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Shanghai Surprise

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As a researcher who was never satisfied with the enigmatic Japanese links of Lee Harvey Oswald to the

ersatz beginning of the JFK assassination chronology, [which some would say begins with the births in Germany and Russia

in the 19th century of Karl Marx, Joseph Rubenstein, father of Jack Ruby, Friedrich Albert Sorge great-uncle of Richard Sorge

George DeMohrenchildt, Tschippe Weidenbach, aka Chas. Willoughby, to cite a few names] it is arguably imperative

to have some grasp of the first three decades of the 20th Century.




Because these critical decades are before not only the CIA, but the OSS, when the main intelligence agencies of today's world

powers are shrouded in as much mystery as can be found at any other period in time. This period is also a continuation

of the era of oil, which serves strongly as a backdrop to understanding the real history of the 20th century.

This period was distinguished by cities such as Berlin, Paris, Moscow, Washington D.C., Tokyo and Shanghai

Arguably, Shanghai was one of the first geographical locations where the Marxist/Capitalist ideological struggle

was a true battlefield. The cities of Harbin in Manchuria, Riga in Latvia, Baku in present day Azerbiajan, also

figure prominently in accounts of individuals associated in one way or another to the JFK saga.

So the following is a crude attempt to provide a deeper look into this area.

It may be helpful to remember another person, Colonel Nikolai Eroshkin, a figure

who may have been, or was a link between the two worlds of pre-Tripartite Pact, Japan/Germany/Italy

and the 1960's saga of Lee Harvey Oswald in Japan.

December 22, 1929

Russia regains control of the Chinese Eastern Railroad by military pressure. Max Klausen sees

Major General Theo Froelich-Feldman in Harbin, Manchuria. Froelich organizes sabotage groups to

cut the Chinese Eastern Railroad in the event of hostilities.


Note there is a list of interesting names associated with the surname Froelich, to name one

is Theodore Froelich, as noted below

“ Theodore A. Froehlich,

Chairman of the Executive Committee. Amos Draper,

Treasurer of the Fund.“

1. Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet Memorial Statue by Daniel Chester French

Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet and his first student, Alice Cogswell.


Similarities between Richard Sorge and George DeMohrenschildt.

1. Sorge’s great uncle, whom Sorge alleged was his grandfather

and DeMohersenschildt lived in the USA.

2. Sorge’s father, and DeMohrenschildt’s grandfather

both working for the Nobel oil interests in Baku.

3. Sorge’s first wife was named Christiane; Jeanne DeMohrenschildt

George’s daughter (1940) is named after her mother but adopts the name Christiane.


Fall? 1940

Guillame “Bill” Hoorickx, Belgian artist living in Paris in 1965, 66 years old

tells of first wife living with Mikhail Makarov aka Carlos Alamo, Molotov’s nephew?

in Brussels. Hoorickx, Makarov and Czech agent for British munitions firm Rauch

go around together

Hoorickx gets date with Princess Sherbatov for Makarov as Alamo, a Uruguyan

just before learning Makarov’s true identity. George DeMohrenschildt says

Mrs. Max Gali Clark is Princess Sherbatov,

Hoorickx’s second wife is Anna, a Russian

citation Red Orchestra:35

September 6, 1933

Sorge arrives in Japan, via Paris, USA

Vancouver. He resides at Number 30 Nakasaka, Cho Azabu, Tokyo


Number 30 Nagasaka Machi, Azabu ku

Blood Brothers : Crime, Business & Politics in Asia - Bertil Linter

Collaborators and Renegades in Occupied Shanghai

Bernard Wasserstein

1930s Shanghai was notoriously populated by characters of dubious political and moral allegiances. Bernard Wasserstein shows how the Japanese used their contacts among the city’s low-life to assist in their invasion and occupation.

In July 1940, a fresh and exotic face enlivened Shanghai expatriate society. The Princess Sumaire, aged twenty-two, stepped off a boat from India and engaged a suite at the Cathay Hotel. She immediately attracted attention on account of her elegant appearance, her scandalous behaviour and her mysterious origins. Within a short time she had made a wide, multi-national circle of friends. Among them were officers of the local Italian garrison, a number of English and American society girls and a couple of professional dancers who went by the stage names ‘Don and Dolly’. Sumaire’s circle also included some more sinister figures: an abortionist, brothel-owner and sexual extortionist, Dr Albert von Miorini, a monkey expert, narcotics dealer and unqualified ‘doctor’, Hermann Erben, and a shady Franco-American journalist, aviator and pimp, Hilaire du Berrier.

