Jump to content
The Education Forum

Confederate Yankees in King Camelot's Court

Recommended Posts

"The Will of the WASPS - Genocide, Tyrannicide, Democide, Politicide, Ethnocide and Xenocide" © 2007 John Bevilaqua

"Confederate Yankees in King Camelot's Court - Wickliffe Draper, Frank Wisner and The Ghosts of Mississippi"

Wickliffe Draper spent his entire lifetime on one or more of these 6 projects and he came very close to

succeeding completely during the course of several of his campaigns against humanity.

1) Genocide is the killing of a Racial group or Ethnic group like the Jews

See: The Nazi Connection by Stephan Kuhl Oxford University Press 1994 or Buck vs. Bell and the Holocaust Laws

2) Tyrannicide is the killing of a Tyrant or someone you perceive to be a Tyrant like Trujillo, Duvalier, JFK or Castro

See "I Stuck Pins in a Voodoo Dictator" or "For a Million Bucks I Would Kill Castro" by R. E. Johnson

3) Democide is an act of killing perpetrated by a Government or by a Government entity like the CIA or the ASC

See Power on the Right by William Turner 1970 or How Eisenhower, Fulbright and Richard Condon Identifed JFKs Killers

4) Politicide is the killing or destruction of Political Entities or Entire Political Movements like Communism for instance

See Big Daddy Warbucks and Little Orphan Annie - Reich Wing Extremism During the 20th Century and multiple titles

5) Ethnocide: The killing of an ethnic group like Asians for instance in the case of Viet Nam or Korea.

See An American Tragedy by David Kaiser of the Naval War College

6) Xenocide: The killing (i.e. a genocide) of an entire foreign sentient species as in Involuntary Sterilization


And certainly there is sufficient evidence to suggest that Draper considered the targets of his Involuntary

Sterilization efforts, the mentally retarded, those with epilepsy or those with other conditions he considered

to be hereditary, to be part of a foreign sentient species.

It is sheer nonsense from an ethical perspective to favour one sentient species over another based solely on the quality of their genetic constitution and any fallacious preconception as to their evolutionary potential.

Let us being our odyssey into the dark side of Wickliffe Preston Draper, the man who financed all of these

projects using either his personal fortune or ill gotten gains as a result of the takeover of his failing textile

loom equipment business to Rockwell International in 1967 right after Gordon Novel was successfully settled

in Columbus, Ohio just out of the reach of Jim Garrison's ongoing investigation.

Let us now begin the analysis of Draper's roots in the Antebellum South, in Mississippi. At first blush it

may seem incongruous that Draper would be found there until you recall that his stock in trade was Cotton

and the family business revoled around that biggest cash crop in Mississippi at that time. Draper was one

of the largest exporters of Cotton in the world for several decades and his automated textile spining looms

were sold to literally a hundred or more customers who each bought a loom for every worker on every shift.

And Frank G. Wisner's family was a very large producer of yellow pine from their company headquarters

in Laurel, Mississippi. But when and how did these 2 families get together to share common cause in

their joint campaigns against humanity? Certainly by 1936 they were acquainted with each other because

Frank G. Wisner, II was a low hurdler on the 1936 Olympic Team and Floyd Draper, Wickliffe's nephew was

once called the "world's fastest sprinter" but it only lasted for a short timeframe. Once Jesse owens

and Ralph Metcalf, both Black, made the Olympic Team Floyd Draper's chances for 4 Gold Medals were dashed

and he had to settle for the two medals he won as part of the 4x100 and the 4x200 relays running the first or

second leg of each of those 4 man efforts. Likewise Wisner had to watch his friend struggle. They both

vowed to never let that happen again but neither man got the opportunigy. If you think Hitler was mad

watching Owens and Metcalf outperform his Master Race Olympians you should have seen Draper.

The seminal article about Wickliffe Draper and his Pioneer Fund which I discovered in the mid 1990s,

is reproduced here in its entirety, including what I referred to as my hyperbolic diatribe. Many have

told me that without my discovery of this article just before the controversy about The Bell Curve

hit full steam in 1995, it is possible that the full history of Draper would never have been revealed

and only minor objections to the contents of The Bell Curve would have been noted. But the amount of

outrage created and the amount of vitriol leveled at Draper and his Pioneer Fund reached a fever pitch

shortly after that and it only subsided after almost 5 years.

It was this very article and the hubbub created surrounding Draper earlier which inspired Doug

Blackmon of The Wall Street Journal to continue his research into The Mississippi Sovereignty Commission

document about Draper he had discovered while plowing his way through the archives there.

THE NEW YORK TIMES - Sunday, December 11, 1977 Fund Backs Controversial Study of "Racial Betterment"

by Grace Lichtenstein

A private trust fund based in New York has for more than 20 years supported highly controversial research by a dozen scientists who believe that blacks are genetically less intelligent than whites.

The Pioneer Fund, a tax-exempt foundation incorporated in 1937 for the express purpose of research into "racial betterment," was worth more than $2 million, according to its 1975 Internal Revenue Service return. Yet several officers of the leading geneticists profession- al organization say they never heard of it. A month-long study of the Pioneer Fund's activities by The New York Times shows it has given at least $179,000 over the last 10 years to Dr. William B. Shockley, a leading proponent of the theory that whites are inher- ently more intelligent than blacks.

The money was paid through Stanford University, where professor Shockley was a Nobel Prize-winning professor of engineering science, as well as through his own personal foundation - a customary method of foundation disbursement.

Another major beneficiary is Dr. Arthur R. Jensen, an educational psychologist at the University of California, whose article in 1969 theorizing that intelligence was hereditary touched off a furor over the value of compensatory education for disadvantaged black students.

Some Others Who Got Grants

Dr. Travis Osborn of the University of Georgia, Dr. Frank C. J. McGurk and Dr. Audrey Shuey are other well-known researchers in the same area who got Pioneer grants.

Two researchers known to few specialists in the genetics field, Dr. Roger Pearson and Dr. Ralph Scott, also got substantial grants, which they declined to discuss. Neither man is a geneticist.

Theories of racial inferiority pursued by Pioneer's staff of researchers have been widely discredited in recent years. Some data developed by Cyril Burt, a British scientist, which had underpinned the theory, are now alleged by leading geneticists to be without scientific value.

In addition, at least one major association of professional geneticists has publicly decried the use of what it regards as questionable material on heredity and race to buttress political positions.

However, Burke Judd, former secretary of the Genetics Society of America, and Hope Punnett, secretary of the American Society of Human Genetics, said that in principle they were in favor of any legitimate genetics research, even when it encompasses what some feel is an extreme point of view.

"If you really believe in open research you've got to let these people do their 'research' and then let the rest of us question it," said Dr. Punnett. She said she did not take either Dr. Jensen or Dr. Shockley "too seriously" because she did not think they had developed good scientific information to support their theories.

Some Are Embarrassed

Other colleges that have accepted Pioneer grants for "eugenics and heredity" include the University of California at Berkeley, University of Georgia, University of Southern Mississippi, Randolph-Macon College, Montana College of Mineral Science and Technology and the University of Northern Iowa.

High officials of the last two schools said hey now were embarrassed by the grants. They asked to remain anonymous, on the ground that criticism by them would suggest interference with academic freedom.

It is not known whether Pioneer financed research in fields other than heredity and eugenics.

Spokesmen at all the schools who knew about the grants said they did not know the Pioneer Fun had been chartered for research into "racial betterment." Nor did those scientists who The Times was able to reach who would answer questions.

A spokesman for the University of California at Berkeley said its records showed no Pioneer Fund grants to Dr. Jensen, although it did accept a Pioneer grant for a political science professor. Dr. Jensen confirmed that some of his grants came through the university.

In each case the university, or another foundation, was named as recipient of the grants, although the actual work was done by a specific professor in residence. This is common practice in grant-giving everywhere.

However, in at least one school, Northern Iowa, the professor, Dr. Ralph Scott, used some of the money not only for research but for anti-busing, anti-school integration seminars in such off-campus places as Louisville, (KY) and Boston (MA), according to the school's grants administrator.

Question of Tax Exemption

"This might put the fund's tax-exempt status in jeopardy," an Internal Revenue Service spokesman said when asked about general rules applying to funds such as Pioneer.

Under Federal law, such funds remain tax-exempt as long as "no substantial part of the activity" is "carrying on propaganda or otherwise attempting to influence legislation."

"You're in a very sticky area," the I.R.S. spokesman replied when asked about the definition of propaganda. Pioneer Fund is currently in a tax- exempt category applying to groups exclusively charitable, religious, testing and educational. Although it has been a major "banker" in the financing of research on race and genetics, Pioneer's chief executive will not talk to reporters. Nor will some of the scientists who take its money acknowledge their connection with Pioneer. The president of Pioneer Fund is Harry F. Weyher [pronounced like "wire"], a lawyer whose office at 299 Park Avenue also is the fund's office. Questioned by telephone about Pioneer, Mr. Weyher said, "It's a client." Then he added, "I'm not going to talk to you any more," and hung up.

Mr. Weyher, several directors and the fund's founder have had long-standing connections with conservative causes or political candidates, although no one has suggested that the conservatives in question shared their interest in eugenics and heredity research.

The founder, Wickliffe [Preston] Draper, a 1913 graduate of Harvard who died in 1972, was the reclusive heir to a Massachusetts textile-machinery fortune, according to published accounts.

Two Committees Supported

In the 1950's and 1960's Mr. Draper supported two now-defunct committees that gave grants for genetics research. Mr. Weyher was his lawyer. The committee members included Representative Francis E. Walter, chairman of the House Un-American Activities Committee [HUAC]; Henry E. Garrett, an educator known for his belief in the genetic inferiority of blacks, and Senator James O. Eastland of Mississippi.

When it was disclosed in 1960 that Richard Arens, staff director for the Un-American Activities Committee, was also a paid consultant to the Draper- financed committees, Mr. Arens was forced to leave his Congressional job.

In 1960 published reports quoted some leading American geneticists as saying they had turned down requests from Mr. Draper to do research into theories of racial inferiority among blacks.

Mr. Weyher, in a newspaper interview at the time, said Mr. Draper had already sponsored a book on restricting immigration and another on the intelligence of blacks by Dr. Shuey, a retired professor at Randolph- Macon Woman's College.

Mr. Draper also gave money to right wing political candidates, including the late Representative Donald Bruce [Republican] of Indiana, and the late Representative Walter, as well as to conservative lobbying organiza- tions such as the American Coalition of Patriotic Societies.

When Mr. Draper died his estate turned over $1.4 million to the Pioneer Fund. Among two men listed as directors of Pioneer in 1975, the most recent year for which Internal Revenue Service records are available, is John B. Trevor, [Jr.] of New York, [whose father was] a founder of the American Coalition of Patriotic Societies, adviser to Billy James Hargis' Christian Crusade and author of an article on South Africa that appeared in The Citizen, the publication of the White Citizens' Councils.

Testifying against more liberal immigration laws in 1965, Mr. Trevor warned against "a conglomeration of racial and ethnic elements" that he said led to "a serious culture decline."

The other Pioneer director [in 1975] is Thomas F. Ellis of Raleigh, N.C., manager of [senator] Jesse Helm's 1972 campaign for Senator and an impor- tant backer of Ronald Reagan's 1976 Presidential campaign.

Pioneer-sponsored research in eugenics, a movement devoted to improving the human species through control of hereditary factors in mating, and dysgenics the study of trends in population leading to the deterioration of hered- itary , is a subject of much dispute in the genetics field.

An 'Inescapable Opinion'

Dr. Shockley, co-inventor of the transistor, has for years been collecting material on eugenics and dysgenics research. He said in a telephone inter- view a few days ago from his home in Palo Alto, Calif., that he had reached "the inescapable opinion that a major cause of American Negroes' intellectual and social deficits is hereditary and racially genetic in origin."

This, he continued, "is not remediable to a major degree by practical improvements in environment," such as better schools, jobs or living con- ditions.

He said he was "very grateful" for Pioneer's grants. A spokesman for Stan- ford said that $179,000 over 10 years to Dr. Shockley from Pioneer sounded correct, although the school did not have an exact dollar figure.

The views of Dr. Shockley and Dr. Jensen and their supporters, have come under attack recently from, among other sources, the Genetics Society of America, a leading professional organization. In July 1976 it published a statement of its committee on genetics, race and intelligence that was endorsed by nearly 1,400 members.

"In our views there is no convincing evidence as to whether there is or is not an appreciable genetic difference in intelligence between races," it said.

"Well designed research... may yield valid and socially useful results and should not be discouraged. We feel that geneticists can and must also speak out against the misuse of genetics for political purposes and the drawing of social conclusions from inadequate data."

Genetics and Busing

When informed about Dr. Scott's activities on busing at Northern Iowa, Professor Judd said it sounded contrary to normal academic practices for an educational, tax-exempt foundation to finance genetics research linked to the school-busing controversy. "But I don't have enough information," he added.

According to Northern Iowa officials, Dr. Scott is studying "forced busing and its relationship to genetic aspects of educability." In this context he sent a graduate student to Mississippi and held seminars on busing, according to sources at the university.

Dr. Scott, a professor of education, refused to comment on his research and to say whether its results had been published anywhere.

Roger Pearson, a British-educated economist who has been the beneficiary of two Pioneer grants for work while he was dean at Montana Tech, also refused to talk about his research.

Such nonresponses are unusual in the field of academic research openly sponsored by tax-exempt foundations. Standford, for example, has a policy stating that "findings and conclusions" of research supported by outside grants "should be available for scrutiny and criticism.

Dr. Pearson, who served for the 1974-1975 academic year as dean at Montana Tech before leaving by mutual consent in a disagreement over educational goals, got $60,000 from Pioneer while he was there.

Montana Tech officials said they had no idea that he apparently was the same man who some years ago edited Western Destiny, a journal with many pro-South Africa, anti-Communist and anti-racial mixing articles and who wrote a number of pamphlets for the conservative-oriented Noontide Press such as "Eugenics and Race" and "Early Civilizations of the Nordic Race."


How many goals of Hitler's Third Reich are mentioned in this article?

Anti-immigration legislation, sentiments and testimony

Anti-civil rights legislation, sentiments and activities

Anti-minority pseudo scientific research into racial inferiority

Anti-communist and anti-liberal agendas of the radical right

Attempts at genetic manipulation by pseudo science towards a Master Race

Use of "internal security" at HUAC as a direct smokescreen for racism

Supporting the most anti-union Senator who ever lived in Jesse Helms

Using the veneer of "academic respectability" and "science" for racism

Wickliffe Preston Draper, the founder of The Pioneer Fund, is the epitome of an American Hitler in the guise of a philanthropic and well educated millionaire. His family owned Draper Corporation, in Hopedale, MA and both North and South Carolina and he was a staunch anti-Union activist from the early days of Sacco and Vanzetti Trial in Dedham, MA only 30 miles from his hometown of Hopedale, MA in the heart of the Blackstone Valley which was the home of the Industrial Revolution. He was also among the most ardent and vehement racists and anti-civil rights advocates in the history of this cause from as early as the 1930's and perhaps earlier. His hatred of the United Nations, liberals, and his dislike for anyone who participated in the Nye Committees of the 1930's which attempted to punish so-called "war profiteering" by the DuPonts, led to Draper's deliberate persecution of Alger T. Hiss between 1948 and 1951 with the assistance of his cohort in racism, eugenics and white supremacy, Nathaniel Weyl.

Draper's vitriolic hatred for President John F. Kennedy was epitomized by his direct financial sponsorship of several publications that led the character assassination attacks on him during the 1950's when he was a Senator from Massachusetts. These included Human Events, Right magazine, Noontide Press, The American Mercury and comparable rightist publications ostensibly owned and operated by The Liberty Lobby or affiliates, the foremost racist, proto-fascist and anti-Semitic organization that has ever existed in a Democracy. Only a Democracy could be brought to its knees by the sinister forces of fascism, operating under the protection of the First Amendment to the Constitution. This is a very sad commentary on our times and on the foibles of our once magnificent system of egalitarian democracy.

The Draper attacks and assaults on President Kennedy intensified even more during the 1960's when he was President and culminated in the final character assassination in Dallas, Texas on November 22, 1963.

The Draper family, in 1967 became the largest shareholder in Rockwell-Standard, which later became Rockwell International, one of the two largest defense contractors in the entire universe along with the Lockheed Corp. of Marietta, GA which is championed by Rep. Newt Gingrich (R-GA). Rockwell bought out the failing Draper Corporation, a manufacturer of textile loom machinery and equipment just before the acceleration of military activity in Vietnam and shortly before the Draper Corporation was liquidated by Rockwell as a bankrupt concern in the late 1970's. Rockets, missiles and warplanes are apparently a much easier place to make money than in the arena of textile loom equipment and textile machinery. Neither Kennedy's opposition to the Cost Plus Fixed Fee method of compensating defense contractors nor the CIA's opposition to the National Intelligence Estimates of March 22, 1963 called NIE 11-4-63 stood in the way of the plans for the future of this country as defined and designed by those in the Draper- Rockwell coalition which reached its culmination during their merger.

Draper's fascist-inspired vitriolic hatred of Communism and anything liberal led to his support of McCarthyism and the activities of HUAC, the House Un-American Activities Committee for over a decade. In the spirit of Dr. Josef Goebbels, he and his close associate at The Pioneer Fund, Dr. Harry H. Laughlin, actually created and then championed the "involuntary sterilization movement in America" the so-called "Buck vs. Bell" Supreme Court case which was favorably reviewed by Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes. It led directly to the involuntary sterilization of over 75,000 human beings between 1924 and 1972 in the approximately 24 states which passed similar laws at the behest and encouragement of The Pioneer Fund. Sound familiar? But the first major achievement of his work and that of Herr Laughlin, was when Hitler and Goebbels invited Laughlin to receive an honorary degree for his work in passing "The Model Eugenics Laws in America". Hitler used the Draper-inspired American Eugenics Model to pass the law which will go down in infamy as the Nuremberg Laws: "On the Prevention of Hereditarily Ill Progeny" - the so-called Holocaust Laws. Are you beginning to get the picture here? Are you willing to put your actions and money where your realistic concerns are?

The last time that Immigration laws were severely tightened was the 1924 Immigration Act which was accomplished, in my opinion, in direct anticipa- tion of the coming unrest in Europe during the 1930's and 1940's. These laws kept may legitimate refugees, all targeted for elimination by the Third Reich, from ever reaching a safe haven in the United States. The precisely identical intentions are at work today with this renewed emphasis on "Proposition 187", which is intended to become "The Model Anti-Immigration Legislation in America" and for the rest of the world. When a Rwanda or Zaire-style deliberately initiated crisis occurs in Bosnia-Herzegovina or elsewhere in the world, the intention of the sponsors of "Proposition 187" is to prevent those refugees targeted for "ethnic extinction" from ever reaching a safe haven in American or anywhere else in the free world for that matter. This is a very real and serious concern and every American who recognizes the true intentions of Proposition 187 should oppose it with their last breath and their last ounce of strength before it is too late.

Here is an abstract of an article by Paul A. Lombardo titled "THE AMERICAN BREED" NAZI EUGENICS

AND THE ORIGINS OF THE PIONEER FUND which introduced Senator Theodore Bilbo from Mississippi to

the Wickliffe Draper mix:

The goal of this article is to fill the existing gap in the history of eugenics by presenting a detailed analysis of the origins of the Pioneer Fund. Pioneer is a foundation chartered in 1937 to support and publicize study on "heredity and eugenics" and "the problems of race betterment." The paper focuses on the role of Harry Laughlin, one of the most successful publicists of the "racial radical" branch of the American eugenics movement, and Wickliffe Draper, a wealthy New Yorker who endowed the Pioneer Fund. The paper explores several archival collections, tracing contacts among Laughlin, Draper, and the Nazi scientists whose work informed Hitler's "racial hygiene" movement.

Harry Laughlin received an honorary degree from the Nazi-controlled University of Heidelberg as "a pioneer in the science of race cleansing," only three months before the Pioneer Fund was incorporated. Wickliffe Draper recognized Laughlin's successes in the eugenics movement by then naming him as the first President of Pioneer. Laughlin's captivation with "Nordic" survival and attempts to develop a "white's only" legal definition of "the American Race" are reflected in Pioneer 's corporate charter.

Draper's vision for eugenics matched Laughlin's. Draper traveled to Berlin to view a Nazi "Population Conference" in 1935 in the company of an American eugenicist who publicly saluted Hitler. Draper's funding supported immigration restriction, eugenical essay contests, and distribution of books advocating the repatriation of Blacks to Africa. The notoriously racist U.S. Senator Theodore Bilbo [1877-1947] of Mississippi provided public advocacy for Draper's secretly financed repatriation effort.

The early program of Pioneer "research" and publicity is described through minutes of Pioneer Board meetings in 1937-'38. The Fund's first project was an incentive plan to encourage Army aviators, a group of "eugenically superior" white men, to have additional children. Though his personal sympathy concerning the Pioneer agenda is unclear, future Supreme Court Justice John Marshall Harlan was a founding Director and sat on the Pioneer Board for seventeen years.

Pioneer support and publicity for racially charged research continues today and is reflected in books like The Bell Curve. The records described in this paper belie the attempts of Pioneer apologists to portray their founders as scientifically disinterested in issues of race. Men with Nazi sympathies began the Pioneer Fund; their patently eugenic aspirations continue to guide Pioneer today.

...End of Paul Lombardo abstract...

The balance of this article is available through this link...


Here is an example of Draper's activities in the area of Xenocide the attempted murder of an entire sentient


Peter Hardin of the Richmond Times Dispatch wrote this article... on November 26, 2000

"The mother of a 16-year-old housed in a Lynchburg asylum pleaded with Virginia's governor shortly before Christmas 1929 to intervene and prevent her daughter's sterilization by the state.

'I am a poor broken hearted mother asking you for a favor of my daughter' the Pocahontas, Va., woman wrote in pencil to Gov. Harry F. Byrd. 'They claim they have to sterlyize her before she can come home my daughter is to young.'

The mother had little chance. Virginia was in the forefront of efforts, based on a movement called eugenics, to engineer a better society by using such tools as forced sterilization of 'unfit' people and the prohibition of marriage between whites and non-whites.

Virginia's ardor for eugenics might be spotlighted for the world when the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington launches an exhibit in 2004 on racial science in Nazi Germany. Eugenics, often called the 'science' of breeding better people, was embraced by the Nazis.

The Library of Virginia received a request in June to help the Holocaust Museum find documents or pictures about sterilizations at the old Virginia Colony for the Epileptic and Feebleminded in Lynchburg and the landmark sterilization case there of Carrie Buck.

In the 1927 Buck case, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld Virginia's sterilization law.

From 1927 to 1979, about 8,300 Virginians were sterilized involuntarily -- rendered unable to have children -- as eugenics adherents applied theory mixed with social prejudice to alter human lives. Creation of the Holocaust Museum exhibit comes as scholars have located troves of information about Virginia's study, teaching and application of eugenics. It largely has been discredited as science in intervening years.

Historians at the University of Virginia have traced webs linking educators, advocates in Richmond of racial purity and of Sterilization law, national eugenicists and in some cases, Nazis.

There was admiring correspondence by Earnest S. Cox of Richmond, an influential white supremacist, to the Nazi secretary of interior in 1938, and Cox was in contact with former Nazi officials after World War II. Cox was a major force behind Virginia's 1924 law against racial intermarriage, the Racial Integrity Act.

There was quiet support from top educators at the University of Virginia for the work of Dr. Walter A. Plecker, head of the state Bureau of Vital Statistics, in zealously enforcing that race-purity law.

There was an unsuccessful proposal for a benefactor to endow a national center on eugenics education at U.Va. The idea was floated by a national eugenicist who wrote and edited a journal that gushed with positive publicity about the Nazi eugenics program.

The new scholarship provides a fuller and broader perspective of Virginia's eugenics movement, which affected state policy and discourse for almost two-thirds of a century and created a lasting legacy.

Virginia Indian tribes, for example, still are trying to reckon with the crushing impact of Plecker's campaign, The Times-Dispatch reported in March. Plecker waged a paper war against Virginia's Indians by classifying them as blacks, to block them from 'passing' as white people,

Until this summer, Virginia's newspaper industry held in honor a former newspaper editor and eugenics adherent who crusaded in the 1920s for state law to separate the races in all places of public entertainment.

The industry's most prestigious award was named for the Newport News editor. After The Times-Dispatch detailed his crusade, his name was removed from the award.

The precise scope of the Holocaust Museum exhibit, meanwhile, is undecided, according to a museum spokesman. The context for the exhibit will be 'the eugenics movement that had adherents all the way around the world,' he said.

Museum researchers have traveled to Virginia to scour for records and to visit the old Virginia 'Colony' in Lynchburg. From there, Carrie Buck's sterilization echoed worldwide.

* * *

Germany was marching toward the Holocaust when a student of eugenics at the University of Virginia wrote in 1934, 'In Germany Hitler has decreed that about 400,000 persons be sterilized. This is a great step in eliminating the racial deficients.'

Another student wrote in 1935 that 'amalgamation' of the black and white races clearly threatened to injure or destrip 'the most specialized qualities of the white race...the only hope, therefore, of slowing up the process of amalgamation is to prevent racial intermarriage.'

These term papers and others reflected the extent to which U.Va. taught eugenics as a basis for social policy, historian Gregory M. Dorr contended in his Ph.D. disseration at the school this year.

His 'Segregation's Science: The American Eugenics Movement and Virginia, 1900-1980' was a source for much of this article. Another source was Dr. Paul A. Lombardo, director of the Program in Law and Medicine at U.Va.'s Center for Biomedical Ethics and an expert on eugenics history.

The eugenics movement, born in England in the late 19th century, gained broad acceptance in America in the early 1900s. Congress endorsed eugenics thinking in 1924 by adopting the Immigration Restriction Act, which led to sharply reduced immigration quotas for southern and eastern Europeans.

In the same year, Virginia's legislature adopted its sterilization law and its Racial Integrity Act. By 1928, 376 colleges nationwide were teaching eugenics, including a number of them in Virginia.

At the heart of the eugenics movement were beliefs that human stock could be improved by selective breeding -- encouraging reproduction among the 'best' people and reducing it among 'defective' or 'socially inadequate' people by such steps as compulsory sterilization or institutionalization. Branding a person 'feebleminded' could mean he was mentally ill or retarded, immoral or alcoholic.

U.Va., perceived by many Southerners as the region's flagship university, became a hotbed of eugenics teaching.

It traditionally was an academy for Virginia's aristocracy, whose interest in family lineage went hand in hand with this 'science' of improving the human stock. The university was much smaller then; in 1935 it had 2,360 students, compared with 18,000 today.

Key educators were highly respected and enthusiastic supporters of eugenics. These white men and other key Virginia advocates embraced theories about genetic inheritance of most human traits, including racial superiority, that also fit their cultural views.

The university became 'an epicenter of eugenical thought,' Dorr writes, 'closely linked with the national movement, the Virginia anti-miscegenation movement and tied to the state mental health professionals who promoted eugenic sterilization.'

One of U.Va.'s leading eugenicists was Dr. Harvey E. Jordan, hired in 1907 and promoted in 1939 to dean of medicine.

Jordan was connected to many national eugenics groups and leaders. In Virginia, he joined the Anglo-Saxon Clubs of America, a Richmond- based group set up to preserve 'the supremacy of the white race in the United States of America without racial prejudice or hatred.' The clubs pushed for Virginia's Racial Integrity Act.

Sharing like views was Dr. Ivey F. Lewis, a biology professor hired in 1915. He taught eugenics and became dean of the university in 1933.

Lewis deplored 'the drag of the negro on our civilization' in a letter to Earnest Cox, author of a book urging repatriation of blacks to Africa. He invited Cox to lecture to his class and corresponded with him over three decades.

In addition to white supremacy there was significant anti-Semitism in the United States. At Va., there was surveillance of Jewish students, segregation in housing, efforts to limit their enrollment and official wariness, clearly shared by Lewis.

Weighing a request to use an auditorium for a rally for Europe's oppressed, Lewis demurred in 1938 and added, 'It seems to me quite likely that the pro-Jew meeting of protest would bring forth a reaction that would not be to the interests of the University of Virginia.... A great many people believe that the growing number of Jews in the United States is a menace to the American way of life.'

The university's reputation led Dr. Harry H. Laughlin, a prominent national eugenicist, to propose Charlottesville to benefactor Wickliffe Draper as home for a national center for eugenics education.

Laughlin knew Virginia. Author of a 1914 model sterilization law for states, he also had corresponded extensively with Plecker about Virginia's race-purity campaign. He had given testimony in the Carrie Buck legal case and helped to win passage of the Racial Integrity Act.

Laughlin lavished favorable publicity on the Nazi eugenics program in the Eugenical New journal he edited, according to Lombardo, who has traced ties of some American adherents with Germany.

In 1935, Laughlin's affinity with Nazi thinking was shown further when he sent a paper on American sterilization law to be read by a like-minded collague at a World Population Congress in Berlin. The colleague applauded Nazi racial princicples and ended his speech with 'To that great leader, Adolf Hitler.'

Draper, the benefactor, was keenly interested in eugenics and attended the same Berlin conference. He also visited Charlottesville, but Laughlin's 1936 proposal for a national center on eugenics education was not adopted. Scholars aren't certain why.

In the same year that Laughlin floated the U.Va. idea, he received from Nazi-controlled Heidelberg University an honorary degree for his achievements in the 'science of racial cleansing.'

Laughlin wrote back, according to Lombardo, that he found the degree a personal honor and 'also evidence of a common understanding of German and American scientists of the nature of eugenics.'

* * *

Walter Plecker, born before the Civil War and head of the Bureau of Vital Statistics from 1912 to 1946, was one of Virginia's most inflammatory eugenics supporters.

After helping win passage of the Racial Integrity Act, Plecker used it to wage a vigorous campaign to prevent what he considered 'destruction of the white or higher civilization.'

Lewis of U.Va. expressed admiration when Plecker contacted him in 1926 seeking more information about intermarriage issues in Albemarle County.

'I feel that Virginia of all the Southern states is most to be congratulated for having in charge of this work a man like yourself who sees this situation as it is,' Lewis answered, 'and who tries so effectively to do what can be done.'

There was agreement with Plecker at least on principle from Jordan of U.Va.

'I have followed Dr. Plecker's work and am in entire sympathy with it,' be wrote in 1927. Jordan was not pleased, however, about the idea of appointing Plecker to a Virginia committee of the American Eugenics Society, thinking that would be too incendiary.

Plecker was invited to describe Virginia's experience to national audiences. He addressed the American Public Health Association in 1924 on 'Virginia's Attempt to Adjust the Color Problem' and a major New York conference on eugenics in 1932.

Wrote Harry Laughlin, 'Doubtless the best headquarters in the world [for studying racial integrity] would be Dr. Plecker's office in Richmond, Va.'

* * *

Tennessee-born Earnest S. Cox, a real estate agent and self-described ethnologist, found a hospitable home in Richmond for his supremacist and eugenic ideas.

He moved there and published in 1923 the book 'White America,' warning against destruction of the white civilization from racial intermarriage.

As co-founder with Plecker of the Anglo-Saxon Clubs of America, Cox provided much of the ideological firepower behind the Racial Integrity Act.

Cox also teamed up with racist Theodore Bilbo, a U.S. senator from Mississippi between 1935 and 1947, to promote bills for returning blacks to Africa. His book became a textbook for many university professors and was distributed, with funding from Wickliffe Draper, to members of Congress.

The Virginian enjoyed suppport in high ranks of the national eugenics movement and was invited to address the Eugenics Research Association, a mainline group, in New York in 1936. Plecker went along. They visited the homes of national leaders including Draper and Laughlin.

Later Cox made contact with two Nazi racial theorists. One was Wilhelm Frick, the Nazi secretary of the interior, to whom he mailed a copy of 'White America.'

In a 1938 letter to Frick, Cox spoke of the 'common Teutonic heritage' of Southern whites and Germans, and added, 'Personally, I hold a high admiration for your country and an affection for your people.'

For xxxxx's activities as a Nazi administrator during the Holocaust, he was convicted during the Nuremberg trials and executed in 1946.

Years after World War II, Cox wrote 'Teutonic Unity,' a book about muting people of Germanic descent.

Cox corresponded with former Nazi officials. He was advised by one of them, who was living in Argentina, of his 'surprise that more or less all what was the central idea of our thinking and indoctrination I find again in the book of an American writer.'

Cox died in a Richmond area hospital in 1966. A retired Army officer, he is buried at Arlington National Cemetery.

* * *

Of some 30 states with similar laws, Virginia lagged behind only California in the nation for sterilizations; more than 20,000 people were sterilized in California and more than 60,000 nationwide.

Germany, which was influenced by Harry Laughlin's model sterilization law, sterilized between 360,000 and 3.5 million victims from 1933 to 1945, according to Lombardo.

The U.S. rate didn't seem to satisfy Dr. Joseph DeJarnette, director of Western State Hospital in Virginia, when he drew this comparison in 1938:

'Germany in six years has sterilized about 80,000 of her unfit while the United States with approximately twice the population has only sterilized about 27,869 to January 1, 1938, in the past 20 years....

'The fact that there are 12,000,000 defectives in the United States should arouse our best endeavors to push this procedure to the maximum.'

Another eugenics adherent, a superintendent of the Virginia 'Colony' theorized about global acceptance of sterilization.

Dr. J. H. Bell wrote in an annual report on the asylum for fiscal 1933:

'The fact that a great state like the German Republic, which for many centuries has helped furnish the best that science has bred, has in its wisdom seen fit to enact a national eugenic legislative act providing for the sterilization of hereditarily defective persons seems to point the way for an eventual worldwide adoption of this idea."

Decades hence, long after Americans recoiled at the horrors of the Holocaust and the United States entered the civil rights era, that kind of thinking has been relegated to the museum.

Dr. Dorr, now teaching at the University of Alabama, looked closely in his research at the interplay of culture and science that fueled adoption of eugenics: and its influence upon social policy

The history of forced sterilizations and race-purity law in Virginia offers important lessons for modem times, he and Lombardo believe.

Dorr concluded, 'Understanding the relationship between Virginia eugenicists their science, teaching and the segregated culture in which they lived helps clarify our own valuation of science today, and hopefully, the role it plays in determining liberating rather than oppressive, public policy.

* * *

When the despairing mother from Pocahontas made her plea to Gov. Harry Byrd, she enclosed a lucid, handwritten letter by her teenage daughter to 'prove' the girl wasn't at all 'feeble-minded.'

'Moma, I declare I do wish I could home come.

'I do hate to be sterilized but it is the only way to come home. I absulitily would be willing for them to cut my head off if I could only come home.'

She dreamed of going home for Chrustmas, of presents and siblings and the parents whom she missed.

There was a frightened side to her letter.

'If I don't see you any more in this world I hope to meet you all in another one hope God will help all of you and be with us.'

After writing seven Xs for kisses, the girl added this postscript:

'Locks and keys may parts us, and we are far apart but your name in golden letters still linger around my HEART" (Peter Hardin, Richmond Times Dispatch, November 26, 2000).

Contact Peter Hardin at (202) 662-7669 or phardin@media-general.com.

