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Anastase Vonsiatsky linked to Dulles, Donovan and Shickshinny Knights of Malta

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Game, Set and Match


Anastase Vonsiatsky is finally linked to Wickliffe Draper's crony Lt. Gen. Pedro A. del Valle and to

Allen Dulles and Wild Bill Donovan through more Nazi White Russian Spies

Even Col. Robert T. McCormick of the Chicago Tribune is listed just below who was among his close fiends and associates

And good old boy, William Dudley Pelley founder of the Nazi Silver Shirts during World War II where GLK

Smith cut his Nazi-loving eye teeth, YES Reverend Gerald Lyman Kenneth Smith from the Winnipeg Airport Incident

is included by reference herein for all to see.

When everything comes together like this in one single document, within one single organization for all to read for themselves,

it is almost magical.

1) Draper and his evil cronies at The Pioneer Fund like Pedro Augusto del Valle, and the Trevors Sr. and Jr.

2) Richard Condon and the Manchurian Candidate Dirty Dozen included in his dirty rotten scoundrels

3) The Shickshinny Knights of Malta (Philip J. Corso, Pedro del Valle, Charles Willoughby, Bonner Fellers, Sir Barry Domville)

4) Anastase Vonsiatsky and his ROND friends plus the Russian Orthodox Church.

5) The Dulles Brothers and William J. Donovan who was a Knight of Malta first and foremost

Who knows why Jupiter, Florida was the headquarters of the Order of Saint John of Jerusalem?

Name two military crustaceans who retired to Jupiter, Florida who had the OSJ credentials?

Free Gift Certificate to Taco Bell for the winner.

One of them ran the Nazi Rat Lines behind the back of Giovanni Battista Montini. (Pope Paul VI) He also

was in charge of pushing the UFO brainwashing theories into the public domain and he was once the hero of

John Armstrong, too. And he worked for J. Strom Thurmond.

The other one was a McCarthyite who served as Oswald's Travel Agent and worked as head of The Passport Office in

the State Dept. Security Office (SY). He got fired over the Walt Whitman Rostow confirmation hearings.

I can count on either the crack Australian research duo (Richards and Parker) or Tom Scully to get this one right.

They both used the OSJ honorary title in their signature with their correspondence. As in Lt. Col. XXXXXX Y ZZZZZ, OSJ

Holier than though Nazi Super-Catholics, and Conservative Right Wingers...


And how about this one. Even Major John Trevor, Sr. of The American Coalition of Patriotic Societies founded

by Wickliffe Draper, and his son John Trevor, Jr. of The Pioneer Fund also founded by Wickliffe Draper are mentioned herein.

John B. Trevor opposed Brown vs. Board of Education on eugenic grounds.

The Shickshinny Knights of Malta were his friends too: Charles Willoughby, Pedro A. del Valle, Bonner Fellers,

Sir Barry Domville, Lord Malcolm Douglas-Hamilton, Lt. Col. Philip J. Corso...

I hate to say I told you so.... but I told you so.

And I hate to say that Richard Condon told you so... but he did. You just wouldn't listen.

Get on this aspect of the JFK case or you will forever be inhaling the dust from the fast-trackers.

Anyone see any other obvious suspects in the JFK mayhem here? Lemmie know. Get off your butts.


History and Lineage Charts Since 1797

Founded near Our Lord’s Holy Sepulcher c. 1050, the Brothers of the Hospital of Saint John is one of

the oldest orders of the Catholic Church. The Order of St. John of Jerusalem was elevated to a monastic order

in 1098 by which time it had developed into a military brotherhood known as the Hospitallers. The Brethren

defended their Hospital and ensured the health and safety of pilgrims coming to the Kingdom of Jerusalem.

The King of Jerusalem confirmed the Hospitallers as an international corporation in 1104. The Apostolic See

became its perpetual Protector in 1113 by a Papal Bull of Paschal II. Renowned for skilled hospital care and

prowess in battle, the Hospitaller Knights became indispensable defenders of Christendom and the Order was

recognized as a sovereign state in 1191. The Order was forced by the Moslems from the Holy Land in 1291

and from Rhodes in 1523. The Convent of the Order was on the island of Malta, and its 70


Grand Master was

Prince Ferdinand von Hompesch, when the humanist revolution was creating widespread change on the

political map of Europe. The Knights of the Order used strategic foresight in gaining the Czar of Russia as a

secondary Protector because in 1798 Malta was seized by General Napoleon Bonaparte. A large contingent of

French Knights of Malta, who had accepted the precepts of the revolutionaries, joined Napoleon’s army. Most

of the remainder rallied to St. Petersburg, Russia, which was the home of their new powerful Protector.

There have been many questions concerning the legal and historical validity of the SOSJ after its

transfer from Malta to Russia, and later to the United States of America. This essay addresses various aspects

of the continuity of the Order’s government starting from the late 18


century in St. Petersburg, and following it

to the United States of America in the beginning of the 20th century. The knights compromised their principles

as they focused on the survival and independence of their brotherhood, but they succeeded in preserving their

lineage intact. Other provincial groups of Knights of Malta eventually became sufficiently organized to warrant

their respective national monarchs to recognize them as distinct orders later in the 19th century. This is the

cause of the several orders of St. John and of Malta that we know today. The Sovereign Order of Saint John of

Jerusalem is, in contrast, the factual continuation of the Order from Malta, and was supported as such by the

Russian monarchy continuously until the death of Czar Kirill I in 1938.


Shortly after their arrival in Russia, the exiled Knights of Malta joined with the Catholic Grand Priory of

Russia and elected their Orthodox and married Protector, Czar Paul I, as the 71st Grand Master. Grand Master

Czar Paul I helped to settle the SOSJ in the Russian capital city. He decreed that their Convent would remain at

the Imperial residence of St. Petersburg, and that his successors would continue as its protectors. He created a

second Grand Priory principally for his Orthodox nobility. He then invited non-Catholic Europeans, mainly

Lutherans, to join this new priory for the purpose of preserving the SOSJ and European monarchism by

perpetual opposition to the Humanist Revolution. His plan to return the Russian Orthodox Church, of which he

was the head, to full communion with the Catholic Church had created enemies among his closest advisors and

relatives. Czar Paul I, an unrecognized champion of the Order, was martyred, allegedly by Freemasons, in


The Holy See had often desired in the past to control the election of the Grand Master and the Order’s

history shows that the knights always successfully resisted this interference. The election of Czar Paul I had

broken the lineage of unmarried Catholic grand masters, but continued the jealously guarded tradition of

independent election of their leader by the knights. The Knights of Malta believed that the unusual

circumstances in world affairs which resulted in the relocation of the convent to Russia called for nontraditional

action to salvage the Order and to counter the Revolution. Election disputes developed after the death of Grand

Master Czar Paul I and this created a permanent split between the Sovereign Order in Russia and the surviving

Italian priories of knights. The Sovereign Council in Russia and Czar Alexander I asked the Pope to name the next Grand Master

“for one time only” from a list of candidates presented from the various priories of knights. The Pope selected

the Russian Catholic Grand Priory’s candidate, who became the 72nd Grand Master, John Baptist di Tommasi.

Tommasi died in 1805, and then the Pope tried to name Tommasi’s successor. This intervention was not

acceptable to the Sovereign Council and to the majority of the Knights of St. John who were determined to elect

their own leader as was the tradition and historic right of the Order. It was also generally known that Napoleon

was directing the Pope’s choice for Grand Master. The SOSJ chose the Russian Czar as the head and Protector

of the Order which was being managed by the Sovereign Council. They refused to recognize the papal

appointments which followed thereafter, for they were not legitimately initiated by the Order. Early in the 19


century, the Italian priories adopted the name Sovereign Military Order of Malta. The members of the fledgling

SMOM declared themselves the legitimate continuation of the Order and refused to recognize the Sovereign

Order of Saint John of Jerusalem. The knights of the SOSJ reciprocated by not recognizing the splinter group

in Italy. The disagreement continues today. Indeed, it has only been in the past few years that the SMOM has

grudgingly accepted Czar Paul I, but as the 72nd Grand Master of the Order. They continue to describe him as

Grand Master “in fact” but not “in justice” because the Czar was a married Orthodox Christian.

Nevertheless, the Order became an influential institution in Imperial Russia deeply involved with the

preservation of the European monarchies in general, and with the Romanoff dynasty in particular. The two

grand priories in Russia, one Catholic and the other principally Orthodox, educated young men at their school,

the Corps des Pages, in St. Petersburg. The Corps des Pages was the academy for the creation of new Knights

of Malta. The graduates of this school became leaders of the exclusive Guard Divisions and thereby protectors

of the Imperial Family of Russia. Their tradition of health care was continued through the hospital and relief

agency known as the Russian White Cross. The Sovereign Council, consisting of senior Knights of Justice,

governed the Order and ensured its legal continuation. Initially the Order was led by Lieutenant Grand Master

General Soltikoff after the death of Czar Paul I. Eventually the leadership of the SOSJ consisted of a President

of the Sovereign Council who was assisted by a Grand Chancellor. These men reported directly to each

reigning Russian czar who was described as the “Head of the Chapter.” Each Czarina was likewise traditionally

the honorary head of the White Cross. The czars took personal custody of the Order’s famous icon of Our Lady

of Philermos and the two relics which are the hand of St. John the Baptist and a piece of the True Cross. These

were kept either at the Winter Palace or at the SOSJ Priory Chapel of the Gatchina Palace, depending upon the

liturgical calendar. This arrangement continued until the Bolshevik Revolution of October 1917.

Prince Grand Master Lt Grand Master President of the Grand Prior Grand Protector

Sovereign Council Chancellor

1797 Prince GM Ferdinand Pope Pius VI

von Hompesch Czar Paul I

1798 GM Czar Paul I LGM J Count de Litta Prince de Conde GM Czar Paul I

1799 GM Czar Paul I LGM Field Marshall Prince de Conde GM Czar Paul I

Count Soltykoff

1801 LGM Field Marshall Undetermined Czar Alexander I Czar Alexander I

Count Soltykoff

1803 GM John Baptist di Tommasi Undetermined Czar Alexander Czar Alexander I

1805 Undetermined Czar Alexander Czar Alexander I

1825 Undetermined Senior Grand Duke Czar Nicholas I

1855 Undetermined Senior Grand Duke Czar Alexander II

1881 Undetermined Senior Grand Duke Czar Alexander III

1894 Undetermined G D Vladimir Czar Nicholas II


In 1893 the Russian Ambassador to the United States, Prince Cantacuzene, Russian Admiral Grand

Duke Alexander Michaelovich and Russian Transportation Commissioner Colonel A. Cherep Spiridovich,

introduced the Russian SOSJ White Cross at the Chicago World’s Fair to American civic leaders. Pope Leo XIII

promised prominent civic leader Mrs. Potter Palmer of Chicago his support for her chairmanship of “Women of

the World” presentations at the Fair and assigned Archbishop John Ireland of St. Paul, Minnesota to work with

her. Thereby began the SOSJ affiliation with an American White Cross movement supported by the Catholic

Church. The American Cardinal Gibbons and Archbishop Ireland continued their affiliation with the White

Cross and the Knights of St. John for at least twenty years thereafter. Archbishop Ireland was the head chaplain

for the veterans of the Grand Army of the Republic and therefore had a responsibility for the welfare of

American servicemen. Their initial efforts resulted in a White Cross headquarters in Portland, Oregon which

coordinated American nurses sent to Cuba and the Philippine Islands during the Spanish-American War.

The next public result of this Russian-American-Catholic coordination was an attempt in 1899 to get a

Title 36 Charter from the U.S. Congress for the National White Cross of America. The proposed charter would

have allowed the organization to continue hospital and relief work exclusively for the American military

community. While it was passed through both the House and Senate without dissension, it was not ultimately

signed into law by the President of the United States. General Nelson Miles and George Westinghouse of

Pittsburgh were among those involved directly in the White Cross charter effort. The charter bill was passed to

the foreign affairs desk and stalled indefinitely by those concerned about Russian and Catholic influence in the

organization. After all, the White Cross was a Russian institution of the SOSJ, and Roman Catholic Archbishop

John Ireland would be one of the founding members of the proposed American affiliate. Though the American

White Cross proposed exclusive support for the American military community, the obvious competition with the

American Red Cross which did similar work also concerned some politicians. Archbishop Ireland, Chief

Chaplain for the Grand Army of the Republic, General Miles, commanding General of the U.S. Army, George

Westinghouse of Pittsburgh, founder of Westinghouse Electric, Chicago industrialist Richard Teller Crane,

Chicago real estate mogul Potter Palmer, and many others continued life long affiliations with Russia or with the

Russian-American White Cross movement.