Sumaire settled down in the ‘Paris of the East’, relishing its cosmopolitan night life and lively café society. But Shanghai had a darker side. With its lurid vice, endemic violence, and conspiratorial atmosphere, no place on earth in the 1930s and 1940s better exemplified the twilight zone between professional and political criminality.

Shanghai’s ever-open door attracted an extraordinary agglomeration of ill-assorted foreign communities: ‘White’ and ‘Red’ Russians imported their fierce mutual animosity from their homeland and perpetuated them in exile; German businessmen dutifully celebrated Hitler’s birthday at the German Garden Club but found to their dismay that they were outnumbered in Shanghai by thousands of ‘non-Aryan’ German-speaking refugees from Nazi persecution; upper-crust ‘Shanghailander’ Britons rubbed shoulders with Baghdadi Jewish property tycoons; Korean gangsters, Filipino musicians, low-life cardsharps, pickpockets and assorted con-men plied their various trades. So too did demi-mondaines of various nationalities who preyed on tourists at the Park, the Metropole and the Cathay hotels, as well as on naval and military men of half-a-dozen countries in other, more questionable, haunts.

Even in superficially respectable areas of the city, meretricious glamour and horrific poverty, filth and squalor intertwined symbiotically. At Ciro’s night-club, the first in the city to enjoy full air-conditioning, British taipans and Chinese mobsters tangoed with their wives or mistresses into the small hours. Outside, uniformed Russian doormen – self-appointed ex-Tsarist ‘generals’ whose spurious medals could be purchased by the dozen in the Hongkew market – held importuning hordes of deformed Chinese beggars at bay. In less salubrious dance-halls, bars and ‘joints’, lines of Russian ‘taxi-dancers’ and Chinese ‘sing-song girls’ sat waiting for customers. In 1935 one in every thirteen women in Shanghai was reckoned to be a prostitute.

Throughout the city violence was a constant threat, whether in the form of political assassination, gang warfare or lovers’ fights. The stained cobbles of ‘Blood Alley’ (rue Chu Pao-san) in Frenchtown bore witness to the frequency of brawls among foreign soldiers and sailors. God, who allowed Shanghai to endure, owed an apology to Sodom and Gomorrah – said the American Christian missionaries who strove to combat the devil in his own habitation. A Chinese journalist agreed: Shanghai, he wrote, was ‘a city of forty-eight-storey skyscrapers built upon twenty-four layers of hell’.

Who was Sumaire? Why had she come to Shanghai? Was she really a princess? Detective Sub-Inspector McKeown, of the British-controlled Shanghai municipal police, whose special beat was Indian affairs, reported that Sumaire claimed to be the daughter of the late Maharajah of Patiala. Her past life, as well as her conduct in Shanghai, rendered her in McKeown’s judgement ‘open to suspicion either on moral or political grounds’. He discovered that she had been married as a child to a senior official of the Indian State Railways but later separated from him. Her family were said to have disowned her ‘owing to her loose morals’. From an Indian source McKeown ascertained that she was ‘a follower of the Lesbian cult’. The detective’s findings were submitted to his superiors, who placed one copy in the ‘confidential drawer’ and passed another on to Harry Steptoe, the British Secret Intelligence Service representative in Shanghai. Meanwhile, the subject of these prurient observations was kept under continued surveillance.

Sumaire’s full name was Rajkumari Sumair Apjit Singh. She was not a princess. She was indeed a member of the princely Patiala family, though the exact nature of her relationship to the Maharajah was never firmly established by the investigating authorities. That potentate himself, when told by a visitor that his daughter had been seen, asked ‘which one?’ The visitor replied, ‘A girl who calls herself Sumaire claims to be your daughter’. Whereupon the Maharajah answered, ‘It is quite possible. I have twenty-three daughters’. The municipal police concluded, after inquiries in India, that she was the Maharajah’s niece. Detective McKeown, a stolid British policeman not given to sensationalism, added: ‘Although she was the niece of the late Maharajah, she was probably his mistress also’.