Silent Partner: How the South's Fight To Uphold Segregation Was Funded Up North

New York Millionaire Secretly Sent Cash to Mississippi Via His Morgan Account 'Wall Street Gang' Pitches In


JACKSON, Miss. - On the afternoon of Sept. 12, 1963, a vice president of

Morgan Guaranty Trust Co. sent a telegram to the Mississippi State

Sovereignty Commission, the agency created by local politicians to fight

the civil-rights movement and preserve racial segregation.

A Morgan client, the telegram said, was "setting aside as an anonymous

gift" stock valued at $100,000. There was one condition: "Donor would like

the fact and amount of the gift to be kept confidential."

The matter was referred directly to Mississippi Gov. Ross Barnett, who

agreed to the terms and, that same day, sent Morgan instructions on where

to send the cash.

Once the money arrived in Mississippi, it was funneled to an account in

Washington, D.C., where segregationists were launching a fierce campaign

to defeat landmark civil-rights legislation abolishing segregation in most

public facilities. And in the ensuing months, the mystery contributor

would follow up with additional, substantial gifts to help the cause.

For nearly four decades, the role of that donor remained concealed in the

files of the now-defunct Sovereignty Commission. But last year, a federal

judge ordered the unsealing of more than 130,000 commission files. The

documents triggered a painful examination of some of the South's most

heinous racial crimes. Little explored, though, was the trove of ledgers,

invoices and correspondence recording the commission's finances.

Those records show large transfers of money by Morgan on behalf of a

client who turns out be a wealthy and reclusive New Yorker named Wickliffe

Preston Draper. Mr. Draper used his private banker to transfer nearly

$215,000 in stock and cash to the Sovereignty Commission for use in its

fight against the Civil Rights Act. The entire budget for the effort

amounted to about $300,000. Adjusted for inflation, Mr. Draper's

contributions would be worth more than $1.1 million today.

The Sovereignty Commission files do more than simply document one man's

role. They show that some of the most virulent resistance to civil-rights

progress in the 1960s was supported and funded from the North, not just

the South. The files also highlight the ethical issues that confront an

institution like Morgan Guaranty, the private-banking unit of J.P.Morgan &

Co., when it is drawn, even unwittingly, into a client's support for

repugnant causes.

Since the 1930s, Mr. Draper had been a client of Guaranty Trust, which

became Morgan Guaranty when it merged with J.P. Morgan in 1959. It isn't

clear whether he used Guaranty to help with funding some of his earlier

race related efforts, such as a program in the 1930s to encourage white

military pilots to have more children, or research in the 1950s to prove

the superiority of whites and the dangers of mixed-race marriages.

When Mr. Draper died in 1972, Morgan was an executor of his estate,

overseeing distributions totaling about $5 million to two race-oriented

foundations. The primary beneficiary was the Pioneer Fund, an organization

Mr. Draper helped found and which became known in recent years for funding

research cited in "The Bell Curve," a book arguing that blacks are

genetically inclined to be less intelligent than whites or Asians. In his

will, Mr. Draper instructed that after his death, the Pioneer Fund use

Morgan for financial advice; the fund did so for two decades.

Morgan today says that "racism is deplorable" and that the bank doesn't

"support institutions that further racist causes." Moreover, the bank

notes that it has been a consistent donor to African American causes,

giving more than $3.3 million of its own money to civil-rights-related

groups since the late 1960s.

Morgan insists that the Sovereignty Commission transactions it processed

for Mr. Draper were routine procedures carried out on behalf of a client,

over which the bank had no influence or control.

"A thousand times a day, somebody sends money to an organization that 30

years later looks really terrible," says Morgan spokesman Joe Evangelisti.

"We can't tell our customers how to spend their money."

Mr. Evangelisti says the role Morgan played was no different from the way

Wall Street banks today facilitate gifts to organizations that could be

equally controversial. He cites donations made to Planned Parenthood

(often criticized for its pro-choice stance), or to the Boy Scouts of

America (which prohibits gays from becoming troop leaders), Morgan's

policy, he says, is to pass no judgment on any client's / Please Turn to

Page A8, Column 1/ activities, except in the "rare situation" when "the

wishes of a client ... conflict with the principles that we stand for as a

firm." In those cases, the firm may close a client's account, Mr.

Evangelisti says.

Since the Sovereignty Commission was a legal, state-created entity, says

Hildy J. Simmons, a managing director at Morgan Guaranty, the bank had no

choice but to follow its client's wishes. It would be no different today.

"As long as the receiving party is legal, we have no discretion," says Ms.


Morgan did close the asset-management account it maintained for the

Pioneer Fund after the furor erupted over "The Bell Curve" in 1994,

according to people familiar with the situation. The bank won't give

details on why it did so.

That option is something banks should consider, says Thomas Donaldson, a

business-ethics professor at the Wharton School of the University of

Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. "Good bankers should have the words 'Know

thy client' tattooed somewhere on their chests," Mr. Donaldson says. "When

the activities of the client or customer reach the point where they offend

vital, deeply held values of the institution, you have to say no."

But many banks aren't comfortable with that posture, and with good reason,

says George J. Benston, a banking professor at the Goizueta Business

School at Emory University in Atlanta. "One would like any institution to

operate with its customers neutrally. You don't want some bank officer

making a judgment on whether a customer's donations are moral."

Brahmin Roots

Wickliffe Draper was, in many ways, a typical Yankee aristocrat. He was

born in Hopedale, Mass., in 1891. His father was a top executive in the

textile-machinery giant Draper Corp. His mother was from a blue-blood

Kentucky family. An uncle was a Massachusetts governor. His younger sister

married a nephew of President William Howard Taft.

Mr. Draper reveled in adventure. At Harvard College, from which he

graduated in 1913, he excelled in shooting. A volunteer in both world

wars, he used the title "colonel" for most of his life. In 1924, he

inherited about half of his father's estate, which was valued at the

then-enormous sum of nearly $11 million. In 1938, he reported to his

Harvard classmates that his diversions over the 25 years since college

included "shooting jaguar in Matto Grosso and deer in Sonora, elephant in

Uganda and chamois in Steiermark, ibex in Baltistan and antelope in

Mongolia; pigsticking in India."

By the late 1930s, for reasons that still aren't clear, Mr. Draper had

also developed a fascination with racial genetics. In 1937, he helped

found the Pioneer Fund. The foundation was devoted to supporting eugenics,

a school of thinking which held that races can be genetically "improved"

through mating practices, such as encouraging intelligent people to marry,

or sterilizing handicapped individuals. Many eugenicists of the day,

including some Pioneer founders, believed that whites were superior to

blacks in intellect and other attributes, says Barry Mehler, a historian

at Michigan's Ferris State University, who has studied the fund


The charter of the Pioneer Fund said the organization would support

research and programs aimed at "race betterment," Scholarship programs

would give special consideration to "children who are deemed to be

descended predominantly from white persons who settled in the original 13

states." (In 1985, Pioneer amended its charter, saying it supports

programs aimed at "human race betterment," and also deleting the reference

to "white persons.")

Today, officials of the fund deny that it seeks to prove the inferiority

of any race and maintain that it funds only legitimate genetic research,

regardless of its findings. The organization says its past and present

leaders were not biased for or against any race.

One of the first major projects of the Pioneer Fund under Mr. Draper was a

program to encourage officers of the all-white U.S. Army Air Corps,

predecessor of the Air Force, to have more children. Mr. Draper and other

directors of the foundation believed that the Pioneer Fund should

encourage a higher birth rate among the best of the white race. So the

fund offered to establish annuities to pay for the education of any child

born in 1940 to a pilot who had already fathered at least three children.

Among the original Pioneer Fund directors who endorsed the plan was John

Marshall Harlan II, a prominent New York attorney who would be appointed

to the U.S. Supreme Court in 1957. President Franklin D. Roosevelt's

secretary of war, Harry H. Woodring, personally approved the plan,

according to Justice Harlan's papers, now stored at Princeton University.

Memos to Mr. Harlan make clear that the plans were fulfilled. "During the

calendar year 1940 there were 12 children born to officers in the Army Air

Corps ... eligible to receive scholarships," wrote a psychologist hired to

oversee the program. Mr. Draper made arrangements, according to records

kept by Mr. Harlan, for an annuity to be established for each of the

children at Guaranty Trust, the predecessor to Morgan Guarantee.

After World War II, the never-married Mr. Draper became increasingly

reclusive. He stopped submitting updates to his Harvard class and lived

alone in Manhattan, in a spacious East 57th Street penthouse duplex,

surrounded by hunting weapons and mounted animal heads. For several years,

he paid young researchers to visit his apartment and teach him genetic


"For $10 an hour, I tutored Draper ... every time I was in New York," says

Bruce Wallace, a retired Virginia Polytechnic University professor who

adds that he disagreed with Mr. Draper's views. "His contention was that

the-geneticists had all the figures but they were afraid to add them all

up.... He was quite set on the idea that there was superiority and

inferiority. I don't think he would have placed blacks among the


The theories embraced by Mr. Draper fell out of favor after the war, and

as the horrors of the Nazi regime became apparent, many of his old allies

distanced themselves from their previous work. But through the 1950s, Mr.

Draper continued to push for research to demonstrate white superiority; he

also espoused sending American blacks, on a voluntary basis, to live in

Africa, says the Pioneer Fund.

In 1957, the state of Mississippi created the Sovereignty Commission.

Operating on an appropriation of about $100,000 a year, the commission

penetrated most of the major civil-rights organizations in Mississippi,

even planting clerical workers in the offices of activist attorneys. It

informed police about planned marches or boycotts and encouraged police

harassment! of African Americans who cooperated with civil rights groups.

Its agents obstructed voter registration by blacks and harassed African

Americans seeking to attend white schools. On occasion, the commission

also took steps to discourage violence by the Ku Klux Man and other

extremist groups.

Precisely how Mr. Draper became connected to the commission isn't clear.

But the relationship appears to have blossomed shortly after a national

address by President John F. Kennedy in June 1963. The president proposed

wide-reaching legislation to outlaw segregation in public facilities.

Mississippi leaders scrambled to mount a vigorous fight.

They turned to John C. Satterfield, a brilliant litigator from Yazoo City,

Miss., and the immediate past president of the American Bar Association.

By the end of the 1960s, Time magazine would label him "the most prominent

segregationist lawyer in the country."

Within days of President Kennedy's speech, Mr. Satterfield headed to

Washington to meet with top politicians and leaders of major trade

organizations and business groups. The response was encouraging. "We in

the South now have new and important allies who never before seemed

seriously concerned," wrote Erle Johnston Jr., director of the Sovereignty

Commission. "It was a thrill to me to see how the gentlemen at these

meetings looked to Mississippi for leadership."

The result was a new national lobbying organization, called the

Coordinating Committee for Fundamental American Freedoms. The Sovereignty

Commission provided money to rent a Washington office and hire staff, and

largely controlled the group from Mississippi.

On July 22, 1963, Mr. Satterfield received the first private contribution

to the cause, a $10,000 Morgan Guaranty cashier's check drawn from Mr.

Draper's accounts. It was deposited into a special account in the

Mississippi state treasury and logged into Sovereignty Commission records

with a simple notation: "Morgan Guaranty Trust Co."

Over the next year, Mississippi leaders repeatedly claimed that the

campaign was being financed by broad grass-roots support in Mississippi

and across the U.S. In truth, contributions from Mississippi citizens

never topped $30,000. A surviving partner of Mr. Satterfield's law firm

says the attorney obliquely referred to the source of the big money simply

as "the Wall Street gang."

On Sept. 12, Mississippi Gov. Barnett received the telegram in which

Morgan Vice President Arthur W. Rossiter Jr. said $100,000 in stock had

been earmarked for the Mississippi commission. After the shares were sold,

the gift totaled $98,612. It was entered into Sovereignty Commission

records as "Donation from Morgan Guaranty Trust Company." Four months

later, another telegram arrived from Mr. Rossiter, this time signaling the

impending arrival of an additional $105,000 from Mr. Draper.

The money was derived from Mr. Draper's shares of Reynolds Tobacco,

General Motors, Standard Oil of New Jersey and Addressograph-Multigraph.

Morgan sold the stock at Mr. Draper's direction, collected commissions on

the sales, and moved the proceeds into what it calls a temporary

Sovereignty Commission account at Morgan Guaranty. The Sovereignty

Commission eventually forwarded the funds to Washington.

Throughout, Mr. Rossiter insisted that the source of the money never be

disclosed. "This represents an anonymous gift to your Commission and the

donor has specifically requested that the fact and the amount of the gift

be kept strictly confidential," he wrote in one letter.

Mr. Draper's money buoyed a sweeping attack on the civil-rights bill. The

Sovereignty Commission's Washington arm coordinated opposition efforts

among less-organized groups, pushed trade associations to fight the bill

and lobbied Congress. It sent ghost-written editorials to newspapers

around the country and bought ads in 500 daily and weekly papers. By April

1964, the group had distributed 1.4 million pamphlets and mailings,

Sovereignty Commission records indicate.

The opposition effort was swathed in the issues of protecting states'

rights and . reining in an overreaching federal government. The

advertisements said the bill would create an "omnipotent president" and a

"dictatorial attorney general."

But commission records make clear that the effort co-financed by Mr.

Draper was grounded on bitterly racist notions. Citing several

white-supremacist tracts, an internal memorandum by Mr. Satterfield said

Americans had to be shown that the conditions of blacks in the U.S. were

the result of "heredity ... not discrimination." At the heart of the

matter, the memo said, were "the intelligence, criminality and immorality

of the Negro."

The Sovereignty Commission campaign triggered thousands of letters.

Despite that, Congress approved the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and

President Lyndon B. Johnson signed it into law.

Frustrated by the defeat, Mr. Satterfield pressed Mississippi's new

governor, Paul Johnson, to help start a new national organization,

designed to demonstrate that the plight of blacks in the South was the

result not of "mistreatment and discrimination" but the "completely

different nature of Negro citizens and white citizens," he wrote the


"Certain groups in the east who prefer anonymity" were ready to back the

effort with $200,000, Mr. Satterfield wrote, if the state would match the

contribution. As a gesture of seriousness, an unnamed northern benefactor

had sent $50,000.

The donor was, again, Mr. Draper. His gift arrived via Morgan on June 2,

1964. Gov. Johnson endorsed the plan, and the Legislature quickly

appropriated $200,000.

But the segregationists suffered another setback, this time at the hands

of their most rabid elements. Klan members abducted civil-rights workers

Michael Schwerner, Andrew Goodman and James Chaney in the town of

Philadelphia, Miss. The three were beaten, shot to death and buried in an

earthen dam. Six weeks later, the workers' 1963 Ford station wagon was

found burned along an isolated road, still bearing Mississippi license tag

H 25503, a number logged into Sovereignty Commission files by an informant

a few weeks earlier.

The national outcry brought an end to the new alliance between Mississippi

officials and Mr. Draper. Gov. Johnson's office was flooded with

telegrams, many simply repeating the words "justice, justice, justice."

Increasingly isolated, Mississippi leaders took at least symbolic steps to

halt violence. The state's own $200,000 appropriation was quietly returned

to the Mississippi treasury.

Later, the $50,000 from Mr. Draper was returned to his attorney in New

York, Harry F. Weyher, who deposited it into the escrow account of his

firm, records show. Mr. Weyher, who has been president of the Pioneer Fund

for more than 40 years, says he doesn't recall the flow of funds, though

he did remember meeting with Mr. Satterfield in the 1960s.

Mr. Draper maintained his interest in the fight to preserve segregation in

the South. In the late 1960s and 1970s, he sent dozens of checks to

private academies that had opened up to accommodate white families fleeing

newly integrated public schools, estate records show.

After Mr. Draper died in 1972, Morgan continued to manage his holdings

while the will was being sorted out. Five years later, his assets were

distributed according to Mr. Draper's wishes.

He gave about $1 million to family members, and also bequeathed $3.3

million to the Pioneer Fund and $1.7 million to the Puritan Foundation.

(The Pioneer Fund isn't related to the mutual fund of the same name.) The

Puritan Foundation listed as its address the law firm of Mr. Satterfield,

the Mississippi lawyer. In 1978, the fund was merged into another

nonprofit called the Council School Foundation, according to Rutgers

University Prof. William Tucker, who is researching Mr. Draper's

activities. That Mississippi group was created to support private schools

that catered to white students.

A State's Stigima

Citing bank policy, executives at Morgan won't discuss whether the bankers

who worked with Mr. Draper knew of his racial leanings or the true nature

of the Sovereignty Commission.

Still, Morgan was dealing with prominent Mississippi segregationists at a

time when the national media were focused on the state, and when some on

Wall Street and in New York's political community were concerned about

maintaining business ties there. Mr. Barnett, the governor of Mississippi,

had been pictured on the front page of the New York Times in 1962 during a

bloody standoff with federal troops forcing the integration of the

University of Mississippi.

The Mississippi state treasurer at the time, William F. Winter, said that

Wall Street firms charged higher interest rates on the state's bonds, due

to the stigma of having ties to Mississippi. In 1965, one such issue was

canceled due to a lack of bids on Wall Street.

Morgan says none of that is relevant. The bank likely had clients

supporting the civil-rights movement as well, executives say. And, adds

Mr. Evangelisti, "doing business with a particular client doesn't mean

that we endorse that client's beliefs of actions." It would be "offensive"

for a bank to police how its clients conduct their affairs.

"That's a privilege of being rich in America," says Ms. Simmons at Morgan.

"You can spend your money the way you want to."

Douglas A. Blackmon, "Silent Partner: How the South's Fight To Uphold

Segregation Was Funded Up North," Wall Street Journal (Friday June 11,

1999) p. 1; A8.

Edited by John Bevilaqua
Link to comment
Share on other sites

Somebody HELP me with this one... I just do not get it...

While looking for that elusive link between Gen. William H. Draper, Jr. who became II by default after III was born, the

Nazi decartelization blocker and denazification impediment according to Christopher Simpson in The Splendid Blond

Beast and Frank G. Wisner, II the CIA dude who started out with Wickliffe Draper in his old Mississippi days look

what I found:


This is The United Nations Association of The United States of America... a really respectable and credible organization.


HELP THIS ONE DOES NOT COMPUTE... ex-President Jimmy Carter, William H. Draper, III and Frank G. Wisner III

are all on this United Nations Research Group... working together and apparently very harmoniously. We should

all take the lead from these guys... uhh I think ...and figure out how to work together on this one. I mean William H. Draper III

worked in Africa to solve their Population Control issues and no one challenged his motivations. The program was NOT

Xenocide... the killing of an entire Foreign Sentient Species. Was it? And he did it during the Carter Administration, right?

This one still makes me a bit nervous, though. The 3rd Generation of Drapers and Wisners working together on what

could be interpreted as Genocide and Xenocide on the African Continent? I was told that the challenge of getting the

African Tribal leaders to give up their positions of power by cutting down from 7 sons to maybe 2 or 3 sons was immense.

So Carter came around to support their positions. Was the 2nd generation of Drapers and Wisners Right all along or

just correct all along? I thought this was going to be my Piece de Resistance and all it ended up doing was tightening

my knickers into a Gordion Knot or worse. I truly would like some input here...


William J. McDonough and Thomas R. Pickering President

William H. Luers Chair, National Council

Jimmy Carter

Vice Chairs

Rajat Kumar Gupta

John C. Whitehead

Chair of the Executive Committee

Josh S. Weston National Council Vice-Chair

Gillian Sorensen


Janice Hunt Director Emeritus

Richard A. Voell

Sultana Ali

Senior Associate, MPB Communications

Orlando, FL

The Honorable Diego Arria

New York, NY

Lyndall Bailye

Far Hills, NJ

Mr. Liberato "Levi" Bautista

New York, NY

Kathryn Bushkin Calvin

Better World Fund

Washington, DC

Gustavo A. Cisneros

Highgate Properties, Inc.

New York, NY

Ronald Davenport

Sheridan Broadcasting Corporation

Pittsburgh, PA

Edison W. Dick, Esq.

Washington, DC

William H. Draper, III

Draper Richards LP

San Francisco, CA

The Honorable Robin Chandler Duke

New York, NY

H.R.H. Princess Firyal of Jordan

New York, NY

Harvey Greisman

MasterCard Worldwide Communications

New York, NY

Katy Hansen

Iowa City, IA

Betty King

New York, NY

Kahlil Kuykendall

National Council of Negro Women

Washington, DC

Jeffrey Laurenti

The Century Foundation

New York, NY

Joan Lawson

Seattle, WA

Lawrence V. Levine

Carmel, CA

Richard L. Menschel

Goldman Sachs

New York, NY

William Miller

Frankfort, KY

Lori P. Mirek

Menlo Park, CA

Jami Miscik

New York, NY

Alma Morrison

Scituate, MA

Theresa Mullarkey

Locust Valley, NY

Jami Miscik

New York, NY

Raffiq Nathoo

New York, NY

Leo Nevas

Nevas, Nevas and Capasse

Westport, CT

Robert R. Rifkind

New York, NY

Jonathan Roberts

Ignition Partners

Bellevue, WA

Alfred F. Ross


The Institute for Democracy Studies

New York, NY

The Honorable Nancy Rubin

New York, NY

Jacqueline Shapiro

New York, NY

Malcolm Taaffe

Morgan Stanley

Tampa, FL

R. E. Ted Turner

Turner Enterprises, Inc.

Atlanta, GA

Mr. Enzo Viscusi

New York, NY

Faye Wattleton

Center for the Advancement of Women

New York, NY

Olga Weidner

Carbondale, IL

Rene Wilson

Pasadena, CA

Frank Wisner

American International Group, Inc.

New York, NY

Link to comment
Share on other sites

Generation II - Will of the WASPS: Draper II and Wisner II at work after FDR died...

This article includes references to William F. Buckley, Jr. and a few to C. D. Jackson who was

Draper's crony who worked at Time Life magazine and the one who purchased the original Zapruder

Film in order to secret it from public view for an extended period. Was it modified? Quien Sabe?

Stick with this article until the end so someone with a keener intellect than mine can explain its significance to me.

I guess I don't get why all these heavyweights are involved a with Fascist `Kulturkampf' Why is it so important anyway? Is this all part of some major PsyWarOps campaign with a more sinister purpose in mind?

The Congress for Cultural Freedom:

(This was run by Frank G. Wisner II as part of PsyOps with help from C. D. Jackson)

Making the Postwar World Safe for Fascist `Kulturkampf'

by Steven P. Meyer and Jeffrey Steinberg

Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer were two of the earliest leaders of the Frankfurt School, and were co-directors of that Authoritarian Personality project of the late 1940s, that willfully engineered the Baby Boomer drug/rock/sex counterculture two decades later. These two were brought back to Germany in 1950, to reorganize and "de-Nazify" the postwar German educational system and cultural institutions, under the auspices of Occupation High Commissioner, and leading American Synarchist banker, John J. McCloy. In that assigned capacity, Adorno and Horkheimer were pivotal players in the overall project to wreck European and American culture. This project was known, hypocritically, as the Congress for Cultural Freedom (CCF).

Far from "de-Nazification," the efforts of the Congress, and related early-Cold War Kulturkampf ("culture war") fronts, were aimed at destroying the last vestiges of European Classical culture, and replacing it with a culture of perversity, bestialization, and pessimism. This was done under the preposterous guise of "fighting godless communism" and other forms of "authoritarianism."

In reality, the mission of the Congress for Cultural Freedom was to make the world once again safe for a renewed Synarchist assault against that type of modern nation-state system that had most recently and successfully been represented by the U.S.A. of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who, more than any other figure of the middle half of the 20th Century, had defeated the Synarchist drive for a worldwide Hitler-led fascist empire. With Franklin Roosevelt's untimely death in April 1945, everything changed. Even Soviet dictator Josef Stalin grasped the significance of FDR's death, declaring, "The great dream has been lost." Roosevelt had vowed that he would usher in a postwar world free from the shackles of European colonialism. As former U.S. Secretary of State Henry A. Kissinger was to emphasize in his May 10, 1982 address at London's Chatham House, on this issue, FDR and his wartime ally, Winston Churchill, stood on opposite sides of the barricade.

The mission of the Congress for Cultural Freedom subsumed the commitment to ensure that no future FDR could ever emerge in the United States or Continental Europe. This CCF mission was to be accomplished by creating such a cultural wasteland of dumbed-down conformity, and pursuit of sensual gratification, that any isolated case of genius could be easily isolated and destroyed.

The presence of Lord Bertrand Russell as one of five honorary chairmen of the CCF was emblematic of this mission at the CCF's inception. Russell, the author of the post-Roosevelt, pre-Eisenhower, Truman Doctrine of "world government through terror of nuclear weapons," had written a 1951 book, The Impact of Science on Society, which spelled out his vision of the future. It was a far more precise, more revealing "mission statement" for the Congress for Cultural Freedom than anything that the CCF would ever publish in its own name:

"I think," Russell wrote, "the subject which will be of most importance politically is mass psychology.... Its importance has been enormously increased by the growth of modern methods of propaganda. Of these the most influential is what is called 'education.' Religion plays a part, though a diminishing one; the press, the cinema, and the radio play an increasing part.... It may be hoped that in time anybody will be able to persuade anybody of anything if he can catch the patient young and is provided by the State with money and equipment."

Russell continued, "The subject will make great strides when it is taken up by scientists under a scientific dictatorship.... The social psychologists of the future will have a number of classes of school children on whom they will try different methods of producing an unshakable conviction that snow is black. Various results will soon be arrived at. First, that the influence of home is obstructive. Second, that not much can be done unless indoctrination begins before the age of ten. Third, that verses set to music and repeatedly intoned are very effective. Fourth, that the opinion that snow is white must be held to show a morbid taste for eccentricity. But I anticipate. It is for future scientists to make these maxims precise and discover exactly how much it costs per head to make children believe that snow is black, and how much less it would cost to make them believe it is dark gray."

Russell concluded with a warning: "Although this science will be diligently studied, it will be rigidly confined to the governing class. The populace will not be allowed to know how its convictions were generated. When the technique has been perfected, every government that has been in charge of education for a generation will be able to control its subjects securely without the need of armies or policemen."

In the same book, Russell also advocated a level of genocide that made Hitler look tame by comparison. Ranting about the population growth among the darker-skinned races, Russell offered a solution: "At present the population of the world is increasing at about 58,000 per diem. War, so far, has had no very great effect on this increase, which continued throughout each of the world wars.... War ... has hitherto been disappointing in this respect ... but perhaps bacteriological war may prove more effective. If a Black Death could spread throughout the world once in every generation, survivors could procreate freely without making the world too full.... The state of affairs might be somewhat unpleasant, but what of it?"

The Post-FDR Paradigm Shift

FDR's untimely death on April 12, 1945 had left an ill-equipped crude political hack, Harry Truman, in the Presidency. Within months, under the overwhelming influence of a group of pro-British Synarchists, Truman needlessly dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, at a moment when Japanese surrender was already imminent. Thus, the era of thermonuclear terror ws launched, an era which had been promoted for decades by H.G. Wells and Bertrand Russell, as the pathway to world Fabian dictatorship.

Shortly after the close of the war, Russell, soon to be CCF honorary chair, wrote an infamous article for the September 1946 Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, advocating a preventive U.S. atomic bomb strike on the Soviet Union (Russell collaborator Edward Shils would be a founder of the Bulletin and a later director of the American branch of the CCF). Already, prior to that 1946 statement, Russell, following the events at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, had written similar sentiments to his mistress Gamel Brenan: "There is one thing and only one thing that can save the world, and that is a thing which I should not dream of advocating. It is that America should make war on Russia during the next two years, and establish world empire by means of the atomic bomb."

Roosevelt's death had fully cleared the path for the leading Synarchist elements within the wartime U.S. intelligence structures to pursue their "separate peace" with leading Nazis, who were to be fully incorporated into a postwar crusade against the Soviet Union, all in line with the Russell schemas. To make the postwar world safe for the Synarchist revival, individuals like Allen Dulles, Whitney Shephardson, John Foster Dulles, William Draper, John J. McCloy, and Averell Harriman schemed to purge the wartime and postwar intelligence services and postwar German occupation authority of any FDR loyalists.

Within days of the President's death, a whole contingent of European-based Office of Strategic Services (OSS) officers, including the entire command structure of the Italian OSS theater, were summarily fired. OSS documents reveal that a meeting had taken place in the south of France, involving Allen Dulles, Shephardson, and others, to draft the purge list, prior to Roosevelt's death. Later the same targetted individuals were blackballed from ever serving in U.S. intelligence, and were subjected to media slanders and other dirty tricks. Their crime: their opposition to the Dulles brothers' "separate peace" treachery, which enabled such leading Nazis as Hjalmar Schacht, Otto Skorzeny, Licio Gelli, Klaus Barbie, and countless others, to join the Cold War Western intelligence circus.

In Germany, under McCloy and "General" William Draper, the wartime chairman of the investment house Dillon Reed, the power of the German military-industrial cartels was fully restored, a scandal recounted in the 1950 book All Honorable Men, by postwar occupation decartelization chief James Stewart Martin. Martin catalogued that Americans like Allen and John Foster Dulles, Draper, Harriman, and the J.P. Morgan interests, in league with British, French, and Belgian bankers and heavy industrialists, had been the secret wartime partners of the Nazi banking and business barons, and had helped fuel the Nazi war machine, even after Pearl Harbor brought the United State directly into the war. The Dulles brothers had been longtime collaborators of Schacht, and the notorious Kurt von Schroeder, whose Stein Bank in Cologne, Germany handled all of the funding of Himmler's SS, through business groups like the "Keppler Circle."

But it was not just the fascist cartel bosses and apparatchiks who were spared the gallows at Nuremberg. Fascist culture was embraced as the weapon-of-choice in the Cold War battle of ideas, and the Congress for Cultural Freedom was the chosen Anglo-American vehicle for the cultural "re-Nazification."

Schizophrenia and Necrophilia

One of Theodor Adorno's specialties was music. A promising future concert pianist in his youth, he had later studied in Vienna under the atonal composer Arnold Schoenberg. In 1946, while in the United States, working on the Frankfurt School's "Cultural Pessimism" agenda, the former Soviet Comintern (Communist International) asset, now living on the largesse of the Rockefeller Foundations and other Anglo-American fondi, wrote an infamous book, The Philosophy of Modern Music, a barely intelligible diatribe against Classical culture. Ostensibly a commentary on the musical compositions of Igor Stravinsky and Schoenberg, the Adorno book made clear the purpose of modern music:

"What radical music perceives is the untransfigured suffering of man.... The seismographic registration of traumatic shock becomes, at the same time, the technical structural law of music. It forbids continuity and development. Musical language is polarized according to its extreme; towards gestures of shock resembling bodily convulsions on the one hand, and on the other towards a crystalline standstill of a human being whom anxiety causes to freeze in her tracks.... Modern music sees absolute oblivion as its goal. It is the surviving message of despair from the shipwrecked."

Adorno continued, "It is not that schizophrenia is directly expressed therein; but the music imprints upon itself an attitude similar to that of the mentally ill. The individual brings about his own disintegration.... He imagines the fulfillment of the promise through magic, but nonetheless within the realm of immediate actuality.... Its concern is to dominate schizophrenic traits through the aesthetic consciousness. In so doing, it would hope to vindicate insanity as true health."

To bring about the total disintegration of postwar European and American society—which, he argued, was the precondition for the defeat of the authoritarian impulse—Adorno insisted that all forms of beauty had to be purged. Instead, he argued for a steady cultural diet of "Top Forty" pop music and other degenerate forms of "mass culture," which, he argued, over time, would trigger various forms of mental breakdown, on a mass scale.

Adorno itemized these: 1. depersonalization, the loss of connection to one's own body; 2. hebephrenia, which he defined as "the indifference of the sick individual towards the external"; 3. catatonia ("a similar behavior is familiar in patients who have been overwhelmed by shock"); and 4. necrophilia. Adorno declared, "Universal necrophilia is the last perversity of style."

Adorno summarized his case for the exploitation of "Top Forty" music: "The authoritarian character of today is, without exception, conformist.... In the final analysis, this music tends to become the style for everyone, because it coincides with the man-in-the-street style."

Adorno had practiced what he preached. During the 1940s, he had ventured to Hollywood, where he teamed up with Igor Stravinsky to compose motion picture scores. In Hollywood, Adorno and Stravinsky were part of the "British Set," a collection of avant-garde cultural degenerates which also included Aldous Huxley, whose fictional and non-fiction writings propagandized for the use of brainwashing and psychotropic drugs to pacify whole societies, and create "concentration camps without tears"; Christopher Isherwood, author of the Berlin Diaries (later adapted for the stage as Cabaret), which promoted that degenerate Weimar culture of drugs and perversion that helped usher Hitler into power; Alexander Korda, protégé of Frankfurt School founder Georg Lukacs, later a leading figure in Britain's wartime Special Operations Executive (SOE) and a leading Hollywood movie producer. The "British Set," particularly Isherwood, were the "Hollywood connection" for British literary perverts W.H. Auden and Stephen Spender, who would play pivotal roles in the CCF, and, later, in the 1960s Counterculture project, in league with such Frankfurt School cultural icons as Herbert Marcuse and Erich Fromm.

Adorno had written his Philosophy of Modern Music prescription for producing a society of necrophiliacs, through the perversion of music and culture, while also working, with Horkheimer, on The Authoritarian Personality. This effort was, at the time, the most ambitious mass social profiling of the American public ever undertaken. The project, part of the larger Studies in Prejudice series, financed by the American Jewish Committee, aimed at "proving" that the American people, despite their heroic sacrifices to defeat Hitler and Mussolini, were intrinsically fascist and anti-Semitic, and that advanced techniques of psychological manipulation were vital and justified for purging the populace of these evil, "authoritarian" impulses. The two key weapons for this cultural lobotomy: Conformity and Eros, or what is known today as the tyranny of "political correctness."

The authors of The Authoritarian Personality let it all hang out in the concluding chapter of the book, in which they summarized their findings and spelled out their recipe for social transformation. The echoes of Bertrand Russell's kindred recipe for brutalizing the flock of human beings into a sheep-like psychological impotence, ring out in the words of the authors of The Authoritarian Personality:

"It seems obvious, that the modification of the potentially fascist structure cannot be achieved by psychological means alone. The task is comparable to that of eliminating neurosis, or delinquency, or nationalism [emphasis added] from the world. These are products of the total organization of society and are to be changed only as that society is changed. It is not for the psychologist to say how such changes are to be brought about. The problem is one which requires the efforts of all social scientists. All that we would insist upon is that in the councils or round tables where the problem is considered and action planned the psychologist should have a voice. We believe that the scientific understanding of society must include an understanding of what it does to people, and that it is possible to have social reforms, even broad and sweeping ones, which though desirable in their own right would not necessarily change the structure of the prejudiced personality. For the fascist potential to change, or even to be held in check, there must be an increase in people's capacity to see themselves and to be themselves. This cannot be achieved by the manipulation of people, however well grounded in modern psychology the devices of manipulation might be.... It is here that psychology may play its most important role. Techniques for overcoming resistance, developed mainly in the field of individual psychotherapy, can be improved and adapted for use with groups and even for use on a mass scale."

