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"Killing Commies for Christ the King" - The Carlist Catholics and the JFK Assassination


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I have long been searching for the one common theme that would link together the activities of The John Birch Society

(Robert J. Morris, Edwin A. Walker and Charles Willoughby), the International Committee for the Defense of Christian

Culture (H. L. Hunt and Nelson Bunker Hunt, Douglas MacArthur and Charles Willoughby), The Shickshinny Knights of Malta

(list to be provided, but all were sword carrying, sabre rattling, Catholics who had sworn to lay down their life for any Bishop,

Archbishop or the Pope in Rome, The America First Party of GLK Smith who chose Douglas MacArthur as their 1952 Presidential

Candidate, The American Mercury of arch-Catholic millionaires like Clendenin J. Ryan and J. Russell Maguire,

CUSA of Robert J. Morris, The World Anti-Communist League of Ray S. Cline and Roger Pearson which apparently was actually

started by John Foster Dulles of United Fruit, Allen Dulles of the OSS and Gen. Douglas A. MacArthur in 1947 as APACL, The

Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (ROCOR) of the de Mohrenshcildts and Anastase Vonsiatsky and the Coudert Brothers law firm,

Charles Willoughby's, Edward Hunter's and Bonner Fellers' Anti-Communist Liaison Committee of Correspondence, and The

Manchurian Candidate crowds of Richard Condon who were almost universally arch-Catholics, pro-Fascists, racists,

military war mongers and anti-Semites all rolled into one cohesive entity. And it took postings by Terry Mauro, Bill Kelly, Thomas

Purvis and Tom Scully to jog my memory about certain aspects of these internecine interlocked directorships and it took

a meeting with Joel Gruhn when he challenged me to show how these "Park Street Patriots", staunch Ukrainian anti-Communists,

the right wing nuclear Armageddon military leaders depicted in "Dr. Strangelove", and "Right-Wing Business Leaders"

could actually manage to pull this entire thing off. And it helped a lot as I watched some posters on this site who started manifesting

some typical signs of being "extensively brainwashed" themselves by the likes of Oliver, Corso, GLK Smith, Morris, Willoughby, etc.

And then I started to review the history of the OSS vs. Army Intel internecine struggles and how they scapegoated each other

from the mid-1940's well into the mid-1970's and it became apparently clear to me that Morris, Smith, Oliver, Corso and Willoughby

have performed one of the greatest scapegoating and brainwashing coups in history and that some of its victims have yet to be

thoroughly deprogrammed as of today and they are sitting right next to you on this forum and at JFK conferences. Amazing Stuff!

And if Don ("Mr. Science Fiction") Jeffries didn't make the outrageous statement that GLK Smith was some kind of washed up, marginal figure,

who was far beyond his prime, and incapable of being an important person at the Giesbrecht Incident, I would not have been inspired to re-think the

role of GLK Smith once again and prove just how important he was in the entire JFK hit. Thank you Don, for the inspiration. And if Bernice Moore

and Bill ("BK/ULTRA") Kelly had not launched that preposterous campaign trying to prove that the little pipsqueak, David Ferrie, was really at the Giesbrecht Incident instead of Gerald L. K. Smith ("Christ of the Ozarks") some of this might never have happened as quickly as it did. Some of my best work is done by refuting, debunking and embarrassing some of the most nonsensical, marginal, illogical and irrelevant critics. Thanks for helping me out on this courtesy of BK/ULTRA and his numerous little minions, parroting his trite phrases, innacuracies and irrelevancies on command. They are second tier and second

generations of the great brainwashed crowd. Is it like a virus, spread on contact, or is the information just communicated "mouth-to-mouth

because the printing press had not been invented yet" as some college student once postulated in "Non Campus Mentis" a NY Times

bestseller from a couple years back. It is one of the funniest laugh out loud books I have ever read in my life. Get it. Your belly will ache

from laughing so much. Samples to follow.

Ever hear of Edmund Bernay the Father of Public Relations and Spin Control and Influencing Public Opinion? More to come on him later.

He is credited with convincing the Press and the Politicians of the day that Jacobo Arbenz in Guatamala was truly a sinister and dangerous

Communist leader who had to go. And after teaching the Dulles Brothers how to do it, the same campaign was launched against Castro

who was much more Communist than Arbenz by a longshot. Arbenz may have just been an opportunistic banana republic capitalist who

thought it was a good idea to appropriate United Fruit's banana plantations for the benefit of those who had voted him into office. And then

while he enriched himself and his cronies he was called a Commie to boot? They must have toasted themselves with Champagne and

just laughed uproariously at that idea. In any event they were deposed shortly thereafter by a landing party of about 300-350 men just

about matching the number of the Bay of Pigs landing party (200-250 maybe). And it was Allen (Banana Man) Dulles who convinced them

that he could depose Castro in Cuba just like he did it with Arbenz in Guatamala where he pulled off what I call a "radio broadcast scam" using

Orson Welles "War of the Worlds" styled tactics to make Arbenz think that the invasion landing force was much larger than it really was. Nice

trick, wonder if I could ever pull that off?

And finally it struck me like a bolt out of the blue. They were ALL Carlist arch-Conservative pro-fascist Catholics and almost all of

them had appeared one way or the other, in the novel: The Manchurian Candidate by Richard Condon in 1958. Case Closed.

Do you know what a major breakthrough this has to be for the entire JFK Assassination Plot and the Unified Conspiracy Theory?

I had been following almost all of these people on and off for about 10 years, but without finding any other common bond among

them except for the fact that almost all of them appeared in The Manchurian Candidate by 1959. Now it is apparent that they were

all united in the theme of "Killing Commies for Christ" which was a popular bumper sticker in Cambridge during the late 1960's.

It always brought a little smile of irony to my mouth, but the full significance only began to sink in over time. One part of this

crowd was truly driven by this sort of Utopian idealistic almost religious fanatical fervor but another group was only motivated by

the need to protect their investments in various Banana Republics an oil producing regions, and to regain their investments in

Soviet Russia.

And now finally I think I have found it, thanks to a posting by Terry Mauro, \"Our Miss Brooks\", about Warren H.

Carroll from H. L. Hunt's Lifeline program and his links to Robert J. Morris, and William F. Buckley and Jr., L. Brent

Bozell and Christendom College who both wrote for The American Mercury and were YAF founders.

Apparently Bozell made a trip to Spain, just like Willoughby did to deliver arms to Franco, his idol, and came back enthralled

with the teachings of a person named Don Carlos, after whom Carlism is named:

http://books.google.com/books?id=5gJoqTDzo...num=3#PPA122,M1

The presence of so many arch-Conservative Catholics in the JFK plot has always sort of mystified me as it may also

have mystified those of you who are inquisitive, analytical, incisive and indefatigable, terms which I readily apply to myself.

It became obvious, slowly over time, that these people had many common bonds not the least of which was their staunch

anti-Communism, their arch-Conservative Catholicism, their pro-Fascism and their obeisance to The Pope in Rome,

although not all of them shared all of these common bonds:

Truly they all believed in \"Killing Commies for Christ the King\" and they were all lividly and vociferously anti-Communist

Dr. Robert J. Morris, McCarthyite, Catholic, Fordham University

Otto F. Otepka, McCarthyite, Catholic University

Senator Joseph McCarthy, Catholic, pro-Fascist

Clendenin J. Ryan, Catholic, Carlist, pro-Fascist, American Mercury

J. Russell Maguire, Catholic, Carlist, pro-Fascist, American Mercury

Ulius L. Amoss, Catholic, anti-Communist

Clarence Manion, dean of the Notre Dame Law School, arch-Catholic conservative, Bircher

H. L. Hunt, Catholic?, pro-Fascist, ICDCC

N. B. Hunt, Catholic?, pro-Fascist, ICDCC

William F. Buckley, Jr., Catholic, Carlist, pro-Fascist, American Mercury

Frank C. Hannighan, Catholic, Human Events, Draperite, pro-Fascist

William F. Buckley, Sr., Catholic, Carlist, pro-Fascist

James J. Angleton, Catholic, Carlist, pro-Fascist, CIA

Half the membership of The Council for National Policy were Catholic, anti-Communist, pro-Facist

Hugh James Angleton, his father, Catholic, Carlist, pro-Fascist, anti-Pancho Villa

Maj. Gen. Charles A. Willoughby, a true Franco Falangist and Carlist Catholic, American Mercury

Brig. Gen. Bonner Fellers, Catholic, pro-Hitler Falangist, American Mercury, Shickshinny Knights of Malta

Tsar Anastase Vonsiatsky, Catholic, pro-Hitler, Russian Orthodox Catholic, St. Nicholas Cathedral in NYC, Park Avenue Patriots

George de Mohrenschildt, Catholic, pro-Hitler, Russian Orthodox Catholic, St. Nicholas Cathedral in NYC, Park Avenue Patriots

Dallas petroleum geologists and Marina Oswald, pro-Fascist, Russian Orthodox Catholic

Gen. Albert C. Wedemeyer, Catholic, pro-Hitler

Gen George C. Stratemeyer, Catholic, pro-Hitler

Paul E. Weyrich, Catholic, Heritage Foundation, Pioneer Fund advocate

Ray S. Cline, Georgetown University, Catholic, CSIS, WACL

Laurence Dennis, Catholic, pro-Hitler, Fascist

George Sokolosky, American Mercury, Catholic, pro-Hitler, Fascist

Westbrook Pegler, American Mercury, Catholic, pro-Hitler, Fascist

Any more to add to this list?

These guys certainly knew how to "mobilize resentment" with the best of them... Why we even have some resident experts on that right

here in "River City"... How gauche.

They put together "politically incensed anti-Castro exiles" with "anti-Semites and racists incensed by recent Civil Rights gains like the Mississippi crowds"

with "Eugenicists, anti-Semites and racists from DAC, The John Birch Society, Smith's America First Party and The Pioneer Fund incensed by just about anything and anyone" to form what could perhaps be called the most violent and virulent coterie of affiliated "Hate Groups" in existence. It was more than just the "Department of Agitation and Propaganda" (AgitProp) although they had that covered, too. It was the "Department of Aggravation, Xenophobia, Elimination and Paranoia" all rolled into one. To get into this club you had to prove that you were not only capable of violence but that you had actually

been involved with killing some of the "common enemies" of this little politburo for the Nazis.

"The DAC’s involvement with the White Russian community led many of its members to join

a far right pseudo-chivalric order known as the “Sovereign Order of Saint John of

Jerusalem, Knights of Malta,” which was headquartered in the small town of Shickshinny,

Pennsylvania. The Military Affairs Committee of the Knights at one point included an

astonishing list of former generals and admirals, including Pedro del Valle, a Draper

confidante, Gen. Lemuel Shepherd, Lt. Gen. George Stratemeyer, Maj. Gen. Charles

Willoughby, Brig. Gen. Bonner Fellers, Admiral Charles M. Cooke and Rear Admiral Francis

T. Spellman among others. The “Shickshinny Knights” were led by Charles Pichel, a Nazi

sympathizer in the 1930s who maintained murky ties to the White Russian community.

Pichel claimed that his Knights represented a branch of the Order that had survived in

Russia under the Emperor Paul I after Napoleon had suppressed the main group.

He further said he derived his order’s legitimacy from “Czar” Cyril himself."

Citation from: http://www.iisg.nl/research/coogan.doc

Download it and read it for yourself. It is a long download however. So don't bail out.

There were a whole slew of Unitarians/Quakers/Presbyterians involved, too, and everyone

on this list were considered to be "religious freaks" of one form or another

Wickliffe Preston Draper, John Birch Society, Unitarians, anti-union, anti-Communist

Robert J. Welch, John Birch Society, Unitarian, anti-union, anti-Communist

George Michael Evica's Unitarians from The Albert Schweitzer College

Andrew Preston's fellow Unitarians like Wickliffe Preston Draper, Andrew owned Boston Fruit Company which became United Fruit

Michael and Ruth Paine perhaps as Quakers/Unitarians

John Foster Dulles and Allen Dulles, sons of a Presbyterian Minister, and heavily involved with United Fruit

John M. Cabot president of United Fruit and the Forbes family, Unitarians/Presbyterians?

And apparently they all hated JFK because he just wasn\'t anti-Communist ENOUGH for their liking

And apparently they all hated JFK because he just wasn\'t Catholic ENOUGH for their liking

And apparently they all hated JFK because he just wasn\'t pro-Fascist ENOUGH for their liking

They would all have agreed with the statements of GLK Smith....

"The Kennedy brothers are nothing but whore-mongering, whisky-swigging, fake Catholics who are trying

to take away this country from all the God-fearing, Bible-reading White American Christians like you and me

and give it back on a silver platter to all the Spics, the Jews and the Nigg-rows.\"

Case Closed.

Now back to the Clendenin J. Ryan postings and the American Tobacco and Bank of

Maryland links from Baltimore, MD which is a much hotter topic for me. Turns out now

that Thomas F. Ryan and Anthony J. Brady were involved with William F. Buckley Jr.\'s

ther with Pantapec Oil to protect American oil interests in Mexico in the 1920\'s.

Both Ryan and Brady were part and parcel of this \"Irish Lace\" nouveau riche arch

Catholic set of Holy Roman Empire Crusaders.

This means that perhaps the earliest known recorded event where private money from

arch Catholic multi millionaires, flowed into the hands of soldiers of fortune for 3 distinct

selfish purposes, was this Mexico anti-privatization action via Pantapec Oil.

1) Prevent appropriation of American investors foreign interests and holdings by a hostile government

2) Prevent an entire country from allowing a dictator or rebel leader, like a Pancho Villa,

from getting control of the country and running it for his own ends.

3) Install a falangist or fascist influenced governmental power to protect Catholicism while

you are at it.

Buckley\'s father was also involved with the search for Pancho Villa along with the previously

discovered trio who were chartered with that campaign: George A. Draper, James Hugh Angleton

and Charles A. Willoughby. You see the business of protecting family fortunes and chasing

down international banditos while preventing the Church from being closed down has a long and storied, perpetual legacy in this country.

This posting is meant to focus on one of the earliest efforts by the \"Irish Lace\" arch-Catholic nouveau riche (the Buckley\'s, Brady\'s and Ryan\'s)

in America to protect their hard fought interests against foreign privatization and other attempts at strong arming foreign investments back

into the coffers of a foreign power. This would happen over and over again over the following decades.

This article appears in the July 25, 2003 issue of Executive Intelligence Review.

MEXICO\'S CRISTERO REBELLION

Synarchism, the Spanish Falange, and the Nazis

by William F. Wertz, Jr.

Some have argued to the contrary, that the Cristero Rebellion in Mexico was a lawful development unique to the conditions which prevailed in Mexico at the time. Anne Carroll, whose husband Warren Carroll was the founder of Christendom College in Virginia—a cesspool of Buckley family-connected Spanish Carlism—argued, for example in her book Christ and the Americas, that the Cristero Rebellion was justified, and that even though not victorious in the short term, it had a positive historical effect, as evidenced by the fact that Pope John Paul II visited Mexico in the 1990s. As she put it: \"The blood of the martyrs of the Revolution had borne fruit.\"

Anne Carroll also, not accidentally, defends the Hapsburg Emperor Maximilian and denounces Juárez. This should come as no surprise, since Otto von Hapsburg was listed as a contributor to the Carlist Triumph magazine of L. Brent Bozell, with which the Carrolls were associated before forming Christendom College. Moreover, the organization founded by Bozell, Buckley\'s brother-in-law, the Society for the Christian Commonwealth, adopted the same battle cry as the Cristeros, \"Christ the King.\"

Anne Carroll\'s assessment is as follows: \"The United States had supported Juárez and denounced Maximilian because Juárez boasted of his adherence to Liberalism and democracy. But he set up a far tighter control over the country than the so-called autocrat, Maximilian, had done.... He tried and failed to build a secular education system to replace the destroyed Catholic system.\" This is the viewpoint adopted by Buckley pawn Fernando Quijano and his epigones.

As referenced above, the Buckley family is a critical connection to the Cristero Rebellion. This also has significance today due to the involvement of the Buckleys in operations against the LaRouche movement both in Northern Virginia and in Mexico. William F. Buckley, Sr. was a key operative in post-1917 Mexico, in organizing against the Mexican Revolution and in inciting the Cristero Rebellion. In the post-World War II period, the Buckley family continued to play a destructive role not only against Mexico, but against the American Revolution and its continuation by Lyndon LaRouche. Not only did William F. Buckley, Sr. promote Nelson Rockefeller, a long-time adversary of LaRouche, as head of the Office of Coordination of Inter-American Affairs; but his son, William F. Buckley, Jr. was assigned in 1952 by James Jesus Angleton, director of counterintelligence for the CIA under Allen Dulles, to set up the first CIA office in Mexico City, where he worked with E. Howard Hunt. Through these connections, the Buckley family has continued to run hostile operations against LaRouche and his associates, while simultaneously promoting the synarchist PAN.

PLEASE TAKE NOTE THAT IT WAS WILLIAM F. BUCKLEY, JR.'S FATHER WHO ORIGINATED THIS CONCEPT OF LINKING ANTI-COMMUNISM WITH FABRICATED ANTI-CATHOLIC POWDERPUFF THREATS WHICH HAD ONLY ONE REAL GOAL: SELFISH RECOVERY OF EXPROPRIATED OIL PROPERTIES OF PANTAPEC OIL OWNED BY THE BUCKLEY FAMILY. IT TOOK A POSTING ON THE LAROUCHE SITE TO POINT THIS OUT TO ALL OF US. THIS CONCEPT WAS PRODUCED IN ALMOST IDENTICAL FASHION DURING THE INFAMOUS UNITED FRUIT "THE BANANA WARS" IN NICARAGUA, HONDURAS, GUATAMALA AND LATER CUBA. And who else came to the rescue and rode with Buckley's father after Pancho Villa? All together now, you should know the drill by now: Wickliffe Draper's Uncle, Jim Angleton's father, and a young Charles Willoughby himself. And it took David Guyatt to point out that during World War II Willoughby ran what was then known as The Army Air Corps, where he supervised a much younger Edward Lansdale who was part of that program before it became The United States Air Force in later years, where all those Dr. Strangelove types congregated whom JFK despised. You did know about that, right?

In the critical period after 1917, William F. Buckley, Sr. actively organized against the Mexican Revolution, opposing both the revolutionary laws that threatened foreign oil holdings, including those of Buckley himself, but also the laws that were designed to defend Mexican sovereignty against the sedition of synarchist elements of the Catholic Church. In 1919, Buckley and Thomas Lamont, of the J.P. Morgan banking empire, founded and ran an organization called the American Association of Mexico. Buckley himself was expelled from Mexico by President Alvaro Obregón in 1921 for counterrevolutionary activity. Moreover, Buckley promised to help fund the Cristeros. Although he apparently did not deliver on this promise, the very promise constituted an encouragement and an incitement to rebellion.

In 1905, Galindo founded the Guadalupan Laborers. In 1907, Father Troncoso proposed the creation of a Catholic Workers\' Union. In 1906, Bergoend organized the first Jesuit \"Spiritual Exercises\" among the workers of Guadalajara. There he came to know members of Galindo\'s Guadalupan Laborers and lay leaders such as Palomar y Vizcarra. It was Bergoend who stressed the need to form a Catholic political party to promote social action. He wrote the draft plan of organization and the program for the National Catholic Party, based upon the precepts of a French Catholic party called Liberal Popular Action. On May 5, 1911, for the first and last time in Mexico, a political party was formed bearing the name Catholic. In August 1911, the party held its first national convention. In her book Christ and the Americas, Buckleyite Anne Carroll refers to the National Catholic Party and its auxiliary, the League of Catholic Students, as \"the most constructive group\" in Mexico at that time.

In the United States, the leading Buckleyite Catholics harped on the theme of the Communist threat in Mexico, alleging that the attack of the government on the Church—and on the oil properties as well—was part of a worldwide Bolshevik plot. The Buckleyites hoped that by tying the religious persecution to the oil question, the American government might be led to intervene against Calles. Though the avowed purpose of the intervention would be to aid the oil companies, the result would be the overthrow of Calles and the defense of the Church in Mexico.

The Role of William F. Buckley, Sr.

The most prominent of the latter interests was William F. Buckley, Sr., who owned and ran Pantepec Oil Company in Mexico in 1913. He was opposed to the policy of the Woodrow Wilson Administration, which was to support Pancho Villa (who was from the state of Chihuahua and led what was called the Northern Division during the 1910 Revolution) against the government of Victoriano Huerta. In fact, Buckley served as counsel to the oligarchic Mexican government of President Huerta at the Niagara conference of \"ABC\" powers—Argentina, Brazil, and Chile—that mediated between the United States and Mexico after the U.S. naval bombardment of the port of Veracruz in April 1914. So influential was Buckley in Mexico, that he was actually offered the military governorship of Veracruz by the U.S. government, an offer which he refused.

After the overthrow of the Huerta government by Venustiano Carranza in 1914, Buckley opposed recognition of the Carranza government by Washington, and later exerted his influence in opposition to the 1917 Constitution.

