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Joseph Califano Jr.


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Did not find a Califano thread. I guess most has been posted under Haig and Vance threads? As Califano paragraphs go, this one from Russ Baker's incredible Family of Secrets is a good one.

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Haig's rapid career rise, from the lowest third of his class at West Point to positions in a succession of Democratic and Republican administrations

starting with JFK's, benefited in part from sponsorship by Joseph Califano Jr., a powerful Washington attorney who served in both the Kennedy

and Johnson administrations and was considered a close ally of LBJ's Washington Post chair and publisher Katherine Graham initially brought

Califano and his law partner Edward Bennett Williams together and the two attorneys spoke of lunching frequently on Saturdays with managing editor

Ben Bradlee or "Other pals form the Post" Complicating matters and illuminating these tangled alliances, Califano served as counsel for both the

Post and the democartaic National Committee-- the very entity purportedly victimized by the president's men. As secretary of the Army under

LBJ, Califano had been responsible for looking after Veterans of the Bay of Pigs invasion,along with two of his aides: Haig and Alexander Butterfield

Would either Haig or Califano have been aware of Morales' siphoning of the Bay of Pigs Veterans? Would either have known of Morales directly?

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Did not find a Califano thread. I guess most has been posted under Haig and Vance threads? As Califano paragraphs go, this one from Russ Baker's incredible Family of Secrets is a good one.

-----

Haig's rapid career rise, from the lowest third of his class at West Point to positions in a succession of Democratic and Republican administrations

starting with JFK's, benefited in part from sponsorship by Joseph Califano Jr., a powerful Washington attorney who served in both the Kennedy

and Johnson administrations and was considered a close ally of LBJ's Washington Post chair and publisher Katherine Graham initially brought

Califano and his law partner Edward Bennett Williams together and the two attorneys spoke of lunching frequently on Saturdays with managing editor

Ben Bradlee or "Other pals form the Post" Complicating matters and illuminating these tangled alliances, Califano served as counsel for both the

Post and the democartaic National Committee-- the very entity purportedly victimized by the president's men. As secretary of the Army under

LBJ, Califano had been responsible for looking after Veterans of the Bay of Pigs invasion,along with two of his aides: Haig and Alexander Butterfield

Would either Haig or Califano have been aware of Morales' siphoning of the Bay of Pigs Veterans? Would either have known of Morales directly?

Interesting train of thought, probably on to something......all I can add is that the names subgroup of JFK Assassination documents and lesser known investigatory bodies has some interesting titles... Califano, Cheney, Rockefeller, Pike.........

Some people might call it the fox investigating the henhouse committee, but I am not one to gossip, so you didn't hear it from me....lol

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http://www.maryferrell.org/wiki/index.php/..._Archive_-_2008

14 Jul 2008 - More Califano Papers: Additional documents from the files of Joseph Califano include List of Cuban Contingencies, Utilization of Alpha 66 in Operations, The Future of Cuba, Cover and Deception Plans for Caribbean Survey Group, and more.

Califano, who testified before the HSCA, was appointed, on January 20, 1964, as the person responsible for the administration of all the Cuban operations, and proceeded to shut them down.

BK

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http://www.maryferrell.org/mffweb/archive/...ult&id=1843

A Record from Mary Ferrell's Database

Record:

CALIFANO, JOSEPH A., JR.

Sources:

SSCIA 157-10002-10081 (MMF 1793-1796); The Fish is Red, Hinckle & Turner (153, 342); Coincidence or Conspiracy, Fensterwald (125); CIA-Mafia Link, Ashman (29); Deep Politics, Scott, p. 306

Mary's Comments:

In the JFK administration. In a Sept 6, 1963, memo from Gordon Chase to Bundy, it was assumed that Cyrus Vance, as a member of the Cuban Coordinating Commmittee, had confided the details of the exile raids and Operation MONGOOSE to Califano. Lyndon Johnson's friend. Attorney.

Edited by William Kelly
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Thom Hartmann and Lamar Waldron :

http://74.125.47.132/search?q=cache:kOWZD1aOM-gJ:www.buzzflash.com/contributors/05/12/con05463.html+Joseph+Califano+HSCA+testimony&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=14&gl=us

It was not until 2004 that Joseph Califano, assistant to Secretary of the Army Cyrus Vance in 1963, briefly hinted at the sensitive operation that Robert Kennedy had managed and had withheld from the Warren Commission. Califano wrote: "No one on the Warren Commission . . . talked to me or (so far as I know) anyone else involved in the covert attacks on Castro. . . . The Commission was not informed of any of the efforts of Desmond FitzGerald, the CIA and Robert Kennedy to eliminate Castro and stage a coup" in the fall of 1963.[36]

http://www.history-matters.com/pds/DP3_Chapter5.htm - _ftn68

Peter Dale Scott – Deep Politics III

The Kennedy-CIA Divergence Over Cuba – Chapter V.