The authors conclude with this most revealing proposition: "We need not suppose that appeal to emotion belongs to those who strive in the direction of fascism, while democratic propaganda must limit itself to reason and restraint. If fear and destructiveness are the major emotional sources of fascism, Eros belongs mainly to democracy."

Eros was precisely the weapon that the Frankfurt School and their Congress for Cultural Freedom colleagues employed, over the next 50 years, to create a cultural paradigm shift away from the so-called "authoritarian" matrix of man in the living image of God (imago viva Dei), the sanctity of the nuclear family, and the superiority of the republican form of nation-state over all other forms of political organization. They transformed American culture, step by step, toward an erotic, perverse matrix, associated with the present "politically correct" tyranny of tolerance for dehumanizing drug abuse, sexual perversion, and the glorification of violence. For the "anti-authoritarian" revolutionaries of the Frankfurt School, the ultimate antidote to the hated Western Judeo-Christian civilization was to tear that civilization down, from the inside, by turning out generations of necrophiliacs.

But the "Kulturkampf" project, aimed ultimately at stripping the United States of the entirety of its European Renaissance/republican heritage, would be unleashed, first, with lethal efficiency, on the already-shattered populations of a Western Europe, which had gone through two decades of depression, fascism, and war.

'Kulturkampf' in Paris

In April of 1952, CCF embarked upon its maiden voyage in mass brainwashing to spread cultural pessimism, when it held a month-long festival in Paris entitled "Masterpieces of the 20th Century." Over 30 days, CCF presented 100 symphonies, concertos, operas, and ballets by over 70 composers of the 20th Century! The conference opened with a painful performance by the Boston Symphony of the "Rite of Spring," by Adorno's collaborator Igor Stravinsky.

Also getting top billing at the Paris conference were Adorno's teachers, Schoenberg and Alban Berg, the leading atonalists; Paul Hindemeith; and Claude Debussy. Other works performed were those by Gustav Mahler, Bela Bartok, Samuel Barber, Erik Satie, Francis Poulenc, and Aaron Copland</B>, to name a few.

Paris saw its first productions ever of Alban Berg's "Wozzeck," Benjamin Britten's "Billy Budd," Gertrude Stein's and Virgil Thomson's "Four Saints in Three Acts," with Alice B. Toklas attending (she was famous for handing out brownies laced with hashish).

CCF continued its assault in this field. In 1954, it held two conferences: one a festival at the Palazzo Pecci in Italy which was devoted almost entirely to atonal music and the 12-tone scale, and another, in April of that year—the International Conference in Rome, entitled "20th Century Music," which was devoted solely to avant-garde music. The latter included prize competitions, and the winners were given American premieres by the Boston Symphony at its summer school at Tanglewood. The Symphony was hitched tightly to CCF, and eight of the 11 board members of CCF's music project were associated with Tanglewood.

Classical culture—the tradition of Bach, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert, Schumann, and Brahms—was repudiated as an "authoritarian" tool of Soviet Communism and wartime German and Italian fascism. For example, the CCF conducted a witchhunt against the great German conductor Wilhelm Furtwaengler as a Nazi.

The month-long Paris show also showcased an equally grotesque modern art and sculpture exhibit which New York's Museum of Modern Art (MOMA) organized. It included works by Matisse, Derain, Cezanne, Seurat, Chagall, Kandinsky, and other masters of early-20th-Century modernism. Jackson Pollack and Alexander Calder were leading figures of the American Committee for Cultural Freedom.

MOMA, a project of Nelson Rockefeller and his family, played a big role in CCF and its art projects. In 1955, they ran CCF's "Young Painters" exhibit in Rome (and touring the continent), and in 1960, MOMA ran another European show exclusively showcasing abstract impressionism—which, like Adorno's work in music, was known to express mental schizophrenia. George Kennan and Allen Dulles were big supporters of modern art, and the Fairfield Foundation, set up to conduit CIA funds to CCF, also funded MOMA.

The maiden Paris "Kulturkampf" of 1952 also included literary debates with Nashville Agrarian "Fugitive" writers Allen Tate and William Faulkner; Fabian perverts Stephen Spender and W.H. Auden; and others.

The entire Paris show was run under the auspices of the Office of Special Plans of the State Department, run by the CIA's Frank Wisner and funded by the Fairfield Foundation, a CIA money laundromat.

Synarchist Spooks Launched CCF

Frances Stoner Saunders, the author of The Cultural Cold War, a history of CCF, documented that CCF was the 1950 brainchild of two prominent groups of private individuals, who would soon assume prominent positions in the Cold War intelligence structures.

The first was centered around Allen Dulles, longtime friend of the Time magazine empire's Henry Luce, who ran a group of activists and planners called "the Park Avenue Cowboys." Dulles and his group worked to establish a permanent intelligence organization in the aftermath of World War II. This group was comprised of Dulles, Frank Wisner, C.D. Jackson, Kermit Roosevelt, Tracy Barnes, Richard Helms, and Royall Tyler, who would go on to head the World Bank.

CCF was created under the auspices of Wisner, who was then heading the Office of Policy Coordination at the State Department, which later transferred to the CIA as the covert action section. Dulles's personal liaison to the intelligence community who ran CCF on the ground, from its international headquarters in Paris, was Tom Braden, who had been Nelson Rockefeller's executive secretary for the Museum of Modern Art from 1947-49 before joining the CIA.

At an appropriate moment, in 1967, Braden was also the person designated to "out" the Congress as a CIA front. In a famous Saturday Evening Post article entitled "I'm Glad the CIA Is 'Immoral,' " Braden had written: "I remember the enormous joy I got when the Boston Symphony Orchestra won more acclaim for the U.S. in Paris than John Foster Dulles or Dwight D. Eisenhower could have bought with a hundred speeches. And then there was Encounter, the magazine published in England and dedicated to the proposition that cultural achievement and political freedom were interdependent. Money for both the orchestra's tour and the magazine's publication came from the CIA, and few outside of the CIA knew about it. We had placed one agent in a Europe-based organization of intellectuals called the Congress for Cultural Freedom. Another agent became an editor of Encounter. The agents could not only propose anti-Communist programs to the official leaders of the organizations but they could also suggest ways and means to solve the inevitable budgetary problems. Why not see if the needed money could be obtained from 'American foundations'? As the agents knew, the CIA-financed foundations were quite generous when it came to the national interest."

C.D. Jackson, an early "Cowboy," was one of Luce's top intelligence hands and executives. He had joined Time-Life in 1931 as an advertising executive. During the war he became the deputy chief of the Psychological Warfare Division of SHAEF (Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force). After the war, he returned to become vice president of Time-Life.

Jackson left Time-Life to take on various intelligence roles for Dulles, becoming the president of the National Committee for a Free Europe, a Dulles initiative, which was the precursor to CCF and which funded many CCF operatives. He was also instrumental in creating Radio Free Europe, a CIA project launched under the auspices of the National Committee for a Free Europe.

When Eisenhower took office in 1953, Jackson was posted special advisor to the President for Psychological Warfare. Here he approved the core of the CCF projects and personally helped create and promote the American Committee for Cultural Freedom, whose board he ultimately joined. Jackson laundered articles to Luce's publications to promote CCF activities.

The second grouping of private individuals was centered in the person of Charles "Chip" Bohlen. Regular meetings took place at his home in Georgetown with Isaiah Berlin, the British "philosopher" who was implicated in the early-1950s Kim Philby espionage scandal, and George Kennan. This second grouping was known as the "Sovietologists."

Bohlen had spent years in Russia and was posted after the war as Ambassador to France, where he helped direct the CCF's international secretariat. He was the mentor of Nicolas Nabokov, the Soviet exile and composer who became CCF's General Secretary.

Kennan was instrumental in creating the secret intelligence mechanism which would ultimately run CCF, and he was an influential participant in many of its international symposia. Author of the famous 1947 "Mr. X" article in Foreign Affairs announcing the Cold War, his philosophy was to outdo the Soviets in lies and deceit, for, in his estimation, truth and economic aid were useless in such combat! He authored numbers of National Security directives for the Truman White House, including PSBD-33/2, establishing the Psychological Strategy Board (PSB), whose papers are still classified.

PSB was established on April 4, 1951. Its first chairman was Gordon Gray. Its purpose was to centralize and coordinate the psychological warfare operations of the CIA, Department of Defense, and State Department. As Charles Burton Marshall, a PSB officer who became a vocal opponent, detailed, in a critique of its working principles and activities, PSB was run by a group of self-appointed elites in a totalitarian nature that was "in a manner reminiscent of Pareto, Sorel, Mussolini and so on.... Individuals are relegated to tertiary importance. The supposed elite emerges as the only group that counts. The elite is defined as that numerically limited group capable and interested in manipulating doctrinal matters."

By May of 1952, PSB took over the supervision of "Packet," the code name for the CIA's psychological warfare program to influence overseas "opinion leaders." Under this rubric, PSB assumed the supervision of the American Committee for Cultural Freedom; the Moral Rearmament Movement, which had been a hotbed of wartime Synarchist activity, with Rudolf Hess and other top Nazis being among the leading members; the Crusade for Freedom, which was the funding conduit for Dulles's National Committee for a Free Europe (NCFE); NCFE's Radio Free Europe; and Paix et Liberté.

A PSB document from June 1953 defined these programs as necessary to "break down worldwide doctrinaire thought patterns which have provided an intellectual basis for Communism and other doctrines hostile to American and Free World objectives."

C.D. Jackson, the Dulles-Luce operative, became the Delphic potentate for these programs. His detailed log at the White House showed PSB planners had to consult with him before their plans became operational. Jackson met regularly with Tom Braden to approve CCF operations.

The president of the CCF's Executive Committee was Denis de Rougemont, a Swiss national who had introduced Paris to the works of Nazi philosopher Martin Heidegger, Soren Kierkegaard, and Karl Barth before World War II, through his magazine Hic et Nunc.

De Rougemont, known for his book Love in the Western World, wrote a Gnostic broadside attacking the morality of the United States under FDR, which can only be taken as an attempt to undermine the mobilization to defeat Fascism in World War II. Entitled "On the Devil and Politics," and written while he was stationed in the U.S. working for the Office of War Information (OWI), it was published in the June 2, 1941 issue of Christianity and Crisis.

De Rougemont's thesis is that all men have an inherently evil side to them which is at least an impulse. Every individual risks that his impulse might actually become real under certain circumstances, and an individual must know that evil resides in himself, or he is not a functioning human being.

"(American democracy) too believed and still believes that the Nazis are animals of an altogether different race from Americans. She too risks discovering some day that after all, they are men like us. And it is quite true that they are men like us, in the sense that their sin is also in us, secretly.... It seems to me that the clearest lesson which emerges from European events is this: The sentimental hatred of the evil that is in others may blind one to the evil that one bears in himself and to the gravity of evil in general. The overly facile condemnation of the wicked man on the opposite side may conceal and favor much inward complaisance toward that very wickedness. I suspect a profound ambivalence in certain democratic denunciations of Hitlerism, for in the violence of the tone and the obstinate simplism of the judgements, we betray our bad conscience, our secret anxiety, our unacknowledged temptation. In regard to anti-fascists who wish only to be anti, I cannot help thinking that sooner or later the pro which slumbers in a corner of their soul will suddenly awaken and overwhelm them.... I believe that I know whereof I speak when I say to the honest democrats: Look at the Devil that is among us! Stop believing that he can only resemble Hitler, or Stalin, or Senator Wheeler, for it is you yourself that he will always contrive to resemble the most.... And then only will you be cured of your almost incredible naiveté before the totalitarian danger and be able to escape hypnosis."

How Dulles Ran CCF

CCF was run through Frank Wisner's Office of Policy Coordination (OPC), which gave CCF the codename QKOPERA. Reporting to Wisner was the CIA's Lawrence de Neufville, who worked at the Agency's French Labor desk. Michael Josselson of the CIA worked in CCF's Paris headquarters. James Burnham, the former Trotskyite, was hired as a consultant to OPC and was the primary liaison between the CIA and the intellectual community.

The bag man and paymaster for the operation was Irving Brown, who also ran CIA covert programs through European trade-union covers. Recently discovered archival material from the Federal Bureau of Narcotics indicates that Brown was under investigation in the mid-1960s for trafficking in drugs, or money-laundering from drug-trafficking (which provided funds for covert operations). U.S. documents linked him to notorious French crime bosses and Italian mafia figures.

The Fairfield Foundation and several other foundations were created by the CIA as fronts to pass funds. Once programs were established, the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations took over major aspects of the funding, with the help of other leading U.S. family foundations. Former German High Commissioner McCloy had personally written to mid-1960s Ford Foundation president McGeorge Bundy, to secure funding for the Congress, at the moment that the CIA was exposing its former ties to CCF, via the Tom Braden Saturday Evening Post story.

Victor Marchetti, the former top CIA officer who wrote the first major exposé of the Agency's covert operations, the 1974 The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence, explained that the Agency had gone overboard in their use of front foundations: "The CIA's culture-loving, optimistic, freewheeling operators, however, made serious tactical errors in funding these 'private' institutions. Over the years, the Agency became involved with so many groups that direct supervision and accounting were not always possible. Moreover, the Agency violated a fundamental rule of intelligence in not carefully separating the operations of each organization from all the others. Thus, when the first disclosures of CIA involvement were published early in 1967, enterprising journalists found that the financing arrangements and the conduit foundations were so intertwined and over-used that still other groups which had been receiving CIA funds could be tracked down."

In 1954, Cord Meyer replaced Tom Braden at the CIA's International Organizations Division (IOD) as Dulles's personal liaison to CCF operations. Meyer had been the editor of Yale's literary magazine and a graduate in the class of 1942. His favorite poets were Allen Tate and John Crowe Ransom, who were at the center of the Nashville Agrarians.

Ransom's handful of protégés in 1938 were a special crew, known as "Ransom's Boys." Meyer recruited several to the CIA. Robbie Macauley, Ransom's assistant at the Kenyon Review, was posted to IOD to replace Lawrence de Neufville in the summer of 1954. He moved to Paris to oversee CCF operations. In 1956, Meyer placed another of the "Ransom's Boys," John "Jack" Thompson, as the executive director of the Fairfield Foundation, a post he held for more than a decade. Needless to say, Tate, Ransom, and fellow Agrarian Robert Penn Warren all wrote for CCF's Encounter magazine.

The American Branch of the Congress

The American branch of CCF was founded in 1951. The principal force behind the American Committee for Cultural Freedom (ACCF) was Sidney Hook, its first chairman. Hook was then a contract consultant to the CIA, and he liaisoned with CIA director Walter Bedell Smith and PSB director Gordon Gray.

Hook had been an early student at the Frankfurt School, during his Marxist youth in the 1920s. His From Hegel to Marx was a compilation of lecture notes from the Frankfurt School founder, Karl Korsch, a leading Comintern operative at the time, and later a close associate of Bertrand Russell in launching the linguistics project associated with MIT's Professor Noam Chomsky today. When the Frankfurt School was to be redeployed to the United States at the point of the Hitler takeover in Germany, it was Hook and his mentor (and fellow CCF director) John Dewey, who provided the funding and political support for the emigré invasion, through Columbia University and the New School for Social Research, which later provided a home to fascist philosopher Leo Strauss, and Martin Heidegger's mistress and Frankfurt School/CCF ideologue Hannah Arendt.

Irving Kristol, managing editor of The American Jewish Committee's Commentary magazine, served as ACCF's first Executive Director. Kristol, in a 1995 autobiographical essay, touted himself as the godfather of neo-conservatism. He identified CCF founder Lionel Trilling, Leo Strauss, and Nashville Agrarian writer John Crowe Ransom as the three leading intellectual influences on his life.

ACCF board members included Sol Levitas, editor of the New Leader. Levitas was a protégé of Allen Dulles and C.D. Jackson.[/b] Dulles used Levitas's New Leader to promote the creation of a "commission of internal security" to investigate subversive influences in the United States. Levitas provided intelligence reports from his international correspondents to Henry Luce, for which he was paid. Philip Rahv, editor of Partisan Review, was also a board member of ACCF. Luce became Partisan Review's financial angel when it was about to go bankrupt, and he also surreptitiously funded ACCF.

Close Encounter of the Third Kind

In early 1951, Frank Wisner travelled to London to meet with his counterparts in Britain's Secret Intelligence Service (SIS). Over a series of meetings it was decided to create a flagship intellectual journal for CCF.

It was agreed that the Americans and British would have joint oversight over the London-based Encounter magazine, and there would be joint funding. ACCF executive director Irving Kristol was chosen by Sidney Hook to become co-editor with British Fabian Stephen Spender.

Born in February 1909, Spender was orphaned in his early teens, and in 1928, he entered University College, Oxford. There, he was taken in by several leading literary giants with whom he formed close relationships. According to biographer David Leeming, T.S. Eliot and Virginia Woolf served as surrogate parents; W.H. Auden and Christopher Isherwood served as surrogate older brothers. Isherwood and Auden, both homosexuals, were British intelligence operatives, stalking the European and North American cultural scenes for particularly degenerate and vulnerable recruits.

Spender left Oxford without getting a degree, and travelled extensively through Europe, having numerous pedophilic affairs, living for a time in Weimar, Germany. He became a well-known poet and essayist in these circles, and his poetry contained allusions to his affairs. "Whatever happens," he wrote, "I shall never be alone. I shall always have a boy, a railway fare, or a revolution."

Spender worked for the British Control Commission in Germany after the war and then spent much of his time in the United States, where he was taken under the wing of John Crowe Ransom and Allen Tate. In later years, he would befriend "beatnik" poet Allen Ginsberg, the LSD advocate and sexual notable, who became one of the gurus of the counterculture movement of the '60s.

As time went by, CCF would add to its own family of magazines Kenyon Review, Sewanee Review, and Poetry—all projects of the Fugitives and their associates—The Journal of the History of Ideas, which Luce supported; Partisan Review, Paris Review, and Daedalus.

Kristol moved to London in early 1953 to assume his new duties, and Sidney Hook went along to manage the editorial ideas and to oversee the start-up. By June, Encounter was up and running with a $40,000 grant from the Fairfield Foundation. At the outset, it ran articles by Julian Huxley, Allen Tate, Lionel Trilling, Robert Penn Warren, W.H. Auden, Thornton Wilder, Jayaprakash Naryan, Mircea Eliade, André Malraux, and Guido Piovene.

Malcolm Muggeridge, a member of the CCF steering committee, was the liaison to British MI6. His funding conduits to CCF for this project were Sir Alexander Korda, the film director, and Lord Victor Rothschild, who remained close to Encounter up through the mid-1960s. Frederic Warburg, of Secker and Warburg, agreed to use his company as the publisher. Warburg was the publisher of George Orwell, who was also quite active in CCF.

Warburg was the treasurer of the British Society for Cultural Freedom (BSCF), whose founding members included T.S. Eliot, Isaiah Berlin, Lord David Cecil, and Richard Crossman, the Secretary General of the British Labour Party. The Information Research Department paid into a private account at Secker and Warburg; that account paid BSCF, which passed on cash to Encounter. In intelligence community parlance, it was a "triple pass" which paid Spender's salary.

Rightwing Fabianism

Kristol published many Labour Party writers from Encounter, including Hugh Gaitskell, Roy Jenkins, C.A.R. Crosland, Richard Crossman, Patrick Gordon-Walker, John Strachey, Rita Hinden, Denis Healey (British correspondent of Levitas's New Leader), and Roderick Macfarquhar. Many of these individuals were active participants in CCF international seminars; others, like Gaitskell, travelled on behalf of CCF projects. Crosland worked with Daniel Bell, who took official leave as labor editor of Luce's Fortune magazine to plan CCF's founding international seminars. Crosland also joined CCF's international governing committee. CCF funded Rita Hinden to expand the Fabian Society's official journal, Venture. When the British Labour Party beat the Conservatives at the polls in 1964, there were half a dozen regular Encounter writers placed in Harold Wilson's new government.

CFF's Very Own Comintern

The working relationship between the British elites and their American counterparts, in what ultimately became the CCF, traced back to a 1948 tour of America by Arthur Koestler. Koestler was an experienced intelligence operative with a checkered past.

Born in 1905 in Budapest, as a young man he was an aide to Vladimir Jabotinsky, the self-professed Zionist promoter of Mussolini Fascism. When he was 27, he joined the Communist Party and went to Russia, where he wrote Of White Nights and Red Days, which was funded by the Comintern.

Koestler next operated in Germany, and was exiled to Paris when Hitler took power. There, he worked for leading Comintern agent Willi Munzenberg, and became an expert in running infiltration and neutralization operations against political organizations. In 1936, Munzenberg deployed him on a spy mission to Spain, where he was interned as a political prisoner. Though he was a well-known Sovet intelligence asset, it was the British who intervened to get Koestler freed. In 1938, he resigned from the Communist Party and went to Paris. During World War II, he was interned in France, and while in jail, wrote his "Damascus Road" repudiation of communism, Darkness at Noon. His book became one of the propaganda documents of choice for Dulles and company, circulated through the Congress for Cultural Freedom.

After release from prison, he made his way to England and joined the Ministry of Information, receiving British citizenship. When Britain created the Information Research Department (IRD) in February of 1948 to covertly fight the Cold War, Koestler became an official advisor and one of their most important agents. IRD purchased 50,000 copies of Koestler's Darkness at Noon and distributed them in Germany. Luce's Time magazine printed his book in the United States.

During 1948, Koestler was sent on a tour of the U.S. with the cooperation of the U.S. intelligence community. His purpose was to solidify a network of operatives who would recruit America's intellectuals, many of whom were former fellow travellers of communism, to help the Anglo-American elites fight the Cold War. Koestler first went to Paris to meet with André Malraux and Charles Bohlen, the newly appointed Ambassador to France, to discuss his trip. While onboard ship for the U.S., he had extensive meetings with John Foster Dulles. James Burnham, who would become the éminence grise at William Buckley's National Review, was his permanent escort.

Koestler established a working relationship with the CIA, and together, they targetted what the State Department called the "Non-Communist Left"—intellectuals and trade unionists who were disillusioned with communism, but who were still faithful to the ideals of socialism. In Europe they would target the Democratic Socialist movement. In the U.S., their targetting included many of the supporters of President Roosevelt's New Deal.

Koestler, along with the CIA's Michael Josselson and Melvin Lasky, surreptitiously planned the founding Berlin Congress in 1950 to launch CCF. Koestler also wrote the founding Manifesto adopted at that conference. Lasky, an American, was an expert in cultural warfare and had been promoted by German High Commissioner John J. McCloy. Based in Berlin, Lasky ran Der Monat, a German-language anti-communist cultural journal which became a CCF publication. Lasky was also the correspondent for Levitas's New Leader, as well as Partisan Review.

New Paradigm: Deindustrialization and Depopulation

Vladimir Lenin once wrote that the Western elites would purchase the rope to hang themselves. CCF's venture into economic and cultural "reform" proved Lenin's point. Through a string of Cold War-era study groups, seminars, international conferences, and books, the Congress became an early, leading promoter of the Malthusian ideas of the "post-industrial society."

In 1956, Daniel Bell took leave from his post as labor editor of Luce's Fortune magazine (the same magazine which promoted Italian fascist labor policies) to become the first director of CCF's Seminar Planning Committee.

In April 1957, the first seminar was held in Toykyo entitled "Problems of Economic Growth." Thirty economists from 12 Western, Asian, and African countries attended. According to Frances Stone Saunders in The Cultural Cold War, "The conference was the precursor of the impending shift by development economists from an emphasis on growth of per capita income to one on the quality of life, social justice, and freedom as the true measure of development." Bell would later author The Coming Post-Industrial Revolution, ushering in the consumer society, and marking the end of the American System of productive economic activity. The "post-industrial society" was the perfect vehicle for the burgeoning drug/rock/sex counterculture, which had been the long-term cultural warfare objective of the Congress and its Anglo-American Synarchist backers.


"Benito's Birthday," Time magazine, Vol. 1, No. 23, Aug. 6, 1923.

Coleman, Peter, The Liberal Conspiracy, The Free Press, New York, 1999.

Fortune magazine, Vol. X, No. 1, 1934.

Minnicino, Michael, "The Frankfurt School and 'Political Correctness,' " Fidelio magazine, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1992.

Saunders, Frances Stoner, The Cultural Cold War, New Press, New York, 2000.

Swanberg, W.A., Luce and His Empire, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1972.

White, Carol, The Plot To Destroy Civilization: The New Dark Ages Conspiracy, New Benjamin Franklin House, New York, 1980.

Zepp-LaRouche, Helga, ed., The Hitler Book, New Benjamin Franklin House, New York, 1984.

This article appears in the June 25, 2004 issue of Executive Intelligence Review.


This link has most of the text above then branches out to websites and pages which I prefer not to cite here

due to their Illuminati and Bilderberg tangential tirades. Caveat Hannibal Lector.




Tudda, Christopher J.

"Reenacting the Story of Tantalus": Eisenhower, Dulles, and the Failed Rhetoric of Liberation

Journal of Cold War Studies - Volume 7, Number 4, Fall 2005, pp. 3-35

The MIT Press

Christopher J. Tudda - "Reenacting the Story of Tantalus": Eisenhower, Dulles, and the Failed Rhetoric of Liberation - Journal of Cold War Studies 7:4 Journal of Cold War Studies 7.4 (2005) 3-35 "Reenacting the Story of Tantalus" Eisenhower, Dulles, and the Failed Rhetoric of Liberation Chris Tudda This article explores the relationship between public rhetoric and confidential foreign policy decision-making during the Eisenhower administration. President Dwight D. Eisenhower and his Secretary of State, John Foster Dulles, pursued two contradictory diplomatic strategies. On the one hand, they wanted to establish a globalist foreign policy. A key component of this strategy was "liberation policy"; that is, freeing the peoples of Eastern Europe from Soviet control. They believed they could best preserve globalism by "educating" the U.S. public and North American Treaty Organization (NATO) allies about the danger posed by the Soviet Union and the need for liberation. Eisenhower and Dulles consciously chose to use what I have called rhetorical diplomacy in order to achieve this goal. Rhetorical diplomacy involved the use of belligerent rhetoric in private meetings with allied and Soviet officials and in public speeches, addresses, and press conferences. Publicly, the Eisenhower administration embraced liberation policy while appealing to an audience of unilateralists, liberationists, East European exiles, and the East European nations themselves. On the...


Project MUSE ® | Search | Journals | About MUSE

Edited by John Bevilaqua
Link to comment
Share on other sites

John B, you posted today:

Draper's deliberate persecution of Alger T. Hiss between 1948 and 1951 with the assistance of his cohort in racism, eugenics and white supremacy, Nathaniel Weyl, who is still alive today.

[My emphasis.]


Edited by Tim Gratz
Link to comment
Share on other sites

Thanks for pointing this out to me.

John B, you posted today:

Draper's deliberate persecution of Alger T. Hiss between 1948 and 1951 with the assistance of his cohort in racism, eugenics and white supremacy, Nathaniel Weyl, who is still alive today.

[My emphasis.]


I cut and pasted this from the Hartford Township website where it was archived about 5 years ago,

when Weyl was still alive. Thanks for pointing this out to me. Read posts #2 and #3 and see if you

or someone you know can explain them. I have posted well over 100,000 lines of random fulminations

over the years and quite frankly lose track of them. And it was done using various email addresses.

Edited by John Bevilaqua
Link to comment
Share on other sites

Make up your own mind about this site... starting to get a bit complex and a bit arcane here...

Le Cercle http://www.gnosticliberationfront.com/le_c...mbership%20list

Le Cercle is a secret transnational intelligence and direct action group, that, according to all accounts, is funded by the CIA. We only know the dates and places of a handful of Circle meetings (1), which were attended by about a hundred persons at a time. Before the 1990's, it was called Cercle Violet, or initially, Cercle Pinay, in both cases after its (French) chairman. In later times, chairmanship of Le Cercle went on to the British. The Pinay Circle used to fight the spread of communism worldwide, at all costs, even in our own backyard. This threat largely ceased to exist when the USSR collapsed and the role of the Circle had to change. Today, its members are probably talking about "Al-Qaeda infiltration" instead of "communist infiltration", although looking at the people involved with the Circle, one wonders how many actually believe in the 'War on Terror' as a tool to spread "freedom" and "democracy". We will get to that later.

Circle members Nadhmi Auchi (together with Prince Andrew at the Anglo-Arab Organization), Zbigniew Brzezinski, Giulio Andreotti, Lord Lamont, and Frank Wisner, Jr.

In 1980, German intelligence chief Hans Langemann described the Circle as:

"... the Circle consists of a loose gathering of various conservative and anti-Communist politicians, publicists, bankers and VIPs that meets some twice a year in various parts of the world. Its origins stem from the former French Prime Minister Antoine Pinay. The Circle, which still exists today, also invites guest speakers... One recent development is the establishment within the Circle of a command staff or of an inner circle which then works out particularly suitable means for action on current political questions."

We first heard about the Pinay Circle in 1975, when about 1500 internal pages from the British Institute for the Study of Conflict (ISC) were leaked to Time Out Magazine. Later, in 1980 and 1982 (#37), Der Spiegel made references to this group and the involvement of Frans Joseph Strauss with it (Der Spiegel and Strauss were sworn enemies ever since the 1962 'Spiegel Affair'). The articles of Der Spiegel were based on internal memos from Hans Langemann, who was chief of security of the Bavarian Ministry of the Interior and Director of Security during the 1972 Olympics. Looking at the few papers that have been published, it appears that Langemann was informing persons within the German government about the clandestine efforts of the Circle to get Franz Joseph Strauss elected. How they ended up on the desk of Der Spiegel seems to be unknown. After Der Spiegel published this information, a few intelligence magazines and newsletters like Lobster and 'Intelligence' became interested in this group. Lobster Magazine wrote its first article about this group in 1985, followed by a couple of other articles in the years following. After that, Lobster would sometimes find tidbits of new information they shared with their readers. Since the late 1990's, information about this group has become more accessible due to the introduction of the internet and scandals surrounding Jonathan Aitken and Nadhmi Auchi.

According to Lobster in 1986, the Pinay Circle was created in 1969 by Antoine Pinay, Jean Violet, and Otto von Habsburg. Their exact source is unclear. It could be 'Intelligence', the original Time Out article, or author Roger Faligot (2). Anyway, this date has indirectly been disputed in 2003 by The Observer who suggested that the Circle was created in the 1950's, again by Antoine Pinay, but this time with the German chancellor Konrad Adenauer (who died in 1967) (3). Because the earlier Lobster article seems to have been based on some of the original ISC documents, and because they name a specific year, I consider this source the most reliable. However, looking at the Stay-Behind networks, it's likely that there have been earlier Circle-like meetings. In any case, there's no doubt that all the earlier named people were working together in the 1950's and 1960's in building up a United Europe, allied with the United States. Pinay and at least representatives of Adenauer were visiting Bilderberg and Jean Violet was already working for Habsburg on projects like the Académie Européenne de Sciences Politiques (ultraconservative Pan-European society). They also shared another very interesting commonality, they were all faithful Catholics. And not just that; Pinay, Habsburg, and Adenauer were members of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM) (4). Pinay, Habsburg and the less prominent Jean Violet have also been accused of involvement with Opus Dei (5). This is all the more interesting because Joseph Retinger, who recruited Bernhard and others to set up Bilderberg, was another Vatican agent; a Jesuit and likely a Knight of Malta (6). At the end of WWII, the Knights of Malta have been involved with smuggling nazis out of Germany with the help of the OSS (later CIA), an organisation they themselves helped to establish (4 / 7). In turn, the CIA funded the covert anti-communist war in Europe, including Radio Free Europe, the Economist, the European Council of Princes, the Gehlen Organization (8 / 9), the Stay-Behind networks (10), the Pinay Circle, and the overall European moverment. A lot of this money was funneled through American Committee on United Europe (ACUE), which was established at the direction of Duncan Sandys, Joseph Retinger, Allen Dulles, and William Donovan. Dulles and Donovan were top CIA chiefs and Knights of Malta, Retinger a Vatican agent, and Duncan Sandys a son-in-law of Churchill. Besides the CIA's clandestine efforts, the Ford Foundation and the Rockefeller Institute were the prime sponsors of the ACUE (11).

Undoubtedly, a case can be made that the communist empire was 'evil'. One only has to read books like Rummel's 'Death by Government' or Solzhenitsyn's 'The Gulag Archipelago'. On the other hand, another case can be made that the recruitment of nazi spy chief Reinhard Gehlen hasn't done the East-West relations any good. These days it is quite clear that this Circle member has been exaggerating the communist threat to justify his own existence (12). Then there is another unanswered question about the role of western companies and individuals who have been selling the USSR all the technology it needed to become a super power (13). Why was this allowed to happen? Why hasn't this been recorded in the history books? And how many members of the Pinay Circle were involved or aware of these dealings? Plenty of questions that will remain for now.

The other prominent force in Le Cercle is the British throne and the City of London. Undoubtedly, the British played a role in creating the Pinay Circle, but only in more recent years their influence can be seen. Antoine Pinay and Jean Violet have already been named as chairmen, probably the first and second. In different news articles of later years, three other persons have been named as chairmen of Le Cercle. First, Julian Amery (14), followed by his protege Jonathan Aitken (15), and finally Lord Norman Lamont (16), who is still the chairman of Le Cercle today. These three persons have in common that they have all been made members of the Queen's Privy Council (17), which in itself sends a pretty clear message across of who's involved. It also turns out that the father of Julian Amery has been one of the most crucial persons in establishing Israel, while at the same time conceiling his whole life that he was a Jew. Appointed to the War Cabinet by Round Table & Pilgrims Society member Lord Alfred Milner, Leopold Amery was the author of the final draft of the Balfour Declaration, which was sent to Lord Lionel de Rothschild. It committed Britain to the establishment of a Jewish National home in Palestine. Leopold was also a key player in creating the Jewish Legion, the forerunner of the Israeli Defense Force (18). Today's chairman, Lord Lamont has been a long time director of N.M. Rothschild and Rothschild Asset Management. All three men have a very interesting history and you can find more details further down in this article or on the membership page.

In addition, it might also be interesting to note that Queen Elizabeth II is head of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, the protestant counterpart of the earlier mentioned Knights of Malta. Both claim to have been descended from the medieval Knights Hospitaller, the organization to which all the Templar assets were transferred, together with a good portion of its members. Queen Elizabeth II is also head of the much more exclusive Order of the Garter and patron of the elite Anglo-American Pilgrims Society. The British royals are leading members of the United Grand Lodge of England, the British Invisibles, the Anglo-Arab Organization, and the 1001 Club. The British Invisibles promote the interests of the 'Square Mile'. The Anglo-Arab Organization supposedly promotes Anglo-Arab friendship, although it's headed by the very questionable Circle member Nadhmi Auchi. The 1001 Club is a fundraising mechanism for the WWF and a secret meeting place for businessmen and politicians from all over the world. So you see, good or bad, there's a lot of activity going on around the British Royals and the business interests of the City of Londen. Naturally, the intelligence part is even more hidden.

Known Circle meetings have been held in Washington DC, Lisbon, Paris, Zurich, Munich, and Muscat (Oman).