Several things occurred in 1901 which would have long term effects on the SOSJ. Grand Duke Boris

Vladimirovich, son of the Russian OSJ Grand Prior, assisted Richard Teller Crane of Chicago with plans to

organize the American White Cross in New York City. It is believed that they created the American

International Academy and named explorer and geologist Francis C. Nicholas as its first president. This pan-

American organization was designed for intelligence gathering operations. In 1901, the SMOM (Sovereign

Military Order of Malta headquartered in Rome) and Cardinal Gibbons announced that an American Grand

Priory would be started solely for the American Catholic members of a fraternal organization called the

“Knights of St. John” which had been started about 1880 in imitation of the old order. Colonel Cherep

Spiridovich, mentioned previously, became President of the Slavonic Society of Moscow. For five years, he

had been Serbian Consul to Moscow, and was a member of the Serbian and later of the Russian Secret Services.

The Slavonic Society was an intelligence operation which funneled arms and resources to nationalist elements

in the Balkans. The patron of the Society was Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich. His wife, Grand Duchess

Ella, was the elder sister of the Russian Czarina.

In 1903 the American Red Cross administrators restructured their organization and curtailed the

authority of their founder, Clara Barton. Barton had been influenced in her famous work by the Russian White

Cross and by the Johanniter Orden relief services in Europe. Her friend, Princess Louise of Baden, was the

daughter of Germany’s Kaiser Wilhelm II, Herrenmeister of the Johanniter Orden. The American Red Cross

Field Service Superintendent was Edward Howe from the English St. John’s Ambulance Association. Barton

resigned from the American Red Cross and established the National First Aid Association of America in the

District of Columbia in 1904. She was assisted in this by men who had tried to start the American White Cross,

namely General Nelson A. Miles and Field Superintendent Edward Howe.

In 1904, R. T. Crane, U.S. Consul for Persia, built an emergency hospital clinic in Chicago in memory

of a niece killed in a disastrous inner city fire. Mrs. Palmer sent funds from Chicago to the Russian Czarina,

Patroness of the Russian White Cross, to be used for relief of victims of the Russo-Japanese War. St. Andrew’s

Ambulance Society of Scotland received its new name and independence from the St. John’s Ambulance

Association of England.

In December, 1904 the American White Cross First Aid Society was started in Chicago by civic leader

Mrs. Potter Palmer, Roman Catholic Cardinal Gibbons, the industrialist Andrew Carnegie, representatives of

the U.S. Army and Edward Howe, formerly the American Red Cross Field Superintendent. Edward Howe was

thus the field superintendant for both the National First Aid Association and for the American White Cross First

Aid Society. A similar arrangement existed in England between the Venerable Order of St. John of Jerusalem

and the British Red Cross. The Catholic Church, American civic leaders, the U.S. Army and the English St.

John’s Ambulance Association were thus working together with the Russian White Cross. This was the

“ecumenical beginning” of the SOSJ of which Grand Chancellor Pichel described in his history of the SOSJ in

1958. The American White Cross First Aid Society had Mrs. Potter Palmer, Mrs. H. McCormick, Andrew

Carnegie, R. T. Crane, General J. D. Irwin and Cardinal Gibbons as Vice Presidents. By association, this

brought the Crane Family, the Cantacuzene Family, the McCormick Family, Nicholas Murray Butler, the

American military medical community, and the Catholic Church into the White Cross ambulance work which

soon followed.

Besides Edward Howe, the moving force in the White Cross was the famous Chicago surgeon and

Illinois militia officer Dr. Nicholas Senn. Dr. Senn had been President of the American Medical Association

and a founder of the Association of U. S. Military Surgeons. He had also been involved with the early

organizing activities of the White Cross. He was associated with the Knights in Russia and had visited them in

St. Petersburg in 1902. He was instrumental in the organization of the program in New York. Unfortunately he

died prematurely in 1908. After his death the American Red Cross was assured of the lead in national relief

work, and in 1910, reinstated their “First Aid to the Injured” program. The American White Cross therefore

eventually focused on large-scale relief overseas during war and famine. As we will later see, a 1921 relief

association of American Catholics from the White Cross evolved into a new American Association of the

SMOM in 1927.

The Chicago Crane family affiliation with the White Cross eventually led, in 1941, to their daughter

Frances’ marriage to OSJ Hereditary Knight Commander Belosselsky-Belozersky, in New York City. The

White Cross work of the Chicago Palmers was continued by their relatives, the Cantacuzenes. Prince Michel

Cantacuzene and Julia Grant Cantacuzene were members of the Romanian Prince Cantacuzene and President

General Ulysses S. Grant families. An early and prominent member of the American White Cross was Wall

Street lawyer William Nelson Cromwell, who was responsible for the success of, among many other projects,

McCormick Harvester and Carnegie’s U.S. Steel Corporation. He became Grand Prior of the American SOSJ

in 1912. Charles R. Crane, son of R. T. Crane, became a philanthropist, diplomat, and, unfortunately, a

financial supporter of the first Russian revolution of February, 1917.


AN AMERICAN GRAND PRIORY The late 19th and early 20th centuries was an era of anarchist activism. The SOSJ in Russia searched for

potential allies in its ongoing defense of Christendom. An epidemic of political assassinations and the abortive

Russian Revolution of 1905 prompted the expansion of the Order into the United States. In 1905 Count Alexis

Ignatiev, Commander of the SOSJ Chevalier Guards, was assassinated in Russia. Grand Duke Sergei

Alexandrovich was also assassinated. The Grand Duke was the patron of the Slavonic Society of Moscow, of

which Cherep Spiridovich was president. As mentioned previously, this agency was an intelligence organization

funneling arms into the Balkans in support of nationalists struggling against the Turks, and is believed to have

been an arm of the SOSJ. These events hastened the development of a permanent presence of the Knights of St.

John in America, in addition to their White Cross First Aid Society, to ensure the Order’s survival and to tap the

resources of the American Republic.

At the time of his death, Grand Duke Sergei was the Military Governor General of Moscow and had

worked to uncover the cells of anarchists who were responsible for constant murders of government officials to

include his own father’s assassination. His wife Grand Duchess Elizabeth, sister of Czarina Alexandra, was

involved in the research to unmask the anarchists and this interest brought them both into contact with an

Orthodox spiritual writer named Sergei Alexandrovich Nilus. Nilus was one of the earliest men to produce a

copy of the “Protocols of the Wise Men of Zion” and Grand Duchess Ella introduced him and the Protocols to

her sister and to Czar Nicholas II. Major General Arthur Cherep-Spiridovich, President of the Slavonic Society,

was thereby one of the earliest members of any Intelligence Service to see the Protocols. He was given the

mandate by the Russian Imperial family to investigate the matter and to spread the alarm about “the hidden

hand” of international Zionism and its conspiracy to gain global control. He was made a Count of the Catholic

Church by Pope Pius X about 1907. He was President of the Catholic Grand Priory of Russia, which he referred

to as the Celtic-Latino-Slav League, and was one of the principal organizers of the American branch of the

SOSJ. His patronesses, Czarina Alexandra and Grand Duchess Ella, were convinced of the authenticity of the

international conspiracy and eventually both were murdered by the Bolsheviks in 1918.

After the death of Dr. Nicholas Senn in 1908, the American White Cross movement with headquarters

in Chicago was expanded further by union with the Knights of St. John and Malta Hospital and Relief

Association of Brooklyn, New York. The organization was named White Cross Hospital and Relief Association.

The main offices of the relief association remained at the GAR Hall, at 990 Bedford Avenue in Brooklyn. The

headquarters of this new association was apparently being prepared at what is now called the Audubon Terrace

on North Broadway in New York City. Senior knights were building a facility to be complete in every aspect for

the conduction of the affairs of the Order. The proposed headquarters on Broadway in New York City can be

seen at www.museumplanet.com/tour.php/nyc/at/5. Charles Hayward and George Bruce, formerly of the

Knights of St John and Malta Hospital and Relief Association, had joined with senior SOSJ knights, many of

whom were agents of the Imperial Russian Secret Service. Most of them were Catholic Knights of Malta of the

Catholic Grand Priory of Russia, and represented many of the nations of Europe. They considered this

American association not only as a new organization for the Americas, but as the continuation of the old Polish

Grand Priory that had been in the minority in Russia since 1815.

Major General Arthur Cherep Spiridovich, President of the remnant Catholic Grand Priory of Russia,

was among the coordinators of this expansion. By this time the general was also an emissary of Czarina

Alexandra of Russia, Patroness of the Russian SOSJ White Cross and of her sister Grand Duchess Elizabeth. As

an intelligence operative, he was handled by the Russian Ambassador to the U. S., Baron Rosen. He was also an

agent of the Serbian royal family. This began a long relationship between the OSJ in America and the

Yugoslavian royal family.

The four orders of St. John jockeyed for positions of influence in American society. These included the

SOSJ, the SMOM, The German Order of St. John and the British Venerable Order of St. John. The constant

interaction with the aristocracy, nobility and royalty of the Old World motivated some American members to

become involved in genealogical and racial studies. To qualify for knighthood in accordance with the ancient

rules of the SOSJ was nearly impossible for Americans. The result of the strict admittance qualifications was the

founding by private individuals of the National Genealogical Society, the interaction with an unrecognized

College of Arms of Canada, the founding of the American Heraldry Association, and, to some degree, the

support of the early racial eugenics movement. Various patriotic and genealogical societies were established

during this period to qualify Americans and Canadians for OSJ knighthood. The Lords of Manors of Baltimore,

Scions of Colonial Cavaliers, Order of Colonial Dames, Imperial Order of the Yellow Rose, and the Order of the

White Crane are some of the societies the American knights started.

In 1909, Grand Duke Vladimir was assassinated in Russia, and his son, Grand Duke Cyril, thereby

became Grand Prior of the OSJ Russian Grand Priory. Grand Duke Vladimir had cultivated relations between

the SOSJ in Russia, the German Order of St. John and the Spanish Order of St. John the Baptist. The German

and Spanish orders were branches of the original Order. He had also encouraged the American members of the

White Cross to further develop those relationships. German influence on the new OSJ American Association

through the Johanniter Orden Protector Emperor Wilhelm II and his brother Prince Henry of Prussia was evident

before World War I with exchange visits by the industrialist Cornelius Vanderbilt and President of Columbia

University Nicholas Murray Butler. German influence also came from the Czarina and her sister Ella who were

both members of German royalty. That relationship, which developed with both the Protestant Johanniter Orden

and with the Catholic Malteser Orden, continued from joint efforts in the Baltic during the Russian Civil War

through the redevelopment of the German Intelligence Service after WWII.

Colonel Dr. Wm. Sohier Bryant, MD, of New York City, and lawyer Wm. B. Stites of New Jersey wrote

a constitution in 1911 to form an American Grand Priory of the Sovereign Order of St. John of Jerusalem from

members of the American White Cross. The American Grand Priory constitution was accepted by the

membership in 1912. The new Grand Priory included the Grand Priory of Russia, i.e., the former Catholic OSJ

Grand Priory of Poland. The headquarters of the knights was initially the meeting hall of the Knights of St.

John and Malta at Wurzler’s Building, 315 Washington Avenue, Brooklyn, New York. Most early meetings

were held at Joseph Burrows office at 56-58 Pine Street, near Wall Street. Wall Street lawyer William Nelson

Cromwell became American Grand Prior in 1912, and meetings thereafter were usually held at his offices in the

Waldorf-Astoria Hotel. According to Pichel, this continued until 1929, after which the meetings were held at

Dr. Bryant’s office in the Murray Hill section of New York City.

In 1912 the Order consisted of the Russian Grand Priory in Russia and the new American Grand Priory

and its subsidiary, the Catholic Grand Priory of Russia, which included remnants of the Spanish Caballeros

Hospitalarios de San Juan Bautista. The Russian Grand Priory was composed mainly of Slavic Knights of the

Orthodox Faith. The American Grand Priory leaders were mostly socially prominent Protestant Episcopalians

from New York City and Chicago. There was also a small group of American descendants of Catholic Celtic

Jacobites, who were still followers of the old Stuart Pretender to the throne of England and Scotland. The

Pretender at the time was Queen Mary IV of Bavaria, and an army physician named Edgar Erskine Hume was

among the Knights of Malta who later considered Mary’s successor, Crown Prince Rupprecht, as their “rightful

sovereign.” The American Grand Prior, William Nelson Cromwell, and Dr. Francis C. Nicholas had had contact

with Spanish Knights of St. John during years of preparation work for the American Panama Canal project.