To this preference for control can be added another one. The CIA, despite its fiasco at the Bay of Pigs, was still hoping to reassert itself as the preferred agency for paramilitary operations, which had accounted for the biggest item in its annual budget. In this respect AMTRUNK, an inter-agency operation, may have been distasteful to it, because by all accounts the key co-ordinating role was given, not to the CIA, but to the Department of the Army under Cyrus Vance and his aides Joseph Califano and Alexander Haig.[68]

http://www.history-matters.com/pds/DP3_Chapter5.htm#_ftnref68#_ftnref68">

[68://http://www.history-matters.com/pds/...ot;] [68] Hinckle and Turner, The Fish Is Red, 153, 342. (Haig was appointed to his position under Vance on June 28, 1963.) The CIA lost this bureaucratic battle to the U.S. Army, which in 1964 took over the CIA's Special Operations Group (SOG) in Vietnam, along with its Green Berets.

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Martha Wagner Murphy

http://74.125.47.132/search?q=cache:Nk6ijv...;cd=3&gl=us

Due to the prominence of the subject of U.S. efforts to destabilize Cuba in the investigations of the HSCA and Church Committee, the Assassination Records Review Board sought out high level Army and Joint Chief of Staff documents relating to this subject. This has resulted in the declassification and release of 4 cubic feet of records culled from JCS and Army records which had been recently transferred to NARA in a routine accession. These records reflect the broadest interpretation of the term "assassination-related" since they were not created in the process of an investigation of the assassination or an investigation into the intelligence community, but rather address the need Board's intent to clarify the historical record regarding U.S. policy and actions in Cuba.

Like many of the records in the collection, these files have only a vague arrangement. They are filed with Record Group 218, Records of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and Record Group 335, Records of the Secretary of the Army. The JCS Records come from four series, the JCS Central File and the files of General Lyman Lemnitzer, General Maxwell Taylor and Lieutenant General Earle Wheeler.

They date from 1961 through 1963. The records consist of high level documents, primarily memorandums, on U.S. policy toward Cuba. They often outline various contingency plans from the perspectives of the Central Intelligence Agency, the Department of Defense, and the State Department.

The Army records consist of the files of Joseph Califano, Special Assistant to the Secretary of the Army. The records date primarily from 1963, with a smaller number from 1962 and 1964. Many of the documents are of a similar type to those described above, with memorandums outlining possible contingency plans and policy proposals relating to Cuba. However, the files also include Cuba related intelligence information. These intelligence records generally consist of either memorandums to Califano from other intelligence sources, or memorandums from Califano to the JCS relaying intelligence information.

Although not related to Cuba, the ARRB also declared one box of JCS records relating to Vietnam as assassination related,. This decision was prompted by conspiracy theories which that implicate the military in the assassination. These records, dating primarily from 1963, include policy memorandums with contingency plans relating to Vietnam.

You will find similar Cuba and Vietnam policy papers in the National Security files transferred to the Collection by the Kennedy and Johnson Libraries. Many of these files were declassified and opened for the first time in compliance with the Act and are new to the research community.

Since these are such high level files, it is possible that some documents have been released through the State Department Foreign Relations of the United States Project. Similarly, the records of the JCS and Army may have been released previously in some form prior to now under FOIA guidelines. We are assuming that these same documents, if subsequently reviewed under broader guidelines stipulated by the Kennedy Assassination Records Act, would be less restricted in content. For this and other reasons, we are assuming that there is new information within the National Security, Army, and JCS files of the Kennedy Assassination Records Collection. However, none of these records were reviewed under the broader guidelines of the Act. We are assuming that there is new information among the files.