There might have been a good reason for the creation of the Pinay Circle in 1969. In the midst of the Cold War, on November 13, 1968, Russian leader Leonid Brezhnev told his audience: "When forces that are hostile to socialism try to turn the development of some socialist country towards capitalism, it becomes not only a problem of the country concerned, but a common problem and concern of all socialist countries." This statement was called the 'Brezhnev Doctrine' and ment that the Soviet Union would openly intervene militarily if any country under its control tried to push off the communist influence. Brezhnev had already made that clear 3 months earlier, when he quashed the rebellion in Prague. From now on, if a western country would convert to communism, it would probably take world war III to ever switch it back to a capitalist economy. These Soviet actions could easily have led to the creation of this covert direct action group. When you reverse Brezhnev's statement you'll find that it matches perfectly with what the Pinay Circle has been doing: "When forces that are hostile to capitalism try to turn the development of some capitalist country towards communism, it becomes not only a problem of the country concerned, but a common problem and concern of all capitalist countries."

On November 8, 1979, Langemann wrote the following (19):

Protected source contributions to state security. Personal for the state minister only.

"The militant conservative London publicist, Brian Crozier, Director of the famous Institute for the Study of Conflict up to September 1979, has been working with his diverse circle of friends in international politics to build an anonymous action group, a 'transnational security organisation', and to widen its field of operations. Crozier worked with the CIA for years. One has to assume, therefore, that they are fully aware of his activities. He has extensive connections with members, or more accurately, former members, of the most important western security and intelligence services..."

Amongst other points in the (Crozier) planning paper are:

Specific Aims within this framework are to affect a change of government in

the United Kingdom - accomplished.

In West Germany to defend freedom of trade and movement and oppose all forms of subversion including terrorism ...

What the group can do if financing is available.

Conduct international campaigns aiming to discredit hostile personalities or events. [examples that have been named are propaganda spread through the tv, lobbying, organizing demonstrations, or undercover financial support to opponents]

Creation of a (private) intelligence service specialising according to a selective point of view.

The establishment of offices under suitable cover each run by a co-ordinator from the central office. Current plans cover London, Washington, Paris, Munich and Madrid.

"As far as can be judged by outsiders Crozier has initiated with his group the project 'Victory for Strauss'..."

In the regular media Brian Crozier is usually only known as a historian, strategist, journalist, and author of 'The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Empire'. That Crozier has been recruited by MI6 and the CIA is less well known, together with his connections to most other European intelligence agencies (20). Crozier also worked for the Information Research Department (IRD), an intelligence disinformation service, which spread a huge amount of anti-communist propaganda through papers, magazines, radio, and television by using media outlets as the BBC and Reuters. Crozier would call them "benign deceptions". Brian Crozier was also the chairman of the anti-communist Institute for the Study of Conflict (ISC), which, through him, received assignments from the "Pinay Committee". This is according to the ISC's own documents, which were leaked in 1975, possibly to expose the role of the Pinay Committee. In 1976, Brian Crozier set up a covert advisory committee called 'Shield', in order to get Margaret Thatcher elected. The words of the committee became Thatcher's election campaign, which resulted in her election as Prime Minister in May 1979, 1983, and 1987. This is why Crozier's planning paper says "Change of government in the United Kingdom - accomplished." Just as her Cercle-supported American counterpart, Thatcher made sure that a strong anti-communist policy was followed, together with a policy of privatization of public goods. When Thatcher was elected, Crozier and the Pinay Circle started supporting the election campaign of Franz Joseph Strauss to become Chancellor of Germany. The Circle spread articles in newspapers and magazines to counter the scandals Strauss had been involved with many years earlier, saying these allegations were KGB propaganda. In the end, they failed miserably and Helmut Kohl became the new Chancellor.

Does this mean that the German people were blessed with Kohl? Maybe, but it's interesting to note that in 2002 the Observer reported about a classified BND report which accused Herbert Batliner (1001 Club), friend to Helmut Kohl and senior lawyer and fund manager from Liechtenstein, of laudering money for Kohl's Christian Democrat party (21). Whoever this person is, it's probably no coincidence that he is today's president of Pontificia Accademia delle Scienze Sociali located in Vatican City. Liechtenstein's ruler, Hans Adam II is a Knight of Malta, a member of Opus Dei, and a member of the Habsburg dynasty. It's hard to say if the Vatican and London factions are true rivals. Just take a look at someone like George H.W. Bush, he's close to both interests. Besides having funneled money to Kohl's political party, the BND also accused Batliner of having done the same for Marcos, Escobar, and Mobutu (1001 Club). As expected, Batliner has been cleared of all charges.

Another scandal Kohl has been involved with has to do with the illegal arms trade of the Thyssens, which involved many members of the BND. For the details, take a look at this biography of Walther Leisler Kiep. All these people are closely related. The son of Otto von Habsburg, Karl, married Baroness Francesca, the daughter of Baron Hans Heinrich Thyssen-Bornemisza (1001 Club). The Bushes and Harrimans were caught in 1943 shipping arms to Nazi Germany in name of the Thyssens. Today, George H.W. Bush has written the website introduction to Atlantik-Brücke, an important but low-profile German-US discussion forum set up by the Warburg family. Until recently, it was headed by the Thyssen-associate Walther Kiep. You keep going round and round. And just as Batliner, Kiep has never really been affected by the scandals he became involved with.

Back to the document above. Further down in it you can see how the Circle operates. Examples of point two, the creation of intelligence agencies, are the Stay-Behind networks, the CIA's Knights Templar (22), the Safari Club (23), Shield & The 61 (24), Group 13 (25), SFD-K (26), ISA (27), and Rumsfeld's P2OG (28). These agencies can be set up for any amount of time for any purpose. If they get exposed, you just start over under a different name with different people. Circle members Allen Dulles, Frank Wisner, William Colby, Stefano Delle Chiaie, Giulio Andreotti, General Stilwell, and probably Karel Meulmeester have all been involved in the creation or maintenance of the Stay-Behind networks. Circle members Allen Dulles, Frank Wisner, and Kermit Roosevelt were members of the Knights Templar. Circle members Alexandre de Marenches and Kermit Roosevelt set up the Safari Club. Circle member Brian Crozier set up Shield and The 61. Who set up the assassination squad Group 13 is unknown. Circle member General Stilwell set up SFD-K and ISA. Finally, Rumsfeld is one of those persons that just has to be a Circle member. Can't imagine it any other way.

Another paper from Langemann confirms the 'hands on' approach of the Circle:

"On 5 and 6/1 1980 members of the Circle met in Zurich to discuss executive measures..."

The main things discussed were:

(a) international promotion of the Minister President (Strauss) in international publications

(B) influencing of the situation in Rhodesia and South Africa following a European Conservative guideline and

© the establishment of a powerful directional radio station aiming at the Islamic region and including the border populations of the Soviet Union.

Earlier, I mentioned Bilderberg, an organization people often compare with the Pinay Circle. In 1954, Bilderberg was created as a secret unofficial discussion forum. Communists weren't allowed to join the bankers, businessmen, publicists, and politicians at these annual meetings. The purpose of Bilderberg was to bring Europe together, to strengthen it against the communists, and to keep it allied with the United States. Many people, including politicians, weren't too happy with the way the Americans acted ("like elephants in a porcelain shop") and the way they influenced the European economies through their Marshall aid. At Bilderberg, representatives from one country or from one sector could ventilate their frustrations with another party. The 'off the record', informal, and confidential setting made it far easier to work towards a solution. This was crucial in post-war Europe and since the aim is a United Europe allied with the United States it is still important today (29). However, the Pinay Circle seems to have been fundamentally different than Bilderberg. The Bilderbergers were more interested in resolving conflict with the usual political and economical means; by talking, standing together, issuing boycots, etc. It was, and is an extension of ordinary politics and ordinary business. In some cases you might call it conspiratorial, but all in all it's not that terribly exciting. On the other hand, the Pinay Circle is more of an extension of the international intelligence agencies. And not necessarily that part of the intelligence agencies that only gather information, but that part that is more involved with the 'hands on' work. That part that 'stimulates' regime change.

At the moment, we just don't have enough information about the the Circle to reach a conclusion, but when we look at the names we have available, we should be able to get a more detailed picture of what this group is all about. At the moment, we have the names of about 60 people that have visited the Circle at least once. Turns out that at least half of them can be considered controversial. (You can find many more names and details on the full membership list)

1. Jonathan Aitken Former Privy Councillor involved with brokering illegal arms deals on behalf of different British companies. Has a warm relationship with MI6. Former chairman of Le Cercle.

2. Prince Turki Al-Faisal Studied at Princeton, Cambridge and Georgetown (Jesuit) Universities. Long-time Bin Laden protege. Says he last met with Bin Laden in 1990, but has been accused of being in contact with him up until 2001. On November 1, 2001, The Guardian wrote, "Two months before September 11 Osama bin Laden flew to Dubai for 10 days for treatment at the American hospital, where he was visited by the local CIA agent, according to the French newspaper Le Figaro... [French] Intelligence sources say that another CIA agent was also present; and that Bin Laden was also visited by Prince Turki al Faisal, then head of Saudi intelligence, who had long had links with the Taliban, and Bin Laden..." Al-Faisal had been a 25 year head of Saudi intelligence when he suddenly resigned on September 1, 2001. In recent interviews, he avoided mentioning the U.S.'s & U.K.'s illegal weapons supplies to Bin Laden in the 1980's. Blames a lot of terrorism on Israel and the Muslim Brotherhood (which, looking at his past, he seems to sympathize with). Faisal, together with the ISI and the CIA, played a major role in bringing the Taliban to power.

3. Lord Julian Amery Former chairman of Le Cercle. Privy Councillor, protege of Jonathan Aitken, and former consultant to the BCCI. His SMOM brother was a Nazi propagandist in Germany and Italy and worked as a gun runner for General Franco. In contrast, his father was one of the most prominent founders of a Jewish 'homeland' in Palestine, while at the same time never having mentioned he was a Jew himself. Said to have been at a secret meeting with Nicholas Elliot (Le Cercle), Henry Kissinger (Le Cercle), and Prince Johannes von Thurn und Taxis (1001 Club) on Sharon's ranch on Nov. 15, 1982.

4. Giulio Andreotti Accused of being the true head of P2. Opus Dei member and a Knight of Malta. Said to be a member of the Priory the Sion (Monarchist templar organization. It is very possible that the history of the organization has been made up). Under pressure he was the first to disclose the Italian 'Stay-Behind' network - Gladio. Investigated for protecting and working with the mafia. Convicted of ordering the murder of a journalist, but was released immediately. He was later acquitted of the charges and still walks free.

5. Nadhmi Auchi Former member of Saddam's inner circle. Very involved with the British government, the British royals, and illegal arms trafficking to Iraq. Chairman of the elite Anglo-Arab Organization, which is attended by the British royals and kings of the Middle-East. A bit like Le Cercle it seems.

6. Zbigniew Brzezinski Very anti-communist national security advisor who set up the Trilateral Commission in 1973. Wrote a book in 1997 in which he more or less proposed to invade the Middle-East for its resources and push Russia and China out of area. Of course, the American people had to be 'pursuaded'. His son has been accused of financing the pro-Nato opposition in the 2004 elections of the Ukraine.

7. Anthony Cavendish Former senior MI6 officer, who acted as a consultant to Nadhmi Auchi's (corrupt) business empire. Involved in a lot of covert ops.

8. Lord Robert Cecil Lord Cranborne, 7th Marquess of Salisbury. Latest head of the very powerful Cecil family that has produced numerous members of the Order of Garter and the Privy Council since the 1500s, starting with Sir William Cecil. They intermarried with elite blue blood families as de Vere, Arundel, Plantagenet, and Cavendish. William Cecil and his protégé Sir Francis Walsingham devised the first version of the SIS (MI6) back in the 16th century. The 3rd Marquess of Salisbury and his namesake coordinated the Round Table together with the Rothschild family. One of the sons of this 3rd Marquess of Salisbury (again, exactly the same name) was a member of the Pilgrims and as usual another giant in the globalization process. There are rumors the Cecil family had a stake in PERMINDEX, which has been linked to JFK's assassination. For full details of this highly interesting family look in the membership list.

This Cecil, a Privy Councilor, married Hannah Stirling, niece of Lt Col David Stirling. Stirling was the co-founder of the SAS, founder of GB 75 (seemingly a short-lived psyop in 1974), worked with MI6 at times, ran Television International Enterprises which ran a security service for overseas heads of state, and headed Operation Lock, an assassination program in Southern Africa.

9. Paul Channon As trade minister he allowed a chlorine plant secretly to be sold to Iraq by the British company Uhde Ltd, in the knowledge that it was likely to be used to make mustard and nerve gas, which was used in the war with Iran at that time.

10. Stefano Delle Chiaie Fascist Gladio bomber who was a member of the P2 and a member of the SID (Italian intelligence). Involved in the failed 1964 fascist coup in Italy and indicted for the 1969 bombing of the Bologna railway station, which claimed the lives of 85 people and injured more than 200. He was released in 1989.

11. Jacques Chirac Close associate of Jean Violet and Alexandre de Marenches. Considered Hussein as a friend and sold him nuclear technology in the 1970's. He also agreed to train 600 Iraqi nuclear technicians and scientists. "Jacques Iraq" is the only Western leader to have personally met with the Iraqi president. He is said to have closed down the Safari Club after it's existence was discovered.

12. William Colby As a CIA employee he set up the Scandinavian Stay-Behind networks in 1954. Ran a covert op against the Italian communist party in the 1950's. Directed the CIA's Phoenix program in Vietnam. Involved in a coup in Chile as CIA director. Either Opus Dei or SMOM. Maybe both.

13. Brian Crozier CIA and MI6 employee. Founder and chairman of the London Institute for the Study of Conflict. Psyop and disinformation specialist. His secret Shield Committee got Margaret Thatcher elected as prime minister of the UK. Also set up 'the 61' in 1977, a 'private sector operational intelligence agency'.

14. Nicholas Elliot Officer in MI6's 'Section D', which specialized in sabotage and unconventional warfare. Member of Crozier's Shield Comittee and member of 'The 61'. Accused of having let his friend Kim Philby escape to the USSR. Sat on the board of Lonrho where he was accused of basically doing nothing of importance (besides being an intelligence asset). Stood in contact with George H.W. Bush at the time he went from being a CIA director to vice-president. Said to have been at a secret meeting with Julian Amery, Henry Kissinger, and Prince Johannes von Thurn und Taxis (1001 Club) on Sharon's ranch on Nov. 15, 1982.

15. Sir James Goldsmith His first wife was the 18 year old daughter of 1001 Club member Antenor Patiño and a Spanish Royal. Patiño didn't want his daughter to marry with a Jew so the couple ran off. His wife died of massive cerebral hemorrhage some time later. Goldsmith was nicknamed the 'Green Billionaire' and became deeply involved with British intelligence. Financed the founding of the radical Friends of the Earth movement in 1970. Accused of smuggling his friend Lord Lucan out of the country after this person was investigated for the murder on his children's nanny and the attempted murder on hs wife in 1974. From 1980 to 1982 Goldsmith was involved in a Circle coordinated propaganda effort in order to get the neo-fascist Franz Joseph Strauss elected as Chancellor of Germany. In 1990 Goldsmith bought KAS Enterprises, a private SAS front company that had been running Operation Lock under the supervision of SAS founder David Stirling (his niece married Lord Cranborne of Le Cercle). Operation Lock was an assassination program in the whole of Southern Africa which targetted anti-apartheid leaders. This operation was closely associated with the WWF's 1001 Club. David Stirling, Lord Lucan, James Goldsmith, and Tiny Rowland, were all members of The Clermont gambling club in the 1960's. It has been claimed that during this time these people were thinking about committing a facist coup against the labour government. Some of Goldsmith's other friends included Circle members Kermit Roosevelt and George Soros. In the 1990s he founded the Euro-sceptic Referendum Party. In 2003, his son Benjamin, married Kate Rothschild of the Rothschild family.

16. Otto von Habsburg Former heir to the Habsburg Kingdom. Said to have been sponsored by MI6 after his family was kicked out of Austria. His son married the daughter of Baron Hans Heinrich Thyssen-Bornemisza (1001 Club). During the Habsburg dynasty they were extremely close with the Thurn und Taxis family (1001 Club, Mont Pelerin Society, seems to have been involved with intelligence). Co-founder of the Pinay Circle together with Antoine Pinay. Long time president of the CIA sponsored anti-communist European Council of Princes until 1992. Member of the Knights of Malta, Opus Dei, Mont Pelerin Society, and said to have been a member of the Priory the Sion (Monarchist templar organization. It is very possible that the history of the organization has been made up).

17. Michael Howard For some reason he released one of Britain's biggest drug kingpins John Haase, 10 months into a 18 year prison sentence. A member of Haase’s gang, Simon Bakerman, imprisoned for running an amphetamine factory, is Michael Howard’s cousin. Described as being 'Dracula-like'. Together with Nadhmi Auchi and Prince Andrew he is a member of the Anglo-Arab Organization. Auchi is the chairman.

18. Henry Kissinger Accused of everything, convicted of nothing. Fritz Kraemer and Rockefeller protege. Member Pilgrims Society, 1001 Club, Bilderberg, Trilateral Commission, Council on Foreign Relations, and Bohemian Grove camp Mandalay. Had top positions in companies like J.P. Morgan, AIG, and Hollinger. Set up Kissinger Associates. Played a leading role in the 1991 Iraq gate scandal in which it was found out that 5 billion dollars of unauthorized loans had been made to Iraq. These loans were used by the Iraqis to buy weapons. Initial head of the 9/11 Commission, but it turned out he was a little bit too controversial.

19. Norman Lamont Longtime director of N.M. Rothschild and Rothschild Asset Management until 1995. Member of the Privy Council. Chancellor of the Exchequer. Became chairman of Le Cercle in 1996. Lamont was a director of one of Nadhmi Auchi's biggest companies, Compagnie Internationale de Participations Bancaires et Financieres, the financial arm of General Mediterranean Holdings. Vice-chairman of the International Nuclear Safety Commission (chairman Mikhail Gorbachev) and chairman of the Oil Club (monthly meeting of energy professionals). In February 2005, John Major and Norman Lamont were accused of holding up the release of papers on Black Wednesday under the Freedom of Information Act. Black Wednesday refers to September 16, 1992 when the British government was forced to withdraw the Pound from the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) by currency speculators - most notably Circle member George Soros who made $1 billion that day.

20. Alexandre de Marenches SMOM member who set up the right wing intelligence and direct action group, the Safari Club. In 1978, Le Monde claimed that de Marenches led a domestic campaign of terrorism and disinformation while being head of the SDECE.

21. David Rockefeller Accused of everything, convicted of nothing. Just as Kissinger involved in everything.

22. Kermit Roosevelt, Jr. Son of President Theodore Roosevelt. Headed Operation Ajax, which overthrew Mohammed Mossadegh of Iran in favor of the brutal Shah. Member of the 'Knight's Templar', an elite intelligence group within the CIA. Was one of the 5 founders of the African Wildlife Foundation in 1961, together with Russell E. Train and 1001 Club member Arthur W. Arundel. Helped de Marenches in setting up the secret intelligence group Safari Club in 1976. Crony of Sir James Goldsmith, who was nicknamed 'the Green Billionaire'.

23. Tiny Rowland Enemy of Dodi al-Fayed. Chairman of Lonrho and an MI6 intelligence asset. Financed communist rebels and regimes in Africa (unusual for Circle members). Close associate of controversial people like Ashraf Marwan ("Dr. Death"), Gaddafi, Ahmed al-Dam (financed the Abu Nidal Organization, which held numerous accounts with the BCCI), and Adnan Khashoggi (notorious international arms dealer with a large account at the BCCI).

24. George Soros Owns Quantum Fund, which is said to be a front for some of the Rothschild and Windsor investments. Financed the pro-western movements in Georgia, The Ukraine, and Russia, which led to several regime changes. Also named as an important instigator of the 1997 East Asian fires, the 1997 East Asian economic collapse, and the privatization of the Human Genome Project in 2003. Len Horowitz has documented how many of the crucial patents went to Rockefeller University. Trustee of the Center for Russian Leadership Development (Open World Program). Founder of the Open Society Institute. Close associate of Circle member Sir James Goldsmith.

25. Antonio de Spinola Headed the Porugese right-wing coups in 1974 and 1975. Eventually he had to flee to Spain. Frank Carlucci and Henry Kissinger approved the regime change.

26. General Richard Stilwell CIA and SHAPE official. Supposedly controlled the Stay-Behind networks together with General Lansdale (NSA / Northwoods / Mongoose). Involved with wrestling control of the South-American trade union movement at the direction of SMOM head J. Peter Grace and David Rockefeller. Has been named as an SMOM member himself. Created new army intelligence units like SFD-K and ISA. That last one is said to have been involved in drug smuggling and arms trafficking. Just as his son (died in 2002 in a car crash), he was a close associate of people like Richard Armitage, Frank Carlucci (chairman Carlyle), and Peter G. Peterson (chairman The Blackstone Group).

27. Frans Joseph Straus Corrupt neo-fascist German politician. Accused of taking arms industry bribes from the Thyssens (1001 Club). Died in 1989 on a hunting trip with Prince Johannes von Thurn un Taxis (1001 Club).

28. Geoffrey Tantum MI6 head of the Middle-East section. Met the disgraced Jonathan Aitken every six weeks.

29. Jean Violet Suspected of having been a fascist collaborator in France during WWII. After the war he became a member of Opus Dei and was involved with Antoine Pinay, Otto von Habsburg, Philippe de Weck, and the French foreign intelligence service. Named as a co-founder of the Pinay Circle.

30. Paul Volcker Chairman of the controversial Independent Inquiry Committee into the Oil-For-Food program. Member Pilgrims Society, visitor of Bilderberg and Bohemian Grove camp Mandalay. Former director of the CFR and chairman of the Trilateral Commission. Member of the Circle of Presidents of the RAND Corporation and chairman of the board of trustees of the Group of Thirty. Has been employed at the Federal Reserve, Chase Manhattan, Wolfensohn & Co., and Power Corp.

31. Philippe de Weck Chairman of UBS (now UBS Warburg). He was an Opus Dei member and an associate of Circle founders Antoine Pinay and Jean Violet. He also stood in contact with members of the P2 lodge. In the late seventies, De Weck was a key person in ripping off the French oil company Elf for a total sum of about $200 million. It is suspected that the money was used for political, catholic and anti-communist purposes, although this has never been proven. After this debacle, the pope appointed Weck to the supervisory board of the Vatican Bank at about the same time of the Calvi murder.

32. Frank Wisner, Jr. His father was an OSS and CIA veteran who set up Operation Bloodstone (recruiting of nazis to fight the war against the Soviets) and Operation Mockingbird (successful effort to subvert the US media). His father was also involved in coups in Iran (1953) and Guatamala (1954), an associate of communist spy Kim Philby, and funded a Hollywood production of Animal Farm, the animated allegory based on the book written by George Orwell. His father was also a member of the 'Knight's Templar', an elite intelligence group within the CIA.

Frank Wisner, Jr. is a career CIA agent, a vice-chairman of AIG, vice-chairman U.S. Bangladesh Business Council, and has been an ambassador to many countries. As an ambassador to India he was lobbying for Enron, a company he joined in 1997. He has been, or still is a director of the U.S. India Business Council, EOG Resources Inc., the AIG Investment Bank in Russia, Rockefeller Brothers Fund, Institute for the Study of Diplomacy at Georgetown (Jesuit), the American University of Beirut, the American University of Cairo, and Hakluyt (a London-based corporate investigation firm formed by ex-MI6 agents).

Most of the Circle members involved with intelligence have already been named. Some that haven't are Sir Dick Franks (director-general of MI6 1979-1982), general Charles Fraser (South-African counterinsurgency expert), Donald Jameson (former chief of the CIA's Soviet Division who was at least aware of the remote viewing projects), colonel Billy Maclean (MI6 officer involved with guerrilla warfare in the Middle-East), Thomas Twetten (CIA Deputy Director of Operations involved with planning an assassination on Hussein), Ion Iliescu (probable KGB spy who helped to topple Ceausescu). Iliescu probably visited the Circle only after the USSR collapsed. He met publicly with Brian Crozier and Donald Jameson during the 1990's. One other person I always like to mention is Edwin J. Feulner, today's president of the extremely influential Heritage Foundation, former chairman of the Institute for European Defense and Strategic Studies in London, and named as nr 45 of the top 50 most influential politicians by George magazine (number one was Alan Greenspan, number two was Dick Cheney). And keep in mind that membership isn't limited to people from Europe and North-America. Besides Prince Al-Faisal of Saudi-Arabia, the Sultan of Oman and the King of Jordan have also attended Circle meetings.

Circle members Otto von Habsburg, Antoine Pinay, Paul Volcker, Reinhard Gehlen, and Prince Al-Faisal.

A couple of examples of people that have (or had) a close relationship with the Circle are George Ball, Stephen Bechtel, William Buckley, George H.W. Bush, Frank Carlucci, William Casey, Alexander Haig, Fritz Kraemer, Victor Krulak, General Lansdale, Vernon Walters, and John Hay Whitney. These are right wing oriented people involved with known Circle members, the Institute for the Study of Conflict, different intelligence agencies, and / or the Knights of Malta. Then we know of some politicians that had a close relationship with the Circle and have been supported by it:

Richard Nixon 1969 Has visited the Circle.

Giscard d'Estaing 1974-1981 His campaign was funded by strange elements like Opus Dei and French templar initiate Jaques Massie. Massie stood in contact with P2 head Licio Gellie and was later murdered together with his entire family (30). d'Estaing lost the 1981 election from Miterrand. At that moment, Circle member de Marenches immediately quit as head of the SDECE.

Antonio de Spinola 1974-1975 Has visited the Circle. Headed 2 coups in Portugal against the communists with the consent of Circle members. They failed.

Margaret Thatcher 1979-1990 Came to power through Brian Crozier's Shield committee and one of her unofficial advisors was Lord Victor Rothschild, a Cambridge Apostle and (former) MI5/MI6 agent. In January 2005, her son Mark was fined half a million dollars and received a four-year suspended jail sentence in South Africa for abetting a coup attempt in Equatorial Guinea. This of course is very similar to Mark Brzezinski, son of Circle member Zbigniew Brzezinski, who was accused of abetting a regime change in The Ukraine in 2004.

Frans Joseph Strauss 1982 Crozier and Goldsmith were running a clandestine campaign to counter accusations against Strauss as KGB propaganda. Failed.

John Major 1990-1997 Circle members Norman Lamont and Robert Cecil were running his election campaigns. John Major has been chairman of Carlyle Europe, chairman of the Ditchley Foundation, a member of the Order of the Garter, and a member of the Privy Council. He is also one of the few Brits that visited the Bohemian Grove. Robert Cecil is a member of maybe the most powerful behind-the-scenes family in England. Since the 16th century they had many family members in the Order of the Garter and the Privy Council. One of his grandfathers was a crucial figure in establishing the Round Table.

Undoubtedly, many politicians have been targets of the Pinay Circle, but in the few documents we have, no specific names have been given. It is also unknown to what extent the Pinay Circle has been involved in discrediting political figures. Also, the role of the Circle in assassinations, arms trafficking, the drug trade, and possibly even conducting terrorism at home or abroad is unknown. Many individual members are heavily involved in this line of business, but it's doubtful that the Circle is used as a platform to discuss these issues. Looking at the 2005 speech made by Prince Al-Faisal, all these people are concerned about is human rights and peace on earth (31). Even though you might like his speech, let me repeat something important; Al-Faisal is the former Bin Laden protege who is accused of meeting with him in July 2001 together with the CIA and several of Bin Laden's family members (32). At the same time, Al-Faisal was accused of having arranged trips to Osama for some of these same family members (33). If that isn't enough, Al-Faisal also decided to leave as 25 year head of Saudi foreign intelligence on September 1, 2001 (34). Al-Faisal by the way, blames terrorism on either the Zionists (35) or the secretive and extremist Muslim Brotherhood (36). On the surface, the Muslim Brotherhood is a friendly charitable and harmless society, not unlike the Knights the Malta or Opus Dei. But even though it publicly denounces every terrorist attack, today it's generally accepted that the Brotherhood is the coordinating secret society for international Islamic terrorism (37). The founders of the PLO, Hamas, and Al-Qaeda were all members of the Brotherhood before they started their own terrorist organizations. Bin Laden and Zawahiri are just the figureheads of the Al-Qaeda branch, just as Arafat was the figurehead of the PLO branch, and Sheikh Yassim of the Hamas branch, that's all. We still don't know very much about the inner workings of the Muslim Brotherhood, although we do know that branches of it are protected by western intelligence agencies (38). The key to understanding international terrorism and crimes against humanity is to understand the world's secret societies. Le Cercle is probably quite important, but there many more.


[1] Meetings of the Pinay Circle / Le Cercle

[2] April 1986, Lobster Magazine, Appendix 2: 'The Pinay Circle'

[3] April 6, 2003, The Observer, 'So, Norman, any regrets this time?'

[4] Winter 1986, Covert Action Information Bulletin, #25, 'Special: Nazis, the Vatican, and CIA'

[5] March 11, 2004, Reseau Voltaire, 'Apartheid et anti-communisme, Les gentlemen du Cercle Pinay'

[6] Joseph Retinger, father of Bilderberg & Vatican agent.

[7] May 5, 1989, National Catholic Reporter, 'Who's who - Knights of Malta'

[8] September 24, 2000, New York Post, 'CIA Admits Long Relationship With WWII German Gen. Reinhard Gehlen'

[9] May 7, 2001, San Francisco Bay Guardian, 'The CIA's worst-kept secret'

[10] 2005, Daniele Ganser, 'Nato's Secret Armies'

[11] 2003, Christopher Booker & Richard North, The Great Deception, 'The secret history of the European Union', page 43

[12] Winter 2002, Lobster Magazine, 'How many divisions does the Pope have' (see also reference 8 & 9)

[13] 1986, Antony Sutton, 'The best enemy money can buy' (partial timeline)

[14] November 1991, Lobster Magazine, 'Another Pinay sighting'

[15] July 10, 1997, An Phoblacht/Republican News comments about a recent Independent article on Le Cercle

[16] 2005, Benador Associates, Biography of Lord Lamont says he is the chairman of Le Cercle since 1996

[17] Wikipedia Privy Council membership list (membership is for life. Aitken is one of the few who had to resign from it)

[18] February 1999, History Today, William D. Rubinstein, 'The Secret of Leopold Amery'

[19] November 1988, Lobster Magazine, #15, 'Brian Crozier, the Pinay Circle and James Goldsmith'*

[20] December 1993, Lobster Magazine, #26, Book review: 'Free Agent: the unseen war 1941-1991'*

[21] October 27, 2002, The Observer, 'Trouble in banking paradise as Uncle Sam's sheriffs ride in'

[22] 1977, David Atlee Phillips, 'The Night Watch'

[23] The Safari Club

[24] Wake Up Magazine, 'The Psyops War - British Intelligence and the covert propaganda front...'

[25] Group 13: Her Majesty's assassination squad

[26] General Stilwell's SFD-K

[27] General Stilwell's Intelligence Support Activity (ISA)

[28] Rumsfeld's Proactive Preemptive Operations Group (P2OG)

[29] NPS / VPRO, Andere Tijden, ' Bilderberg-conferentie 1954', first broadcasted on January 6, 2004. Includes interviews with Bernhard, Retinger's secretary, and recordings from the 1954 meeting.

[30] August 1984, Lobster Magazine, #5, 'Brief Notes On The Political Importance Of Secret Societies' (part 1)*

[31] June 21, 2005, Saudi Embassy in London, 'Ambassador talks to major foreign policy-security group'

[32] October 31, 2001, Le Figaro, Bin Laden visited by Saudi Circle member (don't forget this very similar event)

[33] November 05, 2001, The New Yorker, 'The House of Bin Laden' (membership list)

[34] August 8, 2003, Telegraph, 'Saddam, Osama and me'

[35] June 27, 2004, The Sunday Telegraph, 'Saudi envoy's Zionist claims 'are offensive'

[36] April 27, 2004, Council on Foreign Relations, 'The United States and Saudi Arabia: A Relationship Threatened By Misconceptions'

[37] September 11, 2004, Washington Post, 'In Search Of Friends Among The Foes; U.S. Hopes to Work With Diverse Group'

[38] November 5, 2004, Mad Cow Morning News, 'Bush Officials to 'reach out' to 9.11 Terrorists'

Some additional references

[A] November 11, 1977, supposed White House memo on Strauss visiting Cercle Violet

June 1985, Lobster Magazine, 'The Pinay Circle'

[C] October 1989, Lobster Magazine, 'The Pinay Circle and Destabilisation in Europe'*

[D] June 1994, Lobster Magazine about Anthony Cavendish and the Pinay Circle

[E] February 1, 1998, News Confidential, 'Jonathan Aitken MI6, CIA?'

[F] 1999, David Guyatt, 'Circle of Power' (plus additional emails from Guyatt)

[G] Winter 2000, Lobster Magazine, about the Sunday Telegraph article on Le Cercle

[H] May 2001, Punch Magazine, 'Spooks in the House' (thx to Lobster Magazine)

May 25, 2004, St. Helens Capital, 'Chairman attends Paris Meeting of the Oil Club'

[J] July 22, 2004, Parliament publication about Lord Norman Lamont confirms he is Le Cercle chairman

[K] September 5, 2004, Sunday Times, 'Le Cercle of the elite'

[L] Campaign Against Arms Trade, 'The Arabian Connection: The UK Arms Trade to Saudi Arabia'

[M] Mark Shernick , 'Did Le Cercle kill Diana?'

[N] Simon Regan, 'Who Killed Diana?'

[O] European Council of Princes (At this official site you can see how royal families like the Stewarts and Habsburgs are intertwined with the Order of St. John, the Order of Malta, the Ordo Draconis, and the whole Knights Templar theme)

[P] Some additional information about the strange 'Dragon genes' ideas of the European Nobles and Royals

* Some lengthier articles from Lobster Magazine that haven't been reproduced here.

Author: Joël van der Reijden

Written: July 26, 2005

Last update: April 10, 2006

Version: 1.5.2

Le Cercle

Incomplete membership list

Adenauer, Konrad One source. The Observer in April 2003 named Adenauer as a co-founder of Le Cercle in the 1950s (which was established much later according to other sources). Konrad Adenauer was a lawyer and a member of the Catholic Center party, he was lord mayor of Cologne and a member of the provincial diet of Rhine province from 1917 until 1933, when he was dismissed by the National Socialist (Nazi) regime. He was twice imprisoned (1933, 1944) by the Nazis. Cofounder of the Christian Democratic Union (1945) and its president from 1946 to 1966. He was elected chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) in 1949 and was reelected in 1953, 1957, and 1961. He served (1951–55) as his own foreign minister, negotiating the West German peace treaty (1952) with the Western Allies and obtaining recognition of West Germany's full sovereignty through the Paris Pacts and through an agreement with the USSR in 1955. In 1956, Adenauer chose former Nazi General Gehlen as the initial chief of the BND (to replace the Gehlen Org), West Germany's post-war intelligence agency. This was probably not only done on the "recommendation" of the CIA, but also to safeguard Europe from the communists. The political architect of the astounding West German recovery, he saw the solution of German problems in terms of European integration, and he helped secure West Germany's membership in the various organizations of what has become the European Union. In 1961 his party lost its absolute majority in the Bundestag, and he formed a coalition cabinet with the Free Democrats. In 1962 a cabinet crisis arose over the government's raid of the offices of the magazine Der Spiegel, which had attacked the Adenauer regime for military unpreparedness. Adenauer seems to be far less controversial than the average visitor of Le Cercle. Adenauer received the Magistral Grand Cross personally from SMOM (The Sovereign Military Order of Malta) Grand Master Prince Chigi.