On Dec. 6, 1919, he testified before a subcommittee of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee as follows: \"I think we should settle this matter with Mexico without reference to Latin America or to what Latin Americans or anybody else thinks. I think we should settle it in the right way without reference to anybody else.... Latin America respects us more when we attend to our own business and do not call Latin Americans in for consultation. Our relations with Mexico are our own business and nobody else\'s.\" Although Buckley claimed to be an opponent of armed intervention, he concluded his testimony by saying, \"Nothing would have raised our prestige so in Latin America as the dispatching of an army across the border the first time an American was touched and the execution of all those who had injured him.\"

Also, Buckley never denied his involvement in the failed counterrevolutionary movement led by a Gen. Manuel Pelaez, whose ammunition train, sponsored by Buckley, got lost, as its Washington representative, an old intimate of Buckley, was announcing himself to the State Department in Washington as the Pelaez \"government\'s\" representative.

Once Warren Harding was elected U.S. President, replacing Wilson, Buckley campaigned against recognition of the Mexican government of Alvaro Obregón.

In 1921, he, along with Thomas W. Lamont of J.P. Morgan, formed the American Association of Mexico, with offices in New York City and Washington, D.C. The AAM aimed at undoing the confiscatory oil legislation, restoring special privileges of U.S. citizens in Mexico, and eliminating provisions of the Mexican Constitution that forbade American clergymen of any denomination to exercise their religious office in Mexico.

Thomas Lamont was also the head of the International Bankers Committee, which later negotiated a deal with Mexico to guarantee Mexican foreign debt payments to the international banks.

In November 1921, Buckley was expelled from Mexico for \"counterrevolutionary conspiracy\" by President Alvaro Obregón. Buckley had lost many of his properties, when they were taken over by Obregón\'s government.

During the Cristero Rebellion, the military head of the National League, René Capistran Garza, visited William F. Buckley, Sr. in San Antonio, Texas. Buckley proposed to offer the Mexican rebels $500,000 to aid their revolution. Buckley saw an opportunity to recoup his fortunes in Mexico by financing the Cristeros in their attempt to overthrow the Calles regime.

Buckley did not intend to furnish the money himself. Instead he offered to introduce Capistrán Garza to Nicholas Brady, who, Buckley said, would give the League representative the $500,000. Brady was president of the New York Edison Company and the United Electric Light and Power Company in 1926. He was the first American layman to receive the title of papal Chamberlain and was a close personal friend of Pius XI and the papal Secretary of State, Cardinal Gasparri.

Buckley was helped in this endeavor by a Dr. Malone, another well-known New York Catholic who was Gov. Alfred E. Smith\'s personal physician.

Reportedly Capistrán Garza never got to see Brady, because Mexican Bishop Pascual Diaz interceded with Buckley to discourage him from financing the Cristeros. Diaz reportedly told Buckley that the Catholic hierarchy wanted a coalition government led by liberals. Anne Carroll, in her book Christ and the Americas, makes a point of claiming that Buckley decided against financing the Cristeros. She, along with her husband, Warren Carroll, were intimates of William F. Buckley, Jr.\'s brother-in-law, L. Brent Bozell, who married Patricia Buckley.

The issue is not whether Buckley personally financed the Cristero movement. The fact is that Buckley encouraged and incited the Cristero movement with the promise of financing. Nor is there any definitive proof that he did not arrange financing in some other way.

For example, in 1926, the Knights of Columbus in the United States passed a resolution stating that they would \"assess our membership to the extent of one million dollars\" and \"pledge the support and cooperation of 800,000 men who love God.\"

What complicated matters for Buckley and other oil interests was the fact that the United States imposed an arms embargo in February 1924 against all groups in Mexico, save the recognized government of Obregón. In the Fall of 1926, President Calvin Coolidge made this embargo absolute for all groups in Mexico, since Calles was supplying arms to Sacasa\'s faction in Nicaragua—the opposition element to that supported by the United States. On March 8, 1929, President Herbert Hoover announced the continuation of the previous administration\'s arms embargo policy, i.e., to supply arms to the recognized Portes Gil regime only. On July 18, 1929, less than a month after the conclusion of the modus vivendi between the Church and the Portes Gil regime, the United States lifted the arms embargo.

Despite the fact that Buckley and others clearly shared the synarchist ideology of the Cristeros, they used the Cristeros as cannon fodder in order to put pressure on the Mexican government to make concessions in respect to foreign oil interests in Mexico and in respect to international debt payments.

The Politics of Oil

As can be seen from the above account of the roles of Buckley and Lamont, the Cristero Rebellion was directly related to the question of foreign investment in Mexican oil and to the question of Mexican debt to the international banks, which were represented by Lamont of J.P. Morgan.

While Obregón was President of Mexico, as reported above, the U.S. withheld recognition of his government for three years. It was only recognized in 1923 after Obregón had reached an agreement with the United States on the oil question, the so-called Bucareli agreement of 1923, in which Mexico stipulated that oil lands acquired between 1876 and 1917 by foreign investors, such as William F. Buckley, Sr., could be held in perpetuity. Although Obregón had expelled Buckley from Mexico in 1921, after the Bucareli agreement, the next President of Mexico, Calles, invited him to return in 1924.

Morrow resigned from J.P. Morgan before accepting the assignment, and although his connection to J.P. Morgan is significant, he was clearly not just an agent of the Morgan interests. In 1925, he had been chair of the Committee on Military Affairs, which investigated the charges leveled by Col. William Mitchell (head of the Army Air Service) on the inadequacy of U.S. air defense. Also of note is that fact that before accepting his assignment to Mexico he had made the acquaintance of Col. Charles A. Lindbergh and suggested he fly to Mexico City. Lindbergh arrived in Mexico on Dec. 14, 1927. Later, Lindbergh was to marry Morrow\'s daughter. (In 1940, long after Morrow died in 1931, his daughter, Anne Morrow Lindbergh, wrote a book entitled The Wave of the Future: A Confession of Faith, which was favorably reviewed by the wife of William F. Buckley, Sr.)

J.P. Morgan had won and Dwight Morrow\'s proposal was rejected. Thus, in the course of the Cristero Rebellion, the program of the American Association of Mexico, created in 1921 by Buckley and Lamont, had obtained its objectives: to force the Mexican government to back down on implementation of the Constitutional provision asserting sovereign national control of its oil reserves for the purpose of nation-building; and to force Mexico to pay its foreign debt to the international banks even at the expense of the well-being of its population. And ultimately, the purpose was to prevent a U.S.-Mexican alliance for mutual economic development: as envisioned by U.S. President Abraham Lincoln and Mexican President Benito Juárez; by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt in his Good Neighbor policy; and by U.S. Democratic Presidential pre-candidate Lyndon LaRouche in his 1982 Operation Juárez policy proposal.

To that end, it is necessary to reject both the Buckleyite pseudo-Catholics of the right and the Jacobins of the left. But most of all, it is necessary to defeat their string-pullers, who operate in the invisible complex domain of universal history.

Bibliography

Bailey, David C. The Cristero rebellion and the religious conflict in Mexico 1926-9, Doctoral thesis, Michigan State University, 1969.

Berbusse, Edward J., SJ. \"The unofficial intervention of the United States in Mexico\'s religious crisis, 1926-1930,\" The Americas, XXXIII, July 1, 1966, pp. 28-63.

Bergoend, Bernardo, S.J. Mexican Nationality and the Virgin of Guadalupe, second edition, (Mexico: Editorial Jus, 1968; first edition, 1931).

Braman, Harold P., Assistant Naval Attaché U.S. Embassy Mexico City, Confidential Intelligence Reports, Oct. 31, 1941, March 30, 1942, Feb. 2, 1944.

Camargo, G. Baez, Religion in the Republic of Mexico (New York City: World Dominion Press, 1935).

Carroll, Anne, Christ and the Americas (Rockford, Ill.: Tan Books and Publishers, Inc., 1997).

Chase, Allan, Falange, The Axis Secret Army in the Americas (New York: G.P. Putnam\'s Sons, 1943).

Heibel, Alcuin, Synarchism: the Hope of Mexico\'s Poor (Mt. Angel, Ore., 1943).

Markmann, Charles Lam, The Buckleys: A Family Examined (New York; William Morrow & Co., Inc.), 1970.

Mexican Labor Party, The PAN: Moscow\'s Terrorists in Mexico (New York City: New Benjamin Franklin House, 1985).

Meyer, Jean, The Cristero Rebellion (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976).

Meyer, Jean, El sinarquismo: un fascismo mexicano? (Mexico: Editorial J. Mortiz, 1979).

Nicolson, Harold, Dwight Morrow (New York City: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1935).

Quirk, Robert E., The Mexican Revolution and the Catholic Church 1910-1929 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1973).

Rice, Elizabeth Ann, O.P. The diplomatic relations between the United States and Mexico, as affected by the struggle for religious liberty in Mexico, 1925-29, Washington, D.C.

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[1] This same issue is once again on the agenda today. During the Presidency of Lázaro Cárdenas in 1938, the Mexican government did proceed to nationalize Mexican oil. Today, pressure is coming once again from the United States, that that nationalization be reversed and the oil privatized. Virtually on cue, efforts are once again being made to stoke the fire of religious conflict. On June 12, the son of Jean Meyer, Lorenzo Meyer, wrote an article in Reforma, which asserts that the conflict between Church and State which led to \"open and brutal civil war\" in Mexico several times in the past, is back on the agenda.

Now that others have jumped back onto this Carlist Catholic, William F. Buckley, Jr. and Sr. topic related to Christendom College

and Warren H. Carroll, from H. L. Hunt\'s Lifeline Program and Robert J. Morris\'s CUSA programs. this posting can be seen for what it really is.

The true origins of what I can only call \"Carlist Catholic Fascism\" started when Buckley\'s father, Draper\'s Uncle, James J. Angleton\'s father and

a young Charles Willoughby himself who was a pro-Franco Spanish Carlist Catholic and in the Shickshinny Knights of Malta all rode together

in John J. Pershing\'s cavalry chasing Pancho Villa into New Mexico.

THIS IS JUST SOME REALLY AMAZING STUFF WHEN YOU CONSIDER THE IMPLICATIONS HERE.

Edited by John Bevilaqua
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Kevin Coogan on Pedro del Valle a Draper crony...

THE DEFENDERS OF THE AMERICAN CONSTITUTION AND THE LEAGUE OF EMPIRE LOYALISTS:

THE FIRST POSTWAR ANGLO-AMERICAN REVOLTS AGAINST THE “ONE WORLD ORDER”

The belief that any participation in global institutions such as the United Nations poses a clear threat to national sovereignty has been a cornerstone of the Anglo-American far right stretching back to the 1950s. This study examines one of the earliest of such groups, the Defenders of the American Constitution (DAC), an organization of retired high ranking American military officers that was founded in 1953 and led by former Marine Corps Lieutenant General Pedro del Valle (1893-1978).1 I also look at the DAC’s British counterpart, Arthur Keith (A.K.) Chesterton’s League of Empire Loyalists (LEL), which was founded in 1954. The DAC and LEL continually warned against what they claimed was an attempt by murky international conspirators to strip U.S. and U.K. citizens of all vestiges of national sovereignty and patriotic feeling in order to reduce them to helpless slaves of a vast police state administered under the banner of the United Nations. Anti-globalist arguments first developed by groups like the DAC and LEL in the early 1950s continue to resonate inside the far right militia movement today.

The DAC and LEL were equally obsessed with the notion that there existed an organized Jewish conspiracy intent on building a “One World Order.” Although both groups were fiercely anti-Semitic, neither of them was “Nazi.” Appeals – both overt and covert – to National Socialism were absent from their publications. The DAC and LEL existed in a twilight world that included far right military men, religious fundamentalists, Franco supporters, staunch segregationists and longtime anti-Semites. It is the core conspiratorial anti-Semitic belief structure of both organizations that places them well beyond the confines of conventional political discourse.

Part One: Pedro Del Valle and the Creation of the DAC

WHO WAS PEDRO DEL VALLE?

The stereotype of the American far rightist as a buffoonish figure with little sense of the outside world could not be less apt when looking at Pedro del Valle, the DAC’s founder and leader until his death in 1978 at age 85.

Pedro Augusto Jose del Valle Barcay Muñoz was born on August 28, 1893, in San Juan, Puerto Rico, when it was still under the control of Imperial Spain. His father, Francesco, a surgeon and former mayor of San Juan, had been educated at the University of Seville, the Sorbonne, and Johns Hopkins. In 1900 Pedro del Valle became an American citizen after his family relocated from Puerto Rico to Maryland. Upon graduation from the U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis, del Valle joined the United States Marine Corps (USMC). He first saw action in 1916, when he participated in the capture of Santo Domingo. In World War I he led a Marine Corps detachment on the USS Texas that deployed with the British Grand Fleet.

In the late 1920s del Valle was stationed in Haiti before becoming active in the war against Augusto Sandino in Nicaragua. He later reported that as a young officer, “I found everywhere evidence of Communist organization commencing with Sandino’s red bandits.”2 He next served in Havana as an intelligence officer under Admiral Charles Freeman following the 1933 Cuban Sergeant’s Revolt. Del Valle was then assigned to Rome, where he served as an Assistant Naval Attaché in the U.S. Embassy from October 1935 to June 1937. He accompanied the Italian Armed Forces in the conquest of Ethiopia as a U.S. military observer and received the Order of the Crown of Italy, the Colonial Order of the Star of Italy, and the Italian Bronze Medal for Military Valor.3 During his stint in Ethiopia, del Valle also became good friends with some of Fascist Italy’s top military officers.

Following his return to the United States to attend the Army War College, del Valle worked at USMC headquarters as an Executive Officer in the Division of Plans and Policies. During World War II, he led the 11th Marine Regiment of the First Marine Division in the defense of Guadalcanal where he earned the Legion of Merit. After a brief stint in Washington, del Valle again returned to the Pacific in April 1944, this time as Commanding General of the Third Artillery, Third Amphibious Corps, and fought the Japanese on Guam. His crowning achievement came when, as Commanding General of the First Marine Division, he played a critical role in the capture of Okinawa in June 1945 for which he was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal. After the war, he again returned to Washington serving first as the USMC Inspector General and – from 1946 to his retirement in 1948 – as Director of Personnel for the Marines.

After his retirement and in financial debt, del Valle turned to Sosthenes Behn, the head of ITT and an old friend of his father, for employment. Behn first chose him to represent ITT in the Middle East. From his office in Cairo, del Valle visited Istanbul, Damascus, Beirut and Athens. After a short stint at ITT’s Rome office, he relocated to Buenos Aires, Argentina, where he served as president of ITT for all South America.4

OVERTURES TO THE FAR RIGHT

Del Valle’s ties to the radical right – ties that almost certainly existed during his Marine Corps days – continued unabated while he worked for ITT.5 On 12/19/49, for example, he sent a letter of support to Conde McGinley, founder of Common Sense, one of the most notorious far right and anti-Semitic journals in America. Del Valle told McGinley, “If the Truman welfare state triumphs we shall lose our republic and emerge a very sad socialist oligarchy which will shortly be overthrown by a communist dictatorship.” In another letter, del Valle reported, “I have warned Senator McCarthy because I know his life is in danger.”6 In an 8/8/50 missive to Captain J.M. Kimbraugh, del Valle claimed

Treason is everywhere about us and I do not believe that we have any chance unless some strong military person is able to seize power by means of a “coup d’etat” and take the Communist bull by the horns right at home.

In still another letter from Buenos Aires, del Valle said, “If the Truman government were not completely in the power of the Zionist-Marxist minority, we should not have any difficulty” in getting the United States to leave the UN as long as Russia remained a member.7

Del Valle’s increasing public visibility, which included the insertion of his 1951 “Open Letter to President Truman” into the Congressional Record, made Behn increasingly uncomfortable. Nor did his position improve after ITT’s Washington representative labeled him anti-Semitic. In late 1951 del Valle left ITT and returned to his home in Maryland.

CLASHES WITH THE CIA

While still in Buenos Aires, del Valle regularly wrote letters to the Pentagon and CIA urging them to create a new organization under the command of the Joint Chiefs of Staff to wage guerrilla warfare behind Soviet and Chinese lines, an organization that he offered to lead.8 Del Valle then received an invitation from Admiral Forrest Sherman, Chief of Naval Operations, to visit Washington to discuss his ideas. After arriving in D.C, however, del Valle was told that Admiral Sherman was away but that Walter Bedell Smith, the new head of the CIA, wanted to meet him. One of Eisenhower’s closest aides in World War II, Bedell Smith had just replaced Admiral Roscoe Hillenkoetter at CIA. Instead of discussing plans for guerrilla warfare, Bedell Smith told del Valle that “he had just the job” for him as head of the CIA station in Japan. He did so in the false belief that del Valle “had crossed swords” with General MacArthur during World War II and would therefore be willing to help “pull the rug out from under MacArthur.” Del Valle promptly informed Bedell Smith that he considered MacArthur “the ablest general and statesman the country possessed.”9

The confrontation between del Valle and Bedell Smith also echoed a longstanding dispute inside U.S. Intelligence dating back to World War II when General MacArthur prevented the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), the precursor agency to the CIA, from effectively functioning in areas under his command. The CIA’s reluctance to engage in aggressive “rollback” operations against the Soviet Union further angered hardliners.10

CREATING A POLITICAL/PARAMILITARY NETWORK

Del Valle’s clash with the CIA took place at a time when the predominantly Midwest-based isolationist wing of the Republican Party was coming under increasing attack from the internationalist branch of the Party. The internationalists’ roots were largely in East Coast banking and industrial interests as well as in internationalist-oriented policy organizations like the Council on Foreign Relations and the Ford Foundation. Ivy League graduates from elite Eastern families also played a prominent role in organizations like the CIA. The struggle between the “isolationists” and the “internationalists” for the soul of the GOP reached a peak at the party’s 1952 convention. Senator Robert A. Taft, the choice of the isolationists, entered the convention hall with an apparent clear majority of delegates, only to lose the nomination to former General Dwight D. Eisenhower after a series of questionable parliamentary maneuvers disqualified a number of key Taft delegates.11

Del Valle, for his part, set out to organize a network of hard right organizations to galvanize public opinion against the internationalist elite. In a 7/19/51 letter to an American rightist named Jane Graham, he argued, “We must organize the citizens in each state as vigilantes against sabotage and other forms of treason. Then link them up in some national headquarters.” Del Valle initially placed his hopes in America Plus Inc., a Los Angeles-based group that operated in some fourteen states. In an 8/14/51 letter to America Plus leader Irvin Borders, del Valle stated

I am going to suggest that we have a body of Minutemen or vigilantes, which in fact all your members are. While your movement is entirely political, the vigilantes could in addition have a semi-military purpose in checking the violence and sabotage, which the enemy constantly perpetrates in our country.12

In an 8/27/51 letter he sent from Buenos Aires to General Douglas MacArthur in New York (with copies to leading right-wingers Merwin K. Hart, Conde McGinley, Major R.H. Williams, California Senator Jack Tenney and Lt. General A.C. Wedemeyer [Ret.]), del Valle called for the creation of The Minutemen of America. Its most important functions would include “Intelligence, Operations, Supply, Finance, Public Relations and Personnel.” The “central authority of the Minutemen” would

keep the members advised of sabotage, intended sabotage, and all subversive activities. At such times as appropriate, the necessary action will be taken to supplement the work of the FBI in bringing subversives to justice, and especially in forestalling them in their nefarious activity wherever possible.

When confronting “saboteurs,” particularly inside the labor movement, del Valle warned that “great resistance, and some violence, is to be expected.”

In his draft articles of incorporation for the Minutemen, del Valle said it would be organized with

one squad leader and four men each, at the smallest local level; into platoons of one platoon leader and two or more squads each at the next largest level; into companies of 100 men led by a centurion; commandos led by commanders of two or more companies; into legions of two or more commandos led by a legionary, and finally, at state level, into divisions led by a State Councilor.

Del Valle’s draft also included a denunciation of the supposed threat to U.S. sovereignty posed by the UN:

Further to corrupt, misinterpret and weaken our national fundamental political philosophy we have become a member of a huge international aggregation, known as the United Nations, into which the United States of America has surrendered a large part of its sovereignty into the hands of a heterogeneous conglomeration of representatives of all races, colors, and states of enlightenment, most of whom cannot properly “represent” their peoples because they did not select them, and none of whose interests exactly coincide with ours.

In the United Nations Christianity, the basis of our form of government, can only with difficulty make its voice heard in this modern Tower of Babel amidst the din and clangor of clashing materialistic interests, including those of Soviet Russia, our sworn enemy and protagonists of anti-Christ.

Americans, he argued, were especially threatened with proposed international agreements like the “so-called ‘Genocide Convention’” which would allow a U.S. citizen “without his consent, because he has caused mental discomfort to a certain minority, [to] be deported for trial in a foreign land by a foreign court” and thus be denied “our guarantees of free speech, trial by a jury, and habeas corpus.”

Del Valle elaborated on his belief that America was under siege in a letter to Marine Corps Colonel Samuel Griffith. He told Griffith: “should our own government unfortunately fall into the hands of the Communist Anti-Christ, I for one will follow my great-grandfather’s example [who fought with Wellington against the French in Spain – KC] and will take to the hills, gun in hand, until I am killed or they are driven out!”

