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a man with a mission


Greg Parker
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OSWALD AND THE WHITE RUSSIAN NEWSPAPER

Mr. DELGADO - Personally; I did; because I thought it funny for him to be

receiving a caller at such a late date time. Also, up to this time he hardly

ever received mail; in fact he very seldom received mail from home, because

I made it a policy, I used to pick up the mail for our hut and distribute it

to the guys in there, and very seldom did I see one for him. But every so

often, after he started to get in contact with these Cuban people, he

started getting little pamphlets and newspapers, and he always got a Russian

paper, and I asked him if it was, you know, a Commie paper--they let you get

away with this in the Marine Corps in a site like this--and he said, "No,

it's not Communist; it's a White Russian. To me that was Greek, you know,

White Russian, so I guess he is not a Communist; but he was steady getting

that periodical. It was a newspaper.

Mr. LIEBELER - In the Russian language?

Mr. DELGADO - Right.

Mr. LIEBELER - And he received that prior to the time he contacted the Cuban

consulate; did he not?

Mr. DELGADO - Right. And he also started receiving letters, you know, and no

books, maybe pamphlets, you know, little like church, things we get from

church, you know, but it wasn't a church.

Mr. LIEBELER - Were they written in Spanish, any of them, do you know?

Mr. DELGADO - Not that I can recall; no.

Mr. LIEBELER. Did you have any reason to believe that these things came to

Oswald from the Cuban consulate?

Mr. DELGADO. Well, I took it for granted that they did after I seen the

envelope, you know.

Mr. LIEBELER. What was on this envelope that made you think that?

Mr. DELGADO. Something like a Mexican eagle, with a big, impressive seal,

you know. They had different colors on it, red and white; almost looked like

our colors, you know. But I can't recall the seal. I just knew it was in

Latin, United, something like that. I couldn't understand. It was Latin.

The problem here is twofold. Delgado and Oswald were together between

December. 1958 and the September, 1959. Castro came to power in January

1959, and, as Delgado himself explained, Castro was still not widely

regarded as a Communist during the time he knew Oswald. It is highly

unlikely therefore that the Cuban Consulate was sending out Communist

literature. The second problem is that the eagle is not a symbol of Cuba. On

the other hand, the double eagle is an Imperialist Russian symbol, and was

used on the seal of White Russian organisations.

As an example: Vonskiansky's All Russian National Revolutionary Party (aka

The Russian National Revolutionary Labor and Workers Peasant Party of

Fascists) seal consisted of a red banner bearing a white swastika on a blue

field, the banner being on a staff topped by the Russian Double

Eagle. Vonskiansky published fascist newspapers up until 1965.

www.fbi.gov/libref/historic/famcases/vonsiatsky/espionage.htm

Back to the testimony:

Mr. LIEBELER. You don't know for sure whether it was from the Cuban

consulate?

Mr. DELGADO. No. But he had told me prior, just before I found that envelope

in his wall locker, that he was receiving mail from them, and one time he

offered to show it to me, but I wasn't much interested because at the time

we had work to do, and I never did ask to see that paper again, you know.

So here we have it... none of the material Delgado got to see was in

Spanish, and he admits that he did not actually see any mail from the Cuban

Consulate. Delgado mistakenly believed the seal with an eagle was of Cuban

origin. Might it not be possible that Oswald was pulling Delgado's leg about

receiving letters from the consulate? Delgado's evidence did not stop the WC

from pushing the Cuban line. Curiously, Oswald, after his August 9 arrest in

NO, was asked by Lt Martello when he first heard about the FPCC. Oswald

answered that it was whilst stationed at Santa Ana. Trouble is, the FPCC did

not come into being until 1960. It could be though, that creating such an

organisation was discussed at the Unitarian Church which Thornley

frequented. As we will see, however, the head of that congregation, Stephen

Fritchman, very likely had ties to the CIA.

Mr. LIEBELER. Did he tell you what his correspondence with the Cuban

consulate was about?

Mr. DELGADO. No; he didn't.

Mr. LIEBELER. Did he ever indicate to you that it had to do with the

conversation that you had about going over to Cuba?