Aitken, Jonathan Great nephew of Lord Beaverbrook. Attended the 1990 Pinay meeting in Oman and the June 2000 meeting in Lisbon. He served as a war correspondent (and MI6 agent) during the 1960s in the Middle-East, Vietnam, and Biafra (short-lived state next to Nigeria). For 18 years he was on the backbenches. Jonathan then became a Conservative Member of Parliament in 1974. In the 1980s Aitkin was a director of BMARC, a company which exported weapons to intermediary countries, who sold these weapons again to the intended countries (Iraq in that case). CEO of TV-Am and chairman of Aitken Hume Plc, a banking and investment group. In 1992 he was appointed as Minister of State for Defense. During this time he stood in close contact with co-Le Cercle member and MI6 head of Middle-East affairs Geoffrey Tantum. Aitken has been a chairman of Le Cercle. Protege of Lord Julian Amery, another former head of Le Cercle with a very significant zionist family history. In 1994, he joined the Cabinet as Chief Secretary to the Treasury, but resigned in 1995 to defend himself against accusations that whilst Minister of Defence Procurement (1993) he violated ministerial rules by allowing an Arab businessman to pay for his stay in the Ritz Hotel Paris (and a stay in Geneva). After telling lie, after lie, after lie, he was jailed in 1999 for 18 months (eventually he served 7), supposedly because he told a lie under oath about a 1500 pound bill. In the end it turns out that Aitken was lobbying for 3 arms contractors, GEC, Marconi and VSEL, in an effort to sell many, many millions worth of arms to Saudi-Arabia. His Saudi business contact was Said Ayas, who worked for Prince Mohammed, son of King Fahd. Through multiple offshore companies in Switserland and Panama, submarines, howitsers, medium-range laser guided bombs, Black Hawks, and EH101 helicopters were sold and shipped. Said suffered a minor stroke in early 1999, which impaired his vision in his left eye. Jonathan has chaired many Parliamentary committees and business groups including The British Saudi Arabian Parliamentary Group. Aitken is one of the few people who had to resign from the Privy Council. These days he has become a devoted Christian author and lecturer.

Al-Faisal, HRH Prince Turki Son of King Faisal, who was assassinated in 1975, and grandson of King Ibn Saud. His father King Faisal was a major force behind the Arab oil embargo against the United States in 1973. Faisal studied at Princeton, Cambridge, and Georgetown Universities. Chairman King Faisal Center for Research and Islamic Studies. Co-Founder King Faisal Foundation. Saudi ambassador to the UK who is promoting a peaceful version of Islam and is a big fan of expensive cars. He is a visitor of DAVOS and headed the Saudi foreign intelligence services from 1977 to September 1, 2001, which is when he "asked" to be replaced. As the head of Saudi intelligence during the 1980s, Prince Turki had several meetings with bin Laden, although he rejects any suggestion that he had dealings with the al-Qa'eda leader since the latter founded the terror group in the early 1990s. Faisal is named in a huge 911 law suit that has been launched by the victim's families against a number of Saudi princes, banks, and charities that are alleged to have funded the terrorists responsible for the attack. Faisal, together with the ISI and the CIA, played a major role in bringing the Taliban to power. In public, Faisal defends western intelligence agencies by never mentioning the role of the CIA or MI6 in financing the Bin Laden network. He did, however, talk about it at a meeting of the CFR.

Wolf Blitzer of CNN interviewes Faisal in January 2001 (aired February 1, 2001):

"The last time I met him [Osama Bin Laden] was perhaps early 1990. It was after the soviets withdrew and he was back in the Kingdom, and he came to say hello, and he had other projects in mind which I turned down at the time, because they were so extraordinary and unacceptable." (what kinds of projects, Blitzer didn't ask)

The New Yorker, November 05, 2001:

"Both Al-Fagih and Abdel Bari Atwan claim that bin Laden's mother has twice met with her son since he moved to Afghanistan, in 1996. Atwan said that a trip in the spring of 1998 was arranged by Prince Turki al-Faisal, then the head of Saudi intelligence. Turki was in charge of the "Afghanistan file," and had long-standing ties to bin Laden and the Taliban. Indeed, Osama, before becoming an enemy of the state, had been something of a Turki protégé, according to his biographers. Prince Turki, Al-Fagih said, "made arrangements for Osama's mother and his stepfather to visit him and persuade him to stop what he was doing...he didn't promise anything.

The second trip, according to Al-Fagih, occurred last spring [2001]...They wanted to find out his intentions concerning the royal family. They gave him the impression that they wouldn't crack down on his followers in Saudi Arabia" as long as he set his sights on targets outside the desert kingdom."

The Guardian, November 1, 2001:

"Two months before September 11 Osama bin Laden flew to Dubai for 10 days for treatment at the American hospital, where he was visited by the local CIA agent, according to the French newspaper Le Figaro... [French] Intelligence sources say that another CIA agent was also present; and that Bin Laden was also visited by Prince Turki al Faisal, then head of Saudi intelligence, who had long had links with the Taliban, and Bin Laden. Soon afterwards Turki resigned, and more recently he has publicly attacked him..."

In the 1990s Faisal worked closely with western intelligence trying to estimate the threat posed by Saddam Hussein and his weapons of mass destruction. He spoke to Le Cercle in June 2005, where he gave his full support for the Bush Administration's agenda and denounced Al-Qaeda and the Israelis. At other occasions he has said that the Zionists in combination with Al-Qaeda are behind the many terrorist attacks in his own kingdom and thinks that the same group is behind 9/11. He fully supports the Iraq invasion and thinks the Iraqis are now "masters of their fate".

Back in 1988, BCCI investor and Bin Laden's older brother Salem was a member of the equally secretive 1001 Club. Look for his bio in that membership list.

Amery, Lord Julian Son of Leopold Amery (1873-1955), who concealed his whole life the fact that he was a Jew. However, Leopold was extremely pro-Zionist. As political secretary to the War Cabinet (appointed by Lord Milner) he was the author of the final draft of the Balfour Declaration which committed Britain to establishing a Jewish 'National Home' in Palestine (this letter was sent to Lord Lionel Walter Rothschild). He was highly significant in helping to create the Jewish Legion, the forerunner of what later became the Israeli army. As Dominions Secretary in the mid-1920s, he sympathetically presided over a seminal period in the growth of the Jewish community in Palestine. The senior Leopold Amery is described as "a passionate advocate of British imperialism"; he was on the staff of the Times, and wrote a 7 vol. history of the South African War for the Times; served in the Cabinet from 1916-1922, MP 1911-1945, first Lord of Admiralty 1922-1924, Secretary of State for India 1940-1945, and arranged for India to have independence. He was a trustee of the Rhodes Trust.

His second son, Julian Amery, attended the 1990 Le Cercle meeting in Oman and has also been a chairman of the Circle. During this time he was a consultant to the extremely corrupt Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI) and a mentor to Jonathan Aitken, a later chairman of Le Cercle and another member of the Privy Council. Julian was educated at Eton and Balliol College, Oxford, before starting work as a left wing war correspondent in the Spanish Civil War from 1938 to 1939. Worked as an attaché for the British Foreign Office and, after the outbreak of the war, served in both the RAF and the British army. Churchill’s personal representative to Chiang Kai-Shek in 1945 (at the time that Baron Robert Rothschild was present there, at his own request, as secretary at the embassy in Chungking, the headquarters of Chiang Kai-shek's government). In 1950 he became a Conservative member of parliament and served in the cabinets of Harold Macmillan and Edward Heath. He also married Harold Macmillan's daughter in 1950, although politically he was at odds with him. Representative to the Round Table Conference on Malta in 1955. Representative to the Council of Europe 1950-1956. Amery was made a member of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom in 1960, and for over 20 years until standing down in 1992 was an active member and Patron of the Conservative Monday Club, where he became friendly with General Sir Walter Walker, subsequently writing the foreword for Walker's anti-Soviet book, "The Next Domino". Julian was an MI6 operative, although it isn't really known what he has been doing in this function. From different reports it seems that Julian was an avid empire-builder.

The older brother of Julian, John Amery, was a gun-runner for General Franco (Knight of Malta) and an Italian intelligence officer. He met with Jacques Doriot, a French Fascist leader and was recruited by the Nazis. In November 1942, he began making pro Adolf Hitler broadcasts in Berlin. In April 1943 Amery established the Legion of St. George and attempted to persuade British prisoners to fight for Germany against the Soviet Union on the Eastern Front. In the final months of the war Amery moved to Italy where he made propaganda speeches on behalf of Benito Mussolini. He also made broadcasts on Italian radio. Amery was captured by Italian partisans in Milan in April 1945, and soon afterwards was handed over to the British authorities. After being interviewed by MI5 John Amery was tried for high treason and hanged.

Andreotti, Giulio Former Italian prime minister and Knight of Malta. A member of the Christian Democratic party, Andreotti held a variety of ministerial posts throughout the 1950s and 1960s and first served as premier in 1972–1973. He subsequently held the premiership again (1976-1979), was minister for foreign affairs (1983-1989), and returned for a third period as premier (1989-1991). In March 1981, Italian police raided the villa of Licio Gelli, the ultra-right leader of P2. Although his files had vanished the index was discovered. Some of the headings included the Giulio Andreotti. Roberto Calvi's (Knight of Malta, "God's banker", and found hanging below a bridge in the City of London) widow fingered Giulio Andreotti as the true head of P2. Others fingered another Knight of Malta, Count Umberto Ortolani as the mastermind behind P2 (In December 1969 he met with Licio Gelli, Roberto Calvi, and others in Rome). Andreotti is also alleged to be a member of the Priory of Sion (one of the more secret monarchist Templar organizations). On August 3, 1990, after having been put under pressure by Italian judge Felice Casson, Andreotti was the first person to admit that there existed a secret army of "stay-behind" units in Italy. In the case of Italy this unit was called "Gladio" and it had been involved in terrorist attacks on its own citizens, while blaming it on left-wing groups. This is how the unknown control group (Le Cercle or similar) kept the communist influence out of Europe. Turned out that these were hidden away in the secret services of most western countries. In 1993, Andreotti was investigated for corruption and accused of protecting the Mafia. Indicted in 1995, he also went to trial in 1996 for ordering the murder of a journalist said to have incriminating information. In 1999, he was acquitted of both sets of charges, a decision that ultimately was upheld on appeal.

Auchi, Nadhmi Auchi's business empire, which has assets worth more than £1bn, is held offshore in structures whose ownership is difficult to penetrate. His holding firm, General Mediterranean Holdings SA, is registered in Luxembourg, and the Luxembourg and EU politician Jacques Santer sits on its board (In 1999, the Santer (EU) Commission resigned from their posts after charges of corruption. Santer is a Bilderberger). Billionaire Nadhmi Auchi is widely regarded as a corrupt supporter of Saddam Hussein's regime who got his money from doing deals, especially illegal arms transfers for Saddam. Auchi is a central figure in the U.N. oil-for-food program where both U.S. Congress and a special U.N. investigation are looking into massive corruption and a missing $10 billion. Auchi is a member of Saddam Hussein's inner circle and was tried alongside Saddam Hussein for his involvement in a conspiracy to assassinate an Iraqi prime minister in the 1950s. Auchi used money from military contracts in Iraq to establish close political, business and banking contacts in Britain, Luxembourg, and the U.S. The Observer has discovered that Auchi met Saddam's number two, Tariq Aziz, as recently as October 2002 at a gala dinner in Beirut. But Auchi also has links with British intelligence, through the former senior MI6 officer Anthony Cavendish (Le Cercle), who acts a consultant to Auchi's business empire. During the Gulf War II, Auchi was reported to have full run of the palace in the Green Zone and met with "everyone important," including CPA top leader Paul Bremer. Attempts by a French investigating magistrate to have Auchi arrested during corruption inquiries had been blocked by Britain since July 2001. In November 2003, Auchi was honoured by the catholic Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George and the Royal Order of Francis I. In April 2004 he was briefly arrested. In November Auchi, 66, was given a 15-month suspended sentence and fined £1.4m by a French court for receiving illegal commissions to help Elf build an oil refinery in Spain. Despite this setback, Auchi, a British citizen who lives in London, is forging ahead with the rebuilding of Iraq, his birthplace. The May 2004 Defense Department report said: "His first business coup was to broker a deal to sell Italian frigates to the Iraqi defense ministry, for which he received millions of dollars in commission. The deal to buy the ships and other military equipment from the Italian naval shipyards, Catiri Navali Riunit, sparked an Italian parliamentary investigation into alleged bribes. Investigators discovered that a Panamanian company owned by Auchi, the Dowal Corporation, was used to funnel alleged illegal payments." In the 1980s, he was investigated for his part in alleged bribes to the corrupt leaders of post-war Italy. In the 1990s, the Belgium Ambassador to Luxembourg claimed that Auchi's bank held money Saddam and Colonel Gadaffi had stolen from their luckless peoples.

Auchi is chairman of Anglo-Arab Organization (AAO). The July 2004 meeting was attended by Prince Andrew, the Duke of York, Michael Howard (Le Cercle), the Conservative Party leader and leader of the opposition, king Abdullah of Jordan, Sheikh Badawi (Islamic College of London), together with many political, business and media elite. During the 2004 AAO conference Auchi said: " [the organisation, at its core] is the desire to build on, and further enhance, the fruitful, warm and productive relations which have existed over so many centuries between the United Kingdom and the Arab world." Auchi stressed AAO's important role in furthering interfaith dialogue as well as supporting initiatives aimed at "further integration of the welcomed British Arab community into mainstream society." On one of the pictures Auchi is shaking hands with Prince Andrew and king Abdullah.

Another ambiguity of his relations with the UK is demonstrated by one of his mementos, hanging in pride of place in his office - a portrait of the houses of parliament which 130 MPs of all parties have signed. It was presented to him by the science minister, Lord Sainsbury, "on behalf of Tony Blair" at the 20th anniversary ceremony of his GMH company.

Brzezinski, Zbigniew Zbigniew Brzezinski is a trustee and counselor at the Center for Strategic and International Studies and cochairs the CSIS Advisory Board (located at the Jesuit Georgetown University from which Brzezinski holds honorary degrees). He is cochair of the American Committee for Peace in Chechnya. Earlier, he was a member of the Policy Planning Council of the Department of State from 1966 to 1968. Jimmy Carter’s National Security Advisor and an advisor to Ronald Reagan in the 1970s and 1980s. Zbigniew has always been violently anti-communist. He was a director of the Council on Foreign Relations from 1972 to 1977. In 1973, he set up the Trilateral Commission at the request of David Rockefeller. He was a member of the President's Chemical Warfare Commission (1985); member of the NSC-Defense Department Commission on Integrated Long-Term Strategy (1987-1988); and member of the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board (1987-1989). In 1988, he was co-chairman of the Bush National Security Advisory Task Force. Today, he is still one of the major influences in Washington. In 1997, Zbigniew wrote a book called 'The Grand Chessboard', which describes a kind of upcoming 'Clash of Civilizations'. His main points:

1. ”About 75 per cent of the world's people live in Eurasia, and most of the world's physical wealth is there as well, both in its enterprises and underneath its soil. Eurasia accounts for 60 per cent of the world's GNP and about three-fourths of the world's known energy resources.”

2. “The most immediate task is to make certain that no state or combination of states gains the capacity to expel the United States from Eurasia or even to diminish significantly its decisive arbitration role.”

3. ”It is also a fact that America is too democratic at home to be autocratic abroad. This limits the use of America's power, especially its capacity for military intimidation… Democracy is inimical to imperial mobilization.”

4. “Moreover, as America becomes an increasingly multi-cultural society, it may find it more difficult to fashion a consensus on foreign policy issues, except in the circumstance of a truly massive and widely perceived direct external threat.”

Mark Brzezinski, his son, was accused of undermining Ukrainian elections in 2004 (together with the NDI, Eurasia Society, and George Soros). Soros has been accused of doing the same in Georgia and Russia.

Brunello, Monsignor Vatican prelate and BNG agent. Can't find anything about this person, besides what has been claimed by the original author.

Burnside, David Wilson Boyd A Northern Ireland politician, and was Ulster Unionist Party Member of Parliament for South Antrim. In the 1970s Burnside served as Press Officer for the Vanguard Progressive Unionist Party. After the collapse of Vanguard he joined the Ulster Unionists. In 1984 David Burnside was recruited by the British Airways Chairman Lord King to become the company's head of public relations. In this role Burnside is widely acknowledged to have become one of the most powerful PR men in Britain, speaking for King, administering a £5 million budget and receiving numerous PR awards both in the UK and around the world. British Airways was witnessing the emergence of a dangerous rival, Richard Branson's Virgin Atlantic. Virgin, which began with one route and one Boeing 747 in 1984 was beginning to emerge as a serious threat on some of BA's most lucrative routes. In 1991, King is reported to have told Burnside and CEO Colin Marshall to "do something about Branson". This began the campaign of dirty tricks, masterminded by Burnside, which ended in Branson suing King and British Airways for libel in 1992. In January 1993, following the settlement and investigations by BA's lawyers the board decided to sack Burnside. He was awarded a settlement of approximately £400,000 and free first class travel on BA for four years. He later reentered politics and had some criticism on the IRA. He was invited to Le Cercle in 1997.

Cavendish, Anthony Former senior MI6 officer Anthony Cavendish, acted as a consultant to Nadhmi Auchi's business empire. He was still acting as a consultant in 2003 and could easily still do that today. In the past he worked with George Kennedy Young and James Goldsmith. Unison Committee for Action. He has been a long time friend of the former MI6 Director General (1973-1978) Sir Maurice Oldfield. In his memoirs, that have been partly censored by the British government, he defends Oldfield from charges that he was a Soviet mole. Supposedly, he also made the claim that 50% of MI6 is gay (In any case, Maurice Oldfield admitted that he "from time to time engaged in homosexual activities."). Granta Magazine, issue 24:

"In 19--, Anthony Cavendish was made the -------------- officer of -----, the British ------. In 194-, he personally oversaw the illegal invasion of ------- that resulted in the deaths of ----------- of --------------. What did Cavendish finally see that we are not allowed to know now—over forty years later? And why has the British government spent hundreds of thousands of pounds trying to keep us from finding out?"

Cecil, Robert Gascoyne Member of the very powerful Cecil family that has produced numerous members of the Order of Garter and the Privy Council, starting with Sir William Cecil in the 1500s. They intermarried with elite blue blood families as de Vere, Arundel, Plantagenet, and Cavendish. William Cecil and his protégé Sir Francis Walsingham devised an intricate spy network during the latter years of Elizabeth I's reign that succeeded in uncovering numerous Catholic plots against the monarch. Sir William Cecil’s daughter, Anne, married Edward de Vere, the 17th Earl of Oxford and a member of what was quite possibly the bluest of blue blood families in existence. De Vere had worked for William Cecil and the throne since a young age and was later rumored to have written the works of Shakespeare. Lady Diana Cecil married the 18th Earl of Oxford.

The 3rd Marquess of Salisbury was the Chancellor of Oxford University from 1869 to 1903, a fellow of All Souls, a British prime minister for 14 years, a member of the Order of the Garter, and a member of the Privy Council. Carrol Quigley described the Rhodes secret society and the Round Table Group (All Souls, Oxford) as the 'Cecil Bloc'. The 3rd Marquess of Salisbury and his family were really the prime movers behind this network. The 3rd Marquess of Salisbury grew to like Benjamin Disraeli, who he had previously distrusted as a Jew. Disraeli eventually became a housefriend to the Cecils and was invested into the Order of the Garter. Baron Lionel de Rothschild was another close friend of Disraeli. One of Cecil's sisters was the mother of Arthur J. Balfour (An occultist who wrote a letter to Lionel de Rothschild in November 1917 declaring that the British government stood behind zionist plans to build a Jewish national home in Palestine) and Gerald W. Balfour. Even today, the Hatfield House is the Hertfordshire home of the family, built between 1609 and 1611 by the1st Earl of Salisbury; a Privy Councillor and Knight of the Garter who was the Chief Minister to James I.

Lord Cranborne, 7th Marquess of Salisbury. Born in 1946. Attended Eton College and Christ Church, Oxford and became a merchant banker before going to work on the family estates. He began using Robert as his preferred Christian name from his 21st birthday. In 1970, aged 23, he married Hannah Stirling, niece of Lt Col David Stirling. Stirling was the co-founder of the SAS, founder of GB 75 (seemingly a short-lived psyop in 1974), worked with MI6 at times, ran Television International Enterprises which ran a security service for overseas heads of state, was gold stick to the queen, and headed Operation Lock, an assassination program in Southern Africa. Cecil was selected, unexpectedly, as Conservative candidate for South Dorset in 1976, where his family owned lands, despite the presence of several former MPs on the shortlist. He spoke at the 1978 Conservative Party conference to oppose sanctions on Rhodesia. He won the seat in the 1979 general election, the seventh consecutive generation of his family to sit in the Commons, and in his first speech urged Ian Smith to stand aside in favour of Abel Muzorewa. He attracted a general reputation as a right-winger, especially on matters affecting the Church of England, but confounded this reputation when he co-wrote a pamphlet in 1981 which said that the fight against unemployment ought to be given more priority than the fight against inflation. He took an interest in Northern Ireland, and when Jim Prior announced his policy of 'Rolling Devolution', resigned an unpaid job as assistant to Douglas Hurd. Lord Cranborne became known as an anti-communist through activities in support of Afghan refugees in Pakistan in the early 1980s, and sending food parcels to Poland. He was involved in efforts to fund the Afghan resistance. His strong opposition to any involvement by the Republic of Ireland in Northern Ireland led him to oppose the Anglo-Irish Agreement and contributed to his decision to retire from Parliament in 1987. However, he had made a useful friendship with John Major while in Parliament. After the 1992 general election, Major utilised a rarely-used process known as a writ of acceleration, to call Lord Cranborne up to the House of Lords in one of his father's junior baronies. Lord Cranborne was summoned as Baron Cecil of Essendon (his father's most junior dignity), though continued to be known by his courtesy style of Viscount Cranborne. He served for two years as a junior Defence Minister before being appointed as Leader of the House of Lords. In 1994, he became a member of the Queen's Privy Council. When Major resigned to fight for re-election as Conservative Party Leader in July 1995, Lord Cranborne led his re-election campaign. He was recognised as one of the few members of the Cabinet who were personally loyal to Major, but continued to lead the Conservative Peers after Labour won the 1997 general election. When the new Prime Minister Tony Blair proposed the removal of the hereditary element in the House of Lords, Lord Cranborne negotiated a pact with the government to retain a small number (later set at ninety-two) of hereditary peers for the interim period. For the sake of form this amendment was formally proposed by Lord Weatherill, Convenor of the Cross-Bench Peers. However, Lord Cranborne gave his party's approval without consulting the Leader, William Hague, who knew nothing and was embarrassed when Blair told him of it in the House of Commons. Hague then sacked Lord Cranborne, who accepted his error, saying that he had "rushed in, like an ill-trained spaniel". All former Leaders of the House of Lords who were hereditary peers accepted Life Peerages to keep them in the House in 1999. Lord Cranborne, who had received the life Barony of Gascoyne-Cecil, remained active on the backbenches, until the House adopted new rules for declaration of financial interests which he believed were too onerous. Cranborne attended the June 2001 meeting of Le Cercle in Lisbon, Portugal. He took 'Leave of Absence' on November 1, 2001. He was therefore out of the House when he succeeded his father as 7th Marquess on July 11, 2003. His uncle and namesake was chairman of the Supreme Economic Council of the Versailles Peace Treaty, member of the Pilgrims Society, first chairman of the Royal Institute of International Affairs, and a principal draftsmen of the League of Nations Covenant in 1919. The 3rd Marquess of Salisbury was possibly the most important founder of Quigley's Round Table. An older generation Robert Cecil, either the 1th Viscount of Chelwood or the 5th Marquess of Salisbury, is supposed to have said: "The Blood of Christ was replaced by the blood of the German war dead. From the Mayas to the Nazis, the shedding of blood to attract the attention of indifferent powers was the magic significance of human sacrifice. He would have sacrificed the happiness of the whole human race if ordered to do so by the mysterious Force whose commands he obeyed." This is very similar to what Lord Lothian said to the New York Pilgrims on the eve of WWII: "At bottom we are fighting a defensive war. We are trying to prevent the hordes of paganism and barbarism destroying what is left of civilized Europe." It is also similar to what Fritz Kramer supposedly said according to his son: "[He] publicly denounced Hitler's National Socialists as barbarian pagans and their communist rivals as proletarian thugs. He sometimes carried his small German imperial flag with its Christian cross of Malta into their street demonstrations..."

Channon, Paul Born in 1935, Channon was conservative member of parliament for Southend West until 1997 at which time, he stood down and was created a Life Peer. He served in the government as president of the Board of Trade and Secretary of State for Trade and Industry from January 1986 to June 1987 and as Secretary of State for Transport from June 1987 to July 1989. Seems to be a willing servant of the lockerbie coverup and during his time as trade minister he allowed a chlorine plant secretly to be sold to Iraq by the British company Uhde Ltd, in the knowledge that it was likely to be used to make mustard and nerve gas, which was used in the war with Iran. He attended the 1990 Pinay meeting in Oman. Additional note: Sir Richard Loose, Sir Adam Butler and Paul Channon had been at university together and they were the ministers of state at the foreign office, the defence ministry and the department of trade during the same time.

Chiaie, Stefano Delle Leading member of P2 and Italy's Secred Service, SID. Delle Chiaie collected information on people with anti-fascist and leftist ideas and sent this data to 'Avanguardia Nazionale', a secret agency he helped to establish. Delle Chiaie's name is inextricably linked to General de Lorenzo's attempted seizure of power in 1964, and to a long string of right-wing scandals and fascist outrages which plagued Italy for more than a decade. They include the abortive coup attempt by the "Black Prince" Valario Borghese in December 1970, the bombing of the Rome-Munich express in August 1974 which killed 12 and injured 48, and the murder of the magistrate investigating the bombing. Delle Chiaie also is inextricably linked to the Piazza Fontana bombing in Milan which killed 16 people, seriously injured 88 more, and directly led to the death of the anarchist Guiseppe Pinelli. The fascists elements in Italy were working together with those in Greece, which let to a fascist coup there in 1967. Delle Chiaie was eventually indicted for the 1969 bombing of the Bologna railway station, which claimed 85 dead and more than 200 injured, but was released in 1989. This media immediately blamed this attack on the communists and socialists, although it turned out that there was no evidence of this.

Chirac, Jacques Roman Catholic. Prime Minister under Giscard from 1974 on and liaised with Marenches. Giscard's spymaster on many matters, including the sale of nuclear technology to Iraq. By 1970, France was one of Iraq's main trading partners. Diplomatic and economic ties were given a crucial boost in 1974, when the then French Prime Minister, and current President, Jacques Chirac, called Saddam Hussein a personal friend. In December 1974, then Vice President Saddam Hussein invited then French Prime Minister Jacques Chirac to Baghdad. Chirac accepted and visited Iraq in 1975. Chirac is the only Western leader to have a personal knowledge of the Iraqi president. Saddam Hussein approved a deal granting French oil companies a number of privileges plus a 23 percent share of Iraqi oil. Chirac agreed to sell two reactors to Iraq. The Iraqis purchased a 70-megawatt reactor, along with six charges of 26 points of uranium enriched to 93 percent -- in other words, enough weapons-grade uranium to produce three to four nuclear devices. Iraq also purchased a one-megawatt research reactor, and France agreed to train 600 Iraqi nuclear technicians and scientists -- the core of Iraq’s nuclear capability in later years. 'French industry stands to lose', International Herald Tribune, March 7, 2003:

"The first, Jacques Chirac, described the second, Saddam Hussein, as a personal friend, showed him around a French nuclear reactor and invited him to his home for the weekend. It was about this time that the prime minister was nicknamed Jacques Iraq."

Mayor of Paris 1977-1995. Marenches and Chirac can be linked to each other through various dealings. Paul Violet, Jean Violet's son, would become one of Chirac's closest advisors. By at least one source it is claimed that Chirac closed down the quite similar Safari Club, probably after its existence became known when the Shah of Iran fell.

Clark, Alan Studied law. He did not practice however, and instead became a military historian. Controversial, irreverent, charming and vain, Alan Clark was one of the most colourful British politicians during the 1980s and 90s. Clark entered Parliament as MP for Plymouth Sutton in 1974 and served in various junior ministerial posts at the departments of Employment, Trade and Defence during the Thatcher governments of the 1980s. He attended the 1990 Pinay meeting in Oman. Clark was involved in the Arms-for-Iraq scandal, which eventually caused a landslide towards Tony Blair. At the same time he has cited in a divorce case in South Africa where it was revealed he had affairs with both the wife and his daughter. He temporarily left politics, but he returned to Parliament as member for Kensington and Chelsea in the election of 1997. He died in 1999 of a brain tumor, a year before his book 'Diaries' was published, in which he revealed that the Pinay Circle was funded by the Central Intelligence Agency. To date he is the only Member of Parliament to be accused of being drunk at the despatch box. To journalist Frank Johnson, Alan Clark is supposed to have said that: "Yes, I told him, I was a Nazi; I really believed it to be the ideal system, and that it was a disaster for the Anglo-Saxon races and for the world that it was extinguished. Oh yes, I told him, I was completely committed to the whole philosophy. The blood and violence was an essential ingredient of its strength, the heroic tradition of cruelty every bit as powerful and a thousand times more ancient than the Judaeo-Christian ethic."

Colby, William E. William E. Colby, the son of an army officer, was born in St. Paul, Minnesota, on 4th January, 1920. He attended Princeton University and graduated in 1940. In 1941 Colby joined the United States Army and in 1943 the Office of Strategic Services (OSS). The OSS trained him for special missions, and he served behind enemy lines in France and on one occupation helped to destroy a German communication centre in Norway. After the war Colby obtained a law degree from Columbia University in 1947. After working for a short time in a law firm, Colby joined the CIA. He served in Stockholm (1951-1953) and then in Rome (1953-1958), where he helped to arrange the defeat of the Communist Party in the Italian general election. In his 1978 autobiography, Honorable Men, Colby explains that he was sent to Scandinavia by Gerry Miller, chief of the CIA Western Europe desk, to build the Stay-Behind (better known as Gladio as this network was called in Italy) networks in Scandinavia. Some of his own words:

"[After WWII there was] undertaken a major program of building, throughout those Western European countries that seemed likely targets for Soviet attack, what in the parlance of the intelligence trade were known as 'stay-behind nets', clandestine infrastructures of leaders and equipment trained and ready to be called into action as sabotage and espionage forces when the time came... [This was carried out] with the utmost secrecy...Therefore I was instructed to limit access to information about what I was doing to the smallest possible coterie of the most reliable people, in Washington, in NATO, and in Scandinavia."

Colby was CIA station chief in Saigon from 1959 to 1962 and headed the agency's Far East division from 1962 to 1967. Then from 1968 to 1971 he directed the Phoenix program during the Vietnam War. It is estimated that as many 60,000 supporters of the National Liberation Front were killed during the Phoenix program, although Colby put the number at 20,587. Colby also maintained that the deaths arose in combat and were not the result of a criminal assassination program, as critics of Project Phoenix labeled it. On 4 September 1973 President Richard Nixon appointed Colby as director of the CIA. In 1973 he was questioned at a Senate hearing about the 40 Committee he was a member of. Here he admitted that Henry Kissinger was its chairman at that moment. When in 1975 both houses of Congress set up inquiries into the activities of the intelligence community, Colby handed over to the Senate committee chaired by Frank Church details of the CIA's recent operations against the left-leaning government in Chile. The agency's attempts to sabotage the Chilean economy had contributed to the downfall of South America's oldest democracy and to the installation of a military dictatorship. His testimony resulted in his predecessor, Richard Helms, being indicted for perjury. Colby was attacked by right-wing figures such as Barry Goldwater for supplying this information to the Frank Church and on 30 January 1976, President Gerald Ford replaced him with Admiral Stansfield Turner. In retirement Colby published his memoirs Honorable Men (mentioned earlier). This resulted in him being accused of making unauthorized disclosures, and was forced to pay a $10,000 fine in an out-of-court settlement. In 1996 (age 76), after reportedly going out canoeing in the middle of the night, Colby died under suspicious circumstances near his home in Rock Point, Maryland. He did not mention any canoeing plans to his wife, which he usually did, nor was it normal for him to go boating at night. Colby was found with no lifejacket, but according to his wife, he always wore one when on the water. Some people claim that Colby was preparing to leak sensitive information to them. Steven Greer of the Disclosure Project and Catherine Griggs of Colonel George Griggs were among those who claimed that. Colby had just lent its name to a small magazine called 'Strategic Investment', which did research into the death of Clinton-friend Vince Foster. The editors of this magazine think that Colby was murdered for giving the magazine credence.

Crozier, Brian Rossiter London-based historian and strategist, intelligence chief, psyop and disinformation specialist, and violently anti-communist. Worked as a journalist for many different papers since 1936 and according to Der Spiegel, the Langemann papers, and other sources he was employed by the CIA. In 1954 Crozier joined The Economist, which, according to Lobster Magazine in 1986, increasingly looked like an outpost of British intelligence. In 1958, he became editor of the Economist Foreign Report. Distinguished Visiting Fellow at the Hoover Institution (Right wing institute. Very prominent at the Bohemian Grove). Crozier worked for the secretive Information Research Department (IRD, existed from 1948 to 1977), a disinformation service tied to British Intelligence. In their book on the IRD, Lashmar and Oliver note that "the vast IRD enterprise had one sole aim: To spread its ceaseless propaganda output (i.e. a mixture of outright lies and distorted facts) among top-ranking journalists who worked for major agencies, papers and magazines, including Reuters and the BBC, as well as every other available channel. It worked abroad to discredit communist parties in Western Europe which might gain a share of power by entirely democratic means, and at home to discredit the British Left". Crozier was the founder and chairman of the London Institute for the Study of Conflict up to 1979. The Institute for the Study of Conflict was set up to study urban terrorism, guerrilla warfare, and the threat of communism. It received assignments from the Pinay Circle. In 1976, Brian Crozier set up a covert advisory committee called 'Shield', in order to secretly brief Margaret Thatcher (Order of the Garter) and her closest colleagues on security and intelligence. The papers he wrote became Thatcher's election campaign, who was elected in 1979, 1983, and 1987 as Prime Minister. Lord Carrington (Order of the Garter, Privy Council, Pilgrims Society, chairman Bilderberg) was also privy to the information. The Shield Committee was composed of Crozier, MI6 agent Stephen Hastings MP, Conservative backbencher Nicholas Elliott and Harry Sporborg of Hambros Bank. In February of 1977, Crozier created 'The 61' and included Nicholas Elliott, General Vernon Walters (former Deputy Director of the CIA and later to emerge as President Reagan's ambassador to the UN) and "a leading figure in a major City of London bank". They met to create a 'Private Sector Operational Intelligence' agency whose main aims would be "to provide reliable intelligence in areas which governments are barred from investigating, either through legislation or because political circumstances make such enquiries difficult or potentially embarrassing, and to conduct secret counter-subversive operations in any country in which such actions are deemed feasible." The initial budget of the group was $5 million a year. In another secret memorandum dated 8th November 1979 and addressed "Personal for the state minister only". The National Review writes about Crozier's book, 'The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Empire': "What the sweep of Crozier's text brings out most clearly is how real the Soviet empire was. Lenin may have conceived it originally in ideological terms as a secular Catholicism with the Kremlin as its Vatican. But centralized power very soon became the primary goal, and his successors, Stalin, Khrushchev, and Brezhnev, pursued an imperial strategy in the most brutal and unambiguous way... The Brezhnev Doctrine claimed the Soviet Union's right to intervene in the affairs of any Communist country that moved "in the direction of the restoration of the capitalist system."