In 1938, at the age of twenty, Sumaire had moved for a time to Paris where she had worked as a model for the fashion designer Elsa Schiaparelli. Sumaire was not conventionally beautiful. She had a podgy face, snub nose and was somewhat short for a model. On the other hand, she dressed elegantly in oriental-style robes and carried herself with poise and a certain dignity. In Shanghai she soon acquired the reputation of a nymphomaniac. Even the bellboys at her hotel, it was said, were not safe from her attentions. Like a voracious spider, she attracted first one, then another, eventually a buzzing swarm of admirers who found that, once enmeshed, they could not escape.

If Sumaire had been merely one more party-girl among the continent-hopping ocean-liner set, she would probably have attracted little interest beyond the gossip columns of the Shanghai Evening Post and Mercury. But there was another dimension to her socialising that explained the special concern of the British police and intelligence authorities. Her friends Miorini, Erben and Du Berrier were all Axis agents.

Sumaire was at the centre of one little circle of pro-Japanese criminal-political intriguers in Shanghai. Another revolved around a man whose multiplicity of identities and monstrosity of behaviour outclassed all possible competitors: ‘Captain’ Eugene Pick, alias Hovans,* alias ‘Doctor’ Clige – to mention only three of his noms de guerre.

Pick, as we shall call him, was born Evgeny Mihailovich Kojevnikoff in 1899 or 1900 in Riga, Latvia, son of a Cossack army colonel. During the First World War he fought in the Russian army. He later claimed that he had been captured eleven times by the Germans and escaped back to the Russian lines on each occasion. From 1919 to 1922 he studied at the Military Academy in Moscow and at the Academy for Music and Drama. After graduation he was said to have worked as an assistant military attaché in the Soviet embassies in Afghanistan and Turkey.

...bled them [the British] for large sums of money for long and devious reports on Communist activities in China. When he had exhausted the British, subject [Pick] went to work for the US Treasury Department and double-crossed them out of US$600 and sold a tip-off to the group the Department was after on his first assignment for $2,000.

Over the next decade, Pick became a well-known figure in Shanghai, as stage manager, actor, opera singer and ballet dancer. During this period he was best known under his stage name Eugene Hovans. He also opened his own theatre, which he grandiosely named the Far Eastern Grand Opera. The life and soul of the party, Pick had a good singing voice and would often break into sonorous renderings of Russian folk songs when dining out with friends. An acquaintance described him as having ‘a Mongolian cast of countenance... no hair at all, wears a black skull cap, has burned scars on his head... a heavy vodka drinker... a flashy dresser... usually went armed with a pearl-handled revolver.’ The scars on his head were rumoured to be the result of burning oil poured over him during torture sessions by Communists angry at his turncoat activities. A post-war American intelligence report described him as ‘well-educated, a good linguist, an accomplished actor, and a facile writer. He is also a competent murderer, intelligence agent, agent provocateur and smuggler of arms.’

Pick certainly found rich pickings during this period in the Shanghai underworld as a professional informer and small-time racketeer. According to one account he blackmailed an American judge who he discovered was homosexual; the judge’s body was later found in the River Whangpoo. In 1929 Pick was sentenced to nine months in jail for forgery. Two years later a Chinese court convicted him of fraud and extortion and condemned him to a year in prison: he had falsely represented himself as a military adviser to the Chinese government in Canton and in that capacity had secured million-dollar arms contracts. Later he was said to be hawking pamphlets and books stolen for him by coolies from the Soviet Consulate. In 1937 he was accused of white slavery and keeping a ‘house of assignation’.

When he spoke about the Soviets it was as though he were possessed of a consuming hate. His face flushed, he became highly emotional, and gesticulated wildly like a dramatic actor, completely gripped by the role he was playing.… one of the most notorious Japanese gang members in Shanghai, extortionist and blackmailer. Killer when drunk. His sole aim with the Japanese: obtain as much money as possible by criminal means and hide behind Japanese officials.

Other figures in Pick’s entourage included ‘Baron’ N.N. Tipolt, a former Russian naval officer, ‘Count’ Vladimir Tatischeff, blackmailer, swindler and informer for the Japanese gendarmerie and the local German gestapo, as well as numerous young White Russian women.

These were a few of the more picturesque characters among the politico-criminal amphibians spawned in the mud of Shanghai’s secret wars. In this period Shanghai was the main intelligence marketplace for the entire Far East. As the centre of political activity in China, particularly of left-wing propaganda, and the home of a cosmopolitan population that included tens of thousands of political émigrés, it was a natural theatre for espionage operations, both Chinese and foreign.