Interaction with the Spanish knights was also the result of Americans meeting Spanish knights during the

Spanish-American War from 1898 to 1900, and later during the Mexican civil wars. The remnant Castellany of

Guadalajara, Mexico, of the Spanish Order of St. John the Baptist joined the American Grand Priory with their

monarchist Pretender, Don Agustin Yturbide. King Alphonso XIII of Spain was the protector of the remnants

of the Spanish Order which was given a papal blessing as late as 1879. He expanded his association to the

SOSJ in America.

American Catholics, however, had been joining a fraternal organization similar to the present day

Knights of Columbus, called the Knights of St. John, since it was founded in the 1880’s. By the turn of the

century, a union of all military style fraternal associations of the Catholic Church in America, to be called the

Roman Catholic Union of the Knights of St. John, was supported by Cardinal Gibbons and Archbishop Ireland.

Therefore, Catholic knights of the SOSJ had difficulty determining their loyalties, not only because of the

broad spectrum of their own origins and nationalities, but also because of the presence of this non-chivalric

fraternal organization supported by the Catholic Church. Prominent Catholics associated with the SOSJ who

were disenchanted with their order’s political leanings eventually founded, in 1927, the American Association

of the SMOM. Edgar Erskine Hume, MD, was among this group of former members of the SOSJ.

Prince Grand Master Lt Grand Master President of the Grand Prior Grand Protector

Sovereign Council Chancellor

1912 Undetermined Czar Nicholas II

Russian Grand Priory G D Cyril

American Grand Priory W S Bryant W N Cromwell J G B Bulloch

1. Grand Priory of Russia MG Cherep Spiridovich (Celtic-Latin-Slav League)

a. White Cross Hospital and Relief Assn. G H Bruce


The English started a private intelligence gathering operation supported by their government in 1904

called the Legion of Frontiersmen. This organization, composed of wealthy patriotic English volunteers,

prefigured MI6. Members of this group, traveling worldwide as was their customary lifestyle, became an

important source for the British Empire’s constant need for information. The American White Cross was being

used in similar fashion, and the new American Grand Priory expanded on that practice. The most prominent

families in the United States joined the American Grand Priory of the SOSJ, and thereby developed the first

American civilian foreign intelligence network.

American Grand Priory leaders, Nicholas Murray Butler, President of Columbia University, Archer

Huntington, founder of the Hispanic Society of America, William Nelson Cromwell, Wall Street lawyer and

Francis C. Nicholas, founder of the American International Academy, are among those who crafted the

American Grand Priory into an intelligence organization. Nicholas, a mining engineer and explorer, had done

Cromwell’s Panama Canal construction feasibility studies. He had also done geological research in Central and

South America for Archer Huntington and Colonel William Lamb, who were supplying fuel coal to the Russian

Navy. These men wielded significant influence in the United States during the late 19th through the mid 20

th centuries.

Some results of their careers include the founding of the Republic of Panama, and the successful

purchase and construction of the Panama Canal. They were also responsible for the founding of the Pan-

American “Organization of American States” and directly influenced the founders of the Central Intelligence

Agency. Others prominent in the OSJ at this time included John Jacob Astor until his death on the Titanic, J. P.

Morgan, J P Morgan, Jr. and the extended Cornelius Vanderbilt and Chicago Crane families. The Mexican

White Cross association was promoted by Don Agustin Yturbide, OSJ, Pretender to the royal throne of Mexico.

Cromwell used the College of Arms of Canada, of which Yturbide was President, to create dissension during

congressional hearings into the Panama Canal controversy. Legalistic maneuvering about ancient French noble

rights in Canada brought pressure on Great Britain to drop complaints about the U. S. control of the canal. This

preceeded by many decades the modern secession movement of French speaking Canada. Grand Chancellor

Bulloch was involved in this movement which tended to divide the OSJ into Anglophile and Francophile

factions. Cromwell had become a seasoned veteran at creating trusts, monopolies and even countries by using

revolution if necessary. The principle White Cross societies besides America and Russia were located in Spain

and Mexico. Dr. Francis C. Nicholas was involved during the Mexican Civil War from 1912 to 1914 as a

White Cross “observer.” The English St. John’s Ambulance Brigade was started in Canada, and may have

helped with the founding of the White Cross in Brooklyn as well.

The American Grand Priory also had a history of cooperation with members of the monarchist and anti-

Semitic Russian Black Hundred’s Movement due to their association with Cherep Spiridovich. Admiral Grand

Duke Alexander Michaelovich, OSJ, was the head of Russian Naval Intelligence. He spent time in the United

States developing relationships with the wealthiest people in American society. His regular traveling

companion became Major Barclay Harding Warburton of the U.S. Army Military Intelligence community.

Warburton was a member of the “East Coast Establishment,” and was closely related to the Wannamaker and

Vanderbilt families. The American Grand Priory cooperated with Russian Naval Intelligence and the Russian

Secret Service directed by Baron Rosen. Grand Duke Alexander was elected the 73rd Grand Master of the

SOSJ in 1913 during meetings in New York City at the Waldorf Astoria Hotel.

Prince Grand Master Lt Grand Master President of the Grand Prior Grand Protector

Sovereign Council Chancellor 1913 Grand Master G D Alexander Michaelovich Undetermined Czar Nicholas II

Russian Grand Priory G D Cyril

American Grand Priory W S Bryant W N Cromwell J G B Bulloch

1. Grand Priory of Russia MG Cherep Spiridovich

a. White Cross Hospital and Relief Assn. W W Butcher A MacNaughton

The First World War found the American Grand Priory allying itself with the Entente. In 1915 Colonel

Robert R. McCormick, of Chicago Tribune fame, reported from the Russian front lines while interviewing

Knights of Malta who were graduates of the SOSJ Corps des Pages. The White Cross Hospital and Relief

Association named its overseas work “The American Ambulance” partly because Socialists had taken to the use

of the “White Cross” name. Anarchists embedded themselves into the Red Cross movement as well. This was

similar to the use of the so-called “Peace Movement” by internationalists, socialists and Communists in the

1960’s. Members of the American Grand Priory quickly became the leaders of massive relief efforts during

WWI. W.N. Cromwell helped to start the Lafayette Escadrille Flying Corps with Cornelius Vanderbilt and Dr.

Ed Gros of the American Ambulance. This Corps was later supported by the Order of Lafayette. Rep.

Hamilton Fish of New York was both a member of this order and the reinstituted Order of Lafayette following

WWII. Unfortunately, the SOSJ is implicated in the support and possibly in the direction of the “bloodless

revolution” in Russia in the opening months of 1917.


Until the First World War, relations between the German Order of St. John, the English Venerable Order

of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, and the SOSJ were mostly cooperative. The leaders of these

organizations, many of them members of royal houses, were often close family relatives and/or financially

interdependent. The European royal families were well aware of the survival of the SOSJ in Russia. Queen

Victoria’s son, the Duke of Connaught, led the English Venerable Order of St. John of Jerusalem for many

decades. He was closely associated with, and related to, Grand Duke Alexander and others of the Romanoff

family. He had been present in 1894 at the marriage of Czar Nicholas II and Alexandra of Germany in the tiny

Winter Palace Chapel, in which the chief relics and icon of the SOSJ were prominently venerated. Before

Alexander I became its king, the Duke of Connaught had been seriously considered for the throne of

Yugoslavia. He was Grand Duchess Victoria Melita’s uncle, and at one time was the potential father-in-law of

Grand Duke Alexander’s daughter.

The Duke of Connaught, led for many decades both the English Venerable Order and, as Grand Master

of the United Grand Lodge of England, the Masonic Knights Templar. As the English Governor-General of

Canada from 1910 to 1916, he had a relationship with the American Masonic Knights of Malta. He also had

some influence over the American Masonic Knights Templar. Unfortunately, the new American members of

the White Cross and SOSJ American Grand Priory did not heed the prohibitions on Freemasonic affiliation that

had been enforced in Russia. When they joined with the SOSJ from Russia, some persisted in their Masonic

affiliation as Templars. The amalgamation of the SOSJ with the Knights of St. John and the Malta Hospital and

Relief Association brought Freemasons into the ranks of the American Grand Priory. The new Grand Priory of

1912 was thereby influenced by Freemasonry and Anti-Catholicism. The Freemasons who came into the Grand

Priory had believed in a descent of their fraternity from an ill-defined Templar-Malta Order from France, or

from the old “reformed” Torpichen Preceptory in Scotland. Some of the new members were the

aforementioned Catholic Jacobites but there was also a small but significant number of Rosicrucians. A

significant philosophy of the Rosicrucians included an anti-Semitic and racial superiority agenda. Some

prominent members appear to have persisted in the Freemasonic quest for humanistic “freedoms” which had

caused the downfall so many Christian kingdoms. In Imperial Russia it was widely known that Freemasonry

had been prohibited because it is a fraternity designed for Revolution. Their personal philosophies supported

the exportation of “democratic” ideals of the United States of America, which did not translate peacefully into

the needs for social change in Imperial Russia.

The American Grand Prior, William Nelson Cromwell, was a well known adept at high level regime

change. The lifestyles enjoyed by Americans, combined with the Wilsonian theme of spreading Democracy

worldwide, appear to have seduced both Grand Master Grand Duke Alexander and Russian Grand Prior Grand

Duke Cyril into revolutionary scheming against Czar Nicholas II. Many others in the Imperial Romanoff

family were sympathetic to liberal Socialist plans to end the absolute monarchy in Russia, and the American

Grand Priory of the SOSJ is implicated in their revolutionary activities. Unfortunately the Czar and his wife

were also influenced by occultism which was in vogue in their society, and of which Rasputin was an infamous

practitioner. This behavior during wartime on the part of the Czar and his family caused extreme anxiety in

Russia and helped to prompt militant action among the diverse forces determined to transform the monarchy.

The story of Rasputin’s influence on the Imperial family and on the politics of Russia is widely known. It is not

generally known, however, that Grand Duke Alexander directed the assassination of the spiritualist monk

Gregori Rasputin in late 1916. The men directly involved in the murder of Rasputin were the Grand Duke’s

sons, son-in-law, cousin and a member of British MI6. The Russians were all students or graduates of the SOSJ

Corps des Pages. Grand Duke Alexander afterward successfully interceded with the czar on behalf of the

assassins, all Knights of St. John.

Grand Duchess Ella was the head of the White Cross Supreme Council in Russia which oversaw all

Hospitaller activity during WWI. In 1916, the OSJ “American Ambulance in Russia,” which was organized by

Hamilton Fish III, Dr. Philip Newton, Capt. Philip Lydig, Nicholas Murray Butler, Colonel Robert McCormick

and Colonel Theodore Roosevelt of New York City and Chicago, started service on the Russian Front. Their

patroness was a daughter of the Czar, Grand Duchess Tatiana Romanoff. The American Grand Prior, William

Nelson Cromwell, distanced himself from the adventure as his name was too well connected with American

engineered foreign revolutions of the recent past. Instead, Charles Richard Crane of the Chicago White Cross

assisted with financing revolutionary change in Russia. The American Ambulance in Russia, at least

financially and philosophically, supported the Kerensky Regime. The Knights may have also tactically

supported the first Russian revolution in the early months of 1917. Prime Minister Kerensky was on the payroll

of the American Ambulance. Grand Duke Cyril was in charge of the troops available to defend the Czar in St.

Petersburg. He used his naval guard corps to passively support the forced abdication of Czar Nicholas II.

Though many blamed both the February and later the October Revolutions on Jewish revolutionaries supported

by Germany, both Grand Duke Cyril and Grand Duke Alexander were ostracized by many Russians because of

their alliances with the Freemasons and other Social Humanists. Grand Duke Alexander was able to retain his

elevated status due to the position of his wife, the Grand Duchess Xenia, sister of the Czar.


A Counter Revolution was soon planned by Russian Guard officers under Generals Keller, Markov and

Kornilov. General Count Keller, OSJ, an intimate of the Russian Imperial family and friend of German

monarchists, had refused to accept the abdication of the Czar. As an influential member of the SOSJ he

singlehandedly started the resistance of the Knights whose historical charge was the defense of Imperial Russia

and the Romanoff family. These monarchists managed to place many of their sympathizers in command of the

armed forces in St. Petersburg. Colonel Pavel Bermondt, who served in an Ussuri Cossack unit of Keller’s 3rd

Cavalry Corps, was one of these officers and was given command of an Ulan cavalry regiment in St.