Duncan, Alan Before beginning his political career he became a millionaire as a trader of oil and refined products first with Shell and then with an independent commodity company, but he remained involved in politics as an active member of Battersea Conservative Association. Between the years of 1984 and 1986 he lived in Singapore. Member of Parliament for Rutland and Melton. since 1992. From 1993 to 1995 he sat on the Social Security Select Committee, his first governmental position was as Parliamentary Private Secretary to the Minister of Health, a position he obtained in December 1993 and resigned from in January 1994 after it was revealed that he had made a 50,000 pound profit exploiting right-to-buy legislation to buy his neighbour's council house in Westminster. When co-Le Cercle member and arms dealer Jonathan Aitken sued the Guardian two years ago, Alan Duncan defended Aitken by stating he was a "good and honourable man. I think he has struck a rich vein and good for him for taking a stand. There is not enough courage around and he has shown he's got it" (another Circle member, Michael Howard, did the same). In July of 1995 he was appointed Parliamentary Private Secretary to the Chairman of the Conservative Party, Dr Brian Mawhinney. In June 1997 he was entrusted with the positions of Vice Chairman of the Conservative Party and Parliamentary Political Secretary to the Party Leader. In June 1999 he was made Shadow Trade and Industry Spokesman. Attended the June 2001 meeting of Le Cercle in Lisbon, Portugal. In September 2001, he was appointed a Frontbench Spokesman for Foreign & Commonwealth Affairs. In November 2003, he became Shadow Secretary of State for Constitutional Affairs. In September 2004, he was appointed Shadow Secretary of State for International Development. He now sits on the front bench as Shadow Secretary of State for Transport, a position he has held since May 2005. Described as a libertarian, wishing to minimise the role of the state and abolish laws against drugs. He is on the council of the Conservative Way Forward group. Duncan is a passionate fighter against AIDS. In 2004 he said: "The poor of the world need deeper debt relief, better aid, and freer and fairer trade." Duncan is openly gay since July 2002. Together with Nadhmi Auchi and Prince Andrew he is a member of the Anglo-Arab Organization. Auchi is the chairman.

Elliot, Nicholas Elliot was an officer in MI6's 'Section D', which was created when WWII broke out. It's purpose was to perform more violent operations than usual, like sabotage and unconventional warfare. In 1962 / 1963, MI5 head Arthur Martin, after having interviewed the Russian defector Anatoli Golitsin, arranged for Kim Philby (MI6 officer - head of Soviet Affairs who turned out to be a communist spy) to be interviewed in Beirut in 1963 by Nicholas Elliot. Due to some of the comments made by Philby during the interview, Elliott got the impression that he had been tipped off to expect a visit from MI5. In turn, this led Arthur Martin to believe there still was a high-level communist spy within MI5. In January 1963, Philby fled to the USSR, a very short time after his interview with Elliot. Elliot also sat on the board of directors of Lonrho during the time that MI5 agent Alan Ball (son of Pilgrim and Bilderberger George Ball) was chairman.

Edward Du Cann, some time Chairman of the Conservative Party, Chairman of the Party's 1922 Committee, and, until 1991, Chairman of Lonrho, published an autobiography in 1995, Two Lives, which received little attention. He writes:

"Yet another dissident was Nicholas Elliot, a director of MI6, the man who botched Commander Crabb's underwater investigation of the Soviet cruiser Ordzhonikidze at the time of Kruschev's visit to the UK in 1956. A former head of station in Beirut, he travelled there in 1963 to obtain the traitor Kim Philby's confession. He succeeded in this, but then allowed his old friend from MI6 to escape to Soviet Russia. On the face of it these were two of the most monumental blunders perpetrated by British Intelligence since the War. Presumably the reality must have been different from the way in which the public perceived these events or he would surely have been dismissed in disgrace. For a while, until the shareholders of Lonrho dismissed him for his disloyalty to Rowland by an overwhelming majority, we were both directors of Lonrho. I never heard him make a single contribution of substance at any of our Board meetings. I always sat as far away from him as possible: he suffered badly from halitosis." Elliott has also been a Council Member of the Wilkinson / McWhirter / Ivens group, the Research Foundation for the Study of Terrorism. Elliot worked closely with co-Le Cercle member Brian Crozier, who included him in Margaret Thatcher's Shield committee and in 'The 61'.

Feulner, Edwin J., Jr. Dr. Feulner has studied at the University of Edinburgh, the London School of Economics, the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, Georgetown University, and Regis University. Feulner is the President of enormously influential right-wing Heritage Foundation, Washington’s leading public policy organization or think tank. Unlike most other think tanks, Heritage not only suggests ideas but actively pushes them in Congress. If you have any doubt that the Heritage Foundation is engaged in systematic lobbying, consider the words of Heritage vice presidents Stuart Butler and Kim Holmes, published in the 1995 Annual Report issued in spring 1996:

Butler: Heritage now works very closely with the congressional leadership.... Heritage has been involved in crafting almost every piece of major legislation to move through Congress.

Holmes: Without exaggeration, I think we've in effect become Congress's unofficial research arm.... We truly have become an extension of the congressional staff, but on our own terms and according to our own agenda.

Butler: That's right. As Kim knows, things have been happening so fast on Capitol Hill we've had to sharpen our management skills to take full advantage of the opportunities. There has also been an unprecedented demand on us to "crunch the numbers" for the new congressional leadership.

On January 18, 1989 President Reagan conferred the Presidential Citizens Medal on Feulner as "a leader of the conservative movement." Feulner also serves as Treasurer and Trustee of The Mont Pelerin Society; Trustee and former Chairman of the Board of The Intercollegiate Studies Institute; member of the Board of the National Chamber Foundation; member of the Board of Visitors of George Mason University; a Trustee of the Acton Institute, and the International Republican Institute. He is past president of various organizations including The Philadelphia Society and the Mont Pelerin Society, and past Director of Sequoia Bank, Regis University and the Council for National Policy. Feulner served on the Congressional Commission on International Financial Institutions ("Meltzer Commission," 1999-2000). He was the Vice Chairman of the National Commission on Economic Growth and Tax Reform ("Kemp Commission," 1995-1996), Counselor to Vice Presidential candidate Jack Kemp (1996), Chairman of the U.S. Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy (1982-91), a Consultant for Domestic Policy to President Reagan, and an advisor to several government departments and agencies. He was a member of the President’s Commission on White House Fellows (1981-83), of the Secretary of State’s UNESCO Review Observation Panel (1985-89), and of the Carlucci Commission on Foreign Aid (1983). In the summer of 1982, he served as a United States Representative to the United Nations Second Special Session on Disarmament (with the rank of Ambassador) where he delivered the final United States address to the General Assembly. During the transition from the Carter Administration to the Reagan Administration, Feulner served on the Executive Committee of the Presidential Transition. He remains involved in various aspects of foreign policy, particularly public diplomacy, international communications issues and international economic policy. He has served on the United States delegations to several meetings of the IMF/World Bank group. Feulner is a member of the Bohemian Grove and a former chairman of the Institute for European Defense and Strategic Studies in London. By Georges Magazine he was ranked nr 45 in a list of the 50 most influential politicians. Greenspan was one, Cheney was two.

Franks, Sir Arthur "Dick" Temple Director-General of MI6 1979-1982. Franks was reportedly a hardliner at odds with his boss, Maurice Oldfield (Director-General of MI6 1973-1978) who was, by the standards of the intelligence world, something of a liberal. During his time as head of MI6, Alexandre de Marenches, also a member of The Circle, was head of French foreign intelligence.

Fraser, Charles Alan South African General. Chief of the South African Army and G.O.C. Joint Combat Forces back in the 1960s and 1970s. Has written a dissertation on 'counter-insurgency measures' and how to avoid a communist revolution. The book he wrote around 1968 has set South-Africa's general counter-revolution policy up until the wall came down. Fraser believed that this counter-revolution "war" had to be fought by politicians for at least 80%. People who had a better lifestyle than the communists could offer, wouldn't be interested in a revolution.

Gehlen, general Reinhard Hans Langemann 1980 paper: "Gehlen, who was always interested in the undertaking [of the Pinay Circle], its figures, its personalities and its results, succeeded in recruiting Violet [the Circle founder and Otto von Habsburg agent] as a special agent and granted him 6000 DM a month for many years. He also claimed that this sum had been agreed with the former head of the SDECE, General Jacquier because Violet is also receiving the same sum from the SDECE." Major General Reinhard Gehlen headed the Foreign Armies East section of the Abwehr (German intelligence), directed towards the Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Gehlen had begun planning his surrender to the United States at least as early as the fall of 1944. In early March 1945 a group of Gehlen's senior officers microfilmed their holdings on the USSR. They packed the film in steel drums and buried it throughout the Austrian Alps. On May 22, 1945 Gehlen and his top aides surrendered to an American Counter-Intelligence Corps [CIC] team. Several weeks later they ended up in comfortable quarters at the army's Fort Hunt in Virginia, not far from the Pentagon. Here Gehlen negotiated an agreement (the 'secret treaty of Fort Hunt') with the United States which allowed his operations to continue in existence despite post-war de-nazification programs. The group, including his immediate staff of about 350 agents, and back in Germany in February 1946, became known as the Gehlen Organization. Reconstituted as a functioning espionage network under U.S. control, it became CIA's eyes and ears in Eastern Europe and in the Soviet Union. Hundreds of German army and SS officers were released from internment camps to join Gehlen's headquarters in the Spessart Mountains in central Germany. When the staff grew to 3,000, the Bureau Gehlen moved to a twenty-five-acre compound near Pullach, south of Munich, operating under the innocent name of the South German Industrial Development Organization. In the early fifties it was estimated that the organization employed up to 4,000 intelligence specialists in Germany, mainly former army and SS officers, and that more than 4,000 V-men (undercover agents) were active throughout the Soviet-bloc countries. From the early 1950s on, it seemed to most people that the Gehlen Organization had been thoroughly penetrated by the Soviets, as many operations and foreign agents were betrayed. In 1956, the Gehlen Organization became known as the BND (Bundesnachrichtendienst), the West-German intelligence service. Gehlen remained head of the organization until his retirement in 1968.

The recruitment of Gehlen has had a major influence on the cold war. The Soviets weren't too pleased with the fact that the west was employing former Nazis to fight against them. Gehlen received enormous US financial support on the basis of his supposed access to an extensive network of anti-communist activists stretching from the Elbe to the Urals. Little proof of this materialised. In 1942 Gehlen had been unable to predict the time and place of the Soviet counter-attack at Stalingrad. In his new role running a major US-funded spy organisation, Gehlen produced numerous reports claiming a Soviet invasion of the west was imminent, that the Soviets were building a fleet of flying wing jet fighters, that the Soviets were planning a huge submarine fleet to starve Europe into submission etc, heightening the tension between the two power blocs, and also giving Germany an essential role as a geographical balancing point in the midst of this struggle.

OSS officer & Pilgrims Society member Allen Dulles (Knight of Malta) played a crucial role in establishing the negotiations with Reinhard Gehlen. They were both involved with the Vatican rat lines, which brought several thousand Nazis to safety in Africa, South-America, but also the emerging U.S. military-industrial complex. Reinhard Gehlen and Allen Dulles are said to have been Knights of Malta, just as many other members of the OSS, the CIA, and the hard-right. On November 17, 1948 SMOM (The Sovereign Military Order of Malta) awarded one of its highest honors, the Grand Cross of Merit, to Reinhard Gehlen. In 1948, Reinhard Gehlen's brother was in Rome serving as the Secretary to Thun Hohenstein. Conveniently for Reinhard, who was negotiating with the U.S. for the preservation of his Nazi colleagues, Thun Hohenstein was Chairman of one of SMOM's grand magistral charities, the Institute for Associated Emigrations, and had arranged for two thousand SMOM passports to be printed for political refugees. Thun Hohenstein was also related to the leading German Knights of SMOM, and at a crucial time in an internal SMOM controversy after the war had received the active support of Prince Frederic von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, Honorary Chairman of the Silesian Association of the Order, the head of the Catholic Hohenzollerns, of which several members were Knights of SMOM.

Goldsmith, Sir James His first wife was the 18 year old daughter of 1001 Club member Antenor Patiño and a Spanish Royal. Patiño didn't want his daughter to marry with a Jew so the couple ran off. His wife died of massive cerebral hemorrhage some time later. Goldsmith was nicknamed the 'Green Billionaire'. Deeply involved with British intelligence. Financed the founding of the radical Friends of the Earth movement in 1970. Accused of smuggling his friend Lord Lucan out of the country after this person was investigated for the murder on his children's nanny and the attempted murder on his wife in 1974. From 1980 to 1982 Goldsmith was involved in a Circle coordinated propaganda effort in order to get the right-wing Franz Joseph Strauss elected as Chancellor of Germany. In 1989 Goldsmith joined forces with Lord Jacob Rothschild and Kerry Packer in an unsuccessful bid for British American Tobacco. According to EIR, Goldsmith bought KAS Enterprises in 1990, a private SAS front company that had been running Operation Lock under the supervision of David Stirling (his niece married Lord Cranborne of Le Cercle). Operation Lock was an assassination program in the whole of Southern Africa which targetted anti-apartheid leaders. This operation was closely associated with the WWF's 1001 Club. David Stirling, Lord Lucan, James Goldsmith, and Tiny Rowland, were all members of The Clermont gambling club in the 1960's. It has been claimed that during this time these people were thinking about committing a facist coup agaist the labour government. Some of Goldsmith's other friends included Circle members Kermit Roosevelt and George Soros. In the 1990s he founded the Euro-sceptic Referendum Party. In 2003, his son Benjamin, married Kate Rothschild of the Rothschild family.

Habsburg, Otto von Born in Lower Austria in 1912 as a member of the Royal House of Habsburg. The Habsburg dynasty was extremely close with the Thurn und Taxis family (1001 Club, Mont Pelerin Society, seems to have been involved with intelligence) and the Vatican. During WWI his family lost the throne of the Habsburg kingdom. The Austrian parliament had officially expelled the Habsburg dynasty and confiscated all its official property. It has been said by some researchers that the impoverished Otto was subsidized to the tune of £50,000 a month by MI6 chief Stewart Menzies (1939-1953). Spent most of the war years in Washington, D.C. (1940-1944), after escaping from Austria to Portugal with a visa issued by the Portuguese consul in Bordeaux Aristides Sousa Mendes. Opposed the Nazi "Anschluss" of Austria of 1938 and went to the US. After the war, he lived in exile in France and Spain. Married Princess Regina Von Sachsen-Meiningen in 1951 with the blessing of Pius XII. Vice-president of the Internationale Paneuropa-Union 1957-1972, working under Count Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi. In 1961, Otto finally renounced all claims to the Austrian throne and was eventually allowed to return to his home country in 1966. It is said he helped to erect a secret intelligence group, the Pinay Circle, together with Jean Violet and Antoine Pinay in the late 1960s. When Coudenhove-Kalergi died in 1972, Otto followed him up as president of the Internationale Paneuropa-Union. He still served in this position in the early 21th century. Otto established the Académie Européenne de Sciences Politiques located in Brussels, an ultraconservative Pan-European society. It was managed by Pinay Circle member Jean Violet. Member of the European Parliament for the CSU 1979-1999. Long time president of the anti-communist European Council of Princes until 1992, when the Stewart dynasty took over (Prince Michael Stewart - Order of Malta; Grand Protector of the Order of the Dragon; Grand Master of the Knights Templar; Archpriest of the Celtic Church). Count Otto von Habsburg has been named as a member of the Priory of Sion (supposedly one of the more secret monarchist Templar organizations), a member of the Order of Malta, a member of the Order of the Dragon, a member of Opus Dei, and a member of the Mont Pelerin Society. Prominent Catholic and a patron of the Augustan Society. Former sovereign of the Order of the Golden Fleece, which has now become his son. King Juan Carlos of Spain is head of the only other Order of the Golden Fleece. He and his wife reside at the "Villa Austria" in Pöcking, Bavaria, Germany. When Otto von Habsburg visited the United States in April 2005, one of the few people he spoke with, besides the general meetings, was Henry Kissinger.

Otto von Habsburg's oldest son Karl Habsburg (b. 1961), who is to be the future head of the Habsburg family, married Baroness Francesca of Thyssen-Bornemisza in 1993. Baroness Francesca is the daughter of Baron Hans Heinrich Thyssen-Bornemisza, who was a member of the 1001 Club.

The Habsburg Empire did not entirely end after WWI. Currently HSH Prince Hans Adam II of of Liechtenstein is a Habsburg monarch. He has close ties to the Vatican, is a member of the Knights of Malta, and at least a supporter of Opus Dei.

Howard, Michael He was called to the Bar (Inner Temple) in 1964 and specialised in employment law and planning issues. The late 1960s saw his promotion within the Bow Group where he became Chairman in 1970 shortly after the general election in which he was again defeated at Edge Hill. Howard entered the Government early, becoming Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State at the Department of Trade and Industry in 1985 with responsibility for regulating the financial dealings of the City of London. This junior post became very important as he oversaw the Big Bang introduction of new technology in 1986. After the 1987 election he became Minister for Local Government where he became involved in two major political controversies. On behalf of the Government, he accepted the amendment which became Section 28, and defended its inclusion. He then guided through the House of Commons the Local Government Finance Act 1988 which brought in Mrs Thatcher's new system of local taxation, officially known as the Community Charge but almost universally nicknamed the poll tax. Howard personally supported the tax and was respected by Mrs Thatcher for minimising the rebellion against it within the Conservative Party. After a period as Minister for Water and Planning in 1988/89, in which time he was responsible for implementing water privatization in England and Wales, Howard was promoted to the Cabinet as Secretary of State for Employment in January 1990 when Norman Fowler resigned "to spend more time with his family". Howard therefore took on responsibility for legislation abolishing the closed shop. He campaigned vigorously for Mrs Thatcher in the leadership contest following her resignation in November 1990. He retained the same cabinet post under John Major and made many attacks on trade union power as part of the 1992 general election campaign. His work in the campaign led to his appointment as Secretary of State for the Environment in the reshuffle after the election. He undertook some diplomacy to encourage the United States to participate in the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, but was soon after appointed as Secretary of State for the Home Department in a 1993 reshuffle initiated by the sacking of Norman Lamont. His tenure as Home Secretary was especially notable for his tough approach to crime, which he summed up in the soundbite "Prison works". When he was Home Secretary he released high-level drug dealer John Haase from prison just 10 months into an 18-year sentence, along with his associate Paul Bennett. Haase's criminal career began with armed robberies in the 1970s. He moved on when he realised there was much more money to be made in heroin. He took control of the British end of the southern route for heroin smugglers, which runs from Afghanistan to Britain via Turkey and the Balkans. A member of Haase’s gang, Simon Bakerman, imprisoned for running an amphetamine factory, is Michael Howard’s cousin. His reputation was dented in 1996 when a critical inquiry into a series of prison escapes was published. In advance of the publication Howard made statements to assign blame to the prison service. Ann Widdecombe, his former junior minister in the Home Office, made a statement to Parliament about the dismissal of then Director of the Prison Service, Derek Lewis and famously remarked of Howard that "there is something of the night about him", a bitter and widely quoted comment that fatally damaged his 1997 bid for the Conservative Party leadership. The comment was taken as a "bitchy" reference to his dour demeanour, which she was implying was sinister and almost Dracula-like, related to his Romanian ancestry. Attended the June 2001 meeting of Le Cercle in Lisbon, Portugal. After the 2001 General Election Howard was recalled to frontline politics when the Conservatives' new leader Iain Duncan Smith appointed him as Shadow Chancellor. After Duncan Smith was removed from the leadership by the parliamentary party, Howard was elected unopposed as leader of the party in 2003. In February 2004, Howard called on Tony Blair to resign over the Iraq war, because he had failed to ask "basic questions" regarding WMD claims and misled Parliament. In July the Tory leader stated that he would not have voted for the motion that authorised the Iraq war had he known the quality of intelligence information on which the WMD claims were based. At the same time, he said he still believed in the Iraq invasion was right because "the prize of a stable Iraq was worth striving for". His criticism of Blair did not earn Howard sympathies in Washington, where President Bush refused to meet him; Karl Rove is reported to have told Howard: "You can forget about meeting the president full stop. Don't bother coming." Howard is an old friend and cabinet colleague of Cercle member and Arms dealer Jonathan Aitken. Governor of the Ditchley Foundation.

Huyn, Count Hans Hans Huyn was born in Warsaw, Poland in 1930. He was a German diplomat and high-ranking state official and CDU politician. He supported the South African Apartheid policies in Namibia, before it's independence in 1990. Member of the German Bundestag. In the spring of 1978 he wrote an article in the Journal of International Relations, titled "Rhodesia and Southern Africa: Decision for the Future of the Free World". Presented a paper called "Countering subversion, neutralism and pacifism" at the second annual world balance of power conference in July 1982. Huyn headed the german department of the Catholic aid organization 'Aid to the Church in Need' (kirche-in-not.org) from 1988 to 2005. Besides giving human aid, the main purpose of this organization seems to be to spread Catholicism to all corners of the world. At the moment Huyn is worrying about the rise of Putin and the communist influence in Russia. He seems to have a lot of respect for Henry Kissinger.

Iliescu, Ion Born in Romania. Studied in Moscow and became a communist politician in Romania. He served as Minister of the Youth Problems in 1967. However, in 1971, he was marginalized by Nicolae Ceausescu and he was sacked from all his political functions. Iliescu was the main political profiteer (and leader) of the revolution that overthrew Nicolae Ceausescu in December 1989, as he assumed leadership. Said to have been a KGB agent, which Ceausescu of course didn't know. Iliescu was the President of Romania for eleven years, from 1990 to 1996, and 2000 to 2004. His final term ended in December 2004, and his successor is Democrat leader Traian Basescu. Currently, Ion Iliescu is a Senator from SDP party. It is unknown when Iliescu visited Le Cercle, but as far as we know this would not have been that unusual after the wall came down.

Jameson, Donald F.B. Went to a Le Cercle meeting in 1980 in Zurich, Switserland. Chief of the Soviet division of the CIA's Operations Directorate in the 1950s and 1960s. He was an expert on the USSR and defectors. In the 1970s, he seems to have been involved in the CIA remote viewing project to spy on the Soviet Union. At the time, Jameson was a senior senior CIA Soviet specialist. Chief Executive Publishing in 2002:

"In 1986, deals with the Soviets were lucrative, wrote Donald F.B. Jameson, a former member of the CIA and vice president of Research Associates International, a risk assessment firm in Arlington, Va. "The Soviets pay above-market prices and pay promptly. Negotiating can be trying, even for the big boys," he wrote in Chief Executive in a spring article titled, 'Trading with the Soviets'..."But if you have what they want and are persistent, you may well end up with a good deal, and after having clone one deal, others usually follow. Trading with the Soviets is a race that goes to the strong," Jameson said."

Jameson was at a conference on 15 November 1991 where former KGB CIA officers spoke together in public for the first time. Other Cercle attendants were William Colby, Brian Crozier, and Hans Graf Huyn.

Kissinger, Henry Alfred Henry Kissinger was born in the Bavarian city of Fuerth. He was a son of Louis and Paula Stern Kissinger. The elder Kissinger was a school teacher and after Hitler's rise to power, the family immigrated to London in 1938. After a short stay, they moved to Washington Heights in New York City. Recruited by Fritz Kraemer during WWII. Served in the U.S. Army Counter Intelligence Corps 1943-1946. According to Hersh, Kissinger stayed on active duty in West Germany after the war and was eventually assigned to the 970th CIC Detachment, whose functions included support for the recruitment of ex-Nazi intelligence officers for anti-Soviet operations inside the Soviet bloc. Captain in the Military Intelligence Reserve 1946-1949. Went to Harvard in 1947, where he was picked by the Rockefellers, three of whom were overseers there at the time. Executive director Harvard International Seminar 1951-1969. Became an consultant to the Operations Research Office in 1951. According to Hersh, that unit, under the direct control of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, conducted highly classified studies on such topics as the utilization of former German operatives and Nazi partisan supporters in CIA clandestine activities. Became a consultant to the Director of the Psychological Strategy Board in 1952, a covert arm of the National Security Council. The first director (and primary founder) was Gordon Gray, who served in this position from June 1951 to May 1952. Under Eisenhower, on September 2, 1953, the role of this department was expanded and the name became Operations Coordinating Board (OCB). Became an consultant to the Operations Coordinating Board in 1955, which was then the highest policy-making board for implementing clandestine operations against foreign governments. JFK would abolish the OCB in 1961 although a similar unacknowledged structure would remain operational. Became known as the most trusted aide to Nelson Rockefeller in the mid 1950s, who by then had served as Eisenhower's Special Assistant for Cold War Planning and overseer of all the CIA's clandestine operations. Member of the Department of Government, Center for International Affairs, Harvard University, 1954-1969. Study director of nuclear weapons and foreign policy at the Council on Foreign Relations 1955-1956. Director Special Studies Project for the Rockefeller Brothers Fund 1956-1958, which worked out basic cold war policy manifestoes (hardline). They were in large part adopted by successive administrations in Washington. Author of 'Nuclear Weapons and Foreign Policy', released in 1957. Consultant Weapons Systems Evaluation Group of the Joint Chiefs of Staff 1959-1960. Consultant National Security Council 1961-1962. Consultant RAND Corporation 1961-1968. Consultant United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency 1961-1968. Consultant to the Department of State 1965-1968. Right-hand man to Nelson Rockefeller during the 1968 Republican nomination campaign. Nixon's National Security Advisor 1969-1973. Chairman of the secretive Forty Committee, the covert apparatus of the National Security Council, from at least 1969 to 1976, which oversaw the CIA's clandestine operations. Nelson Rockefeller, even in his Senate bio, has been named as an (earlier) chairman of the Forty Committee. As head of this committee Kissinger had access to more information than the other members and he is said to have distorted it at times. During this same time period Kissinger also set up and headed the Washington Special Action Group (WSAG), another very important foreign policy group. Committee Secretary of State 1973-1977. Made two secret trips to China in 1971 to confer with Premier Zhou Enlai. Together with David Rockefeller involved in setting up the National Council for US-China Trade in 1973. Negotiated the SALT I and ABM treaty with the Soviet Union. Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1973. Made other secret trips to China in later years to make extremely sensitive intelligence exchanges. Robert C. McFarlane was among those who went to China with Kissinger, in his case between 1973 and 1976. Negotiated the end of the Yom Kippur War in 1973. Said to have played a role in the 1973 Augusto Pinochet coup. Approved President Suharto's invasion of East-Timor in 1973, which resulted in a bout 250,000 dead communists and socialists. Suspected of having been involved in Operation Condor which started around 1975 and was an assassination and intelligence gathering operation on 3 continents. Director Council on Foreign Relations 1977-1981. Together with Cyrus Vance and David Rockefeller he set up the US-China Business Council in 1979, the sucessor to the Council for US-China Trade. Annual visitor of Bilderberg since at least the 1970s. Annual visitor of the Trilateral Commission since the late 1970s. Visited Le Cercle. Member of the 1001 Club and the Pilgrims Society. Visitor of Bohemian Grove camp Mandalay. Founder of Kissinger Associates in 1982, a secretive consulting firm to international corporations. Some of the first members to join Kissinger Associates were Brent Scowcroft (vice-chairman), Lawrence Eagleburger (president), Lord Carrington, Lord Roll of Ipsden, and Pehr Gyllenhammar. Some served until 1989, others were still active for Kissinger Associates in the late 1990s. Chairman National Bipartisan Commission on Central America 1983-1984. Set up the America-China Society in 1987, together with Robert McFarlane and Cyrus Vance. Appointed chairman of AIG's advisory council in 1987. Director of the Atlanta branch of the Italian Banca Nazionale del Lavoro (BNL) from 1985 to 1991. This was during the 1989 BNL Affair (Iraq Gate) in which it became known that the Atlanta branch had made $4 billion in unreported loans to Iraq. After the revelation, the money was said to be used by the Iraqis to buy food and agriculture equipment, but in reality they were buying loads of military equipment. His consultancy firm, Kissinger Associates, set up the China Ventures fund with CITIC in 1989, which would be in the same year that he defended the Tiananmen Square massacre, arguing against sanctions being placed on China. In 1990, he sat on boards of American Express, Union Pacific, R.M. Macy, Continental Grain, CBS, and the Revlon Group. Also a consultant to ABC news at this time. Member Atlantic Council of the United States. Member of the Council of Advisors of the United States-Azerbaijan Chamber of Commerce. Trustee of the Center Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), the Arthur F Burns Fellowship, the Institute of International Education, and the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Honorary Governor of the Foreign Policy Association. Patron of the Atlantic Partnership and the New Atlantic Initiative. Chairman of the Eisenhower Exchange Fellowships, the Nixon Center, and the American Academy in Berlin. Co-chairman of the Editorial Board of 'The National Interest' magazine. Chancellor of the College William and Mary. Honorary chairman World Cup USA 1994 (Kissinger has attended football matches with his friend and colleague Etienne Davignon). Named Honorary Knight Commander of St. Michael and St. George, 1995. Director Freeport-McMoRan 1995-2001. Director of Conrad Black's Hollinger International Inc. Member of J.P. Morgan's International Advisory Council. Former member of the Advisory Council of Forstmann Little & Co. and American Express. Advisor to China National Offshore Oil Corp (CNOOC). Member of the Europe Strategy Board of Hicks, Muse, Tate & Furst. Director of Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation. Chairman of the International Advisory Board of the American International Group (AIG), a partner of Kissinger Associates. Also chairman of the Advisory Boards of AIG Asian Infrastructure Funds I & II and a director of AIG Global. In 1997, Kissinger became the central advisor to the Business Coalition for US-China Trade, a group of about a 1000 leading companies willing to invest in China. In 2000, Henry Kissinger was quoted by Business Wire: "Hank Greenberg, Pete Peterson and I have been close friends and business associates for decades." Maurice Greenburg is head of AIG and Peter G. Peterson is head of The Blackstone Group, which is the other major partner of Kissinger Associates. Peterson is also a former chairman of Lehman Brothers. Kissinger is a friend of Lynn Forester and introduced her to Sir Evelyn de Rothschild at the 1998 Bilderberg conference. They would soon become married. After Pulitzer Price winning journalist Peter Arnett produced a CNN report on Operation Tailwind (a Vietnam operation in which US Special Forces allegedly killed US defectors with Sarin) in 1998, Kissinger and his friends called up CNN to demand that the news network should distance itself from the story (a story which CNN initially approved) and made sure that the producers of the show were publicly humiliated and fired. Arnett was fired again by NBC and National Geographic in March 2003 immediately after he said the Bush Administration was looking for a plan B now that Iraqi resistance turned out to be much more intense than expected. Within 24 hours the Daily Mail hired him. When Henry Kissinger is invited to speak at the United Nations Association on April 11, 2001 Lord Jacob Rothschild is flanking his side. Picked as the initial head of the 9/11 investigating committee in 2003, although he turned out to be too controversial to remain in that position. Henry Kissinger is a patron of the Open Russia Foundation since 2001, together with Lord Jacob Rothschild. The Foundation was set up by Mikhail Khodorkovsky, a controversial oligarch, later locked up by Putin. Honorary trustee of the Aspen Institute. Because of previous international attempts by European and South American judges to question him, he is known to take legal advice before traveling to certain countries in either continent.

Lamont, Lord Norman After graduating from Cambridge University he worked for eleven years for N.M. Rothschild & Sons in the financial City of London, and was a director of their fund management company, Rothschild Asset Management. After returning to the private sector in 1993 he became a Director of N.M. Rothschild and Sons Ltd until 1995. In 1982, 10 years after he made it to parliament, he became a member of the Queen's Privy Council. In 1996, he was named chairman of Le Cercle (he still was in 2005). Lord Norman Lamont has served as a director of Scottish Re since December 2001. After the resignation of Margaret Thatcher, Lord Lamont was Campaign Manager to John Major, MP, during the 1990 Conservative Party Leadership Election. From 1990 to 1993, Lord Lamont served as Chancellor of the Exchequer (Treasury Secretary), chairing the G7 group of Finance Ministers and the European Union Finance Ministers. Lord Lamont served as a Conservative Member of Parliament from 1972 to 1993, served as a Minister in the Departments of Energy, Trade & Industry, Defense and Treasury from 1979 to 1997, and became a member of the British House of Lords in 1998. When Norman Lamont retired from government he received a seat on the board of the financial arm of General Mediterranean Holding, which runs Le Cercle member and Saddam associate Nadhmi Auchi's many businesses. Lord Lamont currently serves as a director of the Balli Group plc, a commodities trading company that specialized in steel, petrochemicals and non-ferrous metals. He also is an advisor to Rotch Property Group Ltd., one of Britain's largest private property companies. He also is a director of Compagnie Internationale de Participations Bancaires et Financieres, Banca Commerciala Robank, European Growth and Income Trust, and Jupiter Finance and Income Trust. He is Chairman of the East European Food Fund. Currently, Lord Lamont is a Director of Scottish Annuity & Life Holdings Ltd, a reinsurance company quoted on the New York Stock Exchange, Balli Group Plc, the London-based international trading corporation, and a number of financial corporations. He has also been an advisor to the Monsanto Corporation and to the Government of Romania, and is Vice Chairman of the International Nuclear Safety Commission (Chairman Mikhail Gorbachev) and Chairman of the Oil Club of independent oil corporations. In February 2005 it was reported that John Major and Norman Lamont were holding up the release of papers on Black Wednesday under the Freedom of Information Act. Black Wednesday refers to September 16, 1992 when the government was forced to withdraw the Pound from the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) by currency speculators - most notably George Soros who earned over USD$1 billion in doing so. Arrived in Iran in May 2004 as co-chairman of a mission to strengthen the ties between Iran and the United Kingdom and to increase UK foreign investment into Iran. Has visited Bilderberg.

Machtenburg, Hans von This name is a pseudonym. A senior intelligence official of Germany’s Intelligence service, BND, and a member of Crozier’s "61". He had been exchanging full reports on Crozier’s secret get-together’s with Hans Langemann, formerly a senior ranking officer of Germany’s Intelligence Service, the BND, and latterly Head of Bavarian State Security.

