, during the rules of Varman dynasty, (Hindu dynasty since the ancient time contrary to what JKLF leaders claim about the history of Kashmir), Kashmir was mainly popular for its art works in garments especially woolen garments.

The information which I have gathered above is done only to say that as an Indian national and also as a student of history, one feels amused and perturbed when one reads in foreign news media or intellectual works that other feels and understand that there Kashmir is totally a Muslim area, it does not wholly belong to India, there was Islamic and Muslims background since antiquity and India has acquired it by doubtful means. It really pains. The fact before 12th century was totally different. The Plight of Pannua Pandits of Kashmir is a Human Right problem. Pannua Pandits are born Kashmir and real owners of Kashmir. They are also the facts. The Kashmir Sufism is something totally a Kashmiri thing and in accord and in origin with Kashmiri heritage. Both these aspects, Pandits and Kashmiri Sufism are the historic facts. The arguments of Hurriyat Conference can be declared as misinformation for political gains.

I can continue to write this by bring more and more references. I stop it here.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Please sign in to comment

You will be able to leave a comment after signing in



Sign In Now

×