Max Holland on Califano:

http://74.125.47.132/search?q=cache:tHL4ur...;cd=8&gl=us

…Professor Schlesinger is not going to find many documents, either, that buttress his argument--i.e., that getting rid of Castro was not an obsession within the Kennedy Administration. Forget about the CIA for once. Consider instead the records from a long-forgotten, obscure entity called the Interdepartmental Coordinating Committee on Cuban Affairs (ICCCA). The public is seldom privy to the give-and-take of frequently pivotal, ad hoc task forces. Inter-agency deliberations have their own special exemption under the Freedom of Information Act. Acting on a tip, however, the ARRB located the records of the Defense Department's executive agent for all ICCCA meetings in 1962-­63. He was the Secretary of the Army, a fellow named Cyrus Vance. His special assistant, Joseph Califano, frequently represented Vance at ICCCA meetings and participated in all policy deliberations, as did Vance's military aide, Army Maj. Alexander Haig.

Reading through these records one learns how three future Cabinet officials, including two secretaries of state, partook in deliberations over how to create a real or simulated incident--blowing up vessels, shooting down an airliner--that would provide Washington with the pretext necessary to invade Cuba in 1962, seeing as how another invasion by exiles was out of the question. Concurrently, the Joint Chiefs of Staff prepared their own notions of what a usable "Sink the Maine" scenario might look like. Planting arms in a Caribbean country and sending in jets painted to look like Cuban MIGs was one idea. Blaming Havana for the failure of John Glenn's Mercury flight, if it failed, was another brainstorm. Apparently, the entire national security apparatus went mad with near-criminal schemes to get rid of Castro after the Bay of Pigs.

It isn't only the myth-makers who have reason to be concerned about the Assassination Records Review Board's papers neatly shelved at the National Archives

ARRB Records on Cuba

http://74.125.47.132/search?q=cache:Dq3KER...cd=18&gl=us

In the mid-1970s, the Church Committee publicly revealed what journalists had been alleging since 1967 that the U.S. government had sponsored assassination attempts at various times against Cuban leader Fidel Castro. Castro presumably knew about these attempts long before the U.S. public, and some historians and researchers have questioned whether he retaliated by assassinating President Kennedy. The Review Board sought to find records that would illuminate a slightly different but related area of interest: the degree to which the U.S. government sponsored potential uprisings and military coups within Cuba, and the extent of possible U.S. plans to invade Cuba by overt military force. The Board believed that such records would be of interest not only to mainstream historians, but also to many who believe there was a conspiracy to kill President Kennedy. For example, evidence of serious, or imminent, contingency plans to invade Cuba with U.S. military forces during the Kennedy Administration, if found, could provide either a motive for retaliation by Castro or a motive for domestic malcontents who might have been displeased that such plans were not immediately implemented by the administration. The Review Board believed that there would be strong public interest in any records which would illuminate U.S. government policy deliberations on Cuba.

Further, Lee Harvey Oswald's connection with the Fair Play for Cuba Committee made the Review Board's search for any records on U.S.-Cuba policy all the more relevant. The degree to which U.S. policy toward Cuba following President Kennedy's assassination did or did not change provides a final reason to search for records to enhance the historical understanding, or context, of the assassination.

1. CIA Records

Most of the relevant CIA records on Cuba that the Review Board staff identified as assassination-related existed in the CIA sequestered collection before the Review Board began making requests for additional records and information. The Review Board identified additional records pertaining to the period 19601964 from some contemporary working files of a CIA office concerned with Latin American issues. Most of these records concerned the existence or activities of the JMWAVE Station in Miami. Small numbers of records pertaining to Cuba or U.S.-anti-Cuban activities were identified in the records of the Directorate of Plans (now the Directorate of Operations) and in the files of several senior officers of the CIA during the 196065 period. CIA processed for inclusion in the JFK Collection those records that the Review Board marked as assassination records.

2. Military Records

The Review Board staff located military records on Cuba in four different collections of records.

a. Joint Staff Secretariat.

The staff of the Joint Staff Secretariat searched for records related to both Cuba and Vietnam policy and flagged selected records from 19611964 from the files of Joint Chiefs of Staff Chairmen Lyman Lemnitzer, Maxwell Taylor, and Earle Wheeler, and selected records from 19611964 from the Central Files of the Joint Staff for examination and consideration by the Review Board staff. The Review Board staff flagged all but one of the 147 records selected as appropriate for inclusion in the JFK Collection. Approximately two-thirds of the 147 records related to Cuba policy from 1961196411the remainder related to Vietnam policy.

b. Army.

In 1963, Joseph Califano served as both General Counsel to Secretary of the Army Cyrus Vance and as Special Assistant to the Army Secretary. NARA identified six Federal Records Center boxes containing the Cuba policy papers of Joseph Califano from 1963. The Review Board designated the six boxes of "Califano Papers," in their entirety, as appropriate for inclusion in the JFK Collection.