LAUNCHING THE DAC

After meeting in Washington’s Army-Navy Club in 1953, del Valle, Lt. Col. John H. Coffman, USMC (Ret.), and Lt. Col. Eugene Cowles Pomeroy (Ret.) formed the Defenders of the American Constitution with del Valle as president to spread the anti “One Worldist” gospel into the highest ranks of the U.S. military. Coffman, the DAC’s secretary and legal counsel, had seen action in Nicaragua, China, and Guadalcanal during his service with the Marines.13As for Pomeroy, he had served in World War I as well as on intelligence missions in the Far East.14 An Executive Council also was established with Brigadier General Bonner Fellers (Ret.) as Chairman. Other members included Major General Claire Chennault, USAF (Ret.), one of the leading figures in the pro-Taiwan “China Lobby,” as well as a handful of right-wingers from civilian backgrounds.15

The DAC first gained public notice in December 1953 after Coffman filed a Habeas Corpus proceeding in the U.S. District Court in Washington, D.C., against the Secretaries of State, Defense and the Army in the “Keefe Case,” named after Army Private Richard Keefe, who was serving with U.S. forces in France. After getting drunk one night and driving off from a bistro in a stolen cab, Keefe was arrested by local gendarmes. The French government then decided to put Keefe on trial instead of following the usual procedure of turning him over to American MP’s for an Army court-martial. The DAC turned the incident into a cause celebre and argued that the Senate ratification of a treaty placing U.S. servicemen in foreign countries under the jurisdiction of local authorities was an abrogation of their rights under the U.S. Constitution.

The DAC further hoped the Keefe case would aid the Senate’s passage of the proposed “Bricker Amendment” to the Constitution. The measure, introduced in 1951 by Ohio Senator John Bricker in the midst of the Korean War, would have dramatically reduced the power given to the President and Congress by the Constitution to negotiate and sign foreign treaties by making treaty ratification essentially dependent on the approval of the then 48 states. An article in the far right News Bulletin of the Cinema Education Guild, reprinted by the DAC, argued that the Bricker Amendment

will permanently curb those starry-eyed dreamers who are obsessed with the illusion that we can solve all of our problems and emerge into a shining new world by just eliminating all national governments . . . and having in their place one big super-duper dictatorship to rule “the brave new world.”16

In April 1953 hearings before Congress, pro-Bricker congressmen mercilessly attacked Secretary of State John Foster Dulles over U.S. involvement in foreign treaties. An exasperated Dulles responded by insisting that the Bricker Amendment would have made even the creation of NATO impossible; an argument that failed to win many converts.17 The Senate finally defeated the Bricker Amendment by a single vote.18

Taking advantage of the controversy surrounding the DAC, del Valle ran for governor of Maryland, only to fail miserably in the Republican primary. The DAC also began publishing its four page monthly newsletter Task Force, whose first issue appeared in May 1954. Its second issue prominently featured del Valle’s “Open Letter to the American People,” where he laid out the DAC’s views on foreign entanglements:

We have seen the United Nations fail to promote peaceful intercourse between its member nations, and to become a dangerous international soapbox for the Kremlin. We have seen spies and saboteurs of the Kremlin penetrate almost every branch of our own government. It is reported that there are over five million illegally living in our country. . . .We have seen our every effort to support the real anti-communist nations, Nationalist China, South Korea, Germany and Spain sabotaged by foreign influences. . . .

The impotence of the sinister United Nations has been amply demonstrated. . . . Mere numerical majorities of peoples can override our will . . . and can, through the devious means of treaties and conventions forced upon us, open the way for the surrender of our precious Constitution and Bill of Rights. The Beast of the Kremlin sits in the highest councils, together with some of its puppets. Yet Spain, the one country which has defeated communism within its borders in a bloody conflict, is not invited to be a member.

Del Valle was not alone in his fervent opposition to the UN. The September 1954 Task Force ran an article that quoted Indiana Republican Senator William E. Jenner, who memorably described the UN Charter as “the machine gun that looks like a baby carriage.” According to Jenner, the UN would abolish the Bill of Rights and replace it with “a body of . . . privileges and duties modeled exactly upon the Soviet Constitution.” North Dakota Republican Congressman Usher Burdick claimed that the “real purpose (of the UN) was to build a world government controlled by the Communists and their dupes in the United States.”

THE CONTRADICTIONS OF A “SUPER PATRIOT”

Pedro del Valle appeared on the surface to be a somewhat unconventional military man turned super patriot who appealed to the heritage of George Washington and the Founding Fathers. An examination of his personal papers, however, provides a much more complex picture.

Although del Valle regularly denounced “big government” for limiting individual freedom – even calling for the abolition of both the IRS and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) – he clearly admired Mussolini’s Italy. After the war del Valle maintained good ties with Italy’s “Black Prince” Junio Valerio Borghese, whom he had first met during the Ethiopia campaign.19A convicted war criminal, Borghese became one of Italy’s most powerful postwar far rightists as well as the first president of Italy’s neo-fascist Movimento Sociale Italiano (MSI).20 Del Valle also argued that America should back Eastern European governments-in-exile in order to encourage “so-called ‘fascist’ groups” to build a new “underground” should the Soviet Union overrun Europe militarily.21

Del Valle was also close to Franco’s Spain. In a 2/23/50 letter to Nevada Senator Pat McCarran, del Valle even offered to become the first U.S. Ambassador to Spain should America recognize Franco. Through his good friend, the Madrid-based Marques de Prat y Nantouillet, who headed a rightwing religious movement called Active United Christians, del Valle met Franco in 1952. He returned to Spain on other occasions, most notably in 1964 when he tried to help the Marques put together an anti-communist “worldwide Christian movement” with proposed financing from Arab nations and far right Texas millionaires. During this visit, del Valle also met with another good friend, General José Diaz Villegas, a member of the Spanish Army general staff who had a special interest in Africa.22

As a Hispanic Catholic, del Valle had little sympathy for Nordic racialism and Nazi ideology. His view of Nazi Germany, however, was peculiar to say the least. In an 8/9/1962 letter to J. Paul Thornton, a California organizer for the far-right National States Rights Party (NSRP), del Valle said:

I knew Mussolini personally and served with his forces in Ethiopia as U.S. observer. I never met Hitler but lived in Germany under his creation and believe he might somehow [have] fought free of his bosses and created a free world far better than the one we now live in. But let this be known! Hitler was sponsored and financed by the same House of Rothschild bankers who eventually liquidated him.

From the late 1950s on, del Valle maintained a friendly correspondence with American Nazi Party (ANP) leader George Lincoln Rockwell and he gave Rockwell occasional small financial contributions.23 Del Valle’s main disagreement with Rockwell seems to have been over the fact that the Nazis were anti-Christian.24 Del Valle also had no hesitation in favorably citing a statement from Rockwell’s Nazi successor in his memoir Semper Fidelis.25

THE DAC AND “THE KNIGHTS OF MALTA”

While working as an ITT executive in Buenos Aires in 1949, Del Valle became involved with a group called the Suvarov Union, an Argentine-based network of White Russian exiles. The Suvarov Union was led by General Boris Smyslovsky-Holmston, a former White Russian officer who had fought the Bolsheviks during the Civil War. He then joined the German Army as “Colonel von Regenau” and led a fierce guerrilla warfare campaign behind Soviet lines during World War II. Smyslovsky-Holmston told del Valle that he had some 10,000 supporters worldwide who were eager to open up offensive operations in Siberia with American backing should the Pentagon approve such an operation.26 The Suvarov Union, along with a group of far right Russian monarchists based in New York and London, recognized the former Russian Grand Duke Cyril – a Nazi sympathizer who lived in France during the 1930s – as the true Czar.27

The DAC’s involvement with the White Russian community led many of its members to join a far right pseudo-chivalric order known as the “Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, Knights of Malta,” which was headquartered in the small town of Shickshinny, Pennsylvania. The Military Affairs Committee of the Knights at one point included an astonishing list of former generals and admirals, including del Valle, Gen. Lemuel Shepherd, Lt. Gen. George Stratemeyer, Maj. Gen. Charles Willoughby, Brig. Gen. Bonner Fellers, Admiral Charles M. Cooke and Rear Admiral Francis T. Spellman among others. The “Shickshinny Knights” were led by Charles Pichel, a Nazi sympathizer in the 1930s who maintained murky ties to the White Russian community.28 Pichel claimed that his Knights represented a branch of the Order that had survived in Russia under the Emperor Paul I after Napoleon had suppressed the main group. He further said he derived his order’s legitimacy from “Czar” Cyril himself.

Part Two: The DAC and Conspiracy Theory

THE DAC AGAINST “THE UNSEEN MASTERS”

Although in outward appearance the DAC seemed to be an association of intensely anti-Communist former military men, Del Valle and his colleagues never truly believed that there was an independent threat to America from Russia. It is striking just how little information there is about Soviet-style communism in the pages of Task Force. There are no informed discussions about Politburo changes, Soviet foreign policy, the Sino-Soviet split, or the composition and deployment of Soviet military forces. This is because the DAC viewed the U.S.-Soviet conflict through an intense conspiratorial prism. The group argued that Russia itself was secretly controlled by a “one-worldist conspiracy” led by Jewish banking houses headquartered in New York City.29 Jacob Schiff, Paul Warburg and Bernard Baruch – and not Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin – were the real power behind twentieth century Communism. The June 1955 Task Force claimed, “the Communist regimes are weak and their people rebellious. The only strength they possess is the faction within the American government which puts the Soviet Union first.” [italics in original.] This mysterious “faction” was itself, of course, controlled by the Jews.

The DAC viewed contemporary world history in general as a massive conspiracy of shadow men, puppets and politicians controlled from behind the scenes by a small cabal of secret Jewish masters. DAC fear mongering came in two basic forms; the first downplayed the Hand of Zion while the second highlighted it. While Task Force perpetually alluded to the existence of a vast shadowy conspiracy, it frequently avoided directly accusing the Jews of being in charge and let the reader fill in the blanks.

One example of “Anti-Semitism Lite” comes in an article entitled “Regardless of Who Is Elected President, Invisible Rulers Govern United States” that appeared in the October 1955 Task Force.30 In it we learn that top advisors to President Eisenhower – Including his brother Milton and Nelson Rockefeller – exist “merely to transmit orders handed down from higher sources much as a messenger boy delivers a Western Union telegram.” To see the “Unseen Masters” or “International Conspirators” as composed of “any one racial group as is so often charged” is wrong. But “to the extent that some racial groups’ representation in the World Conspiracy is greater” because “they are more astute at seizing opportunity than others, more avaricious in their greed for power, more skilled in the art of deception and intrigue and more adept in the pursuits which concentrate the bulk of the world’s wealth in their hands,” such observations were accurate. Whatever the racial composition of the conspiracy, “crack-brained” social scientists paid by wealthy foundations and international bankers were now hard at work pushing for “one universal government in which the industrial economy, religious beliefs and social customs of the human race” would be forced into a common mold resulting in “slavery for all men and freedom for none.”

The academic eggheads and bankers who used the UN to create the World Bank, the Mutual Trade Agreements Act, and the International Labor Organization were now ready to add on such “little frills as Human Rights, Genocide, UNESCO, the social mixing and inter-marriage of the white and black races” as well as “all the other queer little ideological touches so dear to the hearts of the boys with the tinted lips, mincing steps and high-pitched vocal equipment.” The UN’s proposed power to interfere in domestic legislation would especially wreck havoc with segregation and labor law. As an article in the February 1955 Task Force stated, “Our marriage laws and our laws with relation to employer and employee are no part of the United Nations.”

COLONEL POMEROY’S FAMOUS MAP

In January 1955, Task Force revealed conclusive proof of the conspirators’ master plan for world domination in the form of a map. DAC vice president Colonel Eugene Pomeroy said that on a 1954 trip to London he had been given the map from a brave British woman patriot who had infiltrated the September 1952 London conference of the World Association of Parliamentarians for World Government (also known as the United World Federalists). The map, which divided up the world into a series of zones and regions with longitude and latitude lines duly noted, was the World Parliamentarians attempt to envision a rationally organized globe and not one split along preexisting national political lines.

The DAC, however, saw the map as the blueprint for One World domination that would commence once the UN began changing its Charter. The map split the U.S. into four zones, leading Pomeroy to warn that “a Mau Mau Chief” could rule the South “as Commissar” while the states from “the Atlantic to the Rockies quite likely would be under the dictatorship of Huk Filipinos while the Pacific Coast states in all likelihood could expect a Red Chinese as their overlord.” Because the conspirators desired the standard of living throughout the world to be uniform, they further planned to reduce the average American to “somewhere on a level of an Australian Bushman, and practically all American surplus production would be exported.” The One World economy would be built on “a deforested desert of America.” Pomeroy then warned,

The blueprint for One World will not tolerate control of immigration. The United States can expect that its West Coast will be inundated by hordes of Red Chinese coolies. The East and the rest of the country can expect to be overrun by millions from the Levant, India, Malaya, East Indies, Africa. The American branch of the white race will be another “lost race” and would take its place in history along with the Aztecs.

Of course to operate this global scheme, force, overwhelming force, is essential. This has been foreseen and every national unit as now existing must contribute recruits for an International Police. We can look forward to being policed by Turks, Hindus, African Tribesmen and Red Chinese distributed throughout the four regions.

Pomeroy concluded his article with the prediction that “by 1960, the United States as we know it, Constitution and all, will disappear from the Earth.”

Far from repudiating Pomeroy’s extraordinary claims when 1960 came and went, del Valle embraced them. In an 8/30/63 letter to a California far rightist West Wuichet, del Valle wrote:

As to the projected sub-division of the USA by the UN, we have absolute proof of this from a fine British lady who became a United World Federalist for the purpose. Task Force has published this un-challenged three times. Make no mistake, this is part of the plan of the take-over. The race war is just the cover for the main operation and has fooled many otherwise intelligent White Christians.

Pomeroy’s magic map, a contemporary version of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, was so popular that Task Force reprinted it three times. The DAC also published the map – along with other documents from the September 1952 London conference of the World Association of Parliamentarians for World Government – as a special pamphlet.31

FROM THE KHAZARS TO THE PROTOCOLS

Along with Anti-Semitism Lite, the DAC cognoscenti freely imbibed the harder stuff. A far right book entitled Iron Curtain Over America, which was published in 1951 by John Beaty, served as an ideological linchpin for the DAC. An English professor and former head of Southern Methodist University in Dallas, Beaty had been an Army Intelligence (G-2) officer in Washington from1941 to 1947. Del Valle knew Beaty and, after Beaty’s death, his widow Josephine spent many years as the DAC’s Vice President.

Beaty argued in Iron Curtain that Communist Russia was really under the domination of the Khazars, a group originally from the South of Russia that had converted to Judaism in the early Middle Ages. According to Beaty, the Khazars had now taken control of both Russia and America. In his book Religion and the Racist Right, Michael Barkun summarizes Beatty’s argument this way:

The reforms of Czar Alexander II, misguided in Beaty’s view, gave the “Judaized Khazars” the ability to infiltrate and corrupt Russia as a whole. They did so with four aims in mind: the development of communism, the fomenting of revolution, the growth of Zionism, and the transfer of their numbers to America. Hence, he argued, they were able not only to seize control of Russia but to provide their conspiracy with an American base as a minority “obsessed with its own objectives which are not those of Western Christian civilization.”32

Beaty further claimed that the Khazars – after more or less taking control over the Democratic Party – tricked America into war with Germany to kill off as many Aryans as possible. The Khazars were simultaneously the masters of Soviet Russia because “Stalin, Kagonovich, Beria, Molotov, and Litvinoff all have Jewish blood or are married to Jewesses.”33

Iron Curtain went through an astonishing seventeen printings in the 1950s. Del Valle publicly endorsed it and helped Beaty distribute copies to select military officers. Other leading retired military men like General George Stratemeyer – himself a member of the Military Affairs Committee of the Charles Pichel-led Knights of Malta – publicly praised Beaty’s opus. When asked by the Jewish Anti-Defamation League (ADL) to repudiate Iron Curtain, Stratemeyer refused to do so and instead publicly attacked the ADL.34

Del Valle’s conviction that Russia was under Jewish control led him to a major clash with Common Sense, a hard right magazine famous for its obsession with Jewish power. A major patron of Common Sense, del Valle served as president of the journal’s parent body, the Christian Educational Fund.35 In its 6/5/1967 issue – around the time of the Six Day War – Common Sense broke with orthodoxy and ran a story suggesting that Joseph Stalin has actually saved Russia from a Trotsky-led Jewish takeover; an opinion not entirely unknown inside the far right. Del Valle, however, was so outraged by the article that he broke his long-standing ties to the journal.36

Del Valle also had no qualms about citing from The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. In an April 12, 1961 speech before the United States Daughters of 1812, he repeatedly invoked The Protocols to prove the existence of an “Invisible Government” that was now hard at work plotting to reduce America to a province or set of provinces in a future World Government centered around the UN. Del Valle also used The Protocols to buttress his claim that “Communism and Socialism” were first introduced to Russia by the Invisible Government to destroy that nation.37

Part Three: The DAC and the Paramilitary Right

FROM THE CONSTITUTION PARTY TO GUERRILA WARFARE

In 1960 the DAC achieved new prominence inside the far right after Brig. General Merritt B. Curtis USMC (Ret.), the Secretary and General Counsel for the DAC, was chosen as the presidential candidate of the Constitution Party, a third party effort set up to compete in that year’s presidential election.38 The DAC’s role in the Constitution Party seems to have served another purpose as well since there is evidence that the DAC attempted to organize “militia type” networks under the guise of electorial politics. Del Valle’s papers show that the former general played a role in the creation of a shadowy paramilitary network that divided up sections of the United States into four “zones.”39 In a 7/23/1963 letter to Brig. General W.L. Lee, USAF (Ret.), del Valle said that it was agreed to organize everything “under cover of voter organization [for the Constitution Party – KC], which is not inconsistent with our being an effective state militia as well.” Del Valle explained his approach to organizing resistance in the “USSA (United Slave States of America)” this way:

My struggle is two-fold: 1. Strictly legal, constitutional, political efforts to restore constitutional government, and 2. alerting all White Christian Americans to the nature of the enemy within and urging that they use Article II of the Bill of Rights to arm and organize for the defense of their homes, families, community, state and country.40

From the 1950s on, del Valle was a featured speaker at countless far right gatherings that included representatives from the KKK, Christian Identity, the Minutemen, the Sons of Confederate Veterans and innumerable other far right splinter groups. He also developed his own information network to keep him abreast of developments inside the radical right.41

COUP FEARS IN AMERICA

In an 8/12/1966 letter to the American rightist Mary Davidson, del Valle suggested that the solution to America’s problems was clear: “the only way to cut the Gordian knot is by a military coup d’etat.” Throughout the early 1960s, in fact, the fear of a coup d’etat from either the right or left was surprisingly commonplace.

On November 24, 1961, the prominent American syndicated newspaper columnist Drew Pearson published a story in the Washington Post about the increasing turn to the far right by high-ranking U.S. military men. Pearson singled out Major General Edwin Walker, head of the 24th Infantry Division in Germany, for politicizing his troops with rightwing propaganda.42 Pearson highlighted a letter to one of Walker’s military supporters, Arch Roberts, from the French rightist Hillaire du Berrier, who compared the Kennedy Administration’s crackdown on Walker to de Gaulle’s attack on the rebel French generals who led the O.A.S. The article also cited del Valle who, Pearson said, comes close “to urging armed insurrection” when he made statements calling for the “organization of a powerful armed resistance force to defeat the aims of the Usurpers and bring about a return to constitutional government.”

The fear that American generals were thinking along O.A.S. lines helped inspire a series of liberal cultural icons from the early 1960s like Seven Days in May and Doctor Strangelove.43 Nor can there be any doubt that far right groups like Robert De Pugh’s Minutemen did in fact fantasize about fighting a guerrilla war against the establishment. Two books, The John Franklin Letters (by an anonymous author) and Get Ye Up into the High Mountains by the Reverend Dallas Roquemore, capture the mentality of many of these far right would-be Che Guevaras. The John Franklin Letters was premised on the idea that after the U.S. has been betrayed into the hands of UN bureaucrats, a civil war ensues that is led by a paramilitary group called the “Rangers.”44 According to The John Franklin Letters:

The beginning of the end comes in 1963, when the World Health Organization sends in a Yugoslav inspector, under powers granted by the President of the United States, to search any house he chooses. The Yugoslav discovers in the house of a good American a file of anti-Communist magazines, seizes them as deleterious to the mental health of the community, and is shot by the American, who escapes into the woods. But the infiltration continues. By 1970, the United States has become part of the World Authority dominated by the Soviet-Asian-African bloc, and this Authority suspends the country’s right to govern itself because of the “historic psychological genocide” against the Negro race. United Nations administrators, mostly Red Chinese, are sent in to rule. Harlem, triumphant, arises and loots the liquor stores. The city proletariat, its sense of decency destroyed by public housing, begins to raid the suburbs. In short order, twenty million Americans are “done away with,” while the people are subjected to torture by blowtorch and rock-n’-roll, the latter on television.