Petersburg. Captain Sidney Reilly of MI6 was also in charge of a cavalry contingent during this conspiracy. A

coup d’etat was planned which would coordinate the armed members of a large number of Russian patriotic

societies to join with an approaching Guard army under General Kornilov to depose Kerensky. Kerensky was

forewarned and he armed the Bolsheviks to defend his government and the city against the Monarchists. The

Kornilov uprising attempt failed and most of the conspirators, including Bermondt, were jailed. Many were

able to escape with the assistance of sympathizers. Kerensky had armed the Bolsheviks and the failed Kornilov

coup d’etat had thus prepared the way for a third, but violent revolt, in October of 1917. The October

Revolution of the atheistic Bolsheviks was successful and merciless.


As noted above, the first response against the socialist revolutionaries of the Kerensky Provisional

Government came from Count Keller, OSJ. The Count immediately started working with German General

Rudiger Von der Goltz to build a German-Russian army of monarchist volunteers in the Baltic states. This

cooperation between the German and Russian orders of St. John was the attempt to return both Germany’s

Kaiser Wilhelm II and Czar Nicholas II to their thrones.

On September 15, 1917, J. G. B. Bulloch, MD, first cousin of President Teddy Roosevelt, incorporated

the Order of Lafayette in New York City with an international membership as a recruiting front for the SOSJ.

An American counter revolutionary effort became immediately prominent since it became apparent from both

government and military intelligence reports that Jewish anarchists were in the majority in the new Bolshevik

government in St. Petersburg. The revolutionaries had developed their operational base in the Lower East Side

district of New York City. The American Grand Priory became isolated due to its support of the first

“Bloodless Revolution” in Russia and thereafter remained in the hands of operatives of the anti-Bolshevik

intelligence communities. The American Grand Priory of the SOSJ concentrated its activities in NYC,

Chicago, Baltimore, Philadelphia and Washington, D.C. It worked to defeat the international anarchist

movements and to expose their aligned secret societies.

The Poles responded both to stop the Bolshevik advance into their territory and to take advantage of

their new found independence from both Russia and Germany. The Polish White Cross was founded in New

York a few days after the Bolshevik Revolution. Its president was Count Jerzy Potocki, OSJ, who became

Polish Ambassador to the United States. Ignace Paderewski, the famous pianist, helped to start the Polish

White Cross in New York in October and used the resources of the American Ambulance in Russia. His wife,

Madame Paderewski, daughter of Baron Rosen, OSJ, was Patroness of the Polish White Cross. The Polish

effort was both an intelligence operation and relief service of the old Polish Grand Priory which was now part

of the American Grand Priory. The Catholic Knights of the Polish White Cross eventually renamed their

organization the Grand Priory of Podolia in honor of the birthplace of Ignace Paderewski. Captain Sidney

Reilly of MI6 and Colonel William J. Donovan, US State Department Intelligence, were also associates of

Ignace Paderewski, who became the first President of Free Poland.



After the failed Kornilov Affair, imprisonment and the October Revolution, many Guard officers were

able to escape and flee to the Don Cossacks in the Ukraine. There they helped to create the Volunteer Army

with the assistance of Ukrainian separatists. Generals Alekseev, Denikin and Kolchak were the early leaders

and they started the Russian Civil War to defeat the Bolsheviks.

Grand Duke Cyril was now a potential inheritor of the Russian throne and gave his support to the

remnant of the SOSJ headed by Count Keller and his fellow Knights. The Russian Order of St. John rallied to

form a secretive organization of officers and civilian nobility called the White Cross Society under Generals

Markov and Count Keller. The Russian Grand Duke Cyril and the German Grand Duke of Hesse were

members of the organization as German monarchists assisted the White Cross effort to rescue their kin, the

Czarina Alexandra and her family. American Lt. Col. Joseph Boyle and his machine gun detachment may have

been part of this effort by the Order to rescue members of the Imperial family. Among the conspirators was the

son-in-law of Rasputin and the Czarinas best friend Anna Vyrubova. The Imperial family was murdered by the

Bolsheviks in July, 1918. The historical record shows that Count Keller and most of the well known General

officers from the SOSJ fought for Imperial Russia until killed in action against the Bolsheviks during the

following year.

General Markov had been the Director of the Nicholas Cavalry School in St. Petersburg. This school

was a post graduate school for the elite cavalry Guard officers most of whom came from the SOSJ Corps des

Pages. Markov organized his Guard officers on February 12, 1918 and instituted a black Maltese cross badge

for those in his unit. Count Keller was a graduate of the Corps des Pages and his father had been one of its last

Commandants. General Keller used a large plain white Maltese cross breast badge for all troops under his

command. The belief in an international socialist conspiracy was central to their understanding of the

revolution. Count Keller also worked with monarchist German General Rudiger Von der Goltz to start a

German backed government in the Baltic and recruited Russian POW’s in Germany for this army. As noted

earlier their combined plan was to join their forces in an attempt to replace the rightful monarchs both in

Germany and in Russia. Colonel Bermondt was the chief of counter intelligence for this Volunteer Army and

he promoted the Protocols of the Wise Men of Zion and the international conspiracy theory widely among the

White Russian and later among the German troops in the Baltic. General Keller was soon fighting Ukrainian

Socialist formations and was captured in Kiev with the remnant of the Volunteer Army in December 1918.

Bermondt and many of his fellow Monarchists were once again jailed. This time they were scheduled for

execution. Count Keller was shot by the Bolsheviks while in captivity. Fortunately a German army freed many

of the Russian officers, including Bermondt, and took them back to Germany where they were interned in Camp

Salzvedel near Berlin. German Monarchists had already taken up the cause of the Russian White Guard as they

faced the same threat from international Bolshevism and their own Socialist Weimar Government.

The SOSJ ties encouraged with the Germans before the war were bearing fruit for the exiled knights

who had survived the Revolution. Beside his association with William Nelson Cromwell, Colonel Bermondt

now became connected with other members of the American Grand Priory and to Boris Brasol and Major

General Count Cherep Spiridovich due to his work against the one world conspiracy. It was in Camp

Salzvedel during January to April 1919 that Colonel Bermondt and his fellow Russian Guard officers reestablished

the Russian Grand Priory of the Sovereign Imperial Order of St. John of Jerusalem. On March 4,

1919 by Order number 24 he made the Maltese cross breast badge the emblem of his SOSJ army and enameled

it black in memory of General Graf Keller. High level German nationalists backed this re-establishment of the

Russian Sovereign Imperial Order of St. John of Jerusalem. Among them was General Ludendorff who had

been Chief of Staff of the German Army during WWI. His chief intelligence officer Major Walter Nicholai was

also involved. The Protector of the Order was the legitimate heir to the Russian throne, Grand Duke Cyril

Vladimirovich. Grand Duke Cyril continued to finance the SOSJ venture with the help of the American Grand

Priory. Prince Awaloff and Grand Duke Cyril planned to join with German forces to drive the Bolsheviks out

of the Baltic. This idea to cooperate with Germany was unique to these Knights of St. John who believed that

Russian-German cooperation was the only way to rid the world of the Bolsheviks.

In 1919 Colonel Prince Pavel Awaloff-Bermondt, supported by the Johanniter Orden, the Romanoff

Pretender Grand Duke Cyril, and American financier J. P. Morgan, Jr., OSJ, became Commander in chief of the

Russian Imperial Army. He led the SOSJ and apparently Johanniterorden plan, financed through attorney W.

N. Cromwell, OSJ American Grand Priory, to clear the Bolsheviks from the Baltic and to set up a pro-German

government. Most of the officials of what became known in the Fall of 1919 as the West Russian Government

were members of the OSJ. Prince Awaloff recorded much of this information in his memoirs which he wrote in

1925 in Hamburg, Germany.

Bermondt was first addressed by the royal title of Prince Awaloff in September, 1919. Prince Awaloff

states that he was adopted at this time by Prince Michael Awaloff from whom he gained the royal title. It is just

as likely that Bermondt was elected Grand Master of the Sovereign Order of St. John of Jerusalem which would

have given him the royal title of Prince. We must wait for further information to confirm this suspicion and we

therefore retain the claims of Grand Duke Alexander as Grand Master during this period. During the Baltic

campaign, Baron Rudolf Engelhardt and Baron Engelhardt-Schnellenstein, both close relatives of Lt. Grand

Master Baron Scipio Engelhardt-Schnellenstein (1954-1956) and Admiral Felix Count Luckner, who also

became the Lt. Grand Master of the OSJ (1962-1966) worked with Prince Awaloff in the Baltic venture. The

Bavarian Freikorps, some of whom were associated with the Stewart Pretender Crown Prince Rupprecht, wore

the Maltese Cross. (The possible connection with the Royal Stuart Jacobite Pretender in Bavaria has not yet

been researched by the SOSJ.)

The relics and icon were rescued from the SOSJ Priory at the Gatchina Palace outside of St. Petersburg

in October, 1919, by men of the army of the White Russian General Yudenitch. They were brought to Reval,

Estonia, and delivered to the former Russian Master of Court Ceremonies Count Alexei Ignatiev. Ignatiev was

head of the Russian White Cross in Estonia, a leader of the Russian SOSJ and a son of the murdered Count

Ignatiev, Commander of the SOSJ Chevalier Guards. The relics and icon were then delivered to the SOSJ

headquarters in Mitau and there were solemnly received by Prince Awaloff and General Von der Goltz. Later

the relics and icon were placed in the hands of the Romanov Queen Mother, Dagmar Feodorovna. She kept the

relics at Villa Hvidore, her residence in exile near Copenhagen, until her death in 1928. Awaloff proclaimed

himself Governor-General of Western Russia for a brief time. The short-lived government in the Duchy of

Courland, Latvia, with headquarters in Mitau, was the closest that the Order had come to gaining a permanent

sovereign territory since the loss of Malta in 1798.

There were other plans by Russian exiles to retake their country. One of them was planned and

undertaken by Baron Taube as potential Secretary of State who enlisted Russian Jewish bankers to fund General

Yudenitch in an attempt to retake St. Petersburg with a Northwestern Army. They also would have supported

Grand Duke Cyril as the new Czar. Their White Russian army in northwestern Russia ultimately failed in its

attempt to take St. Petersburg. Awaloff refused to place his command under General Yudenitch and Baron

Taube, whom he considered to be controlled by “conspiratorial forces”, that is, the Jewish bankers. Baron

Taube eventually became an antagonist of the SOSJ.

The Western Russian Volunteer Army of Prince Awaloff initially gained advantage and took Riga from

the Bolsheviks. However, the British Naval Squadron that had been supporting the left flank of General

Yudenitch’s drive into St. Petersburg for political reasons abandoned Yudenitch and directed its guns on the

forces of the SOSJ. This intervention caused the defeat of both the SOSJ anti-Bolshevik force of Prince

Awaloff and of the drive into St. Petersburg by General Yudenitch. The Knights of St. John ultimately

retreated into Germany due to lack of support from the socialist Weimar Government and the treason of the

Entente British and French governments. These entities propped up the Bolshevik regime which was about to

crumble. The result of this intervention was 75 years of Communist dictatorship for a large portion of the

world. The Knights of this army of the Sovereign Order of St. John of Jerusalem became known as the “Baltic


When the SOSJ was exiled from the Russian Imperial City its historic mission as defender of the

Catholic Church and secondary mission to defend Orthodox Russia brought it into opposition to those Orders of

St. John that were connected to Freemasonry. It was widely known that Grand Master Czar Paul I had been

killed by Freemasons, and that Czar Alexander II was killed by anarchists with Freemasonic backgrounds. It

was acknowledged that these same revolutionary philosophies were now responsible for the loss of yet another

Christian monarchy, and for the deaths of Czar Nicholas II and his family. This included, among the many

members of the OSJ who were simply murdered by the Bolsheviks: the Patroness of the American Grand Priory

relief operation, Grand Duchess Tatiana, the Patroness of the White Cross, Czarina Alexandra and the Protector

and leader of the SOSJ, Czar Nicholas II.

Grand Master Grand Duke Alexander’s friend, Major Warburton, was the U.S. Military Charge

d’Affaires in Paris at the end of the war. Grand Duke Alexander and his immediate family survived the

Bolshevik purge of the Romanovs during a long captivity in the Crimea. When rescued by the British navy he

went straight to Paris. He attempted to get into the international peace talks which followed WW I to plea for

help for those trapped inside Russia. He was refused admission to the peace conference and all of his personal

efforts failed to save any of the Russian Imperial Family, who had, unknown to him, already been murdered by

the Bolsheviks. Thereafter, it appears that Grand Master Grand Duke Alexander could not cope with his

involvement in the first revolution which installed the Provisional Government. All of his brothers were killed

by the Bolsheviks soon after they seized power from the Kerensky regime. The Grand Duke spent the rest of

his life involved in spiritualism, apparently attempting to gain forgiveness from his murdered brother-in-law,

Czar Nicholas II.