During 1963, Secretary Vance was the "DOD Executive Agent" for all meetings of the governmental task force, the "Interdepartmental Coordinating Committee on Cuban Affairs," (ICCCA). As Vance's special assistant, Califano often represented him at meetings of the ICCCA, and was part of all ICCCA policy deliberations. The collection of Califano Papers represents a unique find and reflects much of the interagency planning activities related to Cuba during 1963.

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" (Haig was appointed to his position under Vance on June 28, 1963.) The CIA lost this bureaucratic battle to the U.S. Army,"

Very interesting timing on this Haig appointment.

Especially given what "we" now "know" about Al wearing many hats between 1969-1974. Was this a loss for the CIA?

Does anyone have any details on how Haig got this job? Who were the people who recommended him on the surface?

Edited by Nathaniel Heidenheimer
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  • 3 weeks later...

Legacy of Secrecy (p. 790 notes, Chapter 2)

"11. While (Defense Intelligence Agency director) General Carroll probably wouldn't have appreciated knowing his conversations were being reported to the CIA, his own associates were enganged in a similar high level surveillance. In Jospeh Califano's recent autobiography, he points to a time in June 1963 when he and his superior, Army Secretary Cyrus Vance, 'secretly ran all' of 'the White House and Justice Department...communication lines through the Army war room. Sitting there, Vance and I were able to listen to any conversation the President or Attorney General had...Because we assumed Robert Kennedy would have objected to our evesdropping, we never let him know."

Joseph A. Califano, Inside: A Public and Private Life (New York, Public Affaird, 2004, p. 109).

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  • 3 months later...
Legacy of Secrecy (p. 790 notes, Chapter 2)

"11. While (Defense Intelligence Agency director) General Carroll probably wouldn't have appreciated knowing his conversations were being reported to the CIA, his own associates were enganged in a similar high level surveillance. In Jospeh Califano's recent autobiography, he points to a time in June 1963 when he and his superior, Army Secretary Cyrus Vance, 'secretly ran all' of 'the White House and Justice Department...communication lines through the Army war room. Sitting there, Vance and I were able to listen to any conversation the President or Attorney General had...Because we assumed Robert Kennedy would have objected to our evesdropping, we never let him know."

Joseph A. Califano, Inside: A Public and Private Life (New York, Public Affaird, 2004, p. 109).

I think this is a pretty revealing statement.

How come the people in on and in some cases responsible for the "Contingency Plans for a Coup in Cuba" - Califano, Vance, Haig, Halpern, et al, are the same guys who Russo and Waldron quote as saying RFK was behind the plots to kill Castro that were used to kill JFK?

And now we know the same guys were behind the Venezuelan Arms Cache - Northwoods Operation, run at the same time as Dealey Plaza.

And here, there's Vance and Califano admitting they privately bugged "the White House and Justice Dept. through the Army War Room," so they knew what the bros were really thinking and saying to each other. They also would be tipped off if the bros were suspicious of the plots against them.

I am leaning towards the idea that "the Congingency Plans for a Coup in Cuba" was actually the code for the coup against the Kennedys.

BK

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  • 9 months later...

Joseph Califano Jr. was the assistant to the Secretary of the Army and handled all of the Covert Ops that were coordinated with the CIA. Califano's assistant was Lt. Col. Alexandar Haig.

The Contingency Plans for a Coup in Cuba, the basis for the Dealey Plaza operation, which included the Valkyrie Plans to blame the assassination on Castro, were among the Califano papers that were released by the JFK Act.

NARA Record Number: 198-10004-10031

http://www.maryferrell.org/mffweb/archive/viewer/showDoc.do?mode=searchResult&absPageId=49796

STATUS OF DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTINGENCY-PLANS TO COUNTER CASTRO INSPIRED INSURGENCY ATTACKS AGAINST U.S. MILITARY PROPERTY IN LATIN AMERICA

MEETING AT STATE, 4 DECEMBER 1963 ON CUBA pg 1

Found in: Army - Califano Papers

ARMY FROM A.M HAIG TO JOSEPH CALIFANO TITLE MEETING AT STATE 4 DECEMBER 1963 ON CUBA DATE 12/00/63 PAGES 4 SUBJECTS MULTILATERAL EFFORTS UNDER THE OAS MACHINERY POSSIBLE STEPPED UP POLITICAL

RIF#: 198-10004-10045 (12/00/63)