Meanwhile the good American begins to fight back. As far back as 1967, John Franklin and his friends had been stockpiling rifles. And now they act. Franklin describes in gory detail a total of fourteen patriotic murders: two by fire, one by hammer, one by strangling, two by bow and arrow, one by defenestration, one by drowning and the rest. These brave actions are sufficient to turn the tide – despite the atomic bomb, a huge invasion army, and absolute terror. By 1976, the people all over the world go into the streets, and everywhere Communism falls.45

Roquemore’s Get Ye Up Into the High Mountain served as a training manual both for guerrilla warfare and survivalism and included advice on how to properly mutilate the dead body of the Communist enemy. Like The John Franklin Letters, Roquemore’s book is also premised on a U.S. civil war breaking out sometime around 1970. Although distributed by the far right Liberty Lobby, Get Ye was produced by an extreme rightist organization called The Soldiers of the Cross led by Kenneth Goff. Goff reported that Roquemore, a Baptist Minister, had also worked “with our cadet groups for several years and had developed a corps of young people who can exist in the mountains under the most hazardous conditions.”46

THE PERILS OF “OPERATION WATER MOCCASIN”

While liberals fretted that the American military top brass was about to launch a rightwing coup d’etat, the notion that the “Eastern Establishment” elite was conspiring to sell the nation out to the UN became an idée fixe inside the far right. Campaigning in the 1962 California Republican primary for governor, Richard Nixon found himself being bombarded with a pamphlet “with the United Nations insignia on the cover, Department of State Publication 7277.” The pamphlet was presented as proof “that the government was about to sign over America’s armed forces to a Soviet Colonel.” In reality it was a typical UN document outlining the idea of the creation of a UN Peace Force sometime in the distant future to help prepare for a world free from atomic weapons. As the current UN assistant general secretary was a Soviet colonel, however, the far right was convinced that the document really revealed a UN plot to disarm America and hand it over to the Russkies.47

A March 1963 Task Force story on a planned U.S. military maneuver codenamed “Operation Water Moccasin” helped launch another panic wave. According to the Army, Water Moccasin was a planned exercise in counter-insurgency involving 2,000 to 3,000 troops – along with “foreign military participation” – that was scheduled to take place over some 2,500 acres in the backwoods of Georgia. Task Force insisted that Water Moccasin was really a cover for “a crash program to disarm the United States of America and make us a province of the United Nations.” The scare set off by Task Force and other far right outlets forced the Army to dramatically limit the scope of the deployment after frantic calls began pouring in to Congressmen about Water Moccasin.

Nor was Water Moccasin the only plot against the Republic. The July 21, 1963 New York Times recorded a host of others:

35,000 Communist Chinese troops bearing arms and wearing deceptively dyed powder-blue uniforms are poised on the Mexican border, about to invade San Diego; the U.S. has turned over – or will at any moment – its Army, Navy and Air Force to the command of a Russian colonel in the United Nations; almost every well-known American or free-world leader is, in reality, a top Communist agent; a U.S. Army guerrilla-warfare exercise in Georgia, called Water Moccasin III, is in actuality a United Nations operation preparatory to taking over our country.48

Del Valle’s papers also provide rare glimpses into the underground world of the far right. He was in contact with the far rightist Col. William P. Gale (Ret.), whom he described as “a natural leader and a fighter and perhaps miscast in a purely political role.” Nonetheless, Gale was “doing a fine job of another sort out there, preparing for the inevitable clash between Christianity and the anti-Christians.”49 Del Valle, however, had problems with Gale and other British Israelites like Wesley Smith. Smith, in particular, was seen as “wildly anti-Catholic.”50 Gale, however, seems to have been considered indispensable. There is also a suggestion that Gale was acting on orders from some unidentified group above him.51

Exactly how much del Valle’s paramilitary network operated in reality – as opposed to Walter Mitty-like fantasy – is hard to determine and many questions remain unanswered.52 It seems undeniable, however, that the DAC was, in fact, committed to building an armed underground resistance movement to the “New World Order” even if the scope of such activity remains highly murky to this day.

Part Four: The DAC and the League of Empire Loyalists

FIRST OVERTURES

The DAC and LEL were set up within a year of each other; the DAC sometime in mid to late 1953 and the LEL in October 1954. (The LEL’s publication Candour, however, began publishing in late October 1953, almost simultaneous with the DAC’s creation.) There were other intriguing similarities. Like the DAC, the LEL had some leading retired military men in its ranks, most prominently Field-Marshal Lord Ironside, who had headed up the British expedition to overthrow the Soviet government in 1919. Ironside was a member of the LEL’s General Council, along with the Earl of Buchan, Lt. General Sir Balfour Hutchison, Brigadier A.R. Wallis and other retired military men.53 Del Valle was also a friend of Admiral Charles Freeman (Ret.).54 Freeman became the U.S. agent for Kenneth De Courcy’s Intelligence Digest after the war. De Courcy, in turn, had extensive contacts with far-right British military and intelligence circles favored by the LEL.

The LEL’s founder and leader Arthur Keith Chesterton (better known as “A.K.”) was the cousin of the famous writer G.K. Chesterton. A one-time member of Oswald Mosley’s British Union of Fascists (BUF), Chesterton broke with Mosley in 1938. During World War II, he supported England’s efforts against Hitler and thus never had to face the charge of treason that haunted Mosley throughout his postwar career.55 In the late 1940s, Chesterton even held a fairly prestigious job in Lord Beaverbrook’s press empire.

From its inception, the LEL combined “rightwing Tory Empire loyalism and conspiratorial anti-Semitism.”56 Its members regularly heckled speakers and disrupted political meetings, most famously the 1958 Tory Political Conference in Blackpool that culminated in fist fights between League members and Tory stewards. (After that debacle, the Tories implemented strong measures against LEL sympathizers in its ranks.) The LEL also served as the

most important training ground for the next generation of British neo-fascists and extreme loyalists. It contained men like John Tyndall, Martin Webster, Colin Jordan and John Bean, men who, after leaving Chesterton and indulging in the Nazi fantasy, returned (with the exception of Jordan) to provide the leadership of the National Front. Chesterton was the focal point of ‘respectability’ around which these men circulated.57

The journalist George Thayer, who interviewed leading members of the LEL, summarized its program this way: 1) British sovereignty should be maintained at all cost; 2) instead of liquidating its Empire, England should continue to build it; and 3) Third World immigration to England must be stopped. For the LEL

Any tendency towards world government or international alliances that requires a partial relinquishing of British sovereignty is an anathema . . . The UN, NATO, SEATO, CENTO, and the Common Market are all “monster plots to rob Britain of her independence and strength.”58

In November 1954 the DAC’s co-founder Col. Eugene Pomeroy spent eight days in London where he held extensive talks with LEL leaders. Pomeroy told Task Force readers that the DAC and LEL “have in common the driving force of the same ideology.”59 In a more candid 11/10/54 letter to del Valle, Pomeroy reported that the LEL felt that “the Jews seem to exercise even greater influence here over the British Parliament and politicians than they do at home.” The group was firmly convinced that Winston Churchill and his son Randolph (along with Anthony Eden) were “the abject slaves of Bernie Baruch.”

The LEL shared the DAC’s obsession with the “hidden hand.” One 1950s LEL pamphlet, The Menace of World Government, claimed

There is a hidden power, which only to close students of international politics is a revealed power, wielded by a known group of international financial interests, who brought into existence the UN and the International Bank as instruments to secure its further advance to world domination. It has openly declared war on nationhood and racial pride. It approves of every approach, direct or functional, which will render mankind defenseless against its cold war in the West and the hot war in Asia to stampede us into NATO, the European Union, and their projected Pacific counterparts. It uses dread of the H-bomb to try to secure acceptance of its full World Government. Once our sovereignty is abandoned, and we are completely at its mercy, it will drop its disguise as the foe of Russian aggression and betray us to the Soviet conspiracy as surely as it betrayed us at Yalta through the incredible simpleton Roosevelt and his incredible adviser, Alger Hiss. Hiss, let it be known, was only a fugleman. His protectors were powerful men who constituted – and still constitute – the effective hidden government of the United States.

FROM THE NEW UNHAPPY LORDS TO THE NATIONAL FRONT

The LEL’s polemics against the “one world order” culminated with the1965 publication of Chesterton’s book, The New Unhappy Lords (NUL). In NUL, Chesterton set out to document a conspiratorial plot by “Money Power” to establish “world tyranny” by using both “Communism and Loan Capitalism as twin instruments with which to subdue and govern, not the British nations alone, but all mankind.”60 NUL quickly went through several editions and it continues to be sold today. Its success led Chesterton’s biographer to remark that A.K’s “extremely doubtful privilege” is “to go down in modern history as the man most responsible for keeping alive, spreading, and developing the British tradition of conspiracy thinking.”61

Writing in seemingly reasonable tones, in NUL Chesterton attacks British foreign policy for the loss of the Suez Canal and other former colonies as well as for the government’s support for Third World immigration. He also criticized British involvement in a “Federated Europe,” the European Common Market, the Treaty of Rome, and any attempt to implement a NAFTA-like “Free Trade Area” that would bring Britain’s tariff policies into line with the Common Market:

This would have meant joining the British economy to competitive economies, and the reservations intended to safeguard the British farmers and overseas producers must soon have been jettisoned, the complementary economy covered by the Imperial Preference system would have been abandoned and the British market flooded by products from Common Market countries with a lower standard of living.62

Chesterton, however, used his critique of what he saw as specific failures by the British establishment to prove that “Money Power’s” hidden hand now pulled England’s strings. His attacks on such elite groups as the Royal Institute of International Affairs (RIIA), the American Council of Foreign Relations (CFR), and the Bilderberger Society as well as on organizations like NATO and the UN, served a larger narrative goal; namely, proving the existence of a vast Jewish conspiracy. In a chapter entitled “Is the Conspiracy Jewish?” he claims that “the major Zionist objective” is no less than “One World.” “Moscow and Peking” were “no more than branch headquarters of the conspiracy” whose “supreme headquarters” for the “overthrow of the West” was actually based in New York. According to A.K.,

World Jewry is the most powerful single force on earth and it follows that all the major policies which have been ruthlessly pursued through the last several decades must have the stamp of Jewish approval.63

Indeed, “when Hitler rebelled against the Money Power,” World Jewry decided to “smash him and his barter system.”64

Not long after the publication of New Unhappy Lords, Chesterton LEL’s played a pivotal role in the 1967 founding of the National Front (NF), England’s most significant postwar far-right party. The NF was established out of a merger of the LEL, the British National Party, the Greater Britain Movement, and the Racial Preservation Society. Chesterton served as the NF’s chairman for its first four years.65 Unlike the DAC-backed Constitution Party, the NF was a real political force until the late 1970s when Margaret Thatcher’s Tory Party stole much of its anti-immigrant thunder and the group spiraled into rapid decline.

DEL VALLE AND CHESTERTON

Del Valle and Chesterton maintained regular contacts for two decades. In 1962, for example, Chesterton asked del Valle to supply him with contact addresses for American rightists who might be willing to help Candour out of some serious financial problems.66 After Del Valle sent Chesterton some names, Austin Brooks, the LEL’s number two man, then visited the United States in 1963 on a fundraising tour.67 A.K. also sent del Valle updates on his trips to South Africa and Rhodesia.

In 1966 Chesterton asked del Valle to write an introduction to a proposed American edition of NUL that the Chicago-based rightwing publisher Henry Regnery had agreed to issue. Regnery, however, backed out of the deal at the last minute. Chesterton next approached another American conservative publisher, Devin Adair, but it too rejected the book.68 At Chesterton’s request, del Valle searched for yet another American publisher. Through Josephine Beaty, the DAC Vice President and widow of Iron Curtain over America author John Beaty, del Valle found OMNI Press/Christian Book Club located in Hawthorne, California.69 When OMNI’s edition of NUL appeared, it included a short introduction by del Valle that praised Chesterton for bringing the reader “face to face with the fact that a conspiracy to rule the world does exist and that it is rapidly approaching its goal.” NUL also showed that “the powerhouse of this conspiracy resides not in Moscow, nor in London, but in New York.” For del Valle, The New Unhappy Lords was “a treasure house of facts which patriots of all nations can use in the struggle against the Satanic power of the Conspiracy.”

SAMOVARS AND SPOOKS

The DAC and LEL were also linked to the same White Russian network that del Valle first encountered when he was an ITT executive in Buenos Aires.70 Task Force’s special London correspondent George Knupffer embodied these connections. Born in Saint Petersburg, Knupffer was a leading figure in the White Russian monarchist community in London. He published his own newsletter, The Plain Speaker, while also contributing occasional articles to Candour. Knupffer first met Colonel Pomeroy in London in November 1954 as a representative of “His Imperial Highness” the Grand Duke Vladimir, the son of the late Grand Duke Cyril. Knupffer also helped lead Mladorossy (Union of Young Russia), a far-right and extremely anti-Semitic political organization that maintained a quasi-military wing known as the Russian Revolutionary Forces (RRF). A former intelligence officer himself, 71 Pomeroy used his visit to London to seek out contacts with East European exiles such as General Wladyslaw Anders, a Polish military leader who wanted the West to back a Polish exile army.72 Captain Henry Kerby, the man who arranged Pomeroy’s meeting with Anders, was a former MI6 officer and Russian expert turned Tory parliamentarian. Kerby, in turn, maintained longstanding close ties to Knupffer.73

In his first article for Task Force in December 1955, Knupffer claimed that New York banking houses like Kuhn Loeb were behind the Bolshevik Revolution. He then argued that Russia was no longer completely under the control of the “conspiracy” that had its roots in a two-thousand year old clash of “two Messianisms”; namely, the Christian world view that looked to the “world beyond the grave, of life everlasting” and the messianism that focused on “this world of material power and possessions.” The Russian Communist regime, Knupffer said, was now being forced “slowly but surely” to adjust itself “to the wishes and needs of the Russian people.” Since Moscow “is no longer an effective tool for the achievement of world domination by the materialistic messianists,”

if we continue to see only the enemy in Moscow, we will be stabbed in the back by the enemy in New York, who wants to lead us. But that enemy, like the one in Russia, is only using America as a base.

Knupffer concluded that both Russia and America were “victims of a subtle and powerful subversive force which they have not recognized in time.”74

In 1956 the DAC touched off a heated controversy after Task Force reprinted a lengthy attack on a Russian exile group known as the National Alliance of Russian Solidarists (NTS) by Peter J. Huxley-Blythe, then a protégé of Knupffer.75 The article, “Insecure Security,” accused the CIA of financing the NTS that Huxley-Blythe claimed was really under KGB control. Knupffer and other White Russian monarchists especially despised the NTS because it had collaborated with CIA plans to balkanize the former Russian Empire by supporting an independent Ukraine.76 Huxley-Blythe’s piece so enraged the Solidarists that Task Force was forced to print a rebuttal by NTS’s Washington representative to avoid a lawsuit.

Knupffer and del Valle also tried to develop a far right network around the globe that included a proposed “World Committee for Truth and Liberty.” In a 6/26/1967 letter to del Valle, Knupffer reported that he had visited Rhodesia, South Africa, Portugal, and Spain to seek backing for the committee.77 In his 7/3/1967 letter replying to Knupffer, del Valle noted:

There already exists a measure of cooperation between our nationalists and those of other countries, especially yours. Coordination would increase our effectiveness. Chesterton and I have helped one another in a small way . . . I too was in Spain in May and I believe I have good sympathetic contacts there. You may be certain I understand that the sources of help must not be mentioned. I’m sure [Wickliffe] Vennard, Oliver [R.P. Oliver, a leading American far rightist] and [Frank] Serpico [OMNI’s publisher] understand the need for discretion.

Finally, both Del Valle and Knupffer became entangled in the weird “Knights of Malta” group headed by Charles Pichel and Del Valle’s continued ties to Pichel, whom Knupffer despised, would eventually end their collaboration.78

Part Five: Conspiracy Theory, Globalization, and the Contemporary Right

THE PERSISTANCE OF CONSPIRACY THEORY

Even as British National Front flourished in the1970s, the American right populist third party movement led by Alabama Governor George Wallace collapsed in the wake of the Nixon Administration’s “Southern Strategy” and the attempted assassination of Wallace. America’s defeat in Vietnam – combined with the Watergate crisis – led to a further weakening of the right. The 1970s also saw a dramatic decline of the DAC, although Task Force continued to publish and del Valle grew closer to the far-right Liberty Lobby.79 After del Valle’s death on April 28, 1978 at age 85, however, the DAC ceased to exist.

The DAC’s addiction to conspiracy theory never waned from its founding to its demise. A conspiratorial mentality, in fact, seems endemic to the American far right. In the late 1950s, for example, the John Birch Society (JBS) arose as the preeminent group on the far right. Although the JBS rejected anti-Semitism, it proved incapable of abandoning a conspiratorial mindset. JBS founder Robert Welsh even famously accused then President Dwight D. Eisenhower of being a conscious agent of the Kremlin.80 In the 1960s a more popular version of the idea that the “Eastern elite” was engaged in weakening America for the benefit of Communism was promulgated in a series of rightwing best sellers; most famously John Stormer’s None Dare Call It Treason and two Phyllis Schlafly books, A Choice Not an Echo and The Gravediggers. Activists from Barry Goldwater’s 1964 presidential campaign spread these and similar writings across the country.81

During the early 1980s, the militia movement rediscovered arguments first advanced by groups like the DAC. Contemporary militia polemics about “UN invaders” on American soil, for example, recycle myths first developed in the1950s. These fantasies were updated to include – among other things – plots involving UFOs, weather control, Satanic cults, the Trilateral Commission and Y2K. We have also seen charges that Bill Clinton murdered one of his close White House advisors and dumped his body in a federal park; Hillary Clinton is a lesbian witch; George Bush Sr. used the phrase “new world order” to speak in code to his Masonic-Illuminati cronies; and that Yale’s Skull and Bones fraternity secretly runs America on behalf of the Illuminati. Although the militia movement covers a wide variety of individuals and organizations, the seemingly endless proliferation of wild conspiracy theories remain central to it.

THE RADICAL RIGHT

As events have shown, the “hidden hand” model – far from being obsolete – possesses a remarkable ability to mutate with circumstances. The hidden hand model resembles a basic plot narrative or fable that exists in a perpetual state of endless mutation of characters and sub-plots while never losing it major themes.82 Understanding the way rigidly prefabricated worldviews function as internally consistent interpretative systems may usefully supplement more conventional “cause and effect” social science attempts to understand the radical right. Because revolutionary utopian groups frequently derive their identity from a hyper-ideological outlook that does not neatly map onto conventional political logic, we must take this reality into consideration.83

One fundamental question – for me anyway – when looking at anti-globalization movements from both the left and the right is the degree to which they are committed to what is essentially a skeptical (as opposed to Jacobin) Enlightenment view of humanity that posits parliamentary politics as part of a continual debate over the nature of the good. Groups that reject such an approach are frequently predisposed to conspiratorial interpretations of history – no matter how divorced such theories may be from material reality. They can also have a potential “revolutionary” dimension whether or not they function on the far right, far left or in the garb of religious movements/New Age sects. Extremist groups frequently view pluralistic discourse, parliamentary government, and civil society itself – in the form of democratic capitalist, democratic socialist, or even moderate theocratic or monarchic forms – as intrinsically evil. In such a view, the persistence of civil society obfuscates

1)the machinations of a monolithic ruling class for the far left;

2)the domination of evil international Jewish bankers and their Illuminati cohorts for the far right; and

3)the relentless spread of godless atheism for fundamentalist Christians, fanatical Jews, Muslim zealots or New Age millenarian sects.84

In all these cases the fundamental target of critique is, for lack of a better word, the “system” itself. As we have seen in the case of both the DAC and LEL, what such oppositional groups may perceive as an adverse result of globalization – which for the far left could be the increase in the power of multinational corporations, for the far right the rise of foreign immigration, and for the domestic religious right the introduction of competing religious ideologies (all of which are not in themselves intrinsically irrational observations) – are simply used to prove the existence of the larger hidden hand conspiracy.

THE JANUS FACE OF THE ETHNOCRATIC RIGHT

For purposes of this analysis, I would distinguish between two kinds of groups on the right as “ideal types”; namely, the traditional conservative, either in the Edmund Burke Anglo-American vein or the Christian Democratic Continental tradition on the one hand, and the revolutionary groupuscular right on the other.85 Populist right movements such as Jean Marie Le Pen’s Front National, Gianfranco Fini’s Alleanza Nationale, Jörg Haider’s Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs and similar formations fluctuate between both poles. They may even embrace an ostensible commitment to a “long march through the institutions” while holding on to a conspiratorial way of seeing the world.86 Roger Griffin describes new right populist political parties that accept Enlightenment discourse to some degree (as opposed to merely mimicking pre-war fascist ideology) as being based on “ethnocratic liberalism” which he defines as

a type of party politics which is not technically a form of fascism, or even a disguised form, for it lacks the core palingenetic vision . . . Rather it enthusiastically embraces the liberal system, but considers only one ethnic group full members of civil society . . . This contaminated, restrictive form of liberalism poses considerable taxonomic problems because, while it aims to retain liberal institutions and procedures and remain economically and diplomatically part of the international liberal democratic community, its axiomatic denial of the universality of human rights predisposes it to behave against ethnic out groups as violently as a fascist regime.87

To my way of thinking when examining such hybrid formations, one size simply does not fit all. Nor are all these parties frozen in time and incapable of mutation. Griffin’s definition may be more apt in regard to France’s Front National, Germany’s Partei die Republikaner, and Belgium’s Vlaams Blok but such parties, it should be noted, also have a long history of fascist (or Vichy) nostalgia. But does this same model also apply to Norway’s Fremskrittspartei, Holland’s Lijst Pim Fortuyn, Italy’s Lega Nord or Denmark’s Dansk Folkepartiei? Do these parties “axiomatically” deny the universality of human rights just because they object to illegal immigration, high taxes, or full integration into the EU? And where does one place more ambiguous parties like the AN that modeled its own turn away from fascist nostalgia and towards the center-right on the example set by Italy’s Communist Party?