Mr. DELGADO. No. The only thing he told me was that right after he had this

conversation with the Cuban people was that he was going to---once he got

out of the service he was going to Switzerland, he was going to a school,

and this school in Switzerland was supposed to teach him in 2 years--in 6

months what it had taken him to learn in psychology over here in 2 years,

something like that.

Mr. LIEBELER. Did he tell you the name of the school?

Mr. DELGADO. No; but he applied for it while in the service, and as far as I

knew, that's where he was going once he got discharged.

THORNLEY AND THE FREEDOM SCHOOL

At this point we must look to Thornley's testimony: "I don't recall what the

question was- oh, yes, he had asked me something about, I believe it was the

First Unitarian Church in Los Angeles. I had mentioned earlier at the time I

was talking to Oswald, and knew Oswald, I had been going to the First

Unitarian Church in Los Angeles. This is a group of quite far to the left

people politically for the most part, and mentioned in order to explain my

political relationship with Oswald, at that moment, and he [FBI agent] began

to ask me questions about the First Unitarian Church and I answered, and

then he realized or understood or asked what Oswald's connection with the

First Unitarian Church was and I explained to him that there was none."

Was Thornley being truthful here? A connection between Lee and the Unitarian

Church makes perfect sense once you factor in his application to attend the

Albert Schweitzer College during this period. The college was founded by the

International Association for Religious Freedom (IARF) - itself started by

Unitarians along with noted members of the "Free Thinkers" movement - one

being Jack London, who Oswald named as one of his favourite authors on his

college application. London is frequently quoted for inspiration by

Unitarian Ministers. The other two authors named were Charles Darwin - a

Unitarian, and the Catholic-hating author of the Power of Positive Thinking,

Norman Vincent Peale. On a side note, Peale was in Swizerland plotting JFKs

election downfall at the time Oswald was supposed to be there. The Los

Angeles Unitarian Church was run by Stephen (also found as "Steven")

Fritchman. Fritchman's name later turned up in the notebook of Richard Case

Nagell. The pamphlets Oswald received, that Delgado described as "things we

get from church, you know, but it wasn't a church", could in fact, have been

information brochures about the Albert Schweizter College from the Unitarian

Church.

So what was the alleged Marxist Lee doing reading White Russian (Fascist)

newspapers while planning a trip to attend a liberal (in the European sense)

college in Switzerland? For that matter, what was the right-leaning

libertarian Thornley doing attending a "Leftist" Church?

Whoever coined the phrase "nothing is as it seems" was one step ahead of all

of us.

There has to be an answer, and that answer may be found in people like

Fritchman, the Unitarian Church, Richard Case Nagell, and in The White

Russian Church (aka the Russian Orthodox Church)... which was also a member

of the IARF, among other groups and individuals we'll come to in this

attempt to untangle the web.

First we need to jump forward to 1964. Thornley tells us in his book,

Zenarchy, that he spent part of 1964 at the Freedom School in Larkspur,

Colarado. This was operated by Robert LeFevre, but the money behind it came

from publisher, RC Hoile - founder of a movement he called "Voluntaryism".

According to voluntaryists, the state (ie government) is "coercive" in all

of its actions, and though the state can take "credit" for all or most of

the harm and evil in the world, it can take absolutely no credit for any

advances in society. At the core of the matter, is tax and free

market enterprise. In late 1958 and early 1959, Hoile had given lectures on

voluntaryism to the Uniatrian Fellowship of Orange County, and the Exchange

Club of Santa Ana. No doubt, Hoile first came to Thornley's attention during

on of those lectures. Orange County, in which Santa Ana is located, was a

noted right wing haven. The Unitarian Fellowship of Orange County was not out of

place - yet Thornley preferred attending a left wing church in Los Angeles!

Hoile and LeFevre abandoned their usual shyness about publicly supporting

political candidtates once, and once only, to throw their collective weight

behind Goldwater's 1964 run for office.

The Freedom School, meanwhile, was a recruiting ground for the Minutemen

(source: "A Generation Divided: The New Left, The New Right, and the 1960's"

by Rebecca E Klatch.)