Before dawn on Monday, December 8th, 1941, the Japanese, who had already held much of the city since 1937, attacked the international settlement in the heart of the city. By this time all British and American troops had been withdrawn and the small French and Italian units in Shanghai were not disposed to resist the attack. The two remaining non-Japanese men-of-war on the Whangpoo, the USS Wake and HMS Peterel, were targeted by the Japanese at 4 am – an hour or so after the attack on Pearl Harbor. The Wake was overpowered by Japanese boarders before the skeleton crew were able to resist. The ship was taken without a shot being fired and the Japanese flag was hoisted. She thus enjoyed the ignominious distinction of being ‘the only American naval vessel of the Second World War to be captured intact and without resistance.’ She was subsequently renamed Tatara Maru and incorporated into the Japanese navy.

By contrast, HMS Peterel, commanded by Lieutenant Stephen Polkinghorn, put up a vigorous but doomed defence. The British gunboat had been alerted by a telephone call from the British Consulate in time for the crew to get to battle stations. When a Japanese officer boarded the ship and demanded its surrender, Polkinghorn responded, ‘Get off my bloody ship!’ The Japanese disembarked and opened fire from batteries on shore and on nearby warships, whereupon the Peterel responded with her two machine guns. Meanwhile, secret code books were burnt in the boiler room. After suffering several direct hits, she exploded and keeled over. The order was given to abandon ship. Since the vessel’s motor launch had been hit, the men had to swim ashore, some of them being picked up by sympathetic Chinese in sampans. Six of the eighteen crew members on board were killed and all the others wounded (though the Japanese later announced, falsely, that no British sailors had been killed). Most of the survivors were captured by the Japanese.

Three of the Peterel’s crew were already ashore at the time of the attack; two were soon arrested by the Japanese but one, Petty Officer James Cuming, a radio operator, remained at large. In response to Japanese pressure, the head of the British Resident’s Association, Hugh Collar, sent word to Cuming that, if he surrendered, he (Collar) would ‘accept responsibility towards His Majesty’s Government’ – an extraordinary arrogation of authority by a civilian. Cuming, however, ignored the appeal and remained underground in Shanghai under the alias ‘Mr Trees’. As a cover, the story was spread that ‘Mr Trees’ had escaped to Chungking. During the next four years of occupation Cuming eluded capture, made contact with the Chinese resistance and was able to put his radio expertise to service for the Allied cause.

Meanwhile, Sumaire, Pick and their friends adapted happily to the new order. The various enterprises of Sumaire’s friend Dr von Miorini prospered greatly during the war. He built up a stock of gold bars – the most reliable long-term investment at the time. In 1943, however, Miorini came under suspicion among his Axis contacts of furnishing information to the Chinese nationalists. In June 1944 he died suddenly in the Paulus Hospital in Shanghai. An autopsy was performed by Dr Robert Neumann, a German pathologist, known (by reason of his earlier war service) as ‘the butcher of Buchenwald’. A macabre coincidence that subsequently came to light was that at the time of his death Miorini had been working on a book about Chinese poisons. Inevitably the suspicion arose that he had been murdered by the Shanghai Gestapo. His hoard of gold bars disappeared for ever.

Another member of the circle, ‘Dr’ Hermann Erben, served the Axis cause more consistently. He volunteered to be interned in a detention camp among American civilians. As a result, he spent more than two years in the Pootung camp, as an undercover informer for the Japanese Gendarmerie. Shanghai could boast few more self-sacrificing records of foreign collaboration than Erben’s incarceration for the Axis cause.

‘Captain Pick’, who had been sentenced to a long gaol term for murder just a month before the Japanese onslaught, was quickly released and appointed adviser to Captain Otani in the foreign affairs section of the Japanese Naval Intelligence Bureau. For the next three-and-a-half years he exploited this position to establish a veritable reign of terror over the foreign residents of Shanghai.

In April 1943 a kind of dynastic union was formed between the Pick and Sumaire circles when the ‘princess’ married a Pick gang member, the Japanese playboy Takami Morihiko. ‘Mori’ to his friends, Takami was an American as well as a Japanese citizen. Sumaire was technically guilty of bigamy since she had never divorced her Indian husband. Like his wife, Takami had a weakness for spurious titles: he called himself a ‘count’, though he was in fact the son of a Japanese-American doctor in New York. The wedding, a ‘swank ceremony’ at the Park Hotel in Shanghai, was played up as a sign of Indo-Japanese amity. Guests included German, Japanese, White Russian and Chinese puppet officials.