While traditional leftist “watchdog” groups often operate on the basis of a 1930s paradigm in which the rise of the populist center-right is invariably prelude to a seizure of power by the far right, this way of thinking may prove as misguided as that of those 1930s American rightists who were convinced that the growth of Roosevelt’s New Deal was paving the way for the Bolshevik takeover of the United States. We may even see the growth of European right parties that mimic more American themes involving low taxes, law and order, small government, and even certain libertarian tendencies rather than more orthodox fascist positions. After all, the right populist parties in Denmark and Norway first arose as popular movements against high taxation, a model that also played an important role in the 1970s America right electorial revival.88 Even the widespread popularity of former New York Mayor Rudolph Giuliani inside an increasingly crime-infested urban France may be indicative of this broader trend.

As elements of the European right pass from “groupuscularity” to mass politics at least some groups (or some fractions inside them) may feel increasingly inclined to abandon a commitment to conspiratorial thinking when dealing with issue of globalization. Against this, I would posit the continuing influence of a more marginal and frequently violent fringe right that still inhabit a crepuscular world somewhere between Adolf Hitler and Madame Blavatsky.89 This world – where conspiracy theory easily blends with racial determinism and rampant anti-Semitism – continues to hold high the banner of fascist revolution.

One could view the history of the 1970s British NF – which suffered a series of bruising factional struggles between more conventional orthodox Tory-leaning elements and the core fascist nostalgia clique of John Tyndall, Martin Webster and their skinhead supporters for control over the party – in this light. It was in fact the NF’s inability to purge fascists and anti-Semites like Tyndall and Webster from top leadership positions that dramatically contributed to its political marginality in spite of its popular views against immigration. In that sense the NF may have been the result of two outside bodies of political gravity, the hard groupuscular right and the right Tory establishment, covertly fighting each other for the future direction of the party. The same may be true in regard to the fights between Le Pen and Bruno Mégret in the FN and between Fini and Pino Rauti inside the old MSI.

A rough model that incorporates the groupuscular right, the right populists, and the establishment right might look something like this:

Right Radical Groupuscule

Right Populist Party

Established Conservative Party

Strong tendency to conspiracy theory,

Hatred of conventional parliamentary politics

Strong ideological commitment the main force holding the group together

Prone to deadly factionalism inside rigid internal structure

Base frequently from fringe bohemian elements of society / Pagan, atheist, extreme Christian

Examples:

Unite Radicale/Young Europe/National Alliance

Fluctuating influence of conspiracy theory and ideology, waivers between parliamentary and groupuscule practices and worldviews

Frequently has both authoritarian/charismatic leader as well as strong factional opponents willing to split from the party

Marginalized elements of established religious groups (Lefebrve Catholics/Ulster Protestants) and small businessmen

Examples: Front National, Alleanza Nationale/1970s British National Front

Rejects conspiracy theory Parliamentary Practice

Tendency to pragmatically moderate ideology in order to maintain power

Marked by internal faction fighting within context of broader unity and willingness to compromise

Backed by established religious and business tendencies

Examples: Tory Party

Christian Social Union

Christian Democrats

→ ↔ ←

There may well exist fuzzy (and at times not so fuzzy) crossovers between elements of the Janus-face “ethnocratic” right and the more “groupuscular” radical right, including a shared interest in conspiracy theory. However, political formations from the right may also continue further down the parliamentary path just as the Italian Communist Party did from the left.90 One possible way to determine where the actual center of political gravity lies inside such parties would be to seriously examine both the extent to which a particular party’s literature and rhetoric either actively promotes or panders to variations on the hidden hand conspiracy theory in explaining issues related to globalization as well as how influential and widespread these views are among the group’s members.

Conclusion

Looking back on the DAC and LEL, it is clear that they were among the first radical right groups to operate in an “interdependent world” and with the multinational institutions – the United Nations, the World Bank, NATO, SEATO, and the European Common Market – that helped shape it. Far from being “isolationists” in the case of the DAC – or “anti-American” as the LEL is sometimes described – both groups saw themselves as part of a worldwide “counter-conspiracy” against their imagined enemies. Using conservative rhetoric and patriotic images, they actually expressed deeply radical views directed against the established political, cultural and economic elites of their time. The ferocity of their fervor against the “one world order” strongly suggests that they didn’t simply react to the creation of groups like the UN or the World Bank in a cause and effect way. If anything, I would argue that it was their pre-existing conspiratorial ideology that allowed them to see such institutions as demonic in the first place. Because this was so, their views were largely immune to logical refutation, as the case of Colonel Pomeroy’s famous map so vividly demonstrates.

Yet an unswerving commitment to a rigid conspiratorial worldview can easily doom a group to political marginality. In the case of the DAC, it is clear that it first emerged not from the streets but from former high-ranking U.S. military officers who mirrored beliefs held in broader layers of society.91 At its inception, the DAC maintained ties to important sections of the Republican Party just as the LEL included sympathizers from the Tories. Yet as anti-Semitism continued to be further and further discredited in the 1950s – while the threat of Soviet Communism increased – the DAC and LEL remained incapable of ideologically adapting to the new reality. As a result, they quickly went from being influence peddlers on the fringe of well-established parties and institutions and entered into a shadow world of political and social marginality from which they never returned. Their very marginality, paradoxically, led them to play an ideologically – and at times organizationally – significant role in the rise of new radical populist tendencies from the right.

Finally, a more careful examination of the complex role that conspiracy theory plays both within the far right and the larger community as a whole may, I suggest, give us further insight into predicting how such groups will respond to broader issues related to globalization. The power that conspiratorial thinking of the most virulently anti-Semitic and anti-Western form now holds in large sections of Muslim societies further reminds us that the issues addressed in this paper are far from being limited to either the United States or Europe.92

An investigative journalist, Kevin Coogan is the author of Dreamer of the Day: Francis Parker Yockey and the Postwar Fascist International (New York: Autonomedia, 1999).

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In 1798 following Napoleon's taking of Malta, the Order of Malta (Order of St John of Jerusalem) was dispersed, but with a large number of refugee Knights sheltering in St Petersburg, where they elected the Russian Emperor, Paul I as their Grand Master - a rival Grand Master to Ferdinand Hompesch then held in disgrace. Hompesch abdicated in 1799 leaving Paul as the only Grand Master.

As de-facto Grand Master, Paul I of Russia created a Russian tradition within the Hospitaller Order - the "Russian Grand Priory" open to all Christians - which whilst it could not be accepted as a canonical part of the Roman Catholic Order, it was never-the-less a de-facto part of the ancient Order.

Following Imperial Decrees of Alexander I of Russia in 1810/1811, a fiscal and legal separation of the Russian tradition of St John from the main Roman Catholic HQ was created. The Russian Order was now akin to the German JohanniterOrder, a Johannine tradition, but legally separate.

This Russian Hospitaller tradition of St John continued within the Russian Empire, and then into Exile following the Revolution in 1917. Headquartered at first in Paris (1928-1976) under the leadership of Grand Duke Alexander Romanoff, and then in New York (1977 onward) under the elected Grand Prior, Count Nicholas Bobrinskoy, a direct descendant of Catherine the Great. The Russian Grand Priory operates under an Incorporation granted in the USA, with the title of "The Sovereign Order of Orthodox Knights Hospitaller of Saint John of Jerusalem".

Paul I had created under Russian Laws Family Commanders of the Russian Grand Priory with Hereditary Rights. It is the descendants of these Commanders who have, with the support of members of the Imperial family, continued that Russian tradition in exile.

There are many "Orders" who have sought to claim that they are part of this Russian tradition, but these claims are based on mythical histories with their origins in a self-styled "Order" created in the USA. by a Charles Pichel in the mid 1950s. These can be found via the "Self-Styled Order" Web Page.

International Headquarters

and Secretariat of the Order:

39 Parkway East

Mount Vernon,

New York 10552 USA

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PAPERS OF MAJOR GENERAL CHARLES A. WILLOUGHBY, USA

1947-1973

Reels 908-933, 936

Reel

Box

Folder

Description

Series I: Correspondence Files

908

1

1

“A“ Correspondence, 1951-1972

2

Abbott, Leonard J., Lieutenant Colonel, Korea Liaison Office Report

3

Addresses

American Astronautical Society [see Schriever, B. A.]

4

American Jewish Committee

5

American Legion

6

American Opinion

7

Army—Miscellaneous

8

“B“ Correspondence, 1958-1969

9

Berlin—Miscellaneous

10

Blassingame, Lurton [Correspondence, 1963-1970]

11

Book—MacArthur, 1941-1951

2

1

“C“ Correspondence, 1952-1972

909

2

Caracas, Venezuela

3

Casey, Hugh, Major General

4

Central Intelligence Agency, Correspondence, 1955-1967

5

Chief of Staff, Air Corps [u.S. Air Force]

6

China, Communist

7

Christian Crusade, Rev. Billy Hargis

8

[Christian Crusade], Hargis, Miscellaneous

9

Christian Crusade Magazine, 1960-1965

Civil Intelligence Section, Periodical Summary

[see also Reel 923, Box 23, Folder 1]

10

Club Publicity, Miscellaneous

11

Command Comment, 1971

12

Communism, International

13

Communism, Miscellaneous

14

Congo [see Portugal]

15

Congressional Records, 1967-1972

16

Cuba

3

1

“D“ Correspondence, 1954-1972

2

Dilbeck, Walter [Correspondence, 1968-1971]

Diplomatic Correspondence, 1951-1971

3

"Disarmament and the Nuclear Hystricidae“

4

Documentary, Foreword

5

Dutton, E. P. [Publishers, Correspondence, 1951-1971]

909

3

6

“E“ Correspondence, 1954-1971

contd.

contd.

7

Espionage

8

“F“ Correspondence, 1954-1971

9

Fact Finders Forum [Correspondence, 1962-1963]

10

Fish, Hamilton: “The Unwanted and Unnecessary War with Japan“

11

Foreign Aid

12

Foreign Intelligence Digest, January-August 1961

13

Foreign Intelligence Digest, September 1961-September 1962

910

14

Foreign Intelligence Digest, June 1964-December 1971

15

Foreign Intelligence Digest, Miscellaneous

16

France, Consulate: Hong Kong, 1949

17

"Franco and Spain“ (Address by Colonel Robert R. McCormick)

4

1

“G“ Correspondence, 1955-1972

2

General Staff

3

German Correspondents: A–Brandt

4

German Correspondents: Braun–Mittelstaedt

5

German Correspondents: Oberländer–Wuppermann

6

German Correspondence: Miscellaneous

7

German: "Der Rote Brief" [The Red Report]

8

German–Russian Treaty, 1970

9

Gettysburg College [Correspondence, 1959-1974]

10

Government Printer

11

Guerrillas in Philippines

12

“H“ Correspondence, 1953-1972

13

Herald of Freedom (publisher)

14

Herbert Hoover Institution and Archives

15

Houston Chronicle

Howard, Harry P., 1957 [see also Reel 923, Box 23, Folder 3]

16

Hukbalajap, P.I. [Philippine Islands]

17

Huk: Civic Action

18

Huk: Civic Action and Counter-Insurgency

19

Huk: Civic Activities of the Military, Southeast Asia

20

Huk: Correspondence, 1962-1963

21

Huk: Counter-Guerrilla Operations in the Philippines, 1946-1953

22

Huk: Fundamentals for Americans

23

Huk: The Insurgent Battlefield

24

Huk: Military Psychological Operations

25

Hughes, Sir Wilfred Kent

26

Hunt, H. L./Hunt, Nelson Bonken

(See International Committee for the Defense of Christian Culture)

911

5

1

“I“ Correspondence, 1954-1970

2

Indonesia

3

Intelligence [Correspondence, 1948-1967]

4

Intelligence in the Pacific

5

Intelligence Series [see also Reels 924-933]

6

International Committee for the Defense of Christian Culture

7

International Liberty Brigade

8

Israel

9

“J“ Correspondence, 1950-1972

10

Japanese Americans

11

Japanese American Citizens League

12

Japanese Propaganda

13

JCS [Joint Chiefs of Staff, Correspondence, 1959-1971]

6

1

“K“ Correspondence, 1954-1971

2

Kandel, Charles [Correspondence, 1969-1970]

3

Kansas, University of [Correspondence, 1961-1967]

Kasai, Jiuji G. [see Thurmond, Strom]

4

Kohlberg, Alfred [Correspondence, 1950-1953]

912

5

Korea

Korea Liaison Office Report [see Abbott, Leonard J.]

6

Korean War: Interviews with Willoughby and MacArthur

7

“L“ Correspondence, 1955-1972

8

LaBrum, J. Harry [Correspondence, 1963-1966]

9

Lafayette, Order of

10

Legion of Valor

11

Levoy, Gordon/Sorge/Hollywood Correspondence, 1959-1971

Levoy, Gordon, 1971 [see also Reel 923, Box 23, Folder 4]

“M“ Correspondence, 1951-1972

MacArthur, Douglas [see Truman, Harry S.]

12

MacArthur, Douglas: Miscellaneous Correspondence, 1966-1971

13

MacArthur, Douglas: Miscellaneous Drafts

14

MacArthur, Douglas: Press

15

MacArthur Memorial: Correspondence, 1963-1974

16

“Mc“ Correspondence, 1952-1972

17

McGraw-Hill Company: Correspondence, 1953-1972

7

1

Manila: Australia Data

2

Manuscript Materials

912 contd.

7 contd.

3

Marcos, Ferdinand E., President of the Philippines:

Correspondence, 1969-1972]

Masonic Lodge [see Shriners]

Matsunaga, Spark M., Congressman [see Thurmond, Strom]

4

May, Karl: Correspondence, 1955-1970

5

Mexico

6

Miscellaneous

913

7

Miscellaneous Broadsides and Newsletters

8

Miscellaneous, “N-R“

Miscellaneous Reprints

9

My Lai [see Vietnam]

8

1

“N“ Correspondence, 1957-1971

2

Naples (Florida)

3

Naples/COC/Political

4

National Economic Council, Inc.

5

NATO: General Data

6

Navy: Chief of Naval Operations [Correspondence, 1960-1963]

7

News Clippings, 1956-1971

8

North Korean Pre-Invasion Build-up

[see also Reel 921, Box 19, Folders 9-10]

9

“O“ Correspondence, 1947-1959

10

Order of Saint John of Jerusalem

11

Order of Saint John of Jerusalem: Documentation

12

“P“ Correspondence, 1953-1971

13

"Paralysis as a Principle of Warfare“

14

Pentagon [Correspondence, 1958-1969]

15

Pentagon, Volume II [book: Correspondence, 1964-1966]

16

Perot, Ross H.: Correspondence, 1970

17

Philippines [see Hukbalajap]

18

Philippine Embassy [Correspondence, 1961, 1972]

19

Philippine Veterans

9

1

Pichel, Charles L. T.: Correspondence, 1932, 1963-1970

2

Portugal

3

Portugal/Congo, 1961-1971

914

4

Prange, Gordon W.: Correspondence, 1952-1965

5

Presidential–Vice Presidential Correspondence, 1959-1972

6

“R“ Correspondence, 1953-1971

7

Reports of General MacArthur [book]

8

Romulo, Carlos, Philippine Secretary of Foreign Affairs: Correspondence, 1959-1972

914

9

9

“S“ Correspondence, 1954-1971

contd.

contd.

Salgado-Araujo, Francisco Franco

10

Schmid, Joachim: Correspondence, 1960-1969

11

Schriever, B. A., Lieutenant General, American Astronautical Society,

1961

12

Schriners/Masons

10

1

Sorge, Richard

2

Spain

3

Spain: Diplomatic Correspondence, 1953-1966

915

4

Spain: Editorial AHR—Correspondence, 1954-1972

5

Spain: General Franco—Miscellaneous

6

Spain: Military Correspondence, 1952-1964

7

Spain: Salgado-Araujo, Francisco Franco, General:

Correspondence, 1953-1971

8

Spain/Portugal [Correspondence, 1962-1970]—See Portugal

9

Stashinsky, Borgan

10

State Department: Correspondence, 1958-1965

11

Supreme Court

12

“T“ Correspondence, 1952-1972

13

Taylor, Maxwell D., General: Correspondence, 1956-1963

14

“ 'The Third Force’: Neutralists Are Not a Separate Force“

15

Thurmond, Strom; Matsunaga, Spark M.; Kasai, Jiuji G.: Correspondence, 1963-1971

16

Truman, Harry S.—MacArthur, Douglas

11

1

“U“ Correspondence, 1963

2

Untouchables/SEP [see also Reel 922, Box 22, Folder 9a]

3

U.S. Congress—House of Representatives: Correspondence, 1957-1972

4

U.S. Senate: Correspondence, 1950-1972

5

U.S. Senate, Foreign Relations Committee

6

“V“ Correspondence, 1953-1972

7

Vietnam—My Lai

8

Villamor, Jesus A., Colonel: Correspondence, 1962-1970

916

12

1

“W“ Correspondence, 1950-1972

2

Wallace, George/Al: Correspondence, 1969-1970

3

War College, Carlisle, PA: Correspondence, 1967

4

War Department: Correspondence, 1961-1967

5

War Department, Footlocker History: Correspondence, 1952-1957

6

War Department, Historical Division: Correspondence, 1952-1965

916 contd.

12 contd.

7

Weekly Crusader, January 1961-October 1962

[see also Reel 922, Boxes 22 and 23]

8

Willoughby, Charles A.

9

Willoughby, Charles A.: Addresses

10

Willoughby, Charles A.:

"Analysis of Global Military Commitments of the United States, 1958“

11

Willoughby, Charles A.:

Critique of Louis Morton’s The Fall of the Philippines

12

Willoughby, Charles A.: Interview with D. Clayton James

13

Willoughby, Charles A.: "NATO—Foreign Aid and Ready Divisions“

14

Willoughby, Charles A.: Official Papers (copies), 1943-1953

15

Willoughby, Charles A.: Plates

16

Willoughby, Charles A.,

“Theodore Roosevelt and the Communist Threat“

17

Willoughby, Charles A.: Statement Made to the Senate Appropriations Committee for Patriotic Societies, June 1960

18

World War I: Eastern Front:

“Campaigns in Egypt and Palestine, 1914-1918“

19

“Y“ Correspondence, 1951-1972

20

Addendum: Miscellaneous Correspondence, Clippings, etc., from Gettysburg College (facsimiles)

Series II: Printed Materials

13

1

Aid and Comfort to the Enemy: Trends in Korean Press Reports by C. A. Willoughby (Tokyo: Dai Nippon Printing Company, n.d.)

917

2

America Needs a Foreign Legion by C. A. Willoughby. In Argosy, Volume 362, No. 1 (January 1966)

3

Bailén y la Cabeza de Puente Española, 1808-1948 by C. A. Willoughby (privately published, 1952)

4

The Black Panther Party: Its Origin and Development as Reflected in Its Official Weekly Newspaper Black Community News Service, Committee on Internal Security, House of Representatives

(Washington: Government Printing Office, 1970)

14

1

Chinese Communist Potential for Intervention in the Korean War, Volume I, Military Intelligence Section, GHQ (Tokyo: Far East Command, n.d.)

2

Chinese Communist Potential for Intervention in the Korean War, Volume II, Military Intelligence Section, GHQ (Tokyo: Far East Command, n.d.)

3

Chinese Communist Potential for Intervention in the Korean War, Volume III, Order of Battle Annex, Military Intelligence Section, GHQ (Tokyo: Far East Command, n.d.)

917 contd.

14 contd.

4

Chinese Communist Potential for Intervention in the Korean War: North Korean Pre-Invasion Build-up, Military Intelligence Section , GHQ (Tokyo: Far East Command, n.d.)

918

5

"Committee to Restore the Constitution" (Address by Archibald E. Roberts, October 13, 1970)

6

Communist Threat to the United States through the Caribbean, Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws of the Committee on the Judiciary, U.S. Senate (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1970)

7

Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the 85th Congress, 1957-1962

8

"Cuba: Views of the Committee on Pan American Policy" by Charles A. Willoughby. In Christian Crusade (September 1961)

15

1

Défense de L’Occident, June 1961

Die Grosse Rebellion by Juan Maler (Buenos Aires: N.p., 1969)

Emergency Detention Act of 1950 Amendments, House of Representatives (Washington: Government Printing Office, n.d.)