TESTIMONY OF L. FLETCHER PROUTY, 16 JUL 1975 pg 58

Found in: Church Committee Boxed Files

Counsel who at that time was General Califano And the man that did the job was Haig Haig was assigned to this and Haig has come up and said he was When I would go to Califano office Haig had an office

RIF#: 157-10011-10041 (07/16/75)

"Recently General Alexander Haig, who in 1963 was Robert Kennedy's right hand man in carrying out military sabotage activities against Cuba, stated: 'Bobby Kennedy is personally responsible for at least 8 assassination attempts on Fidel Castro. Kennedy wanted to get rid of Castro, but Castro got him first.'" - Carlos Bringuier

As suspects in the assassination, the DRE best present the original cover story, as expressed here by Carlos Bringuier

THE DRE POSITION ON THE ASSASSINATION OF JFK

As we reach another anniversary of the assassination of President John F. Kennedy I believe that it is important to show the facts surrounding the tragic events that culminated on November 22, 1963.

1) 1959. Mafia boss Santos Trafficante is arrested in Havana and is released due to the intervention of Major Rolando Cubela Secades and Trafficante is allowed to leave Cuba with his money and start working with Castro's Secret Service as an informant.

2) 1959. During his time in prison Mafia boss Santos Trafficante received the visit of Jack Ruby.

3) March 1961. Cuban Major Rolando Cubela established contact in Mexico City with the CIA. Contacts continued until 1965.

4) June 1962. Lee Harvey Oswald leaves the Soviet Union to return to the USA.

5) July 18, 1962. The KGB sends a secret telegram to Ramiro Valdés, chief of the Cuban secret services informing him of Oswald's return to the USA and identifying Oswald as a sympathizer.

6) November 1962. Cuban G2 established contact with Lee Harvey Oswald and assigned as his case officer Major Rolando Cubela Secades.

7) April 10, 1963. Lee Harvey Oswald carried out his first test as "sleeper" for the communists by attempting to kill General Edwin Walker in Dallas, Texas.

8) August 5, 1963. Lee Harvey Oswald tried to infiltrate the Delegation of the Cuban Student Directorate (Directorio Revolucionario Estudiantil) DRE in New Orleans, Louisiana.

9) August 9, 1963. Lee Harvey Oswald is arrested on Canal Street after a disturbance when he was passing out pro-Castro literature.

10) August 12, 1963. At the Second Municipal Court in New Orleans, Louisiana, Lee Harvey Oswald is sentenced to a $10.00 fine for disturbing the peace.

11) August 21, 1963. Lee Harvey Oswald is confronted in a debate at Radio Station WDSU in New Orleans, Louisiana where he defended the dictatorship of Fidel Castro.

12) September 7, 1963. Fidel Castro at the Brazilian Embassy in Havana, in an extemporaneous speech to the press Fidel Castro stated: "Kennedy is the Batista of his times...and the most opportunistic American President of all times. He is fighting a battle against us they cannot win. Kennedy is a hypocrite, and a member of an oligarchic family that controls several important posts in the government. For instance, one brother is a Senator and another Attorney General...and there are not more kennedys officials because there are not more brothers." Later on in his speech he went so far to threaten the leaders of the United States: "We are prepared to fight them and answer in kind. United States leaders should think that if they are aiding terrorist plans to eliminate Cuban leaders, they themselves will not be safe."

13) September 27, 1963. Lee Harvey Oswald established contact with intelligence agents of the Cuban government in Mexico City among them the chief of Cuban secret service General Fabián Escalante. Oswald attended a party organized by the Cuban Embassy in Mexico and met the daughter of Octavio Paz, winner author of a Nobel prize, and Ms. Paz was told: "Stay away from him, he's a dangerous man."

14) September 1963. Néstor Sánchez, became CIA Case Officer of Cuban Major Rolando Cubela and using and assumed name met with Cubela at the Pan American Games in Porto Alegre, Brasil.

15) October 29, 1963. Desmond FitzGerald, in charge of the CIA Special Affairs Staff and close friend of Robert F. Kennedy, using an alias, met with Cubela in Paris. During the meeting Cubela requested a "high powered rifle with a telescopic sight that could be used to kill Castro from a distance".

16) November 18, 1963. In an speech delivered at the Assembly of the Inter-American Press association in Miami, Fl., president Kennedy stated: "It is important to restate what now divides Cuba from my country and from all the American countries: it is the fact that a small band of conspirators has stripped the Cuban people of their freedom and handed over the independence and sovereignty of the Cuban nation to forces beyond the hemisphere. They have made Cuba a victim of foreign imperialism, an instrument of the policy of others, a weapon in an effort dictated by external powers to subvert the other American Republics.