PERCIVAL FLACK BRUNDAGE AND THE ALBERT SCHWEITZER COLLEGE

His activities in government, civic, and community services were numerous.

He was director (1940-54) and chairman (1951-54) of Federal Union, Inc.,

which advocates federation of the Atlantic democracies. He was also

treasurer of the International Movement for Atlantic Union, which was

affiliated with Federal Union, Inc. He was director, American Christian

Committee for Refugees (1938); director, American Relief for Austria;

chairman of the board, Refugee Relief Trustees, and president, Society of

Business Advisory Professions. He was active in the National Bureau of

Economic Research, serving as president (1954), vice president (1952; 1953),

director (1943-66), and director emeritus from 1967 until his death. He was

also chairman of the Executive Committee of the New York Chamber of

Commerce (1952-54) and director, Montclair Community Chest (1950-54).

He was an honorary president of the American Youth Hostels. An active

member in church and charitable organizations, he was director of the

American Unitarian Association (1942-48) and in 1949 began the first of

five years as a director of the Unitarian Service Commfttee (1949-54). He

was also chairman, Unitarian Development Fund Campaign (1959-62). He

served as treasurer and director of the Atlantic Council of the United

States and Project HOPE. But of most interest here, he was president,

International Association for Religious Freedom (1952-55), and from 1953

to 1958, he President of the Friends of Albert Schweitzer College (source:

Fisher Business College).

Although Brundage resigned as Director of Budgets during the early part of

1958, he actually did stay on for a couple of more years in an "advisory"

capacity.

Brundage was linked to Robert R Mullen, Double-Chek. Southern Air Transport,

and Zenith Technical Enterprises in the May 19, 1975 issue of Newsweek.

FRITCHMAN AND THE WESTERN BEHAVIOURAL INSTITUTE

"For 25 years the Fellowship was lay led. John Shannon, 'the ministerial

presence,' was an excellent speaker and filled the pulpit himself on many

Sunday mornings. With his many contacts in the University system, in the

Unitarian Association, and in the community, he recruited many speakers over

the years. Andy Kay also brought speakers from the Western Behavioral

Institute including Earnest Mandeville, Steven Fritchman, Carl Rogers, and

Abraham Maslow, as well as many visiting Unitarian ministers."

I obtained the above quote from the website of the San Dieguito Unitarian

Fellowship history page. It was rewritten minus the above information

(coincidentally, I'm sure) after I had posted it some time ago on a jfk

newsgroup.

Carl Rogers had been funded by the CIA at the Society for the Investigation

of Human Ecology with the idea that his research would aid in finding a way

to control human behaviour - and this, no doubt, was the purpose of the

mysterious Western Behavioural Institute.

From the CIA on campus website: In an interview, Rogers told how he became

involved with Human Ecology: "James Monroe came to me and told me that Dr.

Harold Wolff, a neuropsychiatrist whom I had a lot of respect for, was

heading up an organization to do research on personality and so on. Then he

told me more and I realized that it had secret aspects to it."

"We did get, I think, a couple of grants from them, actually among the first

money we got to do research on psychotherapy. It was the research work we'd

been trying to do for a long time but couldn't get money enough to do it.

The fact that we got these grants, I think, helped us get the track record

so that we began to get some other support. "Then he (Monroe) did ask me to

go on the Board." As a board member, Rogers thought the money "was coming

from intelligence funds as a cover for secret work that was going on." He

said he was asked not to tell people where the money was coming from and saw

helping to maintain the cover as part of his duty.

"It was an organization which, as far as I knew at the time, was doing

legitimate things.... It's impossible in the present-day climate of attitude

toward intelligence activities to realize what it was like in the 1950s. It

seemed as though Russia was a very potential enemy and as though the United

States was very wise to get whatever information it could about things that

the Russians might try to do, such as brainwashing or influencing people. So

that it didn't seem at all dishonorable to me to be connected with an

intelligence outfit at that time. I look at it quite differently now."