2

Espionage and the American Communist Party by C. A. Willoughby. In The American Mercury, January 1959

3

Foreign Assistance Act of 1967, Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1967)

4

Foreign Intelligence Digest, 1969-1972

5

Foreign Intelligence Digest, Miscellaneous

6

“Franco and Spain“ (Address by Col. Robert R. McCormick, February 25, 1950)

16

1-2

Guerrilla Resistance Movement in the Philippines (Parts I and II) by C. A. Willoughby (New York: Vantage Press, 1972)—

[only title page and introduction filmed]

3

The Guerrilla Resistance Movement in the Philippines, Military Intelligence Section (Tokyo: GHQ, USAFPAC, 1948), Volume 1, Intelligence Series [see Series IV, Reel 924]

4

The Guerrilla Resistance Movement in the Philippines: Documentary Appendices, Military Intelligence Section (Tokyo: GHQ, USAFPAC, 1948), Volume 1, Intelligence Series

[see Series IV, Reel 924]

918 contd.

17

1

Index of Source Material: A Brief History of the G-2 Section, G-2 GHQ, SWPA, and Affiliated Units

2

Intelligence in War: A Brief History of MacArthur’s Intelligence Service, 1941-1951, edited by C. A. Willoughby (privately published)

919

3

Intelligence Activities in the Philippines during the Japanese Occupation, Military Intelligence Section (Tokyo: GHQ, USAFPAC, 1948), Volume 2, Intelligence Series [see Series IV, Reel 924]

4

Intelligence Activities in the Philippines during the Japanese Occupation: Documentary Appendices (I), Military Intelligence Section (Tokyo: GHQ, USAFPAC, 1948), Volume 2, Intelligence Series [see Series IV, Reel 925]

5

Intelligence Activities in the Philippines during the Japanese Occupation: Documentary Appendices (I)—contd., Military Intelligence Section (Tokyo: GHQ, USAFPAC, 1948), Volume 2, Intelligence Series [see Series IV, Reel 925]

6

Intelligence Activities in the Philippines during the Japanese Occupation: Documentary Appendices (I)—contd., Military Intelligence Section (Tokyo: GHQ, USAFPAC, 1948), Volume 2, Intelligence Series [see Series IV, Reel 925]

7

In the Desert by Karl May (booklet)

18

1

Korea and Italy: A Comparative Study

2-4

Leftist Infiltration of SCAP, Parts 1, 2, and 3 (Civil Intelligence Section Special Reports)

920

5-6

Leftist Infiltration of SCAP, Parts 4 and 5 (Civil Intelligence Section Special Reports)

7

Leftist Infiltration of SCAP, Military Intelligence Section, GHQ (Tokyo: Far East Command, 1947)—Final Version

8

"The Liberation of Manila“ by Charles A. Willoughby, July 1945

19

1

MacArthur and the Southwest Pacific Area Series by Charles A. Willoughby. In Christian Crusade (June 1964)

2

MacArthur and His Vanishing War History by Jerome Forrest and Clarke H. Kawakami. In The Reporter, Volume 7, No. 8 (October 1952)

3

Miscellaneous title and table of contents pages for various Willoughby publications

4

Murder International Inc.: Murder and Kidnapping as an Instrument of Soviet Policy, Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Laws, Committee of the Judiciary (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1965)

5

Murder to Order by Karl Anders (London: Ampersand, 1965)

920 contd.

19 contd.

6

New Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam, Part 1, Committee on Internal Security, House of Representatives (Washington: Government Printing Office, April 1970)

921

7

New Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam, Part 2, Committee on Internal Security, House of Representatives (Washington: Government Printing Office, June 1970)

8

No Army, No Navy, No Air Force, Freedom from War: The United States Program for General and Complete Disarmament in a Peaceful World (Linden: The Bookmailer, 1961)—Department of State Publication 7277

9-10

North Korean Pre-Invasion Build-up, Parts I and II (rough drafts)

20

1

Salazar: Prime Minister of Portugal Says . . . by Salazar (Lisbon: SPN Books, n.d.)—both English and French text included

2

Sentinel of the West: Franco and Spain by Franco Salgado and Luis Galinsoga

3

Shanghai Conspiracy: The Sorge Spy Ring by Charles A. Willoughby (Boston: The Americanist Library, 1952)

922

4

[A Partial Documentation of the] Sorge Espionage Case by Military Intelligence Section, GHQ, Far East Command (privately printed for the House of Representatives Committee on Un-American Activities)

5

Duplicate of Folder 4

6

The Summit and the Pit by Charles A. Willoughby. In Foreign Intelligence Digest

7

Tactics, Volumes 6 and 7

[only cover and title page filmed for each volume]

8

The Truth about Korea by Charles A. Willoughby. In Cosmopolitan (December 1951)

21

1

Weekly Crusader, 1960 (with index for Volume 1)

2

Weekly Crusader, January-March 1961

3

Weekly Crusader, April-June 1961

4

Weekly Crusader, July-September 1961

5

Weekly Crusader, October-December 1961

22

1

Weekly Crusader, January-March 1962

2

Weekly Crusader, April-June 1962

3

Weekly Crusader, July-August 1962

4

Weekly Crusader, September-December 1962

5

Weekly Crusader, January-June 1963

6

Weekly Crusader, July-December 1963

922

22

7

Weekly Crusader, 1964

contd.

contd.

8

Weekly Crusader, 1966-1967

9

"The Ugly Truth about Drew Pearson" by Billy James Hargis. In Christian Crusade, n.d.

9a

The Untouchables by Frank A. Capell

(Zarephath: Herald of Freedom, n.d.)

The Untouchables, Book Two by Frank A. Capell

(Zarephath: Herald of Freedom, n.d.)

10

Up Ye Dead: European Notes on the International and Domestic Policies of the Roosevelt–Truman Regime, 1933-1952 by Charles A. Willoughby (Madrid: Sucesores De Rivadeneyra, n.d.)

Series III: Sensitive Materials

923

23

1

Civil Intelligence Section: Periodical Summary by Military Intelligence Section, GHQ, Far East Command, December 15, 1947

Extracted Periodical Summary containing first printing of “The Sorge Spy Ring: A Case Study in International Espionage in the Far East“

2

Diplomatic Correspondence, 1951-1971

3

Harry Patton Howard Affair, 1957 (Howard’s name included on list of Communists created by Willoughby and inserted in a publication)

4

Gordon Levoy, 1971 (Levoy asks if Willoughby was involved in production of MacArthur movie)

5

“M“ Correspondence, 1951-1971

6

Miscellaneous Reprints

7

Francisco Franco (letter from Franco to Willoughby, 1971)

8

Printed Materials:

Interlocking Subversion in Government Departments, Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws, Committee of the Judiciary, U.S. Senate, Parts 21-22, 24-26 (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1954)

International Communism: Staff Consultation with General Charles A. Willoughby, Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1958)

The Korean War and Related Matters, Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1955)

Report of the Rockefeller Committee on Department of Defense Organization, U.S. Senate (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1953)

Soviet Schedule for War, 1955, Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1953)

923 contd.

23 contd.

Subversive Influence in the Educational Process, Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws, U.S. Senate (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1953)

Series IV: Intelligence Series [Open Shelves]

924

A Brief History of the G-2 Section, GHQ, SWPA, and Affiliated Units: Introduction to the Intelligence Series

The Guerrilla Resistance Movement in the Philippines, Volume 1, Intelligence Series

The Guerrilla Resistance Movement in the Philippines: Documentary Appendices, Volume 1, Intelligence Series

Intelligence Activities in the Philippines during the Japanese Occupation, Volume 2, Intelligence Series [in same folder: Documentary Appendices (I), Volume 2, Intelligence Series]

925

Intelligence Activities in the Philippines during the Japanese Occupation: Documentary Appendices (II), Volume 2, Intelligence Series

Operations of the Military Intelligence Section, GHQ, SWPA/FEC/SCAP, Volume 3, Intelligence Series (I)

Operations of the Military Intelligence Section, GHQ, SWPA/FEC/SCAP, Volume 3, Intelligence Series (II)

926

Operations of the Military Intelligence Section, GHQ, SWPA/FEC/SCAP—Supplement: Korea, 1950-1951, Volume 3, Intelligence Series (III)

Operations of the Military Intelligence Section, GHQ, SWPA/FEC/SCAP: Documentary Appendices (I), Volume 3, Intelligence Series

Operations of the Military Intelligence Section, GHQ, SWPA/FEC/SCAP: Documentary Appendices (II), Volume 3, Intelligence Series

927

Operations of the Military Intelligence Section, GHQ, SWPA/FEC/SCAP: Documentary Appendices (III), Volume 3, Intelligence Series

Operations of the Allied Intelligence Bureau, GHQ, SWPA, Volume 4, Intelligence Series

Operations of the Allied Intelligence Bureau, GHQ, SWPA: Documentary Appendices (I), Volume 4, Intelligence Series

928

Operations of the Allied Intelligence Bureau, GHQ, SWPA: Documentary Appendices (II), Volume 4, Intelligence Series

Operations of the Allied Translator and Interpreter Section, GHQ, SWPA, Volume 5, Intelligence Series [in same folder: Operations of the Allied Translator and Interpreter Section, GHQ, SWPA: Documentary Appendices (I), Volume 5, Intelligence Series]

929

23 contd.

Operations of the Allied Translator and Interpreter Section, GHQ, SWPA: Documentary Appendices (II), Volume 5, Intelligence Series

Operations of the Allied Geographical Section, GHQ, SWPA, Volume 6, Intelligence Series

930

Operations of the Allied Geographical Section, GHQ, SWPA: Documentary Appendices (I), Volume 6, Intelligence Series

Operations of the Allied Geographical Section, GHQ, SWPA: Documentary Appendices (II), Volume 6, Intelligence Series

Operations of the Technical Intelligence Unit in the SWPA, Volume 7, Intelligence Series [in same folder: Volume 6, Intelligence Series “Technical Intelligence“: Documentary Appendices]

931

Operations of the Counter Intelligence Corps in the SWPA, Volume 8, Intelligence Series

Operations of the Counter Intelligence Corps in the SWPA: Documentary Appendices, Volume 8, Intelligence Series

Operations of the Civil Intelligence Section, GHQ, FEC, and SCAP, Volume 9, Intelligence Series (I)

932

Operations of the Civil Intelligence Section, GHQ, FEC, and SCAP: The Public Safety Division, Volume 9, Intelligence Series (II) [in same folder: Operations of the Civil Intelligence Section, GHQ, FEC, and SCAP: Documentary Appendices (I)]

Operations of the Civil Intelligence Section, GHQ, FEC, and SCAP: Documentary Appendices (II), Volume 9, Intelligence Series

Operations of the Civil Intelligence Section, GHQ, FEC, and SCAP: Documentary Appendices (III), Volume 9, Intelligence Series

933

Operations of Military and Civil Censorship—USAFFE/SWPA/AFPAC/FEC, Volume 10, Intelligence Series

Operations of Military and Civil Censorship—USAFFE/SWPA/AFPAC/FEC: Documentary Appendices (I), Volume 10, Intelligence Series

Operations of Military and Civil Censorship--USAFFE/SWAP/AFPAC/FEC: Documentary Appendices (II), Volume 10, Intelligence Series

934-935

Materials not filmed. Reels 934 and 935 not available.

936

23 contd.

FEC: Military Intelligence Section, General Staff: Extracts from “The Sorge Spy Ring Case“; Highlights from 30 consecutive exhibits documenting the Sorge case

FEC: Military Intelligence Section, General Staff: Appendices to a partial documentation of the Sorge espionage case; Miscellaneous records, Special Branch, Shanghai Municipal Police

Authenticated translation of Sorge’s own story, Criminal Affairs Bureau, Ministry of Justice, Tokyo, Japan, February 1942

Extracts from authenticated translation of Foreign Affairs Yearbook (1942), Criminal Affairs Bureau, Ministry of Justice, Tokyo, Japan

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Buckley's Carlist Catholicism thought JFK to be "soft" on everything they opposed

This article appears in the July 26, 2002 issue of Executive Intelligence Review.

Fascist William Buckley Put

Joe Lieberman in the Senate

by Scott Thompson

It is a bizarre truth, but one that American voters need to know, that National Review founder and "Catholic" fascist William F. Buckley made the Senate career of Democratic Presidential threat Joseph Lieberman. The leading intellectual spokesman for McCarthyism as long ago as the 1950s, Buckley was responsible for putting then-Connecticut Attorney General Joe Lieberman in the U.S. Senate, in the 1988 election against liberal Republican incumbent Sen. Lowell Weicker. Thanks to Buckley's organizing conservative Republicans to vote for Lieberman, today's war-party Senator from Connecticut squeezed in by 10,000 votes. Lieberman is pushing the White House hard for an immediate attack on Iraq and a spreading Mideast war—the most dangerous possible way of trying to "escape" the worsening financial crisis. His longtime alliance with William F. Buckley's fascist networks, shows the real character of this "New Democrat" contender.

Carlist fascist Buckley, a deep-cover CIA officer who over decades has deployed both real Nazis and neo-Nazis, had a close relationship with Lieberman long before handing him his Senate seat. It dates back at least to the time that Joe stepped into Buckley's shoes as Chairman of the Yale News, which was then equivalent to being the Yale class president. Thus it was no bolt from the blue, when the arch-conservative libertine Buckley chose to sponsor the Democrat Lieberman in 1988.

'BuckPac' and 'Weicker Watch'

The Aug. 15, 1988 issue of National Review in announced the formation of "Buckleys for Lieberman" or "BuckPac," with an interview with Bill Buckley, who pronounced himself president of the new political campaign committee. Through BuckPac, the Buckley family and networks, whose old stomping ground was Connecticut, carried out campaign counterintelligence, ran a scurrilous "Weicker Watch" column in National Review, bought attack ads against Weicker, and distributed articles nationwide through its affiliated United Press Syndicate.

Said Buckley in the interview, "This is very serious business. The future of self-government depends on retiring such as Weicker from the Senate.... That is the responsibility of the Horse's Ass Committee ... to document that Lowell Weicker is the number one Horse's Ass in the Senate." Asked what kind of research BuckPac was engaged in, the marijuana-promoting fascist replied, "Researching the speeches and public utterances of Lowell Weicker over the past 18 years. We have a few ready for release at this time, but many more will be made public by the Degasification Committee ... [which] is engaged in attempting to clean up the quality of public thought, and intends to demonstrate that the bombast, murk, and pomposity of Lowell Weicker's public declarations are a threat to democratic ecology."

After the Buckleys declared conservative all-out war on Weicker, Lieberman closed a 24-point gap within the last six weeks of the campaign and squeaked through as the victor. Buckley's trademark, snake-like darting tongue could almost be seen in his wrap-up article in the Dec. 9, 1988 issue of National Review entitled, "BuckPac Kills!" Wrote Buckley, "Upon the announcement of BuckPac's organizers that Mr. Weicker was the number-one Horse's Ass in the United States Senate, the door opened, and the sunlight shone in.... Ah, but by the mere act of pointing to the nudity of the emperor, the searing point was made. Namely that Mr. Weicker was an arrogant, bigoted bore and the Republicans who, as galley slaves, had voted for him should feel free to vote for the Democratic alternative, Mr. Joseph Lieberman."

Buckley's Left and Right Fascism

As EIR first documented in its 1977 report, "The Buckley Family: Wall Street Fabians in the Conservative Movement," at the founding of National Review in 1954, former deep-cover CIA officer Bill Buckley brought together both the extreme right-wing and converted left-wing backers of McCarthyism, to launch a fascist conservative movement in the United States.

American intelligence sources reported then, for example, that Buckley had launched former Naval Intelligence officer George Lincoln Rockwell in the founding of the American Nazi Party, for gang-countergang warfare with the Anti-Defamation League (ADL). The gangster-linked ADL profited from Rockwell (until his assassination) by using the ANP to terrorize and blackmail Jews into large contributions.

Buckley also worked with "Old Nazis" in the World Anti-Communist League (WACL) and the Dr. Otto von Hapsburg-linked CIDOC in Spain, that carried out numerous murderous "dirty tricks." And, other Buckley epigones worked with the Chilean intelligence (DINA), that had been brought to power in the coup d'état of Gen. Augusto Pinochet, arranged by Buckley's bosom buddy, Henry Kissinger.

Buckley's National Review operation also always included former leading Trotskyites, turned McCarthyites; National Review founder Sidney Hook, for example, played a crucial role later in launching the current of U.S. "neo-conservatives," who now push for all-out Mideast War, along with Lieberman and his war-partner Sen. John McCain (R-Ariz).

Buckley and his brother-in-law L. Brent Bozell co-authored a defense of McCarthyism in their 1958 book, McCarthy and His Enemies. Bozell went on in 1966 to found Triumph magazine whose board included Dr. (Archduke) Otto von Hapsburg, a onetime claimant to the throne of the defunct Austro-Hungarian Empire. Triumph spawned the Christian Commonwealth Institute (CCI) at the 16th-Century Escorial Palace of the feudal, Hapsburg-allied Carlist Kings who depopulated Spain and Portugal. During this period, Bozell also founded the "Sons of Thunder," red-beret-wearing Carlist shocktroops, who attacked police over such questions as abortion, chanting "Cristo Rey!" ("Christ the King!")

Buckley and Bozell's CCI in 1977 founded Christendom College in Front Royal, Virginia, from which the anti-U.S. Consitution dogmas of such ideologues as Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia are bred and spread.

The 'Mega' Side of Lieberman

Lieberman's other prominent backers, the "Mega" group of Zionist billionaires who sponsor the Likud party faction in Israel's policies, are also linked to Buckley's "Catholic" fascist operations. According to well-informed sources, one of the early funders of the National Review was hedge-fund operator Michael Steinhardt. In 1985, Steinhardt used some of his fortune to found the Democratic Leadership Council (DLC) and its Progressive Policy Institute. One of Senator Lieberman's first acts was to be sworn into the DLC, and he eventually succeeded Steinhardt as its chairman.

Steinhardt himself broke with the DLC, because he opposed President Bill Clinton's re-election in 1996, and "conscience of the Senate" Lieberman became the first Democrat to call for Clinton's resignation, a bit later.

The "Mega" group to which Steinhardt belongs, was founded in 1991 by Leslie Wexler and Charles Bronfman. Its "Megabucks" are now supporting the fascist policies of Ariel Sharon's government in Israel. Steinhardt got the "Megabucks" to start his hedge-fund firm from his father, Sol Frank "Red" Steinhardt, who had been New York City's leading jewel fence, a convicted felon, and a pal of National Crime Syndicate leader Meyer Lansky and "Three Finger" Jimmy Aiello. "Red" saw that his son "went legit."

This is the snakepit that surrounds Sen. Joseph Lieberman; keep in mind Bill Buckley's darting, snake-like tongue when you see Lieberman poised to run for President.

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Buckley's Carlist Catholicism thought JFK to be "soft" on everything they opposed

This article appears in the July 26, 2002 issue of Executive Intelligence Review.

Fascist William Buckley Put

Joe Lieberman in the Senate

by Scott Thompson

It is a bizarre truth, but one that American voters need to know, that National Review founder and "Catholic" fascist William F. Buckley made the Senate career of Democratic Presidential threat Joseph Lieberman. The leading intellectual spokesman for McCarthyism as long ago as the 1950s, Buckley was responsible for putting then-Connecticut Attorney General Joe Lieberman in the U.S. Senate, in the 1988 election against liberal Republican incumbent Sen. Lowell Weicker. Thanks to Buckley's organizing conservative Republicans to vote for Lieberman, today's war-party Senator from Connecticut squeezed in by 10,000 votes. Lieberman is pushing the White House hard for an immediate attack on Iraq and a spreading Mideast war—the most dangerous possible way of trying to "escape" the worsening financial crisis. His longtime alliance with William F. Buckley's fascist networks, shows the real character of this "New Democrat" contender.

Carlist fascist Buckley, a deep-cover CIA officer who over decades has deployed both real Nazis and neo-Nazis, had a close relationship with Lieberman long before handing him his Senate seat. It dates back at least to the time that Joe stepped into Buckley's shoes as Chairman of the Yale News, which was then equivalent to being the Yale class president. Thus it was no bolt from the blue, when the arch-conservative libertine Buckley chose to sponsor the Democrat Lieberman in 1988.

'BuckPac' and 'Weicker Watch'

The Aug. 15, 1988 issue of National Review in announced the formation of "Buckleys for Lieberman" or "BuckPac," with an interview with Bill Buckley, who pronounced himself president of the new political campaign committee. Through BuckPac, the Buckley family and networks, whose old stomping ground was Connecticut, carried out campaign counterintelligence, ran a scurrilous "Weicker Watch" column in National Review, bought attack ads against Weicker, and distributed articles nationwide through its affiliated United Press Syndicate.