But the marriage did not last long. A few weeks later Takami set out for the Philippines with other members of the Pick gang on a mission for the Japanese. Sumaire was glad to see the back of him since she had discovered he had long been enjoying an affair with Marquita Kwong, mistress of a Chinese-American collaborationist broadcaster. During Takami’s absence, Sumaire received a stipend from the Japanese Navy Office. The exact nature of the services she performed in return remain unclear. But as the war drew to a close, she evidently sensed a shift in the political wind. By early 1945 she was reported to have taken up with a Free-French journalist, Roger Pierrard.

Liberation did not come to Shanghai until September 7th, 1945. The Shanghai underworld once again adjusted quickly to the new situation. The guest list for Sumaire’s cocktail parties now included American officers and immigration officials. She claimed that she had been imprisoned and maltreated by the Japanese. In a long maudlin letter to her kinsman, the young Maharajah of Patiala (heir to her putative father – or uncle), she lamented her fate and appealed for money to enable her to ‘pay back my debts of honour and get out of this miserable city of Shanghai’. She was last heard of in late 1946 when she was said to be planning to marry an American ex-army officer and hoping to move with him to America.

Pick, meanwhile, had fled to Japan in the dying days of the war. His former employer, Captain Otani, gave him a million yen from confidential navy ministry funds and encouraged him to open a Russian night club in Tokyo. Instead, Pick presented himself to the American occupation authorities to whom he betrayed Otani. In an astonishing coda to his chameleonic career, Pick offered to place his unrivalled intelligence experience at the disposal of the United States. He was returned to Shanghai and promptly imprisoned by the Chinese nationalists. But after a short time he was freed at the instigation of the American Counter-Intelligence Corps which paid the necessary ‘squeeze’ to the Chinese authorities to secure his release. In 1949, on the eve of the occupation of Shanghai by the Communists, Pick escaped to Taiwan where he tried to sell his services anew as an expert on Communism. He soon fell foul of his new employers and was last heard of in a prison in Taipeh.

These freelance foreign agents in Shanghai did not, of course, affect the course of the war there in any significant way. But their activities on behalf of the Axis powers were more than just a colourful sideshow. The Japanese depended heavily on foreign helpers in capturing and holding the city’s foreign concessions. Pick, Sumaire, Miorini, Erben and their like provided intelligence about the expatriate communities, information on British and American business interests, as well as diplomatic and service officers’ gossip that the Japanese used to good effect. Before December 1941 such assistance helped them seal their grip on the city. And for the ensuing four dark years of occupation it reinforced their stranglehold on the greatest prize of the war in the Far East.

Bernard Wasserstein is President of the Oxford Centre for Hebrew and Jewish Studies and the author of The Secret Lives of Trebitsch Lincoln (Yale University Press/Penguin, 1988/1989).


* A probable connection

Home/Archive/Documents/JFK Assassination Documents/JFK Documents - Central Intelligence Agency/Oswald 201 File (201-289248)/Oswald 201 File, Misc Docs/

Oswald 201 File, Misc Docs, Set 7



SEX: M DOB ? [ ] 20574

01 OCT 46









Home/Archive/Documents/JFK Assassination Documents/JFK Documents - Central Intelligence Agency/HSCA Segregated CIA Collection/HSCA Segregated CIA Collection, Box 12/

NARA Record Number: 104-10068-10154


15 February 1963 [18 pages

Jack Arthur Rogalsky aka John Roe Sources: CIA Box 15, Folder 15, Doc 8933 (MMF 995-1013) Mary's Comments: 201-2973. DOB: April 27, 1905. POB: Melitopol, Crimea (then Russia). Jewish but does not practice his religion. In 1907 or 1908, his family moved to Harbin in Manchuria.

In 1920, Rogalsky moved to Shanghai and attended the Thomas Hambury School which specialized in English. Entered Canada Nov 7, 1949.