Rogers states that now he would not touch covert funding "with a ten-foot

pole. Undoubtedly the government has to carry on intelligence activities,

but I don't like fooling our people."

The last meeting Rogers remembers did have an overt intelligence angle. He

and other people in the field of personality and psychotherapy were given a

lot of information about Khrushchev. "We were asked to figure out what we

thought of him and what would be the best way of dealing with him. And that

seemed to be an entirely principled and legitimate aspect. I don't think we

contributed very much, but, anyway, we tried."

Rogers furnished reports of his work to Human Ecology, but had no knowledge

of its application by the CIA. While Rogers saw himself as being funded to

study techniques and outcomes of nondirective therapy, the CIA seems to have

had other ideas. A CIA memo from January 1960 says of Rogers' research that

it could provide a mechanism for evaluating certain techniques of

influencing human behavior. Rogers never saw the memo.

http://www.cia-on-campus.org/social/behavior.html

Of interest here is that the Freedom School Thornley attended had

"praxeology" as one of the subjects students could study. It is defined as

the study of human behaviour. This sounds like the kind of study you would

expect to find within the CIA funded Society for Human Ecology and the

Western Behavioral Institute.

Frichtman, who was investigated by the HUAC in 1961, was, it seems, on the

CIA payrole through his connection to the Western Behavioral Institute.

RUTH PAINE AND THE US-USSR STUDENT EXCHANGE PROGRAM

Ruth Paine had worked for a number of years as part of a subcommittee within

the AFSC to bring students over from the USSR. According to the history page

of the Council on International Educational Exchange (CIEE), "the

possibility of such exchanges had been studied for several years by the

sponsoring agencies [note: one mentioned elsewhere in the history is the

AFSC]. Interest was renewed both with the easing of visa requirements by the

U.S. Congress in September 1957 and the relaxation of travel policies by the

U.S.S.R.The Cultural Agreement between the Soviet and U.S. governments in

January 1958 facilitated securing Soviet agreement on the exchange. That

agreement, signed by Ambassador William S.B. Lacey for the United States and

Ambassador Georgi N.Zaroubin for the Soviet Union, pledged the two

governments to encourage this type of student exchange as well as many other

cultural programs. On February 21, 1958, the Council on Student Travel and

the Soviet Youth Committee announced in New York and Moscow that the

exchange would take place."

The FBI supplemental report on their investigation of the assassination,

noted:"The April 26, 1958, issue of the 'Friends Journal,' a Quaker weekly

published by the Friends Publishing Corporation, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,

reported that 'Young Friends' had made final plans for a six-week summer

visit of four Russians to the United States. The article stated that six

Americans were to accompany the Russians by automobile, and their plans

included contact with Friends, visits to industry, farms, and schools, as

well as visits to areas of public interest to Soviet young people. The

article identified the members of the planning group, among them being the

name Ruth Hyde Paine."

Both Michael and Ruth Paine confirmed to the WC that Ruth was the committee

member who liaised with the State Department, but Ruth, when asked, was

unable to recall the name of the person she dealt with.

The CIEE website however, reveals that the buck stopped with the Director of

East-West Contacts within the State Department, Frederick T Merrill

("The entire project had the official encouragement of the U.S. Department

of State and received approbation from Frederick T. Merrill, director of the

East-West Contacts Staff...").

OSWALD AND THE EXCHANGE STUDENT

From Marina and Lee (p 68): "The exchange lasted less than an hour, but it

had so nasty a tone that it was remembered long afterward by three Americans

besides Snyder and Oswald, who were present during parts of it - John

McVickar, the vice-consul, Marie Cheatham, the receptionist, and Edward L

Keenan, a graduate exchange student down for the weekend from Leningrad."

What McMillan failed to mention was that, like her, Keenan had come to the USSR

from Harvard, and like her, worked at the Harvard Russian Research Center

upon his return. Keenan, in fact, is now a Professor of Russian Studies at

Harvard. According to The Compromised Campus: The Collaboration of

Universities with the Intelligence Community, 1945-1955 by Sigmund Diamond,

The Russian Research Center was sponsored by the CIA via funding laundered

through the Carnegie, Rockefeller and Ford Foundations. Academia was being

funded to give rationale to the Cold War, while, according to Richard

Bissell, as quoted in Marchetti's book, The Cult of Intelligence, the CIA

also had an interest in exchange programs, adding that such programs...