"This and this alone divide us.

"As long as this is true nothing is possible.

"Without it everything is possible.

"Once this barrier is removed we will be ready and anxious to work with the Cuban people in pursuit of those progressive goals which, a few short years ago, stirred their hopes and the sympathy of many people throughout the entire hemisphere.

"No Cuban need feel trapped between dependence on the broken promises of foreign Communism and the hostility of the rest of the hemisphere. For once Cuban sovereignty has been restored we will extend the hand of friendship and assistance to a Cuba whose political and economic institutions have been shaped by the will of the Cuban people."

This speech was intended as a "message" from President Kennedy to the group headed by Rolando Cubela.

17) November 22, 1963. In the morning a small plane from Mexico landed at the private Redbird airport in Dallas carrying as a passenger the chief of Cuban secret services General Fabián Escalante. Meanwhile in Paris a new meeting is going on by the CIA attended by Desmond FitzGerald and Rolando Cubela which meeting is interrupted by the news that President Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas. Lee Harvey Oswald is arrested after, trying to escape, he killed Officer J. D. Tippit. At night time, after Oswald had been arrested the small plane left Redbird airport in Dallas carrying General Fabián Escalante back to Mexico City as documented in a secret memo by Marty Underwood, assistant of President Lyndon B. Johnson.

18) November 1963. President Johnson send FBI Supervisor Laurence Keenan to investigate Oswald's clandestine contacts there. Less than 72 hours later when everything was pointing to Castro, Laurence Keenan was called back, ordered to stop his investigation and forget everything that he had learn. Now Mr. Kennan has said: "I had the chance to solve the case of our President's murder, and I screwed up. I'm still ashamed of that to this day." Recently General Alexander Haig, who in 1963 was Robert Kennedy's right hand man in carrying out military sabotage activities against Cuba, stated: "Bobby Kennedy is personally responsible for at least 8 assassination attempts on Fidel Castro. Kennedy wanted to get rid of Castro, but Castro got him first."

19) November 24, 1963. Lee Harvey Oswald is assassinated by Jack Ruby. Oswald was not allowed to have his day in court or to give away his connection with the Castro government.

20) December 30, 1964. Manuel Artime, ex Chief of the 2506 Brigade and close friend of Robert F. Kennedy have another meeting with Rolando Cubela who is again trying to infiltrate the CIA. At the meeting Cubela stated that is coming a coup de E'tat in Cuba by a group of which he is the leader. According to Cubela the other involved were: Efigenio Ameijeiras, Juan Almeida y Comandante Guillermo García Frías. Artime reported to the CIA that Cubela could not be trusted and on June 23, 1965 in a cable to stations the CIA stated: "Convincing prove that entire AMLASH (Cubela) group insecure and that further contact with key members of group constitute menace to CIA operations against Cuba as well as to the security of CIA staff personnel in Western Europe." The CIA ordered all contact broken and warned Artime that he was right in that Cubela was not to be trusted.

21) March 1, 1966. The Cuban government announced the arrest of Maj. Rolando Cubela and Maj. Ramón Guin for counterrevolutionary activities involving the CIA. Cubela was found guilty and sentenced to 30 years in jail. Eventually, after a few years, he was "released" and allowed to leave Cuba. Years later Comandantes Arnaldo Ochoa y Antonio de la Guardia were not awarded the same leniency and were executed for crimes less grave that working with the CIA to assassinate Comandante Fidel Castro.

22) Two vigorous opponents of Fidel Castro: Manuel Artime and Jorge Más Canosa died, at young age, of "natural" causes.

November 22, 2006

Author's note: A day like today in 1967, 78 years old Andrés Sar Alvarez was executed in La Cabaña prison. In 1982 Roberto Rosales Jústiz was murdered at Juraguá Beach in Santiago de Cuba. In 1963, at Dallas, Texas, John F. Kennedy was assassinated by a Castro agent.

Recommended bibliography:

Live by the Sword, by Gus Russo.

Operación Judas, by Carlos J. Bringuier

The Castro Obsession, by Doh Bohning

Red Friday, by Carlos J. Bringuier

Rendezvous with death, (Documental) by Wilfried Huismann.

Éste y otros excelentes artículos del mismo AUTOR aparecen en la REVISTA GUARACABUYA con dirección electrónica de:

www.amigospais-guaracabuya.org

Edited by William Kelly
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