The American Grand Priory was peopled with the scions of Wall Street and the “Eastern

Establishment.” These men and women, many of them active or reserve officers in the military, worked with the

fledgling western military intelligence communities and made the Grand Priory the first civilian foreign

intelligence organization in the United States. Their intimate associates included the brothers John Foster and

Allen Welsh Dulles who were nephews of U.S. Secretary of State Robert Lansing. Both were Wall Street

lawyers who worked directly for William Nelson Cromwell, OSJ. John Foster Dulles eventually became

President Eisenhauer’s Secretary of State, and Allen Welsh Dulles was instrumental in founding the U.S.

Central Intelligence Agency. One of the Chicago Crane sons became Asst. Secretary of State under Lansing.

Another close associate was Wall Street lawyer “Wild Bill” William J. Donovan, who founded the Office of

Strategic Services, and eventually became a knight of the SMOM. As a result of the “success” of SOSJ

international ventures President Woodrow Wilson and his friend Colonel Edward M. House had created “The

Inquiry” at the American Grand Priory headquarters in New York City in 1917. This early “think tank” became

the internationalist advisory Council on Foreign Relations in 1921, which, ironically, is widely thought to be in

control of the “One World Conspiracy.” The liberal wing of the Knights of Malta continued to be active in

international affairs. The Irish White Cross relief effort was run by future founders of the American SMOM,

James Phelan and Judge Morgan J. O’Brien.

Grand Duke Cyril became the head of a secret army scattered around the world in which the SOSJ

played a significant role. In New York City alone there were reportedly three thousand former White Russian

military officers organizing for counter-revolution. The SOSJ was an important participant in counterrevolutionary

engagement in Eastern Europe throughout the 20th century. It engaged in small unit warfare in

the regions controlled by the Communists. The Order gathered intelligence on the international revolutionary

movements. It engaged in psychological warfare operations including the distribution of anti-Bolshevist

information such as the “Protocols of the Elders of Zion.” This document allegedly details a plot by elite Jews

to control the world through finance, and it has been the cause of political and social unrest during the past one

hundred years. Because the Communist movement in Russia was dominated by Jews from New York, the

American military intelligence community continued to join the ranks of the SOSJ as sworn enemies of the

“International Conspiracy.” Among those included were the following: Colonel Harris Ayres Houghton, MD,

Colonel John Jacob Astor, Major General Ralph Van Deman, Colonel William Sohier Bryant, MD, Major

General Frederick Dent Grant, Colonel Nicholas Biddle, Major Barclay Harding Warburton, Major Walter

Miller, Colonel Robert R. McCormick, Colonel Theodore Roosevelt, Major John B. Trevor and Captain Sidney

Reilly. All of these prominent members of the armed forces have close association with their successors in the

Military Affairs Committee of the SOSJ that are found in the Order records well into the 1980’s.

Cherep Spiridovich was personally presented to J. Edgar Hoover by the US Ambassador to Romania, T.

Tileston Wells, and was supported by Grand Duke Cyril’s U.S. representative, Boris Brasol, by U.S. Treasury

Secretary, Robert McAdoo and of course by the Chicago Crane family. Many of the White Russian armed

forces were encamped in the Balkan countries after the Russian Civil War. These forces, often led by Knights

of Malta, represented the “fifty American oriented strongholds” which were promised in Eastern Europe by

Cherep Spiridovich to Hoover and Lansing during his presentations. Presented as a private alternative to the

League of Nations, the A-L-S League, which was the remnant of the SOSJ in Eastern Europe, had been a

bulwark against the spread of Islam. It now was promoted as a force against the new menace of Bolshevism.

This A-L-S League was soon being called the Anti-Bolshevist League. Cromwell, the Dulles brothers, and the

Masonic Knights Templar T. Tileston Wells founded, in 1920, the Society of Friends of Romania as a successor

to the American Romanian Relief Council with the help of the Romanian Royal Family. Queen Marie was a

prominent member of the OSJ. There is evidence that Count A. Cherep-Spiridovich’s presentation of the

Anglo-Latino-Slavic League to J. Edgar Hoover of the Justice Department’s Bureau of Investigation, and to

Secretary of State Robert Lansing was the impetus for founding the Society of Friends of Albania, and later the

Society of Friends of Yugoslavia. In 1941, the American Friends of Yugoslavia was begun by Wm. J.

Donovan, founder of the OSS and Hamilton Fish Armstrong, long serving First Secretary of the CFR. At this

time, the “Little Entente” was created by the Balkan countries as a mutual protection pact, and the American

“societies of friends” allowed for civilian “access” in the fledgling efforts to contain the Bolsheviks.

Civilian experts in the early 20th century on the so-called “Jewish Problem” became involved with the

SOSJ. Among them were Paquita de Shishmareff, Fr. Denis Fahey, Lady Edith Starr Miller Queenborough,

John B. Trevor, Jr. and Princess Julia Grant Cantacuzene. Much of their knowledge had been gained from the

work of Monseigneur Jouin of France, who, with the blessing of the Pope, researched and wrote about secret

societies involved with the occult and humanist movements. Father Ernest Jouin appears to have been

associated with A. Cherep Spriridovich, OSJ in this research during the early decades of the last century. All

the work of the knights of the SOSJ to include research and education efforts did help the Vatican and the

monarchies of Sweden, Spain and Denmark to survive. Unfortunately, the knights failed to prevent the collapse

of the Balkan monarchies that resulted from the Allied “victory” after WWII.


The Russian Grand Priory of the Sovereign Order of St. John of Jerusalem had been first re-organized

by the monarchists in the Ukraine as an anti-Bolshevik army. German General Ludendorf assigned Walter

Nicholai, the leader of German Military Intelligence during WWI, to develop the Order’s intelligence service

for Grand Duke Cyril Vladimirovich. After the defeat of the army in the Baltic campaign the OSJ essentially

became a paramilitary intelligence agency. In 1916 Russian Secret Service Lieutenant Boris Brasol had been

stationed permanently in New York City. He developed a career as an anti-Bolshevik expert and informer with

American Military Intelligence and the fledgling intelligence department of the United States Department of

State after the Bolshevik Revolution. Boris Brasol and Cherep Spiridovich were the principal SOSJ

intelligence operatives in the United States. Brasol helped Major General Cherep Spiridovich redirect SOSJ

activities in the West against international anarchism and the “One World” global agenda. They both

championed the validity of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion. An associate of Prince Awaloff, General

Constantin Sakharov, was head of the military division of the Russian Grand Priory. That division came to be

known under the front name of Russian National Society. The Russian National Society worked from offices at

5 Columbia Circle in Manhattan from 1921.

Grand Duke Cyril, the Heir Apparent, declared himself Protector of the Russian Throne in July, 1922.

He positioned his government in Lubeck, Germany where he was titled from 1918 to 1938 as Sovereign Prince

Bishop of the Russian Orthodox Church. His wife’s ancestral home was a castle in Coberg, Bavaria, and this

became his initial residence. He created his Court and permanent residence on the seacoast of France in St.

Briac, Brittany. Supported by nationalist elements of the German government since the Russian Civil War, he

had been the nominal head of the pro-German Western Russian Government in northwest Europe in 1919.

Walter Nicholai, the leader of German Military Intelligence during WWI, expanded the SOSJ intelligence

service for Grand Duke Cyril Vladimirovich in order to closely cooperate with Aufbau. Aufbau was the White

Russian monarchical organization which was founded to coordinate the future economic recovery of Russia.

Colonel Nicholai founded Organization Consul ©, a “full-service” intelligence operation which matched the

Bolsheviks in ability to assassinate leaders of the opposition. Until his death in 1938, Grand Duke Cyril was to

be the chosen candidate of Hitler for Czar of Russia when the Soviet Union was defeated.


Because many exiled Russians were seeking permanent residence in the United States and Canada, from

where much of the financial support for the exiled Russian Imperial Court originated, the shift of SOSJ

leadership to the American Grand Priory was a natural process. Baron Rosen, former Russian Ambassador to

the United States, and now head of Grand Duke Cyril’s Intelligence operation, was run down and killed by an

automobile in New York City in 1922. Prince Awaloff was accused as a terrorist in connection with

Organization Consul and expelled from Germany in 1922 by the Socialist Weimar Government. He and

Ataman Semenoff traveled to New York City and were involved with meetings at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel

offices of American Grand Prior William Nelson Cromwell. This resulted in the formal re-establishment of the

Sovereign Council of the Order on September 5, 1922. Cromwell became the President of the Sovereign

Council of the SOSJ. Prince Awaloff returned to Europe later that year to continue the work of the Counter-

Revolution, and the American Grand Priory assumed operational control of the SOSJ. Grand Master Grand

Duke Alexander, as mentioned previously, continued to have little to do with the SOSJ after the Civil War. He

spent much of his time traveling and writing his memoirs and books on spirituality.

Prince Grand Master Lt Grand Master President of the Grand Prior Grand Protector

Sovereign Council Chancellor

(n. President Assn.)

1919 Russian Sovereign Imperial Order of St. John of Jerusalem Grand Duke Cyril

Cmdr in Chief Prince Pavel Awaloff-Bermondt

1922 G M Grand Duke Alexander Michaelovich W N Cromwell J P West J G B Bulloch King Alexander I

American Grand Priory John J Sheridan H J Bowen

1. Grand Priory of Russia MG C Spiridovich

a. White Cross Hospital and Relief Assn. W W Butcher A MacNaughton

b. Polish White Cross Count J Potocki

On June 24, 1925 Eleazar Wilson of Philadelphia became Grand Prior of America. In 1925 Captain

Sidney G. Reilly, founder of the Anti-Bolshevist League, was lured from the United States into Russia and

killed by the Bolsheviks. The exploits of Reilly later prompted the “James Bond” series. In 1926 Cherep

Spiridovich incorporated the Anti-Bolshevist Publishing Association of the Anti-Bolshevist League in Albany,

N.Y. with H. V. Broenstrupp and G. M. Sykes. This was a project planned by Captain Reilly and by Cherep

Spiridovich. It was intended to provide propaganda about the danger of the internationalist’s agenda and was

the continuation of the publishing operation of Cherep Spiridovich in Paris from 1904 to1920, known as the

Agence Latine. It had been continued in 1921 for a few years by Henry Ford and his newspaper the Dearborn

Independent. Major General Cherep Spiridovich, OSJ was assassinated at his residence on Staten Island, N. Y.,

a few months after re-starting the publishing operation. Boris Brasol provided the funds to bury this leader of

the SOSJ. Cherep Spiridovich was one of the principal founders of the American Grand Priory of the Sovereign

Order of St. John of Jerusalem. H. V. Broenstrupp, OSJ published “The Hidden Hand” by Cherep Spiridovich

shortly after his assassination.

The SOSJ continued to raise funds for the relief of Russian exiles. The “Monday Supper Opera Club”

was one of the society programs. Leaders of the relief fund drives included the following: Captain George

Djamgaroff, Mrs. Henry P. Loomis, Princess Julia Grant Cantacuzene, Representative Hamilton Fish, III, Count

Paul Ignatieff, President of Columbia University Nicholas Murray Butler and many of the displaced former

royals of Russia and Eastern Europe. Djamgaroff and Loomis were close friends of Czar Krill and Czarina

Victoria Melita.

In 1927, after the assassination of Count Cherep-Spiridovich, the SMOM started their American

Association. This founding of the American Association of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta was the

unintended result of SOSJ success at fund raising. The new Catholic association overshadowed the SOSJ and

placed its future in jeopardy. In response to SMOM propaganda, many members, such as Colonel Edgar

Erskine Hume, MD, left the SOSJ. The remaining members were predominantly nationalistic, anti-Communist,

senior military and intelligence officers. Some Protestant former SOSJ knights joined a new English Venerable

Order American Chapter. It is probable that the Episcopalian Archbishop of New York, William T. Manning, a

good friend of N. M. Butler and the Serbian Orthodox Church, was among this group.

Fr. J. P. Chodkiewicz and exiled Polish leaders started the Polish Nobility Association in 1927. He

continued Cherep Spiridovich’s Slavonic Society work, which focused on pan-Slavism and resulted in the

Intermarium Movement. Cherep Spiridovich had suggested to President of the Sovereign Council W. N.