""are more effective if carried out by private auspices than if officially

supported by the United States Government."

PERCIVAL FLACK BRUNDAGE AND THE SPACE RACE

The apparent sudden urgency for an exchange program with the USSR, after

years of dithering, according to the CIEE, was because "the Sputnik

launched by the Soviet Union on October 4, 1957, changed history. Sputnik

changed the attitudes of thousands of Americans by revealing the necessity

to study other cultures and initiating a new wave in the development of

international education." It also was the impetus for the International

Geophysical Year (IGY) which spawned Project Vanguard. The IGY was

ostensibly designed to be a hybrid scientific/political response to Cold War

tensions involving the sharing of scientific data on a global scale, and it

was no coincidence that the US eased visa restrictions to the USSR the month

before the launch of Sputnik.

The "space race" issue was dominated at government committee levels by the

likes of Lyndon Johnson, James Killian of MIT, Nelson Rockefeller, and

Percival Brundage.

According to NASA, Project Vanguard was "the result of NSC 5520 and was

intended to establish 'Freedom of Space'--the right to overfly foreign

territory for future intelligence satellites." The U2s tracked by Oswald at

Atsugi were fast becoming obsolete.

FREDERICK T MERRILL AND THE FREE EUROPE COMMITTEE

The Free Europe Committee (FEC) was covertly funded by the CIA in order to

further the U.S. government's Cold War attempts to fight communism through

the use of exiled nationals. Among its projects, the FEC funded Radio Free

Europe, and the Assembly of Captive European Nations (ACEN). Merrill's role

with the FEC was in ensuring the flow of cash to the exile groups. Members

of ACEN for instance, had mostly been government and cultural leaders from

Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania,

Poland, and Romania. Founded on September 20, 1954, some had come from a

group calling itself Intermarium which had formed in the early 1930s.

According to The Secret History of the Jesuits by Edmund Paris, "in an

attempt to regain power in the Balkans and destroy the Orthodox Church, in

the 1920s the Vatican cooperated with a group of White Russians who fled

Soviet Russia and planned to return and defeat the Bolsheviks. This group

became known as the Intermarium - an international underground committee to

liberate and unite the peoples of the 'Intermare' region bounded by the

Baltic, Black, Aegean, and Adriatic Seas..."

Roaming around Europe during this period was Alexander Orlov (real name Leon

Feldbin), a Jewish White Russian (as was Joseph Rubenstein - father of Jack)

who had taken part in the Russian revolution, and then the Civil War against

his own people. Orlov's role was to establish Soviet spy networks in Western

Europe. The possibility is however, that he himself was recruited by the US

during this period. His flight from the Soviet Union to the US via Canada

was from fear of being named as a Nazi collaborator and summarily executed -

the same fate as a handful of colleagues.

GEORGE DE MOHRENSCHILDT AND "COL. LAWRENCE ORLOV"

De Mohrenschildt's first visit to the Oswald's abode was in the company of a

person he named before the WC as Colonel Lawrence Orlov, an American of

Russian descent. He appears to be one of the very few persons known to have

come into contact with the Oswalds - especially of Russian background - who

was never interviewed by the FBI, the WC or HSCA staff. That raises a very

big red flag as to just who this Orlov really was. But when you add that the

above-mentioned Alexander Orlov was working at the University of Michigan at

the same time Marina took an eight week course at the English Language

Institute at UM, the flag pole needs to be extended.

But Alexander Orlov is only one of no two potential players for the

role of "Lawrence".

There is also a Colonel Igor Orlov who "defected" from the Russian army to

join the Ghelen spy network. By 1944, Gehlen realised that Germany would

lose the war, and by early 1945, both Ghelen and Orlov were recruited by the

US. Operation Paperclip was under way. Orlov was said to be a ruthless

individual whose true allegiances are yet to be fully understood. Like

Alexander, Igor was in the US at the time of George Mohrenschildt and "Lawrence

Orlov's" visit to the Oswalds.