The Thomas Hambury School’s First President was Cornelius Thorne

The North-China herald and Supreme Court & consular gazette, Volume 82 pg 497



To: Chief, SR

From: Chief of Station [ ]



VALIANT 1’s Peace River Account

signed Peter K. Winship

page 5, 7. On direct questioning ROE denied any association with the Soviet Citizens’ Association in Shanghai other than

being registered with this group.

page 6, with his brother-in-law Paul KOMOR

page 8, 1962 to present: R D Travers Co., 1 Duke St Hamilton

Agents for Wickware-Stackbin Ltd. of Perth, Ontario

ROE is a sub agent of Travers Co.

selling steel shop bins in the Southern Ontario area.

page 9, 18. Roe was asked point blank how long he had been assisting the Russian Intelligence Service

He was astonished by this accusation and denied any connection in this respect.

Paragon Book Store

Bureau of Police Special City Government of Shanghai

Mrs. Nadejda Rogalsky

page 16, Handoohedze, Manchuria

Father’s name Nicholas

Mother’s name Maria

Occupation Housewife

present address 92, Chahar Ln.


Testimony Of Jeanne De Mohrenschildt

The testimony of Jeanne De Mohrenschildt was taken at 4:45 p.m. on April 23, 1964, at 200 Maryland Avenue NE., Washington, D.C., by Mr. Albert E. Jenner, Jr., assistant counsel of the President's Commission.

Mr. JENNER. Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, and nothing but the truth, in the course of your deposition which I am about to take?


Mr. JENNER. You are Mrs. George S. De Mohrenschildt?

Mrs. De MOHRENSCHILDT. Why "S"? The "S" doesn't belong there at all.

Mr. JENNER. Well, he acknowledged that it does.


Mr. JENNER. Yes. Sergei.

Mrs. De MOHRENSCHILDT. I have a brother by the same name Sergei, and he had a son by the name Sergei. Maybe he wants to add the letter to our name.

Mr. JENNER. No. It shows in the records for many, many years.

Mrs. De MOHRENSCHILDT. I never knew that. Sergei is his father's name-- that is what it is.

Mr. JENNER. You have a brother whose name is Sergei, do you not?


Mr. JENNER. Sergei Michail Fomenko.

Give me your full maiden name. Your name as you were born and given to you by your parents.

Mrs. De MOHRENSCHILDT. The first name will be Eugenia.

Mr. JENNER. And----

Mrs. De MOHRENSCHILDT. I have no middle name. Just Fomenko.

Mr. JENNER. Now, your mother's name was Tatiana?

Mrs. De MOHRENSCHILDT. Tatiana. My father, Michail.

Mr. JENNER. And your father was Michail L.?

Mrs. De MOHRENSCHILDT. Yes. That is for--his father was Lev.

Mr. JENNER. You were born in China?


Mr. JENNER. Our information is it was at Harbin.

Mrs. De MOHRENSCHILDT. That is right.

Mr. JENNER. What is the nearest town?

Mrs. De MOHRENSCHILDT. Nearest town to what?

Mr. JENNER. Harbin.

Mrs. De MOHRENSCHILDT. I would not--I cannot say.

Mr. JENNER. What part of China?

Mrs. De MOHRENSCHILDT. It is Manchuria. The northern part of China, close to the Siberian border.

Mr. JENNER. You mean the Russian-Chinese border?


Mr. JENNER. Do you have a sister?

Mrs. De MOHRENSCHILDT. From what I recall, we had a--we had three portraits in the house, of children--my portrait, my brother's portrait, and there was a portrait of a little girl. And the portrait--she was about 3 or 4 years old. I don't know how, where did they get that idea, or was I actually told--but she is supposed to be my half-sister--Alexandria her name was supposed to be. And I think my father was married before he married my mother, but, you know, they don't tell much to children, and we never asked anything. We have never had any curiosity about it.

Mr. JENNER. You are a naturalized citizen of this Nation, are you not?


Mr. JENNER. Were you naturalized on April 6, 1936?

Mrs. De MOHRENSCHILDT. No--couldn't. I came here in 1938. How could you possibly get that?

Mr. JENNER. All right. I am misadvised. I was looking at the wrong thing. You were naturalized when?

Mrs. De MOHRENSCHILDT. I believe it was 1945, but I cannot be absolutely sure. I have my papers in the hotel. 1944 or 1945, maybe it is 1944. If you want the exact date, I can easily get it for you. Do you actually have information, naturalized in 1936?

Mr. JENNER. No, I don't. I have your immigration record here. I will find it in a moment. You became a U.S. citizen in proceedings in the U.S. district court, in New York City, February 28, 1945.


Mr. JENNER. Were you born on May 5, 1914?