Cromwell a project similar to the Panama Canal which would create a navigable waterway link from the Baltic

to the Black Sea. SOSJ knights leading the Counter Revolutionary Anti-Bolshevist League continued to

promote the theme of a continuous Eastern European buffer zone of free, independent and usually monarchical

states. The OSJ was also involved with the Columbian Lighthouse Project in the Dominican Republic as part of

their pan-American project. N. M. Butler was the American head of the lighthouse project and is credited with

bringing it to final completion.


Grand Duke Cyril declared himself Czar Kirill I on August 31, 1924. The White Russians in exile had a

power struggle for the throne which started during the Russian Civil War. The failure to make a successful

coalition of exiled forces which resulted made all their efforts to retake Russia from the Bolsheviks ineffective.

Though Grand Duke Nicholas Nicholaevich received more support until his death in 1929, as time passed Cyril

was recognized as the rightful heir to the throne. The senior Knights of Malta on the Sovereign Council in the

United States always supported Grand Duke Cyril, and, as noted, they became very influential because of

financial support to his cause from men as prominent as Henry Ford. Colonel Vasilieff, the last Czarist Chief of

Police, died in 1928.

Upon the death of the Dowager Empress in 1928, her daughter, Grand Duchess Xenia, became a

Patroness of the SOSJ. She sent the OSJ relics to the new ROCA Cathedral in Berlin where Prince Awaloff

resided. Records show that the Russian Orthodox Metropolitan Anthony took receipt of the relics in Berlin.

Grand Prior Grand Duke Alexander ensured that his wife Xenia, sister of Czar Nicholas II, did not separate the

relics and icon.

The illness and death of the Queen Mother in 1928 also prompted a group of SOSJ Russian Hereditary

Commanders, who were not tainted by revolutionary support for the Kerensky regime, to attempt to reorganize

the Russian Grand Priory in Paris. Most of them had supported the Russian pretender Grand Duke Nicholas

and the pro-Entente Monarchist Supreme Council in Paris, but they still asked Grand Duke Alexander to be

their Grand Prior. They then pled as the “Russian Grand Priory” for admission to the SMOM in Rome, but

were denied due to their Orthodox religion. Their “expert” legal counsel was Baron Michael von Taube, who at

the time was under the erroneous impression that the SOSJ had been dissolved in Russia in 1817. This was the

same Taube, who as a minion of the so-called Conspiracy, had been an adversary of Prince Awaloff during the

campaign against the Bolsheviks in Western Russia in 1919. Because of his reputation as an expert on Russian

history, von Taube created widespread doubt about the historical continuation of the SOSJ in Russia. His

theory became the legend of the suppression of the Order in Russia, which is still widely believed even in the

21st century. The Order still retains letters from Prince Serge Troubetzkoy, OSJ which discuss von Taube, who

was a Roman Catholic, and his extravagant lifestyle in Rome at the expense of impoverished Russian exiles. It

was not until 1950 that von Taube found the documentary evidence that caused him to change his mind, and

after which, he recanted his belief in the 1817 demise of the SOSJ in Russia. When the facts about the Russian

survival of the SOSJ became known in 1950, von Taube disclaimed the Prince Awaloff, Vladimirovichi and

King Alexander I succession of the SOSJ in an attempt to save his reputation. He was little more than an agent

of the SMOM at this time. However, the damage had been done, and because of the deaths of so many of the

SOSJ royals, his disclaimer went unchallenged and has had longstanding effect on the Order.

Shipping receipts show that the SOSJ relics and icon were moved again in 1932, and sent to King

Alexander I of Yugoslavia. Grand Duchess Xenia and her close associate Prince Dolguruky, one of the 1928

Paris Hereditary Commanders, were signatories on the transfer. An Officer Candidate School similar to the

Corps des Pages had been started in Belgrade. Many of the cadets from the Russian military academies had

been sent there after the defeat of the White Russians. The Yugoslavian capital was becoming the White

Russian center for military activity. Charles Pichel, OSJ directed a study on the Maltese Nobility done by Lord

Dorchester of England which assisted Grand Duke Cyril and Grand Duchess Victoria Melita. For this research,

he was named Grand Chancellor of the SOSJ in 1934 upon the death of J.G.B. Bulloch.

Grand Master Grand Duke Alexander died in France in 1933, followed closely by many leading SOSJ

members from either natural causes or assassination. SOSJ Protector King Alexander I of Yugoslavia was

assassinated in 1934 on a trip to France. Queen Marie of Romania and Czarina Victoria Melita Romanov,

grand daughters of Queen Victoria, both died in 1936. Mdme Paderewski, Patroness of the Polish White Cross,

died in Switzerland in 1936. The death of Czar Kirill I in 1938 left the SOSJ without a Protector for the first

time since the 12th century.


The death of Grand Master G. D. Alexander coincided with the victory of the NAZI party in Germany.

Prince Pavel Awaloff-Bermondt was elected the 74th Grand Master of the SOSJ in 1934. Colonel Dr. William

Sohier Bryant, MD became President of the Sovereign Council. The SOSJ made alliances with various

National Socialist movements believing this to be the best solution to defeat “Jewish Bolshevism.” The Order

started a Grand Priory in Denmark in 1934 named the Sovereign Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem

in Denmark. It was founded by Prince Awaloff and was led by Danish National Socialist, Episcopalian

Archbishop Preben Wencke. Prince Peter of Greece and Denmark was once Grand Chancellor of the Grand


Prince Awaloff became head of the Russian Fascist Party in Germany, called the Russian National

Liberation Movement (ROND). Awaloff was named to this position by the German Chancellor, Adolf Hitler.

Awaloff was apparently a double agent, as he is known to have been associated with “Wild Bill” William J.

Donovan, founder of the Office of Strategic Services, and American spy-masters W N Cromwell, OSJ and

Allen Welsh Dulles before, during and after WWII. Awaloff’s friend, Constantin Sakharov, was again named

the military leader of this organization (ROND), which was the successor to Kirill’s secret army organization in

Germany. Prince Anastase Vonsiatsky and Howard Broenstrupp led the Russian Nationalists in the United

States, which was headquartered in Hartford, Connecticut. Paul Winter, OSJ, long time associate of Grand

Chancellor Pichel and former KKK leader from New York and Philadelphia, was involved with the American

Nationalists. Pichel contacted Germany through Hitlers’s friend Putzi Hanfstaengel in an effort to become the

German Chancellor’s personal representative in the United States. The Russian and American Nationalists

coordinated their anti-Bolshevik activity with an agency called Welt Dienst with offices in Erfurt, Germany.

German Lt. Ulrich Fleischauer was in charge of this Welt Dienst publishing concern which inherited the

campaign of the American Anti-Bolshevist Publishing Association of Cherep Spiridovich and Sidney Reilly.

Translated as World Service, and known before this time in France as Service Mondial, the SOSJ publishing

effort had actually been started in 1904 by Cherep Spiridovich in Paris. At that time it was called Agence

Latine. When it was exposed by the Bolshevists in 1919, Cherep Spiridovich convinced Henry Ford to succeed

him by using the Dearborn Independent. The German agency Welt Dienst continued in Germany, eventually

coming under the administration of Alfred Rosenberg after 1938. The American Grand Priory also restarted

this propaganda in the United States in 1936, and it was called Edmondson Economic Service. This work,

considered by many as anti-Semitic, was continued by the American Grand Priory into the 1950’s.

In 1936 Count Jerzy Potocki, OSJ, was the Polish Ambassador to Washington, D. C. When the Second

World War started in 1939, he was instrumental in restarting White Cross relief and intelligence gathering

programs of the Polish American and Canadian-Polish Ambulance Corps. The Commission for Polish Relief,

Inc. was run by Count Jerzy Potocki, OSJ and Chauncey McCormick, OSJ of Chicago. In 1940, Mrs. Richard

Teller Crane and Chauncey McCormick represented the American White Cross and the Committee for Polish

Relief, which raised funds for the National Polish Army of General Haller, OSJ. Nicholas M. Butler also had a

fund raiser for General Haller at Columbia University. Colonel William J. Donovan was President of the

Paderewski Fund for Polish Relief, Inc. He led the intelligence service and coordinated with Paderewski, Count

Jerzy Potocki and U. S. Ambassador to Poland J. Drexel Biddle.

Due to the impending advance of the Nazis into Yugoslavia in 1941, the Order moved the relics and

icon from Belgrade to the Serbian Orthodox Monastery in Cetinje, Montenegro. Prince Awaloff, Queen Marie

of Yugoslavia, her aunt, Queen Elena of Italy, King Carol of Romania and Grand Duchess Militza were all

involved in this decision. They feared the Nazis would take the relics and icon because of their keen interest in

historic objects with legendary power. The Order lost possession of these items because of the Communist

takeover of the Balkans at the end of the war. However, the famous icon and relics remain to the present time

in Cetinje, Montenegro. The icon is on display in the National Museum, and the relics are in the Serbian

Orthodox Monastery.

Prince Grand Master Lt Grand Master President of the Grand Prior Grand Protector

Sovereign Council Chancellor

1934 Prince G M Pavel Awaloff-Bermondt Dr W S Bryant Fr Chodkiewicz Czar Kirill I

American Grand Priory E Wilson Col C L T Pichel

Grand Priory of Denmark

1938 Prince G M Pavel Awaloff-Bermondt Dr W S Bryant Fr Chodkiewicz Col C L T Pichel

American Grand Priory Paul de Torres

Grand Priory of Denmark



By 1944, the SOSJ was working closely with German General Reinhard Gehlen’s “Abteilung Fremde

Heere Ost Gehlens” (Foreign Forces East). The alliances with fascist organizations cast doubts on the

honorable purposes of the Order. As a result of this, and partial involvement in the Great Sedition Trials of the

1940’s, a second exodus from the Order occurred. Charles Pichel had operated a genealogical association out

of an office in the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel with which he attempted to provide noble titles to Americans from

1925 to 1929. Later he was associated with John B. Trevor’s American Coalition of Patriotic, Civic and

Fraternal Societies. Pichel converted to Catholicism and joined the SOSJ through Fr. J. P. Chodkiewicz, a

leader of the Polish White Cross in upstate New York. He became Grand Chancellor of the SOSJ in the heyday

of the National Socialist Movement after the death of J. G. B. Bulloch, MD in 1934. He moved to Pennsylvania

in the late 1930’s to be near Robert E. Edmondson, a noted anti-internationalist author who became President of

the Sovereign Council in 1944. Many knights started “right-wing” organizations as a means of providing a

militant response to the rapid growth of international Communism. The death of Czar Kirill I in 1938 left the

Sovereign Council independent and afforded Grand Chancellor Pichel the ability to assume the control that had

been reserved for its president. In 1939 the Order of St. John of Jerusalem was mentioned in Congressional

hearings investigating the anti-Communist and pro-fascist American movements.

In the 1940’s, twenty-seven Americans were charged by the U. S. Attorney General with conspiring to

destroy the morale of the American armed forces. A massive show trial, known as the Great Sedition Trial, was

conducted for the purpose of connecting these individuals to a conspiracy thought to involve the German

Propaganda Ministry and anti-Communists in the United States. The unintended backlash of the trial was the

exposure of Communists and Internationalists in the United States and Allied countries. Charges were dropped

by the government, but not before the defendants were ruined financially. This led to the “McCarthy Era” and

further “show trials” that were, this time, aimed at the Left.

The President of the Sovereign Council from 1934 to 1944 was Colonel Dr. William Sohier Bryant,

MD, OSJ. Bryant became implicated in the Great Sedition Trial when his name appeared on anti-government

correspondence involving William Dudley Pelley and H. V. Broenstrupp. Trevor’s American Coalition of

Patriotic, Civil and Fraternal Societies was also named. Bryant, formerly the personal physician of President

Grover Cleveland and a Masonic Knight Templar, found the negative publicity of the trial too controversial,

and he dropped out of the Order thereby leaving Grand Chancellor Pichel to name Edmondson as President of

the Sovereign Council.

Robert Edmondson of Scranton, Pennsylvania was President of the Sovereign Council from 1944 to

1948, but the control of the Order was firmly in the hands of Grand Chancellor Pichel. The Convent was

moved to Shickshinny, Pennsylvania in 1945. This was an area in which Eastern Europeans had been

relocating for years. In 1946, the Polish White Cross of Baltimore bought an ambulance for Warsaw and

donated it though the offices of Nicholas Murray Butler.