MISCELLANY

Like the administration that followed, Eisenhower's employed overt and

covert operations, as well as back channels to achieve objectives. Private

organisations were often used for these purposes.

The Old Roman Catholic Church and the Russian Orthodox Church have the same

roots, and became "unified" during

WWII. www.rmbowman.com/catholic/Hist15h.htm .

Both churches gave aid to Cuban exile groups.

CD Jackson, of Life Magazine, was President of the Free Europe Committee,

and later became embroiled in Cuban affairs. His magazine bought the

Zapruder film.

Oswald received a stipend while living in Minsk. It is unclear from reading

the Defector Study, whether this was from the International Red Cross, or

the Russian equivalent, the Red Crescent. The confusion arises because, in

the case of Libero Ricciardelli for example, the organisation is named as

the "Red Crescent", whereas with Oswald, it states "Red Cross". The authors

were clearly aware of the difference (as Oswald himself seemed to be, noting

in his Historic Diary that the money came from the MVD). The study shows

that the Red Crescent not only provided money to defectors such as

Ricciardelli, but interviewed them, and provided other types of support. It

is in fact, a little odd that this organisation is notably absent in

Oswald's life in Russia. Where were they, for instance during his

recuperation from his alleged suicide attempt? Riciardelli, when

hospitilised with rheumatic fever, was visited by the Red Crescent. They

also provided him with assistance with various paper work. The Red Crescent

came into existence in 1940 when the Soviets annexed part of Latvia. At that

time, the Latvian Red Cross and the Russian red Cross were incorporated into

the Red Crescent. The management of the former organisations were dismissed,

and humanitarian objectives were replaced by the new objective of aiding in

the implementation of the Communist Party's political resolutions. In short,

they "helped" people toe the party line and to be model citizens, aware of

their "voluntary" obligations. Oswald, stubbornly independant, seems to

nevertheless have had little difficulty in bringing himself to seek help

from the Red Cross. It was the Red Cross who assisted him in obtaining his

fraudulent dependancy discharge. It was the Red Cross he asked his mother

to seek fare assistance from for his return to the US (though it was

eventually the State Dept which did so). And it was the Red Cross he advised

Marina to turn to should anything happen to him in the so-called "Walker"

letter ("We have friends in the Red Cross. They will help you.").

Oswald also sought help in returning from the International Rescue

Committee - another committee with intelligence links from OSS/CIA to the

Gehlan network.

Spas T Raikin, who was sent by the State Department to pick up the Oswalds

on their arrival from the Soviet Union, was a member of the American Friends

of Anti-Bolshevic Nations. Like other such groups discussed earlier, this

group existed to destroy Communism, and was mainly made up of fascists and

their sympathisers.

Ferenc Nagy, former Hungarian leader, and leader to emigres, was the founder

of Permindex and was also on the board of the Centro Mondiale Commerciale

(CMC). Board members included State Secretary of agriculture under

Mussolini, Prince Gutierez di Spadafora, another Italian fascist named

Giuseppe Zigiotti, Swiss banker Hans Seligman and Georgio Mantello, whose

later claims that he helped Jews escape the holocaust were false according

to 1950s dept of State documents which indicate all he helped was himself to

their money. Clay Shaw referred to this rats nest of Nazi sympathisers

during his interview with Penthouse as mostly "Italian senators,

journalists, lawyers, and other responsible people." Shaw was a spin doctor

ahead of his time.