Mr. JENNER. Your parents, were they Russian citizens?

Mrs. De MOHRENSCHILDT. My father took a Chinese passport, and I cannot tell you whether he already had it when I was horn, or whether he took one later. But I believe he took one later. He took probably one later, when they sold the railroad to the Reds, you know. That is when he took the Chinese passport.

Mr. JENNER. He was born in Russia?


Mr. JENNER. And your mother was born in Russia?

Mrs. De MOHRENSCHILDT. To my knowledge, yes. They were living a few years in China before I was born.

NO TITLE pg 29

Found in: FBI - HSCA Subject File: Edward P. Morgan

State Department Employee Loyalty Investigation

Senator Lodge: I would certainly like to get a military judgement on these documents

Mr Morgan: I personally Senator am willing to concede for the purpose of our present discussion that every

one of them might have been a military document.

Senator Lodge: All through the record you can see page after page after page— I have jotted it down wherever it occurred—

that almost every witness except McInerney says that these documents were important

Mr Morgan It is all through the record

Discussion off the record.)

Mr Morgan: From reading the grand jury testimony apparently Mark Gayn made quite a point of the fact that

it was a common practice to pass on information of this kind

RIF#: 124-90134-10159 (/ /) FBI#: 121-23278-267X12


The Man Who Knew Too Much pg 115, by Russell, Dick (1992)

The Mysterious History of Mark Gayn "I'm sure Mark Gayn was a Soviet agent, James Barros was saying

"but you'll have a difficult time proving it Those papers of his at the library, you can be sure have been well sanitized.”

Professor Barros was right. Despite the more than 150 boxes of Gayn’s correspondence, diaries, and published works

at the Thomas Fisher Rare Books Library, there semmed to be vast gaps in his history— particularly about his 1930’s years in

Shanghai, and the 1962-63 period.....Since FBI files leave little doubt that Gayn was working for

the Soviet’s at the time, the question is whether he might have kept his freedom in return for serving as a “double agent”

at some point in the future....

What intrigued me most was a trip Gayn had made to Mexico City and Cuba in January-February 1963. Nagell was on record

as saying that he himself had been to Mexico City many times between September 19623 and September 1963.

But if the two men had rendezvoused in either place there was no record of it.

All that was clear was Gayn’s interest in the factional struggle within the Communist Party in Mexico City. 15

In his September 1963 letter to the FBI in which he disclosed the plans for the Kennedy assassination

Nagell signed it with the name Joseph Kramer a pseudonym for Mark Julius Gayn.

Decades later the argument that Gayn was a double agent seems extremely open to question.

New York Times, The (NY) - December 24, 1981

Deceased Name: MARK J. GAYN , 72, JOURNALIST


Mark J. Gayn, a Canadian journalist who wrote extensively on foreign affairs, died of cancer Dec. 17 in Toronto. He was 72 years old.

Mr. Gayn, who wrote for Newsweek, Time and The New York Times, was a member of the editorial board and the senior foreign affairs correspondent for The Toronto Star at the time of his death.

Mr. Gayn, who was born to Russian parents in Manchuria in 1902, began his career in Shanghai in the 1930's as a stringer for The Washington Post and an editor for a Japanese wire service, Rengo. He wrote vividly of the firebombing of Tokyo by American planes during World War II.Arrested in U.S.

In 1945, Mr. Gayn, who had angered some American officials by writing that the then Chinese-leader Chiang Kai-sshek was corrupt and did not enjoy popular support in China, was arrested in the United States and charged with conspiring to transmit infomration damaging to the national defense. He was quickly vindicated in the courts.

Absorbed by a passionate interest in Asian society and politics, Mr. Gayn was among the first Western journalists to be admitted to China in the mid-1960's. His dispatches reflected his upbringing in China, against which he measured the country's accomplishments, and his invariably critical judgment of the political and intellectual regimentation of Chinese society. He was also one of the first correspondents allowed entry into North Korea, from where he filed ominous reports on repression under the man he called "the last Stalinist," President Kim Il Sung.

Although he always wished to practice his craft in the United States, the refusal of the State Department to admit his wife Suzanne, an actress whom he met in Hungary in 1949, forced him to live in Canada. The State Department contended that she was a Communist.