Prince Grand Master Lt Grand Master President of the Grand Prior Grand Protector

Sovereign Council Chancellor

1944 Prince G M Pavel Awaloff-Bermondt Robert Edmondson Col C L T Pichel

American Grand Priory

Grand Priory of Denmark


The SOSJ had lost the majority of its Russian and European membership during the last phases of WWI

when the Russian Guard Divisions were thrown into battle in tragic fashion. British and French General Staffs

directed all battlefield strategy, and therefore, many suspected that the slaughter of the elite of their allied

Russian forces was part of the conspiracy. This carnage was followed in 1919 by further military betrayal

which permanently defeated the forces of Prince Awaloff in the Baltic. The English and French navies

bombarded his anti-Communist army resulting in decisive defeat outside of Riga, Latvia. Much later, the

intervention of British and Americans on the side of the Soviet Union during WWII culminated in the great

victory for international Communism that was the Second World War. The Allies rounded up and incarcerated

free White Russians for deportation to Stalin’s death camps in Operation Keelhaul, a result of an agreement

made between Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin at the Yalta Conference. Forced repatriation by the Allies

resulted in the deaths of thousands, and perhaps hundreds of thousands, of White Russians by firing squads or

deportation to the Gulag archipelago labor camps. This consistent action during the 20th century in favor of the

Communists with the obvious goal of creating high mortality among monarchists was conclusive proof to the

SOSJ that the western governments were controlled by Internationalists and Communist conspirators. Because

of this, the SOSJ continued to attract patriotic and nationalistic western military men to its membership, and to

operate as an anti-Communist intelligence agency. Admiral Barry Domville, former head of British Naval

Intelligence, was a long serving member of the SOSJ. It appeared that General Douglas MacArthur’s entire

senior staff was in the Order. The Order became involved in Operation Paperclip and the famous “Rat Lines”

which spirited Nazi anti-Communists out of Europe.



The Order was engaged worldwide in anti-Communist activities. Former SS Major General Boris

Holmston-Smyslovsky, alias Colonel von Reganau, and U.S. Marine Lieutenant General Pedro Del Valle

spurred renewed SOSJ activity in opposition to the Communists in Europe after 1948. Holmston-Smyslovsky

was an old associate of Prince Awaloff. These men were involved with the Gladio program which prompted

the founding of the U.S. Army Special Forces. The secret army of Czar Kirill I formed a nucleus for Gladio

“stay behind” operations which were designed to wage perpetual war on the Communists. As successor to

SOSJ Anti-Bolshevik Bloc of Nations operations, Allen W. Dulles, Colonel William J. Donovan, Gen.

Reinhard Gehlen and Lt. General Pedro Del Valle initiated NATO’s Operation Gladio during the era of the

founding of the U. S. Central Intelligence Agency and German BND. The U. S. Counter-Intelligence Corps, the

Gehlen Organization and the Knights of Malta started the Volunteer Freedom Corps otherwise known as

Operation Gladio. Ten thousand men were descendants of the secret army of Czar Kirill I and the fifty

garrisons of East European Freikorps mentioned by Cherep Spiridovich in the 1920’s and by Phillip Corso, OSJ

in the 1950’s. Even in the United States, some knights started anti-Communist domestic militias and

supported conservative publications to increase public awareness of the agenda of International Socialism.

Prince Grand Master Lt Grand Master President of the Grand Prior Grand Protector

Sovereign Council Chancellor

1948 Prince GM Gen Pavel Awaloff Col C L T Pichel

American Grand Priory

Grand Priory of Denmark C Christensen



A succession of German Lieutenant Grand Masters during the 1950’s is evidence of the continued close

ties Grand Master Prince Awaloff had to the German Order of St. John. Scipio Baron von Engelhardt-

Schnellenstein from the Palatinate contacted Grand Chancellor Pichel during the period 1949 to 1951 with the

offer to help reinvigorate the SOSJ. He was an old associate of Prince Awaloff from the Baltic Brotherhood.

He served as Lt. Grand Master from 1951 to 1955. Prince Grand Master Awaloff was brought to the United

States from Austria by Operation Paperclip in 1952. His stepson, a former German SS officer with the Russian

Volunteer Army of Major General Holmston-Smyslovsky, had been captured by the Communists while

working behind the lines for the U.S. Counter-Intelligence Corps in 1949. Grand Master Prince Awaloff died

September 30, 1954 in the United States and is reportedly buried at Arlington National Cemetery. Many of the

remaining members of Awaloff’s Grand Priory of Columbia were taken onto the roles of the American Grand

Priory in 1955. Their contribution to the defense of the West and to war relief led members of the SOSJ to

believe that they would be recognized as equal partners among the national orders of Malta. Therefore, the

election of a new Grand Master to replace Prince Awaloff was postponed.

Frederick H. Count von Zeppelin served from 1956 to 1960 as Lt. Grand Master. Franklin Allen West

of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania became President of the Sovereign Council in 1956. Pichel wrote an inaccurate

history of the SOSJ in 1958 designed to conceal the fascist ties of the SOSJ but complementary to the SMOM,

and the English and German orders of St. John. The hope of acceptance of the SOSJ by these orders would

again prove to be futile. The Prussian Prince Wilhelm Karl, the head of the German Order of St. John, visited

Grand Chancellor Pichel in Pennsylvania in 1961 after the death of Grand Duke Cyril’s eldest daughter. She

was the wife of the Hohenzollern Pretender to the throne of Germany, the Prussian Prince Louis Ferdinand.

Wilhelm Karl ended Johanniter Orden association with the SOSJ when he learned that there were no charitable

activities undertaken by the SOSJ and that most members appeared to be connected to military and government

Intelligence. Scipio Baron von Engelhardt-Schnellenstein and F. H. Count von Zeppelin were forced to resign

from the SOSJ at the risk of their membership in the German Order.

Princess Ileana of Romania, Queen Maries’ daughter, had been given land in Ellwood City, Pa. near

Franklin West in Pittsburgh. There, similar to her aunt Grand Duchess Elizabeth, she started the first

community for Orthodox religious sisters in the United States and became the Mother Superior.

Prince Grand Master Lt Grand Master President of the Grand Prior Grand Protector

Sovereign Council Chancellor

1954 LGM Baron von Col C L T Pichel


1956 LGM Graf von Zeppelin F A West Col C L T Pichel

A Frenchman, Paul Granier de Cassagnac, was recruited for the Lieutenancy in 1960. Scandalized when

the National Socialist ties to the Order became known by the newer members in 1962, and believing that the

presence of King Peter II of Yugoslavia as a new member would improve the Order’s social standing,

Cassagnac called for the members to elect him Grand Master. Crolian Edelen was present at the vote count and

verified that Cassagnac failed in his attempt to gain the Order’s highest office. Nonetheless, ignoring the failed

election, Cassagnac created a splinter order.

King Peter II was the son of King Alexander I of Yugoslavia and had joined the SOSJ in 1961. He

followed Cassagnac into schism but soon disagreed with him and started his own Order of St. John under his

Yugoslavian royal title. Prince Serge Troubetzkoy had also left the original Order and became King Peter’s

Lieutenant Grand Master. When the King claimed that their new order was not the original trunk of the old

order, Troubetzkoy took his Russian dominated organization and operated independently. The Order retains

letters from Prince Troubetzkoy in which he discusses the nature of these different orders. In the meantime,

Pichel and his Supreme Council asked Admiral Felix Count von Luckner, a famed German naval officer and

associate of Prince Awaloff, to assume the position of Lieutenant Grand Master that had been vacated by

Cassagnac. LGM Admiral Count von Luckner became terminally ill and resigned in 1966. He died in 1967.

Because the use of the title Grand Master was becoming quite popular with the various branches of the SOSJ,

Pichel engineered the election of the 75


Grand Master, Crolian Edelen, in 1966. Edelen was a German-

American and former Pacific WWII Army intelligence officer and was an avid amateur genealogist. He

attempted to unravel the 20


century history of the SOSJ, but succeeded only in creating more controversy

about its origins. Unfortunately, though necessary at the time, the attempt to conceal former alliances to fascist

governments prior to and during WWII created chronic problems for the American Grand Priory. The Order

was protecting its members and their families. The reluctance to offer proof of lineage through Czar Kirill I

fueled the critics of the SOSJ.

The SOSJ membership roles during this time included Generals Lemuel Sheperd, Pedro Del Valle,

George Stratemeyer, Charles Willoughby, Ralph Smith, Terry Morrison, Bonner Fellers, Admirals Charles

Cooke, RL Porter, Herbert Howard, Richard Black, Francis Spellman and Prince Michel Sturdza of Romania,

Congressman Larry MacDonald and Senator John Ashcroft. Well known leaders of the American intelligence

community accepted various positions in the SOSJ.

Prince Grand Master Lt Grand Master President of the Grand Prior Grand Protector

Sovereign Council Chancellor

1960 LGM P Cassagnac F A West Col C L T Pichel

1962 LGM Count von Luckner Bishp B Kurz Col C L T Pichel

1966 Prince GM Sir Crolian Edelen Bishp B Kurz Col C L T Pichel


After the conclusion of the Second Vatican Council in 1969, the Order became one of the few

institutions to preserve the ancient Latin Rite liturgy. Catholic traditionalists were attracted to the Order by its

ecclesiastical independence guaranteed in perpetuity by numerous popes. The humanist revolution had entered

the Catholic Church and the Order struggled to resume its former role as a staunch defender of the Catholic

Faith. Unfortunately Grand Chancellor Pichel became increasingly eccentric in his later years. He alienated

the members but retained legal control of the SOSJ by his use of proxy votes. Grand Master Edelen resigned in

1976. The 76


Grand Master elected was Prince Roberto Paterno from Sicily, Hereditary Grand Prior of the

ancient Langue of Aragon. Elected in 1976, he served until 1983. Pichel finally resigned in 1977. His duties

were divided between new Grand Priors of America and Europe.

A power struggle ensued after the unexpected death of American Grand Prior Capell in October, 1980.

When Pichel died in May, 1982 several knights took control of a weakened SOSJ corporation that he had

founded in 1956. The loss from old age of many influential members of the SOSJ gave impetus for a few

knights to attempt to seize control of the Order in order to make legal claim on the legendary lost Romanoff

treasure that reportedly lay on the floor of the Sea of Japan. They filed a claim against the Sovereign Council

for patent infringement. SOSJ Security General Nicholas Nazarenko was a former Cossack German Waffen SS

Intelligence Officer. After the war he was recruited to work in Romania for the U.S. Counter Intelligence

Corps. His timely intervention helped the Sovereign Council to form the Association of Family Commanders

and Hereditary Knights in 1983. A federal court case filed by the splinter group in an effort to seize control of

the Order finally succeeded only in the legal grant to them of a trademarked name from Pichel’s 1956

corporation. Dr. John Grady defended the SOSJ against the coup attempt and was elected in a Chapter General

in 1991 as the 77


Grand Master of the SOSJ. Dr. Grady, a former U.S. Navy fighter pilot, medical doctor and

politician helped to write a new constitution which was accepted by the Order at the first Chapter General since

the Fall of Malta. Grand Master Dr. Grady then proceeded to rebuild the Order. The 78


Prince Grand Master

of the SOSJ, Barry Garland, was elected in 2006 and assumed office in 2008 upon the retirement of Dr. Grady.

Garland, a critical care nurse and professional bodyguard, assumes leadership of the Order at a critical time for

the Church and others who seek peace and security in the world.

Prince Grand Master Lt Grand Master President of the Grand Prior Grand Protector

Sovereign Council Chancellor

1976 Prince GM Sir Roberto Paterno Col C LT Pichel

American Grand Priory F Capell

European Grand Priory T Wicklund

1983 LGM Prince Troubetzkoy Regent Gen B von Stahl Dr J L Grady

1991 Prince GM Dr. Sir John Grady, MD

LGM Prince Troubetzkoy

2003 Prince GM Dr. Sir John Grady, MD A Chadwick

LGM B Garland

2008 Prince GM Sir Barry Garland K Weger

GM Emeritus Dr. Sir J Grady, MD


Since its inception in 1048, the OSJ has been an indispensable defender of Christendom and servant to

the poor and infirm. Until the French Revolution the Order could always count on moral support from the

Church of Rome. Because of the capture by Napoleon of the Pope and of his sovereign territory, the Church

was compromised by Revolutionary philosophies which affect it even to the present day. Thus the SOSJ

suffered the loss of the public support of the Catholic Church. The SOSJ turned inward for the survival of its

own government and compromised its ideals and traditions by supporting an Orthodox czar who was the

strongest proponent of the Counter Revolution. The Order continued to perpetuate its government since the

loss of Malta in the best ways that it could. Occasionally, men with decidedly non-Catholic beliefs have been

accepted as knights because it was thought that their prominence in society would benefit the Order. That has

proven to be a false assumption and has led to the creation of multiple splinter organizations claiming the SOSJ

lineage. During the last five decades, the Order has been among those few organizations which have decried

the deterioration caused by social humanist intrusion into the highest circles of the Catholic Church.