Marenches, Alexandre de Marenches set up the Safari Club. He was head of the Service de Documentation Extérieure et de Contre-Espionnage (SDECE, France's external intelligence agency) during the right-wing presidencies of Pompidou and Giscard d'Estaing (from November 6, 1970 to June 12, 1981). In 1978, Le Monde claimed that de Marenches led a domestic campaign of terrorism and disinformation. It is fairly apparent that these activities were designed to keep the socialist Francois Mitterand from office during the 1974 elections (it worked). However, with the exception of the Langemann papers, and an ISC memo published in Lobster, there are no other Cercle documents available to confirm these allegations. He resigned immediately in 1981 when Mitterrand came to power. In the following year, Mitterrand nationalized the Rothschild Bank, which was owned by Guy de Rothschild. In December 1980, Marenches advised Reagan to establish a core group of no more than six or seven secret emissaries who would operate outside all official channels and agencies. These emissaries would be in touch with a multinational group that was focused on destabilizing and collapsing the Soviet empire within 8 years. The plan didn't went through, because Marenches didn't have fate in one of the persons Reagan chose to organize the group. Supposedly, Marenches found more reliable support with the CIA. However, Reagan seemed to listened to at least one of the advises Marenches gave him. According to NewsMax Marenches said: "I would always pepper my speeches with references to the Soviet Empire, throwing in the occasional 'evil empire.' It is an empire with both inner and outer empires, and both are equally vulnerable." Marenches was a supporter of the Shah of Iran and even hired David Ogilvy, to run a PR campaign, as he thought that the image of the Shah was "terrible". In 1986, he co-authored Dans le secret des Princes ("In the Princes' secret", literally, published in English as The Evil Empire: Third World War Continues) with journalist Christine Ockrent about his days working in secret services. In 1992, he co-authored The Fourth World War: Diplomacy and Espionage in the Age of Terrorism with David Andelman. In this book he praises George H.W. Bush and denounces left-winger Jimmy Carter. He warns that Americans have lived a charmed and sheltered existence and will eventually have to deal with terrorism at home. A 1992 review of the book reads:

"[He] claims that ``the Fourth World War has already begun''--a war, waged by ``small, highly deadly units of terrorists,'' that has ``the very real prospect of ending civilization, at least Western civilization, as we know it''- -there's very little information here to back this claim. Equally odd is his treatment of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, for he asserts that the Russians still harbor dreams of world domination and that conservative Communists have put aside billions of dollars to continue their secret war. As a memoir, however, the book contains a good deal of sage advice and some significant revelations. Among the latter are that, after de Marenches learned that the US was about to devalue the dollar in 1971, the Central Bank of France accumulated enormous profits by quietly selling dollars and buying francs; that French Intelligence carried out more than 40 operations along the lines of the Entebbe raid during de Marenches's tenure, including the overthrow of Emperor Bokassa of the Central African Empire; that during the 1970's, against the count's advice, terrorists operating out of French territory, even targeting its European allies, were not disturbed, provided that no operations took place in France; and that de Marenches sent secret emissaries to Rome to warn the Pope of hard intelligence that the Soviet leadership had decided to kill him, a warning that was dismissed out of hand. A mixed bag, but rewarding for its insider's discussion of French intelligence operations and for its friendly look at the deficiencies of American intelligence." Marenches was a member of the Order of Malta.

MacLean, Neil "Billy" L.D. Colonel Billy Maclean & later co-Pinay Circle member Julian Amery were dropped in North-Albany in April 1944 as part of the British resistance against the Italian and German fascists. They worked with the Albanian resistance of Ihsan Toptani. After their task was accomplished they all became passionate anti-communists. In 1946, MacLean was stationed as an intelligence officer somewhere near the Karakoram mountains. He was an MI6 officer for most, if not all, of the post-war period. In 1962, Yemen was taken over by a communist regime and the Egyptian Nasser was supporting them by bombing Saudi-Arabia (who supported the deposed Imam). Already retired deputy head of MI6 George Kennedy Young was approached by Mossad agents to find the right person to lead a guerrilla war against the Yemeni rebels, Young introduced Colonel MacLean to the Israelis. Maclean's guerrilla war would eventually bring down the Yemeni regime and drive Nasser back to his own country.

Munoz, Federico Silva Former Franco (Knight of Malta) minister and senior Opus Dei member. Chairman of the Spanish right-wing Alianza Popular (AP) party in 1978, which evolved in the Popular Party (PP). The AP was a mix of several extreme right-wing and conservative groups. It was filled and directed by Franco sympathisers and supported by Opus Dei.

Additional info: Under the leadership of José Maria Aznar the Popular Party won the 1996 elections. In 2004 he was ousted by the socialist Zapatero. 3 days before the elections there was a massive bombing on trains, dubbed the European 9/11. Aznar tried to put the blame on the ETA, but later admitted he didn't have any evidence for this conclusion. The supposed Al-Qaeda perpetrators blew themselves up in their apartment a few days later and we still don't know who was responsible.

Narjes, Karl-Heinz In 1963 he had been Chief of Staff for the EEC Commission's president, Prof. Hallstein, before heading the EEC Commission's public relations division from 1967 to 1969. Minister of Economy and Transport in Schlewig-Holstein from 1969 to 1972. In 1972 he was elected to the German Bundestag. Dr. Karl-Heinz Narjes was awarded the Bundesverdienstkreuz first class in 1977. In 1979 he attended a Pinay circle meeting. In 1981 he was nominated European Community Commissioner, responsible for common market issues, tariff union, industrial innovation, environment, consumer issues and nuclear security. From 1984 until 1988 he was responsible for industrial policy, technology and research. During the same time, 1984-1988, Narjes was also a vice-president of the European Commission. Narjes has attended the Trilateral Commission and has been working on the internal market liberalization of the European Union.

Moss, Robert Moss was a protege of British disinfo specialist Brian Crozier. Moss was a journalist who gained fame suggesting that Soviet agents secretly controlled a network of left and liberal groups in the US. He has been accused of spreading disinformation at times. In 1970-1971 he was involved in setting up of the Le Cercle associated, Institute for the Study of Conflict. By 1974 Moss had written a couple of ISC 'conflict studies' - 2 on Chile, 2 on Uruguay and 1 on Northern Ireland. In 1973, he was working with CIA front Institute for General Studies (IGS) in Chile and makes the first public call for a military government in Chile in CIA-funded magazine SEPA (March 1973). In 1975, he is a founding member of the Washington Institute for Study of Conflict - ISC's US branch. Founder member and then director of National Association for Freedom (NAFF) in 1975. During this time, he worked as a journalist for The Economist. Wrote the supposedly CIA sponsored paper, 'Chile's Marxist Experiment' in 1975. speechwriter for Margaret Thatcher in 1976 and was a close associate, possibly a member, of Crozier's Shield committee. Visited Argentina, addressed the Air Force on the value of the Argentine military government as a model for the rest of the continent. In 1976, he visited Angola with Evan Davies (MI6, Churchill's bodyguard, Saudi National Security Advisor). He sat on the editorial board of US 'new right' journal Policy Studies - wrote cover story for first issue. In 1979, he was a participant at Jonathan Institute first conference on international terrorism from whence a good deal of the 'Soviets behind world terror' line has emerged. Moss has also been involved with the Royal Institute for International Affairs and the Heritage Foundation.

Nixon, Richard In 1934 he graduated second in his class [Whittier College], and went to Duke University law school, where he received a full scholarship. During World War II, Nixon served in the United States Navy. He could have been exempt from military service because of his Quaker religion, but volunteered anyway. He later said he hated Hitler and was horrified by the attack on Pearl Harbor. Nixon served as a Cargo Officer in the South Pacific theater. He rose to the rank of Lieutenant Commander and his superiors praised him as an excellent officer and leader. Nixon was elected to the United States House of Representatives from California in 1946. In the House, Nixon served on a committee that helped to implement the Marshall Plan which aided war-torn Europe. He also helped in the passage of the Taft-Hartley Act which set up controls over labor unions. He proposed a bill to facilitate servicemen's voting that was passed by both houses and signed into law. Nixon climbed the political ladder swiftly, making his name as an anti-Communist and a rough, no-holds-barred campaigner. In 1948, Nixon won both the Republican and Democratic nomination for re-election to the House. Nixon was elected to the United States Senate in 1950, defeating actress turned congresswoman Helen Gahagan Douglas, whom Nixon accused during the campaign of having communist sympathies. In 1952 he was elected Vice President on Dwight D. Eisenhower's ticket, although he was only 39 years old. In 1960, he ran for President on his own but lost to John F. Kennedy, ironically a friend of Nixon's (in contrast to Eisenhower). In the election of 1968, he completed a remarkable political comeback by defeating Hubert H. Humphrey to become the 37th President of the United States. He promised to end the Vietnam war, but that took many years. In 1972 Nixon was re-elected in one of the biggest landslide election victories in U.S. political history, defeating George McGovern and garnering over 60% of the popular vote. He carried 49 of the 50 states, trailing only in Massachusetts. Nixon was eventually investigated for the instigation and cover-up of the burglary of the Democratic Party offices at the Watergate office complex.

Pandolfi, Filippo Maria Filippo Pandolfi born in 1927 in Bergamo, Italy, and holds a degree in literature and philosophy. He speaks Greek, Latin, French, and English in addition to his native Italian and managed a publishing house from 1952 until his election to Parliament. A Christian Democrat member of the Italian Parliament for more than twenty years, has held several important ministerial portfolios, including Finance (1976-1978), Treasury (1978-1980), Industry and Commerce (1980-1981 and 1982-1983), and Agriculture (1983-1988). In these ministerial posts he dealt with many central European Community issues, including the value-added tax, the European Monetary System, and the Common Agricultural Policy. He has played a central role in fostering the competitiveness of European industry, has expanded the EC investment in R&D in the member countries, and has established centers of excellence in many areas of technology. Pandolfi was a member of the Carnegie Group in 1991-1992.

Patrick, William C. III Named by Alex Constantine. With 48 years of experience in the field of biological warfare, William Patrick III was one of the leading scientists in the early U.S. offensive biological weapons program. Since retiring from government service in 1986, he has worked as a consultant to the U.S. government and private organizations. President and CEO of Advanced Biosystems Inc. (ABS) and president of Bio Threats Assessment. Patrick is the inventor (or at least holds five secret patents) of the process that developed the unique anthrax spore concentration of one trillion per gram, the same concentration found in the anthrax mailed in the U.S. just after 9/11. He is the former chief of product development of bio-weapons (including anthrax) at Ft. Detrick, where his friend and protege Steven J. Hatfill also worked, the scientist who became a prime suspect in the September-October 2001 anthrax attacks. In April 1998, William C. Patrick III met with Bill Clinton, Dr. Thomas Monath (vice-president OraVax Corporation), Jerry Hauer (Director New York's Emergency Management), Dr. Joshua Lederberg (president emeritus Rockefeller University; JASON Group member), and John Deutsch (CIA Director), to negotiate the first of several multimillion dollar anthrax, smallpox, and West Nile virus vaccine contracts. In 1999, Patrick was commissioned by Hatfull to write a study that discussed the danger of anthrax spores spreading through the air and the requirements for decontamination after various kinds of attacks. His study was sent to SAIC. Patrick described placing 2.5 grams of Bacillus globigii, an anthrax simulant, in a standard business envelope - slightly more than the estimated amount of anthrax in each of the letters that killed five people last fall. However, the study was flawed in two respects. It did not contemplate the use of the new one trillion-spore concentration, the diameter of which is smaller than the pores in the average envelope. Nor did it take into account the pressure exerted by mail sorting machines. According to the Baltimore Sun of June 27, 2002, Hatfill is a friend and protegé of Patrick. Patrick is also a close friend and colleague of Ken Alibek. Alibek is the Americanized name of the former number two man in the Soviet Union’s bioweapon program. He defected to the U.S. in 1992. At the request of the CIA, Alibek was debriefed by Patrick and was subsequently welcomed with open arms into the U.S. intelligence community. Alibek is also a former employee of BMI. Patrick is also a consultant to Battelle Memorial Institute (BMI), a CIA-connected government contractor.

Pinay, Antoine He was mayor of Saint-Chamond from 1929 to 1977. He served in the French National Assembly for nearly fifteen years before being named Premier. Prime Minister of France from 1952-1953. During his time as prime minister he is trying, with others, to establish a European NATO Army, under the European Community of Defense (CED). It fails. Pinay attends the first Bilderberg meeting in 1954, which he helped to establish. He later served as Finance Minister in the cabinet of General Charles De Gaulle. At first, he supports De Gaulle's right-wing leanings, but when De Gaulle wants to grant Algeria its independence, Pinay isn't happy anymore. He resigns in January 1960 and from that moment on De Gaulle survives several assassination attempts. Mossad agent, later 1001 Club member, and PERMINDEX president Mortimer Bloomfield is said to be involved, probably a person from the same network as Pinay. By 1969, Pinay, together with Jean Violet and Archduke Otto von Habsburg formed the Pinay Circle, and secretly began recruiting men of influence as members. Pinay defended the Apartheid in Africa and was a member of Opus Dei (just as the other two). Pinay died in 1994 at the age of 102.

Qaboos, Sheikh The current Sultan of Oman, who attended a 1990 Pinay meeting in Oman. Qaboos spent his youth in Salalah where he was educated. At the age of 16, his father sent him to a private educational establishment in the United Kingdom. In 1960, he entered the Royal Military Academy at Sandhurst as an officer cadet. Having passed out of Sandhurst he joined a British infantry battalion on operational duty in Germany and also held a staff appointment with the British Army. After his military service, Qaboos studied local government in England and went on a world tour before returning home. The next six years were spent in Salalah studying Islam and the history of Oman and its people. He rose to power after overthrowing his paranoid father, Sa’id ibn Taimur, in 1970. As Qaboos is the Sultan of Oman, he traditionally holds absolute power. He holds the portfolios of the Prime Minister, Foreign Minister, Defense Minister and Finance Minister. Despite his wealth and power, he is generally regarded as a benevolent ruler who pursues moderate ideological goals. He is known for his selflessness and generosity, and in General Tommy Franks's 2004 book American Soldier, he described the sultan as a true friend to the United States in the War on Terror, with "no guile, no secret agenda". The Sultan is also credited with modernizing his country with modest oil profits. The first immediate problem that Qaboos faced was an armed Communist insurgency from South Yemen. The Sultan quickly defeated the incursion with little external aid. In the last few years, Oman has taken some steps towards democracy. Free and fair parliamentary elections (in which women have voted and stood as candidates) have been held and the Sultan has pledged greater openness and participation in government.

Rockefeller, David Born in 1915 and youngest son of John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Descendant of the German-Jewish Roggenfelder family which came to the United States in 1722. Attended school in New York City and graduated with a bachelor's degree in English history and literature from Harvard University in 1936. This was followed with a Ph.D. (1940) in economics from the University of Chicago and a study at both Harvard and the London School of Economics. Married Margaret "Peggy" McGrath in September 1940 and they raised six children, including son David Rockefeller Jr. Along with his brothers - John D. III, Nelson, Laurance, and Winthrop, David Rockefeller established the Rockefeller Brothers Fund (RBF) in 1940. Became a trustee of The Rockefeller Institute (later transformed into a university) for Medical Research in 1940. Trustee Rockefeller University 1940-1995. Secretary to New York City Mayor Fiorello H. LaGuardia 1940-1941. Assistant regional director of the United States Office of Defense, Health and Welfare Service 1941-1942. Enlisted in the U.S. Army in 1942. Military Intelligence officer in North Africa and Southern France 1942-1945. Assistant Military Attaché in Paris in the last 7 months of the war. Joined Chase National/Manhattan Bank in 1946 as an assistant manager under Winthrop W. Aldrich (Rockefeller intermarried) in the Foreign Department. Assistant manager in the Foreign Department, Chase National Bank 1947-1948. Played a major role in the development of the Morningside Heights neighborhood on the Upper West Side of Manhattan as president (1947-1957) and then chairman (1957-1965) of Morningside Heights, Inc. Second vice president Chase National Bank 1948-1949. Director of the Museum of Modern Art 1948-1958. Vice president Chase National Bank 1949-1952. Vice-president Council on Foreign Relations 1950-1970. Chairman of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research 1950-1975. In 1953, at this position, he recruited Detlev W. Bronk as president of the Rockefeller Institute and head of its medical research program. Bronk, a biophysicist, appeared on the initial membership list of the MJ-12 study group. Senior vice president of Chase National Bank with responsibility for supervising the economic research department and customer relations in the metropolitan New York area, including all the New York City branches 1952-1955. Attended the first Bilderberg meeting in 1954 and was one of its founders. When Chase National and the Bank of the Manhattan Company merged in 1955, David Rockefeller was appointed an executive vice president in charge of the bank development department. In 1957, he became vice chairman of the Board of Directors with responsibility for the administrative and planning functions of the bank as a whole. Briefly chairman of the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in 1958. Again in 1962-1972, and again in 1987-1993. Life trustee of the University of Chicago (which his grandfather helped to establish) and an honorary trustee of International House (New York), established by his father. In 1958 David Rockefeller helped establish the Downtown-Lower Manhattan Association (D-LMA), serving as its chairman 1958-1975. Primary founder of the Dartmouth Conferences in 1960, which was initiated at Dartmouth College in an effort to prevent U.S.-Soviet nuclear conflict. Only influential private citizens with no government positions were supposed to meet here. President Chase Manhattan 1961-1969. In 1962, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey began plans to build the World Trade Center, which was pushed hard for by David and Nelson Rockefeller. Founding member of the Commission on White House Fellows, 1964. David had a two and a half hour meeting in Moscow with Nikita Khrushchev in the summer of 1964. He reported to president Johnson that Khrushchev would like to do more trade with the United States and David recommended that more credit should be extended to the Russians. Met Khrushchev's successor, Leonid Brezhnev, soon afterwards. Also met Chou En-lai in the 1960s, to discuss economic cooperation. Other leaders David met with are Deng Xiaoping, Nasser, Saddam Hussein, Fidel Castro, the Shah of Iran, etc. David is on very good terms with Nelson Mandela and they regularly meet each other. It's interesting to note that Mandela is one of George W. Bush's fiercest critiques. Instrumental in the formation of the International Executive Service Corps and chairman 1964-1968. Founder Americas Society in 1965 (then called Council of the Americas). Helped found the Rockefeller Family Fund in 1967. Helped form The Business Committee for the Arts in 1967. Chairman and CEO of the board of Chase Manhattan 1969-1981. Chairman Council on Foreign Relations 1970-1985. In May 1973 Chase Manhattan Bank opened it Moscow office at 1 Karl Marx Square, Moscow. Chairman of the Overseas Development Council of the US-USSR Trade and Economic Council, Inc., which was founded in 1973. Founder of the Trilateral Commission in 1973. Chairman Trilateral Commission 1977-1991. Founded the New York City Partnership in 1979 and was chairman 1979-1988. Chairman Chase Manhattan Bank Advisory Committee 1981-1999. Trustee Carnegie Endowment International Peace since 1981. President of the Harvard College Board of Overseers; life trustee of the University of Chicago; one of the most important members of the Bilderberg committee; visitor of the Bohemian Grove Stowaway camp; member American-Australian Association; chairman Americas Society 1981-1992; chairman Rockefeller Group 1981-1995. Helped to establish the David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies at Harvard University in 1994. Chairman of Rockefeller Center Properties 1996-2001; became a director of the Shinsei Bank in 2000; chairman Rockefeller University; chairman of the Museum of Modern Art; member International Council of J.P. Morgan Chase; wrote 'Unused Resources and Economic Waste' (1940), 'Creative Management in Banking' (1964), and 'Memoirs' (2002); major shareholder of Atlantic Richfield Petroleum and International Petroleum Corporation (also a napalm manufacturer). David is the last of the "Fortunate Five" brothers. Winthrop died in 1972 after having been devastated by a chemotherapy procedure; John D. III died in a 1978 car crash; Nelson died in 1979 in bed with his mistress. Laurance died in 2004 of natural causes. David and Laurance were members of the Peace Parks foundation. David has attended meetings of Le Cercle and is a member of the Pilgrims Society.

Roosevelt, Kermit, Jr. Born in Buenos Aires, eldest son of Kermit Roosevelt, the son of President Theodore Roosevelt. CIA agent in charge of Operation Ajax, which overthrew the democratically elected government of Iran and Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadegh in 1953. Twenty-six years later, Kermit Roosevelt took the unusual step of witing a book about how he and the CIA carried out the operation. He called his book Countercoup to press home the idea that the CIA coup was staged only to prevent a takeover of power by the Iranian Communist Party (The Tudeh) closely backed by the Soviet Union. Roosevelt was thus arguing that Mossadegh had to be removed to prevent a communist 'takeover,' whereas the Truman administration had felt that Mossadegh had to be kept in power to prevent one. "There is some speculation that Kim Roosevelt may have been part of a British plot to maintain an anglophile alliance with the United States. Roosevelt was strongly pro-England and pro oil industry..." (Mossadegh nationalized the oil companies just before he was ousted) Kermit was one of the 5 founders of the African Wildlife Foundation in 1961, together with Russell E. Train and 1001 Club member Arthur W. Arundel. Kermit was involved with the US Institute for the Study of Conflict. Kermit seems to have been a member of the 'Knight's Templar' (together with Allen Dulles), an elite intelligence group within the CIA. He is said to have been involved in the creation of the Safari Club and similar right-wing intelligence institutes throughout Europe.

Rowland, Tiny The tycoon made his fortune in the mines of Africa before moving to Britain and buying the Observer newspaper. He became the chairman of Lonrho (London-Rhodesia) in 1961, became very popular with the shareholders, but was eventually ousted in 1994. In 1973 a group of Lonrho directors tried to oust Mr Rowland, claiming that he had bribed African leaders and violated international sanctions imposed on Rhodesia. The then-Prime Minister, Ted Heath, referred to his company around the same time as the "unacceptable face of British capitalism" because of its attempt to avoid tax. The former editor of the Observer, Donald Trelford, who worked with Mr Rowland for several years, called him one of the most remarkable and beguiling people in British life since World War II. "He had a vision of Africa and its potential resources that was like Cecil Rhodes," he said. But Mr Trelford added that after building up a huge conglomerate, "he virtually destroyed it by his single-minded obsession about getting Harrods". Lonrho tried to persuade the government to investigate the circumstances surrounding the al-Fayeds' acquisition of the store. He spent much of the rest of his career pursuing a feud with al-Fayed. Tiny is said to have been an intelligence asset. From 1974 and on Tiny financed the war of UNITA (Angola) rebel Jonas Savimbi (said to be a British intelligence asset himself). He and other members of Lonrho even visited Savimbi and his headquarters. The Soviets were supporting their more communist opponents, the MPLA. UNITA started out as a Maoist rebel group. During the 1980s, it turns out that Michael Johns of the Heritage Foundation (Foundation is represented in the Le Cercle) was also supporting UNITA, together with the Reagan administration. Also during the 1980s, Tiny was accused of helping the Marxist government of Mozambique manage its agricultural resources, and he increased Lonrho's South African holdings while sanctions against the apartheid government were still in place. Then in 1992, Rowland controversially sold a stake in some of Lonrho's hotels to the Libyan leader, Colonel Gadaffi, only three years after the Lockerbie bombing which was attributed to Libyan terrorists. All in all, Rowland has been a close associate of people like Ashraf Marwan, Gaddafi, Ahmed al-Dam, and Adnan Khashoggi. Marwan, son-in-law of President Nasser, was the head of Egyptian intelligence and a big time real estate buyer in Paris and London. His nickname in Egypt was "Dr. Death", because he ran a bunch of sophisticated torture chambers in the period 1974-1978. In early 1986 he led a secret delegation of Lonrho executives, lawyers and security personnel to Egypt to obtain information about the Al Fayed family. Al-Dam is a cousin of Gaddafi and runs Lybian intelligence. Al-Dam and his brother Sayad are said to have been instrumental in financing many terrorist attacks of Abu Nidal and his Abu Nidal Organization. Khashoggi, an international arms dealer and associate of the British crown, received an 8.6 million pounds loan from Tiny Rowland in 1985-1986. Khashoggi had some financial trouble at the time.

Schwarzkopf, Norman H. Attended the 1990 Pinay meeting in Oman. Born in Trenton, New Jersey to Norman Schwarzkopf, Sr., he graduated from West Point in 1956, and earned a masters degree in missile engineering from the University of Southern California in 1964. After graduating from West Point and receiving a commission in the infantry, Schwarzkopf had assignments in the United States and Germany before going back to school to earn his masters in guided missile engineering. Schwarzkopf then returned to West Point as a member of the faculty. Following Schwarzkopf's first year as a member of the faculty at West Point he requested a reassignment to Vietnam. Schwarzkopf served as an adviser to the Vietnamese airborne division during his two combat tours in the Vietnam War and received the Purple Heart after being injured. Schwarzkopf made general in 1978, and in 1983 was deputy commander during the US invasion of Grenada, and in 1988 was appointed to the U.S. Central Command. In 1990 he was chosen to run Operation Desert Storm, and was responsible for the "left hook" strategy that went into Iraq behind the Iraqi forces occupying Kuwait, and widely credited with bringing the ground war to a close in just four days. He was personally very visible in the conduct of the war, giving frequent press conferences, and was dubbed "Stormin' Norman." He was awarded the United States Republican Senatorial Medal of Freedom and the British Order of the Bath. Schwarzkopf has visited the Bohemian Grove.

Soros, George A Hungarian-born Jewish-American businessman. He is famous as a currency speculator and a philanthropist. In 1969 he co-founded the Quantum Fund with Jim Rogers, which is located at the tax haven of the Netherlands Antilles. Trustee chairman of the Central European University. Chairman of Soros Fund Management and the Open Society Institute. He is also a former member of the Board of Directors of the Council on Foreign Relations. Dr Mahathir Mohamad, prime minister of Malaysia, accused Soros of spearheading the manipulation that led to the 1997 East Asian financial crisis. He also accused him of having played a central role in the gigantic 1997 Asian fires. Accused of heading the succesful movement to privatize the Human Genome Project in 2003, whereby many crucial patents went to Rockefeller University. George is known around the world for the role he played in Georgia's 2003 Rose Revolution, where his Open Society Institute had been financing the western-oriented side. Soros has been accused of doing the same in the Ukrainian revolution of 2004. Other names accused in the Ukrainian revolution affair were Mark Brzezinski (son of Cercle member Zbigniew Brzezinski), the National Democratic Institute (chaired by Madeleine Albright), and the Eurasia Foundation (president = Bilderberg / CFR / Carnegie / Rhodes scholar). Putin raided the Open Society offices in Russia after accusations that he was financing a coup there too. In the United States he is known for donating large sums of money to in an attempt to defeat President George W. Bush for reelection. Soros is a trustee of the Center for Russian Leadership Development (Open World Program), together with Bohos Bill Frist and James W. Symington. The program has brought nearly 4,000 young Russian leaders from 87 regions to 680 communities in the United States, including 150 members of the two houses of the Russian Parliament, the Federation Council and the State Duma. It has also brought 169 Russian judges to the United States. These Russians will return to Russia after having experienced the American way of life. George is close with Le Cercle member Sir James Goldsmith, a person intermarried with the Rothschild family. Circle member Paul Volcker wrote the foreword of George Soros' 2003 book 'The Alchemy of Finance'.

Spinola, Antonio de Became governor of Portuguese Guinea in 1968 when te colony was at war with the Portuguese. In February 1974, General Antonio de Spinola, the army’s second in command and a director of two of Portugal’s leading monopolies, including CUF, published 'Portugal and the Future'. The book criticised the African policy of Salazar’s successor, Marcello Caetano, and called for cultivating a moderate black elite who could be split away from the nationalists. Caetano banned the book and dismissed Spínola and the commander of the army, General Costa Gomes, who had authorised its publication. On April 25, 1974, the Movimento das Forças Armadas (MFA; Movement of the Armed Forces), a group of military officers seeking to end the African wars, overthrew Caetano's government in a bloodless coup d'état known as the Revolution of the Carnations. A junta under General Antonio de Spinola was installed that promised democracy at home and peace for the African territories. The new regime appealed for cease-fires in Africa and restored many democratic liberties, including toleration of a wide range of political parties. Socialists and communists came out of hiding as a more or less fascist government was gone. Widespread upheavals took place as workers used their new civil liberties to seek better wages and working conditions. The communists were the best-organised party in the country through intersindical, the umbrella organisation overseeing all union activity. Spinola could not afford to form a government without their inclusion and invited them to participate. However, Spinola resisted too much social / communist reform and was ousted as a result of that in September 1974. He was subsequently involved in the failed coup of March 11, 1975. The right-wing (extremists) were in a hurry to attempt the coup, because rumors were circulating that the left-wing government wanted to round up and execute them. In the aftermath of the coup, Spinola and 18 others fled to Spain and then to Brazil. An March 6 article about Spinola in the Parisian paper Temoignage Chretien had said that US ambassador Frank Carlucci (who had CIA connexions) had given the go-ahead for a right wing take-over of Portugal. MFA head (socialists / communist) Otelo de Carvalho's remark on March 11 that "Carlucci had better have plans to leave the country or face the con-sequences" was seen as related to the failed coup. Kissinger, according to a Sunday Times (London) report, had sanctioned the use of the CIA.

Stilwell, Richard Giles The original (translated) text named a DIA affiliated General D. Stinwell as a participant of the 1980 meeting in Zurich. The proper name must have been Stilwell (often spelled as Stillwel), because the name Stinwell doesn't exist, especially not as a general. I also cannot find a 'General D. Stilwell', but the only possibility seems to be General Richard "Dick" G. Stilwell. He has been referred to as "Dick" by some of his friends, like Major General John K. Singlaub. His son, who had the same name also used the name "Dick" himself (only a colonel). General Stilwell was very conservative, anti-communist, an expert in counter-insurgency, head of the UN armies in Korea, and involved in many covert operations, including the stay-behind networks. All of this fits perfectly with Le Cercle.

General Stilwell served in the U.S. Army from 1938 to 1976. He was appointed in January 1946 as Assistant Military Advisor to the Secretary of State (James F. Byrnes - Pilgrims Society) who was performing the duties of U.S. Member of the Council of Foreign Ministers, the quadripartite organization designed to deal, with post-war problems. As an outgrowth of this assignment, in 1947 Colonel Stilwell was named Special Military Advisor to the American Ambassador in Italy. Over the next two years, his staff responsibilities encompassed the Trieste question, finalization of the Italo- Yugoslav boundary and Italian rearmament. Thereafter, from 1949 to 1952, he held important posts in the Central Intelligence Agency. In 1956, he was assigned to Supreme Headquarters, Allied Powers Europe, SHAPE, as Chief of Strategic Planning. He left SHAPE in June 1958 to become Commander of the Western Area, Germany. In 1959, he drafted his recommendations for a special Presidential Committee under General William Draper reporting to President Eisenhower: that the U.S. help develop "higher level military schools" with political-economic curricula in the Third World, to encourage local armies to become "internal motors" for "socio-political transformation". He later formed a group of retired military personnel called the 'Gray Eagles', whose intent was to train third world armies. Supposedly, General Richard G. Stilwell and Colonel Edward G. Lansdale (NSA director and designer of the 1961 Mongoose and 1962 Northwoods operations) were in charge of CIA's / Pentagon's Stay-Behind network (called Gladio in Italy). In the early 1960s, these two created the American Institute for Free Labor Development (AIFLD), whose aim was retaking control over trade union movements in Latin America. The priorities of the AIFLD were decided by people like David Rockefeller and Knights of Malta head, J. Peter Grace. He was at least informed of the 1963 Ngo Dinh Diem coup before it happened, so maybe he had an active role in planning it. In 1969, as opposition to the Vietnam war grew, Stilwell was the one who personally quashed the reports of dissenting colonels, and who, though he was not in intelligence at the time, went through the intelligence reports, tidying them up. He was the Commander-in-Chief of UN and American forces in Korea from 1974 to 1976. Stilwell went to the January 1980 Le Cercle Meeting in Zurich. Around the same time, Stilwell created the Special Forces Detachment-Korea (SFD-K), a worldwide intelligence operation to train infiltration agents, to report on the political situation in allied armies, and to oversee counter terrorism teams with the South Koreans. This group had to be created, because the people involved didn't want congressional oversight (like the CIA had). SFD-K received their orders from Army Intelligence and the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA). Stilwell was Deputy Under-Secretary of Defense for Policy from 1981 to 1985. In 1981, Stilwell was involved in the creation of the Washington-based U.S. Global Strategy Council (USGSC), together with media-magnate and Pilgrims Society member Henry luce III (his grandfather bought and held on to the JFK Zapruder film), and former CIA deputy-director Ray Cline. In early 1982, Stilwell set up a new covert Army unit known as the Intelligence Support Activity (ISA), which became a separate entity in the Army's secret world of special operations, with its own commander, a Col. Jerry King. Deputy Defense Secretary Frank Carlucci, in a memo to Stilwell, described the ISA in 1982 as "Our own CIA...uncoordinated and uncontrolled" (Carlucci denounced it after it was discovered in 1982). ISA has been linked to coups in the Americas, drug smuggling, Barry Seal, Col. Albert Carone, and Oliver North. Carone's personal phone book contained the home addresses and telephone numbers of William Casey (Bechtel employee, Knights of Malta, Bohemian Grove camp Mandalay, and probably Le Cercle) Gambino crime boss Pauly Castellano and General Stilwell. On February 4, 1983, a short cancellation notice was sent to a number of Defense Department officials at the request of Richard G. Stilwell, the deputy undersecretary for policy. The memo asked recipients to "remove and destroy immediately" any copies of two Defense Department directives in their possession--the top secret and confidential versions of a directive titled "The Defense Special Plans Office." As Stilwell explained in a memo two days earlier, "The directives were charter documents establishing a DoD activity whose establishment subsequently was not authorized by Congress." General Stilwell was chairman of the DOD Security Review Commission in 1985 and was a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. Since 1986 Stilwell had been president of Stilwell Associates, Inc. He worked closely with people like Richard Armitage, Frank Carlucci, and Peter G. Peterson. His son and namesake, who also used the name "Dick", died in a car accident in 2002. His son was a retired colonel.