On his last trip to China last summer, Mr. Gayn retraced the ancient silk route traveled by Marco Polo in the 13th century through the Gobi Desert into China's heartland. Only a few months before he died he completed a sequel to his Japan Diary, an account of the Allied occupation of Japan, called New Japan Diary. It is scheduled to be published early next year.

"As a newspaperman, I feel incensed every time I hear of violence done to the free press," he wrote several years ago. "But as a citizen of a democratic state I also see each such instance as a denial of my right to know, and therefore of my ability to understand the world in which we live."

Mr. Gayn leaves his wife, and a brother Sam, who is in China.

New York Times, The (NY)

Date: December 24, 1981

Edition: Late City Final Edition

Page: 6

Record Number: 1981-12-24-145111

Copyright 1981, The New York Times Company


Dick Russell needs no introduction among serious researchers his most recent work, provided

a clue that the mysterious “BOB” who apparently exercised some type of control over Nagell,

pointed strongly, if not outright in the direction of Henry Hecksher. Hecksher was the senior political

officer for the CIA’s AMWORLD project*. "BOB“ if indeed Hecksher, provides an ironic, or interesting

type of full circle aspect to the whole pre-Tripartite Pact [Japan/Germany/Italy] era in Shanghai which

had evolved by the late 1930’s [via Japan’s alliance with Germany] to feature Germany, as Hecksher,

had been born in Germany, but then again so had Gerard Droller aka Frank Bender, who was the Chief of Covert Action Staff of the

Western Hemisphere Division for CIA, as well as and Tschippe Weidenbach aka Colonel Charles Willoughby.

* see page 229 of “On The Trail of the JFK Assassins”

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Blood Brothers : Crime, Business & Politics in Asia - Bertil Linter

Collaborators and Renegades in Occupied Shanghai

Bernard Wasserstein

1930s Shanghai was notoriously populated by characters of dubious political and moral allegiances. Bernard Wasserstein shows how the Japanese used their contacts among the city’s low-life to assist in their invasion and occupation.

Great post. I enjoy recent Chinese history - 1917 and beyond. When I was in Shanghai in 1998 you could still walk quietly down the bund. I understand it has grown a lot since then.

These collaborators were just one element that sold out their country. It was bad enough that there was a civil war going on, ( well good for the Japanese) but lowlifes and highlifes alike selling out their country made it a whole lot easier for the Japanese.

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Great post. I enjoy recent Chinese history - 1917 and beyond. When I was in Shanghai in 1998 you could still walk quietly down the bund. I understand it has grown a lot since then.

These collaborators were just one element that sold out their country. It was bad enough that there was a civil war going on, ( well good for the Japanese) but lowlifes and highlifes alike selling out their country made it a whole lot easier for the Japanese.

I appreciate the kind words, there are other aspects of this area, that are perhaps equally fascinating, even if they are fascinating to a select few. Additional angles

in the 1930's era is the evolution of the drug networks, opium would be the drug most associated with the Far East, and there is good reason why a book like

The Politics of Heroin in SE Asia by McCoy is an essential book to placing the Kennedy Assassination in its proper context.

It was strange yesterday, that I discovered [i don't keep track with every post, like I used to] something I just happened upon, by virtue of the fact that I noticed

something on the Rose Cheramie thread, that made be look up something in a book.

I should be very clear that just because it is in a book, does not mean it is reliable information.

At any rate, the Shanghai opium connection seemingly was felt as far away as a specific event in Mexico, regarding Molly Wendt and Al Scharff, a somewhat famous

U.S. Customs investigator in Texas who served from 1918-1960. His recount of the Wendt case is found in the book The Coin Of Contraband by Garland Roark pages 342-348.

Molly Wendt, to cut to the chase, was a runner in the international drug trade circa 1930 who had the misfortune of being apprehended, in Roark's book he writes that after

she was arrested "Lengthy interrogation revealed that Molly Wendt spoke excellent French and German as well as English; that she was suffering from advanced tuberculosis;

that her trip from China was her trial run; that she was on the way to Mexico with the heroin. She named a few people in Mexico City, one of whom was N. L. Brandstätter,

head of the Machinery & Engineering Corp. of Shanghai, China. According to Miss Wendt, he was the chief of the strong international smuggling ring, the majority of

whose members were in Mexico. Two days after the world learned of Molly Wendt's capture in New York, a German doctor in Shanghai was found on a refuse dump with

his throat cut, evidently because the narcotics gang thought he had 'put the finger' on Miss Wendt."

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