As described in this abbreviated history of our militant Catholic brotherhood since the loss of Malta, the

SOSJ has continuously striven to fulfill its historic mission as defender of Christendom and as servant to the

poor and infirm. There is no other organization that can claim the history described in this essay. Two hundred

years of counter revolutionary service for Christendom have challenged the Knights of Malta with engagement

in both physical and spiritual combat. Even so, the Order has not been formally recognized by the Holy See

since the Fall of Malta. It has relied on the ancient rights and privileges granted in perpetuity by popes of the

Middle Ages. The knights, who have always preserved the ancient Catholic liturgy, recently resolved to seek

reaffirmation from the Holy See that it is in full communion with the Catholic Church. The ancient Sovereign

Order of Saint John of Jerusalem continues as an hospitaller service organization structured as an army of the

Catholic Church. The Knights of Justice are the protectors of the Order’s sovereignty and traditions as handed

down from antiquity through Czar Kirill I and the Sovereign Council. The Headquarters of the Order is in

Jupiter, Florida, U.S.A. The Convent of the Order is located in Benton, Tennessee, U.S.A.


1798 The SOSJ moves its convent from Malta to the home of its protector, Czar Paul I, in St. Petersburg,

Russia, and elects him the 72


Grand Master. The Russian czars become the perpetual protectors of the SOSJ.

1803 John Baptist di Tommasi is named the 72


Prince Grand Master of the SOSJ. He was chosen by the

Pope from a list of candidates presented from the dispersed priories of the Order. He was the candidate of the

SOSJ in St. Petersburg.

1805 Upon the death of Grand Master di Tommasi, the SOSJ in Russia, in order to remain independent of

the intrigues of Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte, continues under the President of the Sovereign Council and the

Czar Alexander I, Protector of the Order.

1893 Russian Knights of Malta introduce American civic leaders to the White Cross at the 1893 Chicago

World’s Fair.

1904 The American White Cross First Aid Society is founded in Chicago, Illinois by civic leaders in

association with the U.S. Military, the Catholic Church and a member of the English St. John’s Ambulance


1899 The U.S. Army, civic leaders and the Catholic Church attempt to gain a U.S. Title 36 Charter for the

American White Cross from the Congress of the United States of America.

1908 The White Cross Hospital and Relief Association is founded in New York City, New York. It was the

combined effort of Roman Catholic and Orthodox Knights of Malta joining with a Protestant relief


1912 The American Grand Priory of the Sovereign Order of St. John of Jerusalem, Knights of Malta,

including the Catholic Grand Priory of Russia is given a Constitution and a Grand Prior. Its founding is dated

to 1908.

1913 Grand Duke Alexander Michaelovich is elected the 73


Grand Master of the SOSJ.

1917 The SOSJ is forced from Russia by the Bolshevik Revolution. The Polish White Cross is founded by

the Grand Priory of Russia in the United States a few days later.

1919 The Russian Grand Priory of the Sovereign Order of St. John of Jerusalem is re-established in

Saltzvedel, Germany by Knights of the Corps des Pages, Colonel Pavel Awaloff and Grand Duke Cyril


1922 The OSJ Sovereign Council is reconstituted in New York City by the authority of Grand Duke Cyril,

Guardian of the Imperial Throne of Russia. William Nelson Cromwell assumes operational control of the SOSJ

as President of the Sovereign Council.

1928 Dowager Empress Dagmar Feodorovna dies in Denmark, and her daughter Xenia, wife of Grand Master

Grand Duke Alexander Michaelovich and Patroness of the Corps des Pages, sends the SOSJ relics to the ROCA

Cathedral in Berlin.

1932 Grand Duchess Xenia authorizes the transfer of the SOSJ relics from Berlin to Belgrade to the custody

of King Alexander I of Yugoslavia, Protector of the SOSJ.

1933 Grand Master Grand Duke Alexander Michaelovich dies in France. General Prince Awaloff is made

President of the Russian National Liberation Movement in Germany.

1934 King Alexander I of Yugoslavia, Protector of the SOSJ, is assassinated in France. Czar Kirill I becomes

Protector of the SOSJ. Prince Awaloff is elected the 74


Grand Master of the SOSJ. The Sovereign Council

and Prince Awaloff found the Sovereign Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in Denmark. Colonel

Charles L.T. Pichel becomes Grand Chancellor of the SOSJ upon the death of J.G.B. Bulloch. Dr. Bryant

becomes President of the Sovereign Council.

1944 Robert Edmondson of Scranton, Pennsylvania becomes President of the Sovereign Council upon the

retirement of Dr. Bryant.

1945 Grand Chancellor Colonel Charles L.T. Pichel moves the SOSJ Convent from New York City to

Shickshinny, Pennsylvania.

1946 The SOSJ Grand Priory in Denmark is reconstituted after the war by the Sovereign Council.

1951 Lt. Grand Master Baron Scipio von Engelhardt-Schnellenstein, from Germany, assumes the leadership

of the American Grand Priory.

1954 Prince Grand Master General Awaloff dies and Grand Chancellor Pichel and Lt. Grand Master Scipio

Baron von Engelhardt- Schnellenstein assume the leadership of the SOSJ.

1955 Lt. Grand Master Frederic Graf von Zeppelin from Germany assumes the leadership of the SOSJ.

1956 Franklin A. West of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania becomes President of the Sovereign Council.

1960 Lt. Grand Master Colonel Paul de Cassagnac of France assumes the leadership of the SOSJ.

1962 Lt. Grand Master Felix Count von Luckner of Germany assumes the leadership of the SOSJ

1966 Crolian Edelen of New Jersey is elected the 75th Grand Master of the SOSJ.

1976 Don Roberto Paterno of Naples, Italy is elected the 76th Grand Master of the SOSJ. He resigns in 1983.

1983 General Benjamin von Stahl assumes the leadership of the SOSJ as President of the Sovereign Council

and moves the Convent of the SOSJ to Benton, Tennessee.

1991 Dr. John L. Grady, MD of Benton, Tennessee is elected the 77th

Grand Master of the SOSJ.

2006 Barry Garland of Florida is elected the 78th

Grand Master of the SOSJ.

2008 Grand Master Barry Garland assumes office upon the retirement of Dr. John Grady.


Prince Grand Master Lt Grand Master President of the Grand Prior Protector

Sovereign Council

1797 Prince GM Ferdinand von Hompesch Pope Pius VI

1798 GM Czar Paul I LGM J Count de Litta Prince de Conde GM Czar Paul I

1799 GM Czar Paul I LGM Field Marshall Prince de Conde GM Czar Paul I

Count Soltykoff

1801 LGM Field Marshall Undetermined Czar Alexander Czar Alexander I

Count Soltykoff

1803 GM John Baptist di Tommasi Undetermined Czar Alexander Czar Alexander I

1805 Undetermined Czar Alexander Czar Alexander I

1825 Undetermined Senior G D Czar Nicholas I

1855 Undetermined Senior G D Czar Alexander II

1881 Undetermined Senior G D Czar Alexander III

1894 Undetermined G D Vladimir Czar Nicholas II

1908 Undetermined G D Vladimir Czar Nicholas II

Russian Grand Priory

1. Grand Priory of Russia MG Cherep Spiridovich

a. White Cross Hospital and Relief Assn. G H Bruce

1912 Undetermined Czar Nicholas II

Russian Grand Priory G D Cyril

American Grand Priory W S Bryant W N Cromwell

1. Grand Priory of Russia MG Cherep Spiridovich

a. White Cross Hospital and Relief Assn. G H Bruce

1913 G M Grand Duke Alexander Michaelovich Undetermined Czar Nicholas II

Russian Grand Priory G D Cyril

American Grand Priory W S Bryant W N Cromwell

1. Grand Priory of Russia MG Cherep Spiridovich

a. White Cross Hospital and Relief Assn. W W Butcher

1919 Russian Sovereign Imperial Order of St. John of Jerusalem Grand Duke Cyril

Cmdr in Chief Prince Pavel Awaloff-Bermondt

1922 G M Grand Duke Alexander Michaelovich W N Cromwell G D Alexander King Alexander I

American Grand Priory LGM John J Sheridan J P West

1. Grand Priory of Russia MG Cherep Spiridovich

a. White Cross Hospital and Relief Assn. W W Butcher

b. Polish White Cross Count J Potocki

Prince Grand Master Lt Grand Master President of the Grand Prior Protector

Sovereign Council

1934 Prince GM Gen Pavel Awaloff-Bermondt Dr W S Bryant Fr Chodkiewicz Czar Kirill I

American Grand Priory E Wilson

Grand Priory of Denmark

1938 Prince GM Gen Pavel Awaloff-Bermondt Dr W S Bryant Fr Chodkiewicz

American Grand Priory Paul de Torres

Grand Priory of Denmark

1944 Prince GM Gen Pavel Awaloff-Bermondt Robert Edmondson

American Grand Priory C L T Pichel, G Chancellor

Grand Priory of Denmark

1948 Prince GM Gen Pavel Awaloff-Bermondt C L T Pichel, G Chancellor

American Grand Priory

Grand Priory of Denmark C Christensen

1951 Prince GM Gen Pavel Awaloff-Bermondt C L T Pichel, G Chancellor

American Grand Priory LGM Baron von


Grand Priory of Denmark C Christensen

1954 C L T Pichel, G Chancellor


1955 LGM Baron von C L T Pichel, G Chancellor

Engelhardt Scnellenstein

1956 LGM Graf von F A West


1960 LGM P Cassagnac F A West

1962 LGM Count von Luckner Bishop B Kurz

1966 Prince GM Sir Crolian Edelen Bishop B Kurz

Rev Shelley

1976 Prince GM Sir Roberto Paterno

American Grand Priory F Capell

European Grand Priory T Wicklund

1983 Gen B von Stahl

1991 Prince GM Dr Sir John Grady LGM Prince


2003 Prince GM Dr Sir John Grady LGM B Garland A Chadwick

2008 Prince GM Sir Barry Garland GM Emeritus Dr Sir J Grady, MD K Weger


1798 71st Grand Master Czar Paul I

1801 LGM Field Marshall Count Soltikoff

1803 72nd

Prince Grand Master John Baptist di Tommasi

1805 Czar Alexander I, Protector of the SOSJ

1825 Czar Nicholas I, Protector of the SOSJ

1855 Czar Alexander II, Protector of the SOSJ

1881 Czar Alexander III, Protector of the SOSJ

1894 Czar Nicholas II, Protector of the SOSJ

1913 73rd Grand Master Grand Duke Alexander Michaelovich

1922 William Nelson Cromwell, President of the Sovereign Council

1934 74th Prince Grand Master General Pavel Awaloff-Bermondt

1954 LGM Scipio Baron von Engelhardt-Schnellenstein

1956 LGM F. Graf von Zeppelin

1960 LGM Colonel Paul Cassagnac

1962 LGM Admiral Felix Count von Luckner

1966 75th Prince Grand Master Crolian Edelen

1976 76th Prince Grand Master Don Roberto Paterno

1983 General Benjamin von Stahl, President of the Sovereign Council 1991 77th

Prince Grand Master Dr. John Grady, MD 2008 78th

Prince Grand Master Barry Garland

Edited by John Bevilaqua
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Here is basically the exact same article with graphics, images, documents and more information....


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Here is a list from earlier this year. About 75% of these names appear in the article above here

on The Shickshinny Knights of Malta. Amazing prescience if I do say so myself.

My list of interest would include the following names in no particular order:

Charles Willoughby

Bonner F. Fellers

Theodor Oberlander

Albert C. Wedemeyer

George Stratemeyer

Yaroslaw Stetsko

Charles Thurout Pichel

Laurence Dennis

Anastase Vonsiatsky

William Dudley Pelley

Maximillian St. George

Mitchell Werbell III

George de Mohrenschildt

George Bouhe

Warren de Breuys

James Wheeler-Hill

Baron Charles Wrangel

Adrian Arcand

Boris Brasol

Frederic Rene Coudert

Philip J. Corso

George Sokolosky

Westbrook Pegler

Rev. Gerald L. K. Smith

Rev. Gerald B. Winrod

George de Mohrenschildt

Reinhard von Gehlen

Robert J. Morris

Edwin A. Walker

E. Howard Hunt

George Lincoln Rockwell

Wickliffe P. Draper

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