Strauss, Franz Josef Strauss studied germanistics, history and economics at the University of Munich from 1935 to 1939. In World War II, he served in the german Wehrmacht, on the Western and Eastern Fronts. While on furlough, he passed the German state exams to become a teacher. After suffering from severe frostbites at the Eastern Front at the end of 1942, he served as an Offizier fuer wehrgeistige Fuehrung (kind of political officer) at the antiaircraft artillery school in Altenstadt, near Schongau. After the war, he was appointed deputy Landrat (county president) of Schongau by the American occupiers and was involved in founding the local CSU there. He became a member of the first Bundestag in 1949 and, in 1953, Federal Minister for Special Affairs in the second cabinet of Chancellor Konrad Adenauer, in 1955 Federal Minister of Nuclear Energy (supported the idea that Germany should build nuclear weapons), and in 1956 defense minister, charged with the build-up of the new Bundeswehr. He became chairman of the CSU in 1961. He was forced to step down as defense minister in 1962, in the wake of the Spiegel scandal (he lied to parliament). Strauss was appointed minister of the treasury again in 1966, in the cabinet of Kurt Georg Kiesinger. After the SPD provided the Chancellor in 1969, Strauss became one of the most vocal critics of Willy Brandt's Ostpolitik. He was also a rival of Helmut Kohl (and Helmut Schmidt). From 1978 until his death in 1988, Strauss was minister-president of Bavaria, possibly the most memorable figure to ever hold that office. After Strauss became minister-president of Bavaria, he slowly retreated from German national politics. He was president of Deutsche Airbus during the 1980's and died while hunting with Prince Johannes von Thurn und Taxis (1001 Club) in 1988. It is said Strauss collapsed and died 3 hours later, although some claim he was murdered. In later years, it came out that he was very corrupt; he accepted bribes, expensive gifts, and visited brothels, which other people paid for him. He and some of his friends have also been suspected of taking bribes from companies like Thyssen, to arrange export licenses for the weapons industry. Strauss also maintained contact with DDR Stasi-spy Alexander Schalck-Golodkowski, with whom he arranged a 3 billion mark deal in 1983, to save the economy of the DDR. A move nobody expected of him. Max Strauss, his oldest son, is an acquintance of Dieter Holzer and Holger Pfahls, BND agents and politicians who were under investigation for illegal weapon sales for Thyssen.

A major aim of Le Cercle was to influence West German elections to ensure that Franz Joseph Strauss, the ultra right wing leader (often described as a nazi or neo-fascist) of the Christian Social Union Party, became Chancellor of Germany (failed). Strauss was a close friend of Alexandre de Marenches and was a frequent visitor to the SDECE's headquarters during Marenches' time. In late 1977 he went to a meeting of Le Cercle. The Hanns-Seidel-Stiftung, the political trust attached to Strauss' Christian Social Union party, is an important group in international parapolitical manipulation. Active in Latin America for the Contras, supporting Mobuto in Zaire, involved in the Fiji coup in 1987, it was caught diverting state development aid from Germany into right-wing party coffers in Ecuador in the same year. Strauss and CSU were the main beneficiaries of identified Pinay Circle activities; i.e. the promotion of right-wing European politicians through Brian Crozier, Robert Moss, Fred Luchsinger of the Neue Zurcher Zeitung and Gerhard Lowenthal, anchorman on current affairs programmes for ZDF television, the major German network. In the end, all Le Cercle's activities have not brought the desired 'regime change'.

Talal, Hussein bin King of Jordan from 1952 to 1999. The country defied the west and the other allied leaders by siding with Saddam Hussein in the Gulf War. In 1994 King Hussein led negotiations to end the official state of war with the State of Israel resulting in the Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace. The king wrote three books: Uneasy Lies the Head (1962), about his childhood and early years as king, My War With Israel (1969), and Mon Métier de Roi. King Hussein was an avid amateur radio operator. He also loved to fly airplanes (prop and jet) as well as helicopters.

Tantum, Geoffrey An MI6 officer since 1969 who had served in Jordan, Aden and Kuwait. From 1992 until his retirement in late 1995, Tantum was head of MI6's Middle East section. He met with Jonathan Aitken every six weeks. The minister and the MI6 officer traded information and contacts candidly about the Middle East as Aitken had maintained close contact with his Arab business associates. Tantum has been a secretary of Le Cercle.

Twetten, Thomas CIA Deputy Director of Operations. Retired in 1995 after a 34 year career at the CIA's clandestine services. Twetten spent the majority of his career in Africa, South Asia, and the Middle East. In February 1998 it was revealed that he was working outside his office or jurisdiction in a plot by Iraqi Generals to murder Saddam. Supposedly, Clinton himself had approved a feasible death plot. Mysteriously, all the names of the plotters were leaked from Washington and the plot was thwarted. MI6 were actively involved on an operational level directly with Twetten. In all some 120 officers were shot as a result.

Violet, Jean The parapolitical activities of Jean Violet go back to the 1930s, when Violet was a member of the fascist quasi-Masonic movement Comite Secret pour l'Action Revolutionnaire, or CSAR, which was the French military arm of the very secret multinational Synarchist Movement of Empire (SME). During WW2, the top leaders of CSAR - Eugene Deloncle and a certain Filliol - were such enthusiastic collaborators that they were in contact with General Max Thomas, who headed the Gestapo and S.S. Security Service (S. D.) forces in France in 1941. In October of that year, those same leaders arranged for the bombing of synagogues in Paris on behalf of General Thomas. Violet managed to emerge from WW2 untained by CSAR's actions and proceeded to make a name for himself as a lawyer. He also fell in with Opus Dei. In 1951 Pinay introduced him to the French intelligence service, the SDECE. He would be working with Vatican and MI6 officials and cross the path of several P2-scandal figures. In later times, Violet also joined the Mont-Pelerin Society. In 1969 he erected the Pinay Circle, together with Antoine Pinay and Otto von Habsburg. As a director, he would run the circle, as Pinay was getting to old to do it himself. Violet managed the Académie Européenne de Sciences Politiques located in Brussel, an ultraconservative Pan-European society. This society was erected by Otto von Habsburg.

Volcker, Paul A. Volcker was born on September 1927 in Cape May, New Jersey. He earned a bachelor of arts degree, summa cum laude, from Princeton in 1949, and a master of arts degree in political economy and government from the Harvard University Graduate School of Public Administration in 1951. Research assistant in the research department of the New York Fed during the summers of 1949 and 1950. Pilgrims Society member and later Rockefeller Foundation vice-chair Robert Vincent Roosa was his mentor there, and Paul Volcker became part of his 'Brain trust', or 'Roosa bloc' in the following years. Volcker would also become a member of the Pilgrims Society. From 1951 to 1952, he was Rotary Foundation Fellow at the London School of Economics (Rotary International and the Lions Clubs are still seen today by some as the most important recruiting centers for the Masonic movement). He returned to the New York Fed as an economist in the research department in 1952, and special assistant in the securities department from 1955 to 1957. Financial economist at Chase Manhattan Bank 1957-1961. Director of the Office of Financial Analysis at the Treasury 1962-1963. Deputy Undersecretary for Monetary Affairs at the Treasury 1963-1965. Rejoined Chase Manhattan as vice president and director of forward planning 1965-1968. Undersecretary of the Treasury for Monetary Affairs 1969-1974. Senior fellow at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University for the 1974-1975 academic year. Director Council on Foreign Relations 1975-1979 & 1988. President Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1975-1979. On July 26, 1979 the New York Times stated: "David Rockefeller, the chairman of Chase, and Mr. Roosa were strong influences in the Mr. Carter decision to name Mr. Volcker for the Reserve Board chairmanship." Chairman Federal Reserve System 1979-1987. Identified by BND officer Hans Langemann as a person who attended the December 1, 1979 meeting of Le Cercle in the Madison Hotel in Washington. Others that attended the meeting were the German Karl-Heinz Narjes (Bundestag; soon went to the ECC), William Colby (the recently retired CIA director at the time), Ed Feulner (president of the Heritage Foundation), Julian Amery (later chairman of Le Cercle; Privy Councillor; father was one of the closest Rothschild allies in building up Israel), and Jean Violet (French intelligence officer; Habsburg employee; Le Cercle co-founder and chairman; Fascist militant before WWII). Volcker became a member of the advisory board of Power Corporation in 1988 and is a friend to Canadian Paul G. Desmarais, Sr., a Privy Councillor and controlling shareholder of Power Corporation since 1968 (Desmarais and the Belgian Albert Frère jointly own about half of the major industries in France and Belgium, including Suez, Société Générale, Total, Imerys, and Groupe Bruxelles Lambert). Director of Prudential Insurance 1988-2000. Chairman of Wolfensohn & Co. in New York 1988-1996. North American chairman of the Trilateral Commission 1991-2001. Chairman of the newly created J. Rothschild, Wolfensohn & Company from March 1992 to 1995, Wolfensohn & Co.'s London-based joint venture. Visited Bilderberg in 1997. Attended meetings of the Ditchley Foundation and has chaired some of them. Advisor to the Japan Society and the International House. Member of the advisory board of Hollinger, together with Henry Kissinger, Richard Perle, and Zbigniew Brzezinski. Director of UAL Corporation, Bankers Trust New York Corporation, and Nestle, S.A. Director United States/Hong Kong Economic Cooperation Committee. Public member of the Board of Governors of the American Stock Exchange American Stock Exchange. Honorary trustee of the Aspen Institute. American Council on Germany, and the American Assembly. Co-chairman of the advisory board of Leadership Forum International and a principal of the Council for Excellence in Government. Member Circle of Presidents RAND Corporation, which means he has donated at least tens of thousands of dollars if not millions. Trustee International Accounting Standards Committee. Honorary chairman Financial Services Volunteer Corps, a firm founded by Cyrus Vance and John C. Whitehead in 1990. Honorary chairman Committee to Encourage Corporate Philanthropy. Chairman Independent Inquiry Committee into the Oil-For-Food program, which also employed Rockefeller’s granddaughter, attorney Miranda Duncan. Chairman board of trustees Group of Thirty (2005). Paul Volcker is a visitor of the Bohemian Grove camp Mandalay. Director of the United Nations Association of the United States of America 2000-2004. Director of the Fund for Independence in Journalism. Wrote the foreword of George Soros' 2003 book 'The Alchemy of Finance'. Director of the Institute for International Economics, Washington, headed by Peter G. Peterson. Other directors of the institute are Maurice R. Greenberg and David Rockefeller. Trustee of the American Assembly anno 2005, together with Admiral Bobby Ray Inman (former NSA head; director SAIC; Bohemian Grove; CFR; Trilateral Commission), David Gergen (Bohemian Grove; CFR; Trilateral Commission), and Frank A. Weil (governor Atlantic Institute; CFR). The American Assembly is sponsored by the Carnegie Corporation.

Weck, Philippe de Weck joined the family operated bank Weck, Aeby & Cie. as a partner for three years. When this bank was acquired by Union Bank of Switzerland in 1953 he was appointed manager of the Union Bank of Switzerland's Fribourg branch office. From 1956 he managed the Geneva branch office of Union Bank of Switzerland as Senior Vice President and from 1962 as Deputy Executive Vice President. Later he assumed new duties at the Head office in Zurich and in 1964 he was promoted to the position of Executive Vice President. Philippe de Weck subsequently headed various divisions of Union Bank of Switzerland (Administrative and International Divisions) and was also responsible for the branch offices and the credit operations of the french-speaking part of Switzerland and the Ticino. In 1968, he assumed the duties connected with coordinating the operations of the Executive Management and was also placed in charge of the staff divisions of the executive management as well as the branch offices of the french-speaking part of Switzerland and the Ticino. He was chairman of UBS from 1976 to 1980, but stayed on the executive board until 1988. In the late seventies, Weck was president of the Panamanian FISALMA, a company that pretty much only existed on paper. Weck worked with several associates in ripping of the French oil company Elf (now TotalFinaElf) for about 200 million dollars. It isn't known what the money was used for, but it has been speculated that it was used for political, catholic and anti-communist organizations. At the time, he was working with Jean Violet, Antoine Pinay, and different (other) Opus Dei members. He himself has also been accused of being a member of Opus Dei. After this Elf affaire, the Pope elected Weck to the supervisory council of the Vatican Bank (IOR), which was around the time of the Calvi murder (by Opus Dei). He was a frequent visitor in Milan of the Group for Culture, Ethics, and Finance.

Wisner, Frank, Jr. His father, Frank Wisner Sr., was a senior OSS and CIA official (Head of OSS on the Balkans, deputy of Allen Dulles at the end of WWII), who was a passionate and very important anti-communist. In 1948 Frank Wisner was appointed director of the Office of Special Projects. Soon afterwards it was renamed the Office of Policy Coordination (OPC). This became the espionage and counter-intelligence branch of the Central Intelligence Agency. Wisner was told to create an organization that concentrated on "propaganda, economic warfare; preventive direct action, including sabotage, anti-sabotage, demolition and evacuation measures; subversion against hostile states, including assistance to underground resistance groups, and support of indigenous anti-Communist elements in threatened countries of the free world." In 1948, he co-started a project called Operation Bloodstone. This included recruiting former German Nazi officers and diplomats who could be used in the covert war against the Soviet Union. The people recruited for this operation seemed to have been involved in a lot of dirty business. In the 1950s, Wisner set up operation Mockingbird (The CIA's succesful attempt to subvert the media), was involved in the overthrow of Arbenz of Guatemala (1954) and Mossadeq of Iran (1953), and worked for people like Allen Dulles (Knight of Malta, Pilgrims Society) and Dean Acheson (Pilgrims Society, very influential Secretary of State under Truman, accused of being soft on Communism). In the 1950s, Wisner Sr. worked closely with Kim Philby, who later turned out to be a communist spy (fled to the USSR after Le Cercle member Nicholas Elliot questioned / warned him). In 1954 Wisner arranged for the funding the Hollywood production of Animal Farm, the animated allegory based on the book written by George Orwell.

Wisner, Jr. is a graduate of Princeton University and well-known in the CIA. He worked as Under Secretary of Defense for Policy and Under Secretary of State for International Security Affairs; Wisner is vice-chairman of External Affairs of American International Group (AIG), the leading U.S.-based international insurance organization. Prior to joining AIG, he was the U.S. Ambassador to India from July 1994 through July 1997. During Wisner tenure in India, he fought long and hard to secure various deals for Enron. In October 1997 he joined Enron. He retired from the U.S. Government with the rank of Career Ambassador, the highest grade in the Foreign Service. Wisner joined the State Department as a Foreign Service Officer in 1961 and served in a variety of overseas and Washington positions during his 36-year career. Among his other positions, Wisner served successively as U.S. Ambassador to Zambia, Egypt and the Philippines. Before being named U.S. Ambassador to India, his most recent assignment was as Under Secretary of Defense for Policy. Prior to that he was Under Secretary of State for International Security Affairs. Has spoken at the Asia Society. Director at the U.S. India Business Council, EOG Resources Inc., American Life Insurance Company, the AIG Investment Bank in Russia, Rockefeller Brothers Fund, the American University of Beirut, the American University of Cairo, the American School of Tangiers, Refugees' International, United Service Organization, The Metropolitan Museum of Art's Business Committee, Institute for the Study of Diplomacy at Georgetown, Princeton University's Middle Eastern Affairs Advisory Board and The American Hospital in Paris. Also sits on the board of Hakluyt (a London-based corporate investigation firm formed by ex-MI6 agents). Vice Chairman of the U.S. Bangladesh Business Council and Vice Chairman of the Business Council on International Understanding. Wisner sits on the Board of Advisors of 'Dialogues: Islamic World - U.S. - The West', together with Etienne Davignon (Atlantic Institute and everywhere else) and Prince El Hassan bin Talal (head Club of Rome). The Dialogues, which are located in New York, are sponsored by the Carnegie Corporation and Rockefeller Brothers Fund.

Some other very likely members. At least very close associates.

Bella, (Alfredo?) Sánchez A right-wing Spanish Minister of Information and Tourism from 1969 to 1973, picked by Franco (Knight of Malta). His term has been described as "extreme conservatism". Supposedly also head of European Operations for Spain's Secret Service and closely connected to Opus Dei (Cannot confirm the original intelligence and Opus Dei claims. The Opus Dei Counsellor in Spain is Florencio Sanchez Bella, but many Franco sympathisants were involved with Opus Dei).

Botha, Colonel This person is said to have visited a 1979 Le Cercle meeting and is sometimes spelled as Botta. According to Langemann this name refers to a Chief of provisions in the Swiss military intelligence. That could be, but I can't find any Bothas in Switzerland, especially no Colonels. Botha is a typical South-African name and not just the name of one of their presidents. Even German sources constantly point to South-Africa when you type in this name. Coincidentally, there has been a Colonel (Hendrik Johannes Petrus) Botha in the South-Africa, who was involved in the death of an 'Umkhonto We Sizwe' member (MK - the armed wing of the communist ANC and co-founded by Nelson Mandela). This 'rebel' (name: Mbova Mzimela) was caught in 1977 and left to starve in the Pretoria Prison, at which this Colonel was stationed. This is no separate incident. Communist funded MK members were often arrested, tortured and killed, when they tried to cross the borders of South-Africa. So who knows, Le Cercle was active in South-America, maybe this person was referred too. But of course, this is a guess.

Bush, George H.W. Bush and ex-MI6 and Le Cercle member Nicholas Elliott stood in contact with each other in 1980. Bush is not a confirmed member however.

Carlucci, Frank Charles He was a naval officer from 1952 to 1954, joined the Foreign Service, and worked for the State Department from 1956 to 1969. In 1961 he participated in a CIA mission to the Congo, where he was involved in the operation to overthrow (and assassinate) Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba (followed up by 1001 Club member Mobutu). The assassination took place less than seven months after the Congo had declared its independence, with Lumumba as its first prime minister. In 1964 he is said to have been involved in the overthrow of the Brazilian Goulart government ("soft on communism"). Carlucci became Ambassador to Portugal, and served in this position from 1974 until 1977. Here he was accused of being involved in the (failed) 1975 coup of the right-wing General Spinola. Carlucci was an intermediary between Le Cercle member Henry Kissinger and Le Cercle member Spinola. During the early 1970s he became a protégé of Donald Rumsfeld and Caspar Weinberger (both probably are / were members of Le Cercle). He was undersecretary of Health, Education and Welfare when Weinberger was secretary during the Nixon administration. Involved with the Institute for the Study of Conflict, which was established in 1975. Deputy Director of the CIA from 1978-1981, under CIA Director Stansfield Turner, who succeeded George Herbert Walker Bush. Carlucci was deputy defense secretary from 1981 until 1986, national security advisor from 1986 until 1987, and defense secretary in 1987, following the resignation of Weinberger, his nomination by President Ronald Reagan and his confirmation in the Senate by a vote of 91 to 1. He was reportedly less hard-line in policies toward the Soviet Union than Weinberger. Carlucci is Chairman emeritus of the Carlyle Group (board members included James Baker III, John Major, and George H.W. Bush) and Nortel Networks. He also has business interests in the following companies: General Dynamics, Westinghouse, Ashland Oil, Neurogen, CB Commercial Real Estate, Nortel, BDM International, Quaker Oats, and Kaman. Carlucci is a former director of Wackenhut and a director at (the very corrupt) defense contractor United Defense (majority owned by Carlyle). Worked with Harold Okimoto, a high ranking member of the Yakuza, for many years. Affiliated with the Project for the New American Century, a think tank that's sets American policy to take over the world. Trustee of the RAND Corporation. Advisory board member of G2 Satellite Solutions. Member of the Atlantic Council of the United States.

Dulles, Allen Included it in the original Circle article but I have no clue of its source. Besides, Dulles died in 1969, the year the Circle was supposedly founded.

Brother of John F. Dulles. Princeton up to 1916. Attended Cap & Gown events, according to Kay Griggs, just as Donald Rumsfeld, William Colby, Frank Carlucci, James Baker, George Griggs, and George P. Shultz (August 3, 2005, Rense). Sent to Bern, Switzerland to work under State Department senior Hugh Wilson (Skull & Bones 1909) to collect political information on Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire 1916-1918. Joines his older brother, John Foster Dulles (Pilgrim), and David Bruce (Pilgrim) as members of President Woodrow Wilson's staff at the Versailles Peace Conference in 1919. Became a partner in Sullivan & Cromwell from 1927. Director of Schroder Co. Director Council on Foreign Relations 1927-1933. Secretary Council on Foreign Relations 1933-1944. In May 1941 he urges the U.S. to enter World War II. Recruited by OSS intelligence chief and Knight of Malta Colonel William J. Donovan 1941. Sets up and runs a spy post in Bern, Switserland 1942-1945. Vice-president Council on Foreign Relations 1944-1946. Said to have been involved in Operation Paperclip where about many German scientists and their families were secretly imported into the United States and placed into the Military-Industrial complex. President Council on Foreign Relations 1946-1950. Director Central Intelligence Agency 1953-1961. Member of President Johnson’s Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy 1963-1964 (forerunner of the Warren Commission). Primary United Fruit Company shareholder. Dulles International Airport in Washington, D.C. is named after him. Dulles was a member of Le Cercle and the Order of Malta. Member of the Pilgrims Society, :e Cercle, and the Order of Malta. Seems to have been a member of the 'Knight's Templar' (together with Kermit Roosevelt and Frank Wisner), an elite intelligence group within the CIA.

Haig, Alexander, Jr. Born in Philadelphia in 1924. University of Notre Dame 1942-1944. West Point 1944-1947. Commissioned a second lieutenant in the Army, serving in Japan and Korea on the staff of General Douglas MacArthur. In 1950, he married the daughter of MacArthur's deputy chief of staff, to whom Haig was aide-de-camp. Served in Korea 1950-1951 where he freed Sun Myung Moon (the person who thinks he's the new Messiah) from a concentration camp during the battle of Inchon in September 1950. Studied business administration at Columbia University 1954-1955. Operations officer of a tank battalion in Europe 1956-1958. Student at Naval War College 1959-1960. M.A. in International Relations from Georgetown University 1962. In 1962 he was selected over many other applicants to become a staff aide to a Kennedy Administration task force on Cuba directed by Cyrus Vance and Joseph A. Califano, Jr. Here he became involved with the CIA trying to overthrow Fidel Castro. He was the Pentagon's representative to a highly classified unit known as the "Subcommittee on Subversion", who's target was Cuba. Stayed at the Pentagon until 1965. Battalion and brigade commander in Vietnam 1966-1967. Deputy Commander of Cadets at West Point 1967-1968. Military aide on the National Security Council staff 1968-1969. Senior Military Advisor to the Assistant of the President for National Security Affairs, Henry Kissinger, 1969-1973. Worked all the time-every day, every night, and every weekend-to insure that the flow of documents in and out of Kissinger's office was uninterrupted. Haig was one of the persons that kept pushing the bombing of Cambodia and was working every moderate staff member out of office. Coordinated Nixon's historic visit to China in February 1972. Haig long was rumored to have been Deep Throat, the inside source for the Washington Post as the paper exposed the Nixon cover-up of the Watergate break-in of June 1972. Haig helped South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu to negotiate the final cease-fire talks in October 1972. Promoted to full 4 star general in 1972. Vice Chief of Staff of the Army January to May 1973. Nixon's White House Chief of Staff 1973-1974, at which point he retired after twenty-six years in the Army. Commander in Chief of United States European Command 1974-1979. Supreme Allied Commander of NATO 1974-1979. Retired from the Army in 1979. President and CEO of United Technologies Corporation 1979-1981 for which he still serves as a senior adviser (has negotiated international arms deals for the company). When the P2 scandal unfolded in 1981-1982, Haig and Kissinger were named among those who stood in contact with this neo-fascist lodge that fought the communist influence on the Italian government. U.S. Secretary of State 1981-1982. Reagan didn't like him, because Haig pushed his own policies too hard. During the confusion after Ronald Reagan was shot by John Hinckley, Haig asserts at the White House, "I'm in control here", forgetting about the Constitutional line of succession. One of the more famous Haigisms from those days is "That's not a lie. It is a terminological inexactitude". Visited the Trilateral Commission since at least 1982 (and until at least 1990) as a fellow of the Hudson Institute. In 1984 he was the founder of the global consulting firm Worldwide Associates, Inc. and has headed it ever since (seems to be a similar concept as Kissinger Associates). It has a strong focus on the former Soviet Union and China and today it is run by the United Technologies Corporation, to which Haig still is a senior advisor today. A 1991 Congressional report in the aftermath of the BNL affair said about Haig's role in United Technologies: "neither Paul nor Haig would comment on what Haig was doing for the company." A basic description (the only thing available) about Worldwide Associates reads: "... the company assists corporations in developing and implementing acquisition and marketing strategies. It also provides advice on the domestic and international political, economic and security environments and their effects on the global marketplace." Today's managing director of Worldwide Associates is retired Army Colonel Sherwood D. Goldberg, a civilian aide to the Secretary of the Army. He is about the only person besides Haig Sr. and Jr. that has been identified as an employee of Worldwide Associates. Wrote the book 'Caveat: Realism, Reagan and Foreign Policy' in 1984. Ran unsuccessfully for the Republican presidential nomination in 1988. Wrote the book 'Inner Circles: How America Changed the World - A Memoir ' in 1992. Host of the weekly television program, "World Business Review," and is a member of the board of directors of Compuserve Interactive Services, Inc., Metro-Goldwyn Mayer, Inc., MGM Mirage, Inc., Indevus Pharmaceuticals, Inc., SDC International, Inc., Abington Biomedical Funds, and China Overseas Shipping Co. (one of the largest dry bulk shipping companies in the world, among other things, and a front for the Chinese military), the National Foundation for Advanced Cardiac Surgery, and Preferred Employers Holdings, Inc. Today (2005) a director of the Jamestown Foundation, which was created in 1983 for the purpose of educating the United States and the West about the nature and purposes of the Soviet Union. It helped defectors from the communist world resettle in the United States. Other board members have included Dick Cheney, James Woolsey, Donald Rumsfeld, Zbigniew Brzezinski, Tom Clancy, Admiral John McCain, and Donald Rumsfeld. It is focused on the former USSR and China. Haig was a founding director of America Online, Inc. and is a strategic advisor to DOR BioPharma, Inc. since 2003. Serves on the board of Newsmax together with Arnaud de Borchgrave. Member of the neoconservative Benador Associates, together with James Woolsey, Lord Lamont (chairman of Le Cercle), Arnaud de Borchgrave, and Richard Perle. Advisor to the Washington Institute for Near East Policy. Trustee of the Foreign Policy Research Institute. Advisor to the National Infantry Foundation. Senior advisor to United Technologies Corporation. Member of the Knights of Malta, the Bohemian Grove, the Atlantic Council of the United States, and the Council on Foreign Relations. Just as Arnaud de Borchgrave and Jerry Falwell, Haig is a close friend and colleague of Sun Myung Moon. Haig has claimed that Moon's educational battle fought on the pages of the international newspapers and on the college campuses has been a primary reason for the demise of communism.

Kraemer, Fritz Gustav Anton Hohenzollern monarchist in his early days. Kraemer is quite a mysterious person, who studied in Germany and Rome, became a senior legal adviser to the League of Nations in Rome, fled Europe in 1939, came to the US, and went on to fight the Fascists. He discovered and mentored Kissinger, who he absorbed in Counter-Intelligence Corps. Kissinger went on to work for the Rockefellers and Kraemer, after helping to prepare the Nuremberg trials, became an important Pentagon official for the next 25-30 years, where he mentored generations of America's leading generals and politicians on historical and geopolitical issues. Besides Kissinger (Le Cercle), he tutored Vernon A. Walters (Le Cercle), Alexander Haig Jr. (almost 100% sure a Le Cercle member), Edward G. Lansdale (Operation Northwoods, look below), Creighton Abrams, and his son Sven (also a top Pentagon official). Donald H. Rumsfeld (almost 100% sure a Le Cercle member looking at his Iraq dealings) once praised Kraemer, indicating he has had a significant influence on him. Kraemer himself is sometimes almost portrait as a god, even more so than Kissinger. His son Sven summarized at his father's funeral:

"[He] publicly denounced Hitler's National Socialists as barbarian pagans and their communist rivals as proletarian thugs. He sometimes carried his small German imperial flag with its Christian cross of Malta into their street demonstrations as a provocative alternative to both swastika and hammer and sickle. Both sides would beat him bloody."

Löwenthal, Gerhard Lowenthal is a German Jew who made it through the WWII concentration camps. After WWII he started studying medicine in East-Berlin, but ran into trouble with the communists when he was a beginning reporter. He went to West-Berlin and gradually became a more well-known anti-left/socialist/communist news reporter. Gerhard was chairman of the conservative Germany foundation (Deutschland-Stiftung) from 1977 to 1994. Member of the German International Society for Human Rights (IGFM - fights against religious intolerance), Resistance International, WACL, CAUSA, the Jonathan Institute, Konservative Aktion and the European Institute on Security (all right wing). Anchorman on current affairs programmes for ZDF television, the major German network. In 2001 he wrote:

"I, Gerhard Lowenthal, am the witnes of this tragedy. In 1980, the MOK granted the right to host the Olympiad to the communists of the Soviet Union which severely suppressed its own people and peoples of the East Europe and at the same time created threat to world peace. The communist party of the Soviet Union took advantage of the Olympiad as an opportunity to give a new impulse to communist fanaticism. Communists unleashed the war in Afghanistan which became the first victim of their next plan of invasion into neighbouring countries. Besides death of great number of Soviet soldiers and citizens of Afghanistan, this war created threat to the world security. Joint efforts of peaceful forces all over the world made it possible to help the people of Afghanistan and to stop the development of the war..."

Luchsinger, Fred Editor of the Neue Zürcher Zeitung. Recipient of the Freedom Prize 1985. Can find very little info on him, but is said to have been used as a propaganda-outlet by Le Cercle.

Meulmeester, Karel M. British politician Alan Clark described how he went to the 1990 Le Cercle meeting in Oman and met the head of Dutch intelligence when visiting the bathroom. Clark didn't mention the name of this person, but at the time Karel Meulmeester was head of the IDB, which was the Dutch foreign intelligence agency (stood in close contact with the CIA, MI6, and the Mossad). Further, judging from his bio this is almost certainly the person Clark met.

As head of the IDB he incurred the wrath of virtually his entire staff (at least 18 of the 22, including all 3 of his deputies), because he was hopelessly antisocial and corrupt. On top of that, Meulmeester managed a secret annual fund of about 350,000 dollars of which nobody knew what it was used for. He put phone taps on his own personel or even on people that had left the IDB. Once in a while, Meulmeester would go off to secret meetings in different parts of the world, while nobody would know any details of his location or what he would be discussing. In the early nineties these dissatisfactions exploded. At the same time, Gladio was exposed in Italy and it became known that the Dutch version, Intelligence & Operations (I&O), was located at the IDB headquarters. They had their attic stuffed with inflatable rubber boats, diving equipment, etc. As a result the IDB was dissolved in 1994, but not before a small group of intelligence officials had secretly been transferred to another government department while keeping close contact with the Raad van State (Dutch Privy Council, official head is the Queen). The ever protected Meulmeester was one of them. Against all regulations, most of the archives of the IDB were destroyed. Meulmeester later became an advisor on data protection to the United Nations Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. This organization checks if countries comply with the regulations set at the Chemical Weapons Convention. Very little is known about Meulmeester and unless he's involved in some kind of scandal you won't hear his name on the evening news.

The Pope Has been briefed at least one time by a Circle member. Not that strange with all the Knights of Malta, Opus Dei members, and ordinary Catholics running around in Le Cercle.

Tugwell, Maurice Colonel Tugwell had been an intelligence officer in Palestine, Malaya, Cyprus, Arabia and Kenya. In 1979, Maurice Tugwell, former head of Information Policy, a black propaganda unit set-up by British military intelligence in Northern Ireland, formed the Canadian Centre for Conflict Studies. CCS largely operates on contract work for the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP), the Canadian Dept. of National Defence plus others. In 1986, he was a co-founder of the Canadian MacKenzie Institute for the Study of Terrorism, Revolution and Propaganda (Sort of Canadian version of the ISC). This was a far-right institute supposedly "to provide Canadians with a source of information on psychological warfare".

Walters, General Vernon After President Franklin D. Roosevelt declared war on Japan in December, 1941 Walters joined the U.S. Army. In 1942, as a result of being able to speak several languages, he became an intelligence agent. His first assignment was to infiltrate a group of suspected Nazi spies. Served in North Africa and Italy from 1942 to 1945. Military attaché in Brazil 1945-1948. In 1950, Walters served as an aide to W. Averell Harriman (involved in everything) at the Marshall Plan headquarters in Paris. Then he accompanied Averell Harriman to Korea in 1950 and assisted Harriman in US mediation attempts between Britain and Iran 1951. In 1951, as a lieutenant colonel, he returned to Paris to help set up the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers in Europe. Assistant to the deputy Chief of Staff at SHAPE in Paris 1951-1956. Member of the Atlantic Council of the United States. In the 1950s Walters worked as an aide and interpreter to Harry Truman, Dwight Eisenhower and Richard Nixon. Walters was fluent in French, Spanish, Italian, German, Portuguese, Chinese and Russian. He also represented Truman when he was was in conflict with General Douglas MacArthur, commander of United Nations forces in Korea. Walters has been named as a person who planned the JFK assassination. Lobster Magazine, issue 23, June 1992:

"Nearly ten years ago former BOSS agent Gordon Winter replied to a letter from Steve Dorril about BOSS's view of the assassination with the answer that BOSS files had attributed it to 'a General named Walters'. In 1963 Vernon Walters was Military Attaché in Rome. (It may be a coincidence that in Walters' autobiography there is nothing at all on what he was doing in 1963.) Also in Rome in 1963 as CIA station chief was William Harvey, who, it is widely reported, hated the Kennedys... All that is missing is evidence."

Served in Vietnam 1967. US Military attaché in Paris 1967-1972. While serving as a military attaché in Paris, Walters played a role in secret peace talks with North Vietnam. He arranged to smuggle Henry Kissinger into France for secret meetings with a senior North Vietnamese official, and then smuggle him out again. He accomplished this by borrowing a private airplane from an old friend, French President Georges Pompidou. Deputy Director of the CIA 1972-1976. Is said to done everything he could to hide the role of the CIA in the Watergate scandal. Established private consultancy 1976-1980. Became a member of Crozier's "61" 1977. President Reagan's "Ambassador at large" 1980-1985. Appointed US Ambassador to the United Nations 1985. During the 1990s, when he was no longer a public servant, Walters worked as a business consultant and was active on the lecture circuit. Knight of Malta.

Once involved with the Le Cercle-funded Institute for the Study of Conflict (so very likely members):

Bechtel, Stephen D., Sr. Look for his bio in the Bohemian membership list. He's is the most prominent member of camp Mandalay. (CIA affiliated)

Buckley, William F., Jr. Look for his bio in the Bohemian membership list. Hill Billies. (Knight of Malta / CIA affiliated)

Casey, William Joseph Look for his bio in the Bohemian membership list. Camp Mandalay. (Knight of Mata / CIA director)

Krulak, Victor H. Look for his bio in the Bohemian membership list. Owl's Nest. (Marine / Army Intelligence)

Whitney, John Hay Look for his bio in the Pilgrims Society membership list. (CIA affiliated)

Reproduced with deep appreciation from:


Link to comment
Share on other sites

Thank you for your respectful tone. I knew from one of your other posts that you knew that Weyl had passed away a year or so ago.

And I knew you knew that, too. Just thought your memory was going again is all.

Thanks for keeping this thread alive, it is a very important one to keep on page one.

What did you think about that character Robert B. Snowden, suh? The Tennessee Colonel's son?

Draper's biggest source of Cotton and the guy who hired George Lincoln Rockwell when no one else would.

Quite the Confederate Royalty, no? And quite the anti Communist pro Fascist gentlemen, suh?

Link to comment
Share on other sites

Please sign in to comment

You will be able to leave a comment after signing in

Sign In Now
  • Create New...