Said Buckley in the interview, "This is very serious business. The future of self-government depends on retiring such as Weicker from the Senate.... That is the responsibility of the Horse's Ass Committee ... to document that Lowell Weicker is the number one Horse's Ass in the Senate." Asked what kind of research BuckPac was engaged in, the marijuana-promoting fascist replied, "Researching the speeches and public utterances of Lowell Weicker over the past 18 years. We have a few ready for release at this time, but many more will be made public by the Degasification Committee ... [which] is engaged in attempting to clean up the quality of public thought, and intends to demonstrate that the bombast, murk, and pomposity of Lowell Weicker's public declarations are a threat to democratic ecology."

After the Buckleys declared conservative all-out war on Weicker, Lieberman closed a 24-point gap within the last six weeks of the campaign and squeaked through as the victor. Buckley's trademark, snake-like darting tongue could almost be seen in his wrap-up article in the Dec. 9, 1988 issue of National Review entitled, "BuckPac Kills!" Wrote Buckley, "Upon the announcement of BuckPac's organizers that Mr. Weicker was the number-one Horse's Ass in the United States Senate, the door opened, and the sunlight shone in.... Ah, but by the mere act of pointing to the nudity of the emperor, the searing point was made. Namely that Mr. Weicker was an arrogant, bigoted bore and the Republicans who, as galley slaves, had voted for him should feel free to vote for the Democratic alternative, Mr. Joseph Lieberman."

Buckley's Left and Right Fascism

As EIR first documented in its 1977 report, "The Buckley Family: Wall Street Fabians in the Conservative Movement," at the founding of National Review in 1954, former deep-cover CIA officer Bill Buckley brought together both the extreme right-wing and converted left-wing backers of McCarthyism, to launch a fascist conservative movement in the United States.

American intelligence sources reported then, for example, that Buckley had launched former Naval Intelligence officer George Lincoln Rockwell in the founding of the American Nazi Party, for gang-countergang warfare with the Anti-Defamation League (ADL). The gangster-linked ADL profited from Rockwell (until his assassination) by using the ANP to terrorize and blackmail Jews into large contributions.

Buckley also worked with "Old Nazis" in the World Anti-Communist League (WACL) and the Dr. Otto von Hapsburg-linked CIDOC in Spain, that carried out numerous murderous "dirty tricks." And, other Buckley epigones worked with the Chilean intelligence (DINA), that had been brought to power in the coup d'état of Gen. Augusto Pinochet, arranged by Buckley's bosom buddy, Henry Kissinger.

Buckley's National Review operation also always included former leading Trotskyites, turned McCarthyites; National Review founder Sidney Hook, for example, played a crucial role later in launching the current of U.S. "neo-conservatives," who now push for all-out Mideast War, along with Lieberman and his war-partner Sen. John McCain (R-Ariz).

Buckley and his brother-in-law L. Brent Bozell co-authored a defense of McCarthyism in their 1958 book, McCarthy and His Enemies. Bozell went on in 1966 to found Triumph magazine whose board included Dr. (Archduke) Otto von Hapsburg, a onetime claimant to the throne of the defunct Austro-Hungarian Empire. Triumph spawned the Christian Commonwealth Institute (CCI) at the 16th-Century Escorial Palace of the feudal, Hapsburg-allied Carlist Kings who depopulated Spain and Portugal. During this period, Bozell also founded the "Sons of Thunder," red-beret-wearing Carlist shocktroops, who attacked police over such questions as abortion, chanting "Cristo Rey!" ("Christ the King!")

Buckley and Bozell's CCI in 1977 founded Christendom College in Front Royal, Virginia, from which the anti-U.S. Consitution dogmas of such ideologues as Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia are bred and spread.

The 'Mega' Side of Lieberman

Lieberman's other prominent backers, the "Mega" group of Zionist billionaires who sponsor the Likud party faction in Israel's policies, are also linked to Buckley's "Catholic" fascist operations. According to well-informed sources, one of the early funders of the National Review was hedge-fund operator Michael Steinhardt. In 1985, Steinhardt used some of his fortune to found the Democratic Leadership Council (DLC) and its Progressive Policy Institute. One of Senator Lieberman's first acts was to be sworn into the DLC, and he eventually succeeded Steinhardt as its chairman.

Steinhardt himself broke with the DLC, because he opposed President Bill Clinton's re-election in 1996, and "conscience of the Senate" Lieberman became the first Democrat to call for Clinton's resignation, a bit later.

The "Mega" group to which Steinhardt belongs, was founded in 1991 by Leslie Wexler and Charles Bronfman. Its "Megabucks" are now supporting the fascist policies of Ariel Sharon's government in Israel. Steinhardt got the "Megabucks" to start his hedge-fund firm from his father, Sol Frank "Red" Steinhardt, who had been New York City's leading jewel fence, a convicted felon, and a pal of National Crime Syndicate leader Meyer Lansky and "Three Finger" Jimmy Aiello. "Red" saw that his son "went legit."

This is the snakepit that surrounds Sen. Joseph Lieberman; keep in mind Bill Buckley's darting, snake-like tongue when you see Lieberman poised to run for President.

Terry Mauro, who plays our own Miss Brooks to my Dennis Weaver, literally stumbled onto this lead about Carlism, L. Brent Bozell and Warren H. Carroll, who once worked for H. L. Hunt's Lifeline, perhaps not even recognizing the true importance of this find. I challenge all of you to come up with something equally as significant in this sinister millieu of characters instead of spending your time on on internal bickering, finger pointing, name calling and Grafitti Tagging. Her amazing, partially fortuitous discovery, has tied together Condon's Manchurian Candidate crowd in a nice tight little package. Anyone spending time on Grafitti Tagging and ALL CAPS hissy fits, from this point forward should be ashamed of themselves for letting her scoop one of the best new discoveries in years. She makes some of you look like bumbling Clouseaus. Is that challenge enough for you?

The millieu I refer to is the one surrounding William F. Buckley, Jr., his friends from Brown University, E. Howard Hunt, George Lincoln Rockwell and Anastase Vonsiatsky, H. L. Hunt, Warren H. Carroll, Gen. Douglas MacArthur and his campaign manager, for the 1952 Presidential nomination of Rev. Gerald L K Smith of the America First Party, Gen. Charles A. Willoughby whose first non-military job was working for H. L. Hunt in Mozambique after he and MacArthur were sacked by Truman. Recall also that Hunt's fascination with The Stashinsky Gun, occupied much of his more sinister side and I have been writing about that for years and years. And never forget that it was Dick Russell's unnamed informant who fingered both MacArthur and Willoughby as well. And refer to that Coudert Brothers millieu of characters documented in another posting. It was Fred Rene Coudert who ran Buckley's NYC mayoralty campaign in 1965, and who popularized The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion along with Vonsiatsky cronies like

Robert J. Morris, Boris Brasol and Canadian neo-Nazi Adrian Arcand. And never, ever forget that the Couderts hired Robert J. Morris to run their Rapp-Coudert Committee which was the accepted forerunner of McCarthyism which Morris is now given most of the credit for by Whittaker Chambers. And hopefully you will not forget how Buckley's father, Angleton's father, Draper's uncle, and a young Willoughby himself all rode together after Pancho Villa a few years after Buckley's father lost his Pantapec Oil properties in Mexico to an insurrection. And this list of Carlist Catholics includes at least a half dozen of Condon's Dirty Dozen and the two Americans at The Giesbrecht Incident (Smith and Vonsiatsky) which BK/ULTRA will just be absolutely enthralled to hear yet again. Buckley, Vonsiatsky, MacArthur, Willoughby (by inclusion), Smith, Morris, Draper and Angleton a true rogues gallery if there ever was one. And we all know that Angleton ran his own mini-CIA, the pro-Nazi one so he can hardly be called "true" CIA since his Honetel program was designed to destroy it from within. Sort of like the childish Grafitti Tagging campaigns being run by some of those here. And Buckley was so rich he did not even need his CIA job which he claimed to have quit in the 1960's, I think.

Hey if Terry Mauro can jump whole hog onto the ManCand and Giesbrecht bandwagon and not even know it, you know those guys had to be doing something right. And oh yes, most of the ManCand crowd and the Giesbrecht crowd were McCarthyites and MacArthurites, a concept some of you just have a pedantic knee-jerk reaction to without even thinking. And THAT is what I am trying to discourage: "the not even thinking, just accepting the trite pablum and hackneyed conclusions which some of you have reached". Otherwise, you will just be playing into the hands of these McCarthyites, MacArthurites and ManCand brainwashers from Army Intel who are laughing their tushies off at those of you who fell for their scheme, hook, line and sinker. Now who among you has the courage to stand up and say: "I'm Spartacus and I was brainwashed, too, by that oxymoron called 'Army Intelligence', the FIRST Intelligence Agency in the good old USA but not any more!" And I see now how they did it, using Edmund Bernay, Edward Hunter and the Big Five in the Dallas cover-up crowd. And that makes me mad as hell, and I am not going to fall for that anymore.

And I hereby swear to join everyone else here who can proudly say: "I'm Spartacus and I was brainwashed, too, and I want to be Educated on this Forum just like you my all powerful Obewon Kanobe. You have no idea how badly either. I just feel so used and abused and victimized all these years. Is there a group I could join to get-deprogrammed?" Yes, send a PM to BK/ULTRA at Spartacus.EducationForum and he can give you the necessary details. He does not want to continue being brainwashed either. Group rates are available, too.

Score: Mauro 1, BK/ULTRA 0.

Terry, I take back everything I ever thought about you, well almost everything. Seriously though, this may go down as your best contribution

to the entire JFK conundrum ever in your entire storied career as a JFK buff.

http://books.google.com/books?id=aBEpI5h9g...num=7#PPA314,M1

Let's all take the pledge:

1) No more childish hissy fits and threats put into writing for all to view

2) No more typing in ALL CAPS when you disagree violently with an opinon

3) No more trying to shout someone down or censor their postings using McCarthy style tactics

4) No more Grafitti Tagging just because you disagree with someone and want to show your ignorance

5) No more enlistment of like-minded brainwashed minions to drown out opposing opinions

6) No more posting of threads which have long since been debunked and belittled just to cause agida

7) No more AgitProp from The Department of Agitation and Propaganda even if you are in charge

8) No more trying to get someone's goat by opening old sores and wounds by scab picking

9) No more childish back-channel PMs discussing researchers instead of The Case which is the whole point

10) No more blind obeisance to hackneyed and force fed theories focusing on a single alphabet agency

Make it a point to actually contribute something new and valuable at least once a week or once every 10

postings. Some of you have made over 100 postings in the last month with NOTHING new, NOTHING relevant

NOTHING important, and NOTHING even on topic but a whole lot of violations of rules 1-10. You know who

you are. Enough said. And don't encourage the guy, you become just as guilty as he is at that point.

Nothing worse than brainwashed repetitive minions in this entire forum. But if someone continues to break

these rules against me, then don't be surprised if you get a taste of your own medicine.

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For what it's worth, and right now it's just my opinion, but knowing powerful Catholics as I do, like the Jesuits, I believe the Catholic Church is up to their eyebrows in the Kennedy Assassination. Even the Chicago Mob back then were mostly Catholic -- Tony Accardo, Sam Giancana -- Italians, brought up in the religion.

Kathy C

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For what it's worth, and right now it's just my opinion, but knowing powerful Catholics as I do, like the Jesuits, I believe the Catholic Church is up to their eyebrows in the Kennedy Assassination. Even the Chicago Mob back then were mostly Catholic -- Tony Accardo, Sam Giancana -- Italians, brought up in the religion.

Kathy C

Thank you, Kathy, for confirming my observations. As early as elementary school, we used to find Hoover-grams waiting on our

desk to be discussed by some stern Irish priest on a "mission". One was titled "You can trust the Communists - To be Communists!"

If anyone has the membership list of the "Shickshinny Knights of Malta" from the 1960's please publish it once again. I created it once

but lost it. There were even fabricated stories about Communists attacking convents and assaulting nuns which made the rounds

but were never confirmed. The main issue was that the loss of collection basket revenues and valuable Church properties irked

the Vatican more than anything else. Just like the main issue for United Fruit was the loss of slave-run banana, sugar and pineapple

plantations and not the fear of Godless Communism per se.

The bumper sticker from the 1960's in Cambridge said it all: "Kill a Commie for Christ the King"

Since they had no "souls" and had not been baptized, and they were not one of God's children they were going straight to he** anyway,

so they could be killed with no repercussions whatsoever apparently. The irony of this was lost on almost everyone at that time. And who

was it that killed Archbiship Romero in El Salvador using WACL? NOT the Communists but the anti-Communists and pro-fascists led by Ray S. Cline and Robert Emmett Johnson.

Kathy, does this Carlist Catholic or Carlist Christian theme ring true to you then?

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KNIGHTS OF DARKNESS - THE SOVEREIGN MILITARY ORDER OF MALTA

Issue title: SPECIAL: NAZIS, THE VATICAN, AND CIA

WINTER 1986 Number 25

Pages 27-38

[4 of 4 ....... 36-38 ]

KNIGHTS OF DARKNESS

THE SOVEREIGN MILITARY ORDER OF MALTA

Page 36

The Washington Post of December 27, 1984 reported as follows:

A private humanitarian organization called the Americares Foundation, working

with the Order of the Knights of Malta, has channeled more than $14 million

in donated medical aid to El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala over the last

two years. ......

Part of $680,000 in aid to Honduras went to Miskito Indians linked to U.S.

backed rebels fighting the leftist government in Nicaragua, according to a

Knights of Malta official in Honduras.

Much of the $3.4 million in Americares' medical aid to Guatemala has been

distributed through the armed forces as part of its resettlement program of

"model villages" aimed at defeating leftist insurgents, said the official,

Guatemalan businessman Roberto Alejos.

Alejos, co-chairman of the Knights of Malta in Honduras [said], ...... the

Guatemalan army delivers Americares medicine to people in model villages,

which are along the Mexican border.

Alejos, a major sugar and coffee grower, lent his Guatemalan estates to the

Central Intelligence Agency in 1960 to train Cubans for the Bay of Pigs

invasion.

Asked why the Knights of Malta turned to Americares rather than to

established aid groups, such as the Red Cross, Grace said,

"The Knights have been doing this for 900 years. They have their own cross

[the Maltese cross]. ... They'd consider themselves way beyond the Red

Cross." ....

At least one pro-government group, the Air Commando Association of Fort

Walton Beach, Fla., claims to have used Knights of Malta warehouses in El

Salvador. Retired general H. C. Aderholt, head of the 1,500-member group,

said that the commandos delivered food and medicine to the Knights'

facilities and that together they ''get good support from the Salvadoran air

force commander."

Aderholt said the association has distributed to El Salvador $4.5 million in

food and medicine provided by the Christian Broadcasting Network and World

Medical Relief. He said liberals in Congress have tried to "tie to some

sinister plan with the CIA" [sic], which he said is incorrect.

While the Post story does mention that CIA Director William Casey is a SMOM,

it fails to point out that Aderholt is the "Unconventional Operations''

Contributing Editor of Soldier of Fortune and was a member of the ''Singlaub

panel'' of the Pentagon, set up to devise new counterinsurgency strategies in

the developing countries.

Russ Bellant, in the Detroit Metro Times of October 9, 1985, says Aderholt

claimed that Pat Robertson's Christian Broadcasting Network had given the

Knights of Malta $2 million for operations in Central America.

CONCLUSION

For many years progressive groups in the U.S. and else where have been

engaged in extensive research into so-called "secular" state and private

organizations such as the CIA, NSC, the military, private corporations, and

foundations.

This article highlights the operative importance of members of the Sovereign

Military Order of Malta, which unlike traditional corporate, governmental,

and foundation entities, has not yet adequately come under the scrutiny of

progressive researchers. Curiously, European researchers have all but ignored

the Orders of Chivalry in analyzing The structural role of their own

aristocracy in organizing support for international reaction and fascist

terror.

Research into the current role of SMOM and its individual members is just

beginning. The most serious problem is the dearth of documents available, due

to the extreme secrecy of the organization. Except for a few scattered

references in various books, magazines, and newspapers, and a few

romanticized stories about ancient glories of the Order, the necessary amount

of materials has not yet surfaced. and this account represents only a

starting point for further research.26

In the U.S., for example, although the 1980 membership list was published (

National Catholic Reporter, October 14, 1983), since then the Order in the

U.S. has grown and been divided into an Eastern, Southern (based in D.C.),

and Western Association. The published 1980 list comprises primarily members

in the Northeast. Although some others are known, complete and current lists

of members in other regions is obviously crucial. Lists for other countries

would also be helpful.

CAIB in its Winter 1983 issue, The CIA and Religion, and Spring 1985 issue,

Disconnecting the Bulgarian Connection, began to explore the operational role

of specific religious, or non-secular, organizations such as Opus Dei 27 and

the fascist Masonic lodge P-2 in western intelligence operations and in

furthering imperialism's plans.

Page 38

The recent P-2 scandal in Italy and new evidence on the importance of various

ancient Orders of Chivalry (in particular SMOM) indicate that further

research into these additional non-secular "parapolitical'' structures is

necessary both to understand their role as independent organizations and to

gain a better understanding of factional alignments within organizations

which have already come under scrutiny.

As with "secular" organizations, rivalries among these "non-secular"

organizations takes place within an environment of selective interlinking

memberships which include secular structures as well. The way competing

policies and loyalties of these non-secular structures influence members in

their secular roles needs considerable further research.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

SMOM, GRACE, and OBANDO Y BRAVO

On August 1, 1985 the New York Times reported that during a visit to New York

in May, Archbishop Miguel Obando y Bravo of Nicaragua said that he is

actively directing efforts by his diocese to prevent the government from

imposing a communist system in Nicaragua. The Archbishop said efforts

included ''dividing his diocese into old and new units, including parishes,

districts and smaller groups, for leadership and religious training.'' He

claimed the training he established in Managua was for ''pastoral cadres, not

military cadres. .... '' Following a meeting with Archbishop Obando,

executives at W. R. Grace arranged for the Sarita Kenedy East Foundation to

contribute copies of the Bible, rosary beads and other supplies to aid the

church effort, a company executive said. The foundation is headed by J. Peter

Grace.

Whatever the real purpose of the "leadership training" and "pastoral cadres,"

it apparently seemed like such a splendid idea to the Knights that a June 21,

1985 press release from the Erlich-Manes & Associates News Service of Bethesda

, Maryland stated that the Southern Association of SMOM had sent a $5.5

million shipment of "40 massive containers'' to be loaded on the ship

"Freedom'' to be sent to Maputo, Mozambique. "Roughly half of the shipment

will go to aid agricultural development in northern Mozambique; and half will

be distributed directly to the poor through the Archbishop of Maputo's

Catholic Charities.'' Eugene I. Kane, a Knight and head of the trucking

company Intermodal, Inc. organized the project. Official documents of SMOM

list such "charitable" projects in many countries throughout the world.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

WELL-KNOWN KNIGHTS

In addition to those listed in the article, the following are some other

Knights of SMOM of interest:

- Francis Vincent Ortiz, Jr.: according to the 1982-83 'Who's Who in

America', had been, among other posts, "dep. chief of mission Am. Embassy,

Montevideo Uruguay, 1970-73,charg'e d'affairs,1973; country director for

Argentina, Uruguay, and . Paraguay, Dept. of State 1973-75, dep. exec. sec.,

1975-77; Amb. to Barbados and Grenada, spl. rep. to Antigua, Dominica, St.

Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla, St. Lucia and St. Vincent, from 1977; U.S Amb.

Guatemala 1979-81, to Peru 1981-; spl. asst. for international affairs U.S.

So. Command, Panama 1980-" since November 18, 1983 he has been the U.S.

Ambassador to Argentina.

- Patrick J. Frawley, Jr.: also a Knight of the Order of St. Sylvester of

which William [ head of WWII OSS .... JP ] Donovan was a member. He is a

longstanding funder of right-wing causes including Fred Schwarz's Christian

Anti-Communism Crusade. His wife is a Dame of SMOM and is Publisher of the

National Catholic Register of California, whose editor, Francis X. Maier was

formerly with National Review. Maier was the first Chairman of the Catholic

Center for Renewal, whose President, Philip F. Lawler, is the Director of

Studies of the HeritageFoundation (which was chaired by Knight of SMOM Frank

Shakespeare, newly appointed Ambassador to Portugal).

- Paul-Louis Weiller: Grand Cross of Merit SMOM, a close friend of Richard

Nixon, member of the Board of Directors of Renault and several other French

industrial corporations, former Administrateur of Air France, whose son

married the cousin of Spanish King Juan-Carlos. (See also, Jim Hougan, Spooks

(New York: William Morrow, 1978), pp. 209-225, which suggests that Weiller

was "the French Connection. ")

- Erik von Kuehnelt-Leddihn: Munich correspondent of William Buckley's

National Review.

- Admiral James D. Watkins, Reagan's recently named Chief of Naval

Operations.

- Thomas Bolan: law partner of Roy Cohn. Bolan is also Counsel to the Human

Life Foundation of which former CIA officer and Managing Editor of National

Review, Priscilla Buckley (William's sister) is a Director.

- Jeremiah Denton: U. S. Senator from Alabama, 1980-present; former rear

admiral, captured by the Vietnamese while murdering people and held as a POW

1965-1973, consultant to Pat Robertson of Christian Broadcasting Network,

1978-80.

- Pete Domenici: U.S. Senator from New Mexico 1972 - present.

- Spiros S. Skouras: President Prudential Lines 1960-present, bought Grace

Lines 1969.

- William A. Schreyer: President Merrill Lynch 1978-present; Chairman since

1981.

- Walter J. Hickel: former governor of Alaska 1966-69, Secretary of the

Interior 1969-1970. [ Governor of Alaska again in early 90s .... JP ]

- Antoine Pinay: Grand Cross of Merit, head of Government in France in 1952.

He led the right-wing party CNIP and was linked to the ''Sniffing-plane"

scandal, as well as a project with Brian Crozier and American agents to make

Franz Joseph Strauss head of the German government.

- Mme. Raymond Barre: Grand Cross of Merit, wife of the rightist French

politician.

- Bernard Dorin: French attache to Ottawa 1957-1959, Ambassador to Haiti

1972-1974, and Ambassador to South Africa from 1978 until at least 1981.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

THE "OTHER" ORDERS OF THE KNIGHTS OF MALTA

Not only are there many existing orders of chivalry today, generally under

the aegis of a reigning monarch or ruling house, but there are also rival

organizations each claiming to be the rightful heirs to the same order.

Nowhere is this more true than with the Knights of Malta.

According to the Catholic Herald of August 23, 1985, there are more than

twenty organizations claiming to be the "real" Knights of Malta. On September

9, 1985, evidently in response to growing interest in the question, the 'Wall

Street Journal' ran a cover story, "Looking for a Title or Hot Controversy?

See Knights of Malta. The Problem Is Which Ones; Catholic Order Maintains

Rival Groups are Bogus." (The New York Sunday News had described the rivalry

as early as June 15, 1975.)

The legitimacy battle is often intense and steeped in the presentation of

increasingly obscure documentation. Arnaud Chaffanjon and Bertrand Galimard

Flavigny's Ordres et Contre-Ordres de Chevalerie (Paris: Mercure de France,

1982), is one of the more useful references.

Some of the rival "Orders of Malta,'' all with slightly different names, in

fact claim important and extremely rightwing members. We believe that the

Catholic, Rome-based Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM) remains the

most important, with the endorsement of the Vatican and most of the Catholic

ruling houses of Europe, and members like those discussed in the text of this

article. The British (and generally, though not exclusively Protestant)

Venerable Order, discussed in the text, is affiliated with a number of

European, Protestant Orders, such as the Johanniterorden, sometimes known as

the Bailiwick of Brandenberg.

Two of the "Orders of Malta'' which have received particular attention

recently are what may be called the "Shickshinny" Order and the "von

Brancovan" Order.

The Shickshinny Order, officially called "The Sovereign Order of Saint John

of Jerusalem," has been headed by Col. Thourot Pichel in Shickshinny,

Pennsylvania, although a few years ago the Order was torn by serious internal

rifts between Pichel and the late Frank Capell, Contributing Editor of the

John Birch Society's Review of the News. (See, Rev. Anthony Cekada, Light on

the OSJ, from the Oyster Bay, New York The Roman Catholic, December 1981, for

an article critical of the Order and discussing some of its recent history.)

It traces its legitimacy from a dispute during the time the Order spent in

Russia under Czar Paul after it fled Malta. This Order achieved some

notoriety a few years ago when it officially recognized the claims of

controversial defector Michael Goleniewski to be Aleksei Romanoff, heir to

the Russian Imperial House of Romanoff.

The case would be less interesting if James Angleton were not one of the

principal supporters of Goleneiwski and some extremely rightwing members of

the military intelligence community were not listed as members in a document

issued by the Order in 1970. The Order listed as members of its Military

Affairs Committee, under the Chairmanship of Gen. Lemuel C. Shepherd, Maj.

Gen. Charles A. Willoughby, Brig. Gen. Bonner Fellers, and Gen. Pedro A. del

Valle (who according to Stuart Christie's Stefano delle Chiaie, Portrait of a

Black Terrorist (London: Anarchy Magazine, 1984), p. 6, invited Italian

neo-Nazi Guido Giannettini to the U.S. to conduct a seminar at the U.S. Naval

Academy at Annapolis, where del Valle was Commander. Foster & Epstein's

Danger on the Right (New York: Random House, 1964), p.79; and Janson &

Eismann's The Far Right (New York: McGraw Hill, 1963), p. 154, both call del

Valle an anti-Semite.)

The Honorary Grand Admiral of the Order is listed as Admiral Sir Barry

Domvile who had been jailed by the British during WW II as a Nazi agent, and

was listed as a Contributing Editor of Willis Carto's Western Destiny,

November 1965, when Roger Pearson was the Editor. The Associate Chief of

International Intelligence listed was Herman E. Kimsey, a high-ranking CIA

operative, now deceased, who had worked with the Army CIC during the war.

The von Brancovan Order, led by someone who calls himself Prince Robert

Bassaraba von Brancovan and several other names as well, including Prince

Khimchiachvili, is officially titled "The Sovereign Military and Hospitaler

Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, Knights of Malta Ecumenical.'' It is the

order which apparently claims Frank Sinatra as a member. It also claims to

include Princes Arnaldo and Basilio Petrucci. It appears to have a connection

to Umberto Stafanizzi who, with Francesco Pazienza, signed the incorporation

papers for something else called the "Sovereign Order of Saint John, Knights

of Malta, Inc.," which was incorporated in New York State, June 22, 1983.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

footnotes -

26. Interested readers should also refer to the articles by Martin Lee on the

SMOM which appeared in the National Catholic Reporter of October 14, 1983

(the issue which included the complete 1980 U.S. membership list), and Mother

Jones of July 1983. (These two articles formed the basis for the references

to SMOM in Gordon Thomas and Max Morgan-Witts The Year of Armageddon (London:

Granada Publishing Ltd, 1984).)

An interesting discussion of some post-WW II SMOM history based around an

account of the 1949-53 attempts by Vatican-centered Rightists to restrict the

sovereignty of the Order is Knights of Malta by the conservative French

author Roger Peyrefitte originally published by Flammarion in 1957, and

translated into English and published in New York by Criterion Books m 1959.

King and Luke's The Knights of St. John in the British Realm, op. cit., n. 6,

is useful although it does try to elevate Queen Victoria's creation of the

Venerable Order to a status equal to that of SMOM.

The Italian journal L'Espresso of June 28, 1981 carried an article by

Alessandre de Feo on the SMOM-P-2 connection. The rightist French magazine

Historia had a special issue in 1980 on various Orders of Chivalry including

SMOM. Also in French is the remarkable Souvenirs et Reflections by Yves

Marsaudon, former Minister of SMOM in France who was also one of the highest

ranking members of the Scottish Rite of Freemasonry in the country, (Paris:

Editions Vitiano, 20 Rue Chauchat, 75009 Paris, 1976).

27. Francis X. Stankard, Knight of SMOM and Chief Executive Officer of the

International Division of Chase Manhattan Bank has led "Evenings of

Conversation'' at the Opus Dei Headquarters at the Riverside Study Center,

330 Riverside Drive, New York City. Other SMOMs at these sessions included

William Simon and Frank Shakespeare (now Ambassador to Portugal), both of

whom are Trustees of the Heritage Foundation, of which Shakespeare was

Chairman of the Board. Evenings of Conversation, a pamphlet distributed in

1984 by Riverside Study Center.

Recognition of the importance of Opus Dei at the highest levels of SMOM had

already been established in the summer of 1976 when King Juan-Carlos, himself

a Knight of Malta, chose Adolfo Suarez, a member of Opus Dei, as new chief of

government following the death of Franco. (Point de Vue, January 14, 1983;

Paris.) On Opus Dei see also, New Statesman, 1 March 1985, pp.20,21; London

Times, January 12, 1981; Le Morule, August 25, and September 28, 29 1982;

National Catholic Reporter, September 10, and November 12, 1982; Financial

Times, November 11, 1983; New York Times Magazine, January 8, 1984; Time

magazine, June 11, 1984, p.74; New Times (Moscow), No.13, 1982, p.27; Wall

Street Journal, December 30, 1982.

[Picture caption] - Paul-Louis Weiller, the French Connection?

- END QUOTE - [ 4 of 4 ]

COVERT ACTION INFORMATION BULLETIN

P.O.BOX 50272 WASHINGTON, DC 20004

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PO'd Cardinal Chastises The Talmud for name-calling

Wonder if this is why the Vatican stood by while The Holocaust spread...

Ya think?

Date: October 10, 2007 10:54:24 AM PDT

Subject: Cardinal calls for Jews to stop calling Jesus a bastard

Cardinal calls for Jews to stop calling Jesus a bastard

By Ben Martin

Last Updated: 12:14am BST 06/10/2007

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml...6/wjesus106.xml

A senior American cardinal has asked Jews to reconsider descriptions of Jesus as a "bastard," in exchange for a softening of traditional Catholic prayers calling for Jews to be converted to Christianity.

The controversial comments, by Cardinal Francis George of the Archdiocese of Chicago, concern a prayer said during Easter celebrations by the small number of parishes or priests who celebrate a particular form of Good Friday mass.

Those version of Good Friday prayers calls for the congregation to pray for Jews to be converted to Christianity.

But Cardinal George said this prayer should be amended to ensure it did not offend Jews.

"I suspect (the amendment) probably will be (made), because the intention is to be sure that our prayers are not offensive to the Jewish people who are our ancestors in the faith," Cardinal George said in an interview with the National Catholic Reporter.

"We can't possibly insult them in our liturgy … not that any group has a veto on anybody's prayers, because you can go through Jewish texts and find material that is offensive to us. But if we're interested in keeping the dialogue strong, and we have to be, we should be very cautious about any prayer that they find insulting."

But this should mean that Jews, in turn, consider amending their own religious texts, he said.

"It works both ways. This is an opening to say, 'Would you care to look at the Talmudic literature's description of Jesus as a bastard, and so on, and maybe make a few changes there?'"

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Charles Willoughby was Edward Lansdale's BOSS?

According to David Guyatt at least he was...

[28] Interestingly, Corso - like Edward Lansdale and his boss, General Willoughby – have all, at one time or another, been connected to the JFK assassination. See Martin Davis, “Saucers, Secrets & Shickshinny Knights - www.osjknights.btinternet.co.uk/lumpen/saucers.htm

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Pantepec Consolidated Company of Venezuela was a subsidiary company of the Pantepec Oil Company of Venezuela.

William Buckley, Sr, father of William Buckley, Jr, has a long history of involvement with Big Oil, both inside Israel and without. According to the biography of him published with the collection of his papers at the University of Texas:

“In Mexico Buckley served as advisor to U.S. and European oil companies, operated a law firm, and engaged in real estate and leasing of oil lands. In 1914 he founded the Pantepec Oil Company … As founder and president of the American Association of Mexico Buckley worked to remove restrictions on U.S. oil and landed interests in Mexico imposed by the Mexican Constitution of 1917. In 1924 he transferred the Pantepec Oil Co. to Venezuela. He continued as the company's president until 1943 and remained active in international oil exploration and production.”

In 1921, this same William Buckley, Sr. was expelled from Mexico by President Obregon under suspicion of working with American corporate interests to undermine the government. From the period 1914 – 1923 he was actively agitating for American oil interests by publishing articles on Mexican politics from the Oil perspective in American newspapers.

Later in his life, he became involved in Israeli owned oil concerns. According to a summary published in American Free Press writer Michael Collins Piper’s book Final Judgment, Buckley Sr was responsible for the establishment of a business known as the Pan-Israel Oil Company in Jerusalem in the 1960s and a second business, the Israel-Mediterranean Oil Company in Panama, who’s principal address was the same as Pan-Israel Oil. Buckley’s son, former NY Senator turned Federal Judge James Buckley held a vice-presidential position in the business. The voting stockholders of both companies were all Israeli Jews.

The companies also employed two of his sons – James and John Buckley, brother of William Buckley, Jr, who served in various executive and directorship positions. This conglomerate of corporations did oil business in Australia, South America, Canada, Libya, the Spanish Saharas, the Phillipines and Israel.

During the 1950s, William Buckley Sr also set up the Cuban-Venezuelan Oil Voting Trust Company, which was alleged to have ties to the American-Jewish mafia, dominated then by Meyer Lansky, who served as an official American government representative to Cuba during the Batista dictatorship. It is said that his son, William Buckley Jr, became involved at this time with the CIA attempts to overthrow Castro, working as a CIA contact and informer during the period 1950 – 1954. Some have speculated Buckley, Jr, worked with the Cuban-Jewish exile community (5/6ths of the island’s Jewish population had been expelled by Castro in his wars against religion, drugs, gambling and prostitution), the American-Jewish mob, and Howard Hunt to arm and equip the anti-Castro resistance – an operation which culminated in the Bay of Pigs invasion.

Former Senator James Buckley from New York, William F Buckley’s brother, has also developed a series of suspicious connections. Over his life he developed ties to internationalist groups like the Bilderbergers and the Yale Skull and Bones society. Though denying those ties, stating in 1974 that:

“I don't subscribe to the theory that there exists an organization of international bankers called the Bilderbergers."

At the same time his brother William was on the invitation list to their annual meeting.

Perhaps most significant about James Buckley was the role he played in 1981-1982 as Undersecretary of State for Security Assistance, Science and Technology. In that position he was in charge of managing the distribution of US aid to foreign nations – including the all important disbursement of US aid to Israel. He also used that position to justify acts he had taken as a Congressman against the democratically elected governments of countries like Chile In a well known statement from that period, when asked about the CIA-backed coup that brought Pinochet to power, Buckley justified his role by stating:

"It was only by virtue of covert help by the United States that [Pinochet and CIA-backed factions] were able to survive in the face of increasingly repressive measures by the Allende regime."

And of course in the Buckley family world what followed, the extermination of tens of thousands of left-wing organizers and dissidents, was not “repressive” at all.

James Buckley also played a role in arranging the assassination of the Chilean Ambassador to the United States, Orlando Leteiler, in 1976. A week before the killing, he met with CIA-backed Chilean secret police assassins Michael Townley and Guillermo Novo in his New York office. When CIA agent David Atlee Phillips was implicated in this murder of this foreign diplomat on US soil, James Buckley sat on the Board of Directors for his defense fund.

In Mexico Buckley served as advisor to U.S. and European oil companies, operated a law firm, and engaged in real estate and leasing of oil lands. In 1914 he founded the Pantepec Oil Company. Buckley was counsel to the Mexican government's delegation to the Niagara Falls Conference in 1914; in December, 1919 he testified before the U.S. Senate Subcommittee on Foreign Relations as an expert witness on conditions in Mexico. As founder and president of the American Association of Mexico, Buckley worked to remove restrictions on U.S. oil and landed interests in Mexico imposed by the Mexican Constitution of 1917.

In 1924 he transferred the Pantepec Oil Co. to Venezuela. He continued as the company's president until 1943 and remained active in international oil exploration and production.

BUCKLEY, WILLIAM FRANK (1881-1958). William Frank Buckley, lawyer and oil entrepreneur, was born in Washington-on-the-Brazos, Texas, on July 12, 1881, the fourth of eight children of John and Mary Ann (Langford) Buckley, of Irish ancestry. In the fall of 1882 the family moved to San Diego, Duval County, where John Buckley engaged in merchandising, politics, and sheep raising; he also served several elective terms as Duval County sheriff.

Growing up in a Spanish-speaking community, William Buckley became proficient in the language and a close friend of Spanish-speaking peoples, a quality he retained all of his life. One of his early influences was the widely educated parish priest, Father John Pierre Bard, of the Church of San Francisco de Paula in San Diego. After finishing school in San Diego, Buckley taught at a country school near Benavides, where all but a few of the students used the Spanish language. According to records at the University of Texas at Austin, he enrolled there in 1899 and was a student at the university until 1905, when his picture appeared with the law class of 1905. Because of his command of the language he received advanced credit in Spanish in his first years there and was an assistant to a professor in the Romance-languages department. During this time he was also, along with his sister, Priscilla, a Spanish translator in the General Land Office. qv With others he initiated the Austin chapter of the Delta Tau Delta national college fraternity and later became one of its most liberal financial supporters. He was a devout Catholic and, along with others, purchased property near the university for the Newman Club. When his father died in 1904 he was the oldest surviving son, and he undertook the care of his mother, whom he moved to Austin, along with his two brothers and two sisters, to a small house on the corner of Lavaca and Nineteenth streets; Buckley later built a large house there (now the site of Cambridge Tower), where his mother lived until her death in 1930. He received a B.S. degree in 1904 and an LL.B. degree in 1905, was quizmaster in the School of Law, and was a member of the John C. Townesqv Law Society. In 1905 he was elected editor of the University of Texas yearbook, The Cactus (1906). Buckley received his license to practice law in Texas on June 8, 1906, and he was elected a member of the Texas Bar Association (see state bar of texas) in 1909.

He went to Mexico City in 1908 and passed law examinations there, and he and his brother Claude, also a lawyer, acted as counsel for many of the most important American and European oil companies doing business in Mexico. In 1911 they established their own law office with another brother, Edmund, in Tampico, Tamaulipas. By 1914 William F. Buckley had turned his law practice over to his brothers so that he might engage in real estate and the leasing of oil lands. He acquired, improved, and sold land around the city of Tampico, and he founded the Pantepec Oil Company of Mexico. The Mexican Revolutionqv was at its height in 1912, 1913, and 1914, and after the invasion and takeover of Veracruz by the United States Marines in April 1914, President Woodrow Wilson offered the post of civil governor to Buckley, who indignantly refused the appointment because he was not in sympathy with Wilson's Mexico policy. Later that year Buckley served as counsel for the Mexican government at the ABC Conference at Niagara Falls, where Argentina, Brazil, and Chile acted as mediators between the United States and Mexico. In December 1919 he testified before the United States Senate Subcommittee on Foreign Relations as an expert witness on conditions in Mexico. Knowing the language, the people, and the nature of revolutionary activities there, Buckley believed that internal Mexican policies such as those approved of by American "specialists" would destroy American investments in Mexico. In 1920 he assisted in the foundation of the American Association of Mexico, with offices in Washington and New York, which lobbied for the interests of United States businessmen in Mexico. Because of Buckley's opposition to the government of Gen. Álvaro Obregón and his support of the antigovernment revolution of Manuel Peláez, Buckley was expelled from Mexico in 1921. In January 1922 he gave a full report of his expulsion to the secretary of state of the United States and urged that his country not recognize the Obregón government until certain agreements had been reached between the two countries.

In 1924 Buckley was invited back to Mexico by President Plutarco Calles and returned for a visit, but in that year he transferred his Pantepec Oil Company to Venezuela. There, in a largely undeveloped oil region, he fully committed himself to oil exploration. As one of the first to use the "farm-out" system, Buckley made agreements with some of the largest oil companies, whereby the companies would take over the cost of exploring, drilling, and developing and would in turn share the profits from oil and gas produced on his concessions. He made his first major deal, with Standard Oil, in the 1930s when a large oilfield was found on Pantepec's Venezuelan concessions. Other major producers followed. During his entire career Buckley was primarily interested in unexplored territory, and in 1946 he began a diversification of his oil holdings with the forming of separate companies. Operations assumed an international scale with the leasing of land in Canada, Florida, Ecuador, Australia, the Philippines, Israel, and Guatemala.

In 1922 Buckley gave to the University of Texas his extensive files covering the tumultuous years of Mexican history from the time of his stay in that country. Included in the gift were thirty-five scrapbooks of newspaper clippings and 300 folders containing copies of Buckley's confidential reports, annotated letters, statements, interviews, and other papers. In 1925, over the opposition of the university's librarian, Ernest W. Winkler,qv the entire collection was sent to Washington, D.C., for use by the State Department's Mixed Claims Commission (United States and Mexico). It was finally returned at the request of the University of Texas in 1929. The papers are housed in the Nettie Lee Benson Latin American Collection.qv

Buckley was married to Aloise Steiner of New Orleans in 1917. A widely read man and always concerned with learning, he closely supervised the trilingual education of their ten children during the years the family lived in Paris, London, and the United States. In the 1920s he purchased the family estate, Great Elm, in Sharon, Connecticut, and later, for a winter home, the estate Kamschatka in Camden, South Carolina. Several of William and Aloise Buckley's children became national figures: James Buckley was elected to the United States Senate, and William F. Buckley, Jr., became a nationally known writer, editor, and speaker for the conservative view in politics. Fergus Reid Buckley, another son, is a journalist and novelist. Priscilla Buckley pursued a career in journalism and was managing editor of the National Review for decades. Patricia Buckley was a free-lance book editor in 1986. Members of the family also continued in active operation of the Buckley oil business.

After a stroke on board the S.S. United States, between Paris and New York in late September 1958, William F. Buckley was given the last rites of the Catholic Church; he died in Lenox Hill Hospital in New York on October 5, 1958, and was buried in the Quaker Cemetery near his winter home in Camden, South Carolina.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Priscilla L. Buckley and William F. Buckley, Jr., eds., W. F. B.–An Appreciation by His Family and Friends (New York, 1959).

Handbook of Texas Online, s.v. "BUCKLEY, WILLIAM FRANK," http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online...ew/BB/fbu8.html (accessed January 5, 2005).

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