Gutierez di Spadafora's son married the daughter of Hitler's financial

wizard, Hjalmar Schacht. Schacht's parents had given him the full name of

Hjalmar Horace Greeley Schacht. As explained by Antony Sutton in Wall Street

and the Rise of Hitler, "The early history of Hjalmar Schacht, and in

particular his role in the Soviet Union after the Bolshevik Revolution of

1917, was described in my earlier book, Wall Street and the Bolshevik

Revolution. The elder Schacht had worked at the Berlin office of the

Equitable Trust Company of New York in the early twentieth century. Hjalmar was

born in Germany rather than New York only by the accident of his mother's

illness, which required the family to return to Germany. Brother William

Schacht was an American-born citizen. To record his American origins,

Hjalmar's middle names were designated "Horace Greeley" after the well-known

Democrat politician. Consequently, Hjalmar spoke fluent English and the

post-war interrogation of Schacht in Project Dustbin was conducted in both

German and English. The point to be made is that the Schacht family had its

origins in New York, worked for the prominent Wall Street financial house of

Equitable Trust (which was controlled by the Morgan firm)..." Horace Greeley

was originally involved with the Whigs - a liberal (in the US sense) party,

though decidedly anti-Catholic. He also became involved in experiments in

Utopian societies before eventually being nominated for president first by

the Republicans, then later. by the Democrats. Greeley belonged to the

Universalist Church which had close ties to the Unitarians - eventually

combining with them in the 1960s under the presidency of Dana McLean Greeley

[note: Charles Dana was an editor in the employ of Greeley before

establishing his own publishing company]. In the papers of Dana Greeley

held at Harvard, you will find letters, reports and memos between Dana

Greeley, Percival Brundage (who, as shown earlier, was the President of the

Friends of Albert Schweitzer College) and Robert Schacht, among others.

These papers are filed under "Albert Schweitzer College". Robert Schacht, a

Unitarian minister, was the US contact for the college, and the person to

whom Oswald sent his college application. Although I have not yet been able

to prove any blood relationship between Robert Schacht and Hjalmar, I

believe the strong possibility exists that they were related in some way

through Hjlamar's brother William [note: Robert Schacht's son was contacted

on my behalf and has denied any knowledge of a family relationship to

Hjalmar - lack of knowledge of such a relationship however, is not proof

that it did not exist].

John Pic's in-laws were Hungarian refugees. The apartment the Pic's lived in

in New York was that of Mary Fuhrman - Pic's mother-in-law. Mary and her

husband had separated some time after the birth of Pic's wife, Marge. Mary Fuhrman, for reasons never explained, left her home and stayed with her sister, Doris Ebel, thus making room for Marguerite and Lee.

Among those, along with Norman Vincent Peale, plotting JFK's election defeat

in Switzerland on religious grounds were Southern pro-segregationists, a

retired general, two former Klansman, and Paul Blanshard. Blanshard was a

prominent Unitarian who had been an aid to Norman Thomas. His involvement

with the League for Industrial Democracy (co-founded by Jack London), and

that organisation working hand in glove with the CIA during the height of

Anti-Communism - and the subsequent control of the labour movement - may

have been the cause of his own shift to the right, and his alignment with a

secretive conservative faction wihin the Unitarian church, and with Peale.

Recall that Oswald had named Peale, Jack London, and another Unitarian -

Charles Darwin as his three favourite authors.

Oswald's cousin, Marilyn Murret's testimony regarding her overseas travels:

Mr. LIEBELER. Did you work during the time you were gone on this trip?

Miss MURRET. I worked in Australia and New Zealand and Japan.

Mr. LIEBELER. As a teacher?

Miss MURRET. As a teacher; yes.

Mr. LIEBELER. Did you teach in Australian schools or----

Miss MURRET. Yes.

Mr. LIEBELER. Did you have any trouble with the teacher certification

problems, or don't they have that problem in those places?

Miss MURRET. Well, it depends what your field is. I was teaching science,

which is the same--they have a teacher's college which is 2 years, and, if

anything, you would have more than they have.

Mr. LIEBELER. You are a science teacher?

Miss MURRET. Yes.

Clearly, Liebeler knew enough about the subject to query Murret regarding

her claim to have taught in Australia. He did have cause for doubt. As far

as I am aware, teaching qualifications in Australia take 4 years, and it's

been that way for a very, very long time. But the more important issue is

the one on certification. You do indeed, need teacher certification to be

employed in that profession in Australia. And even today - it can be very

difficult to obtain. Exceptions are during times of teachers shortages - in

which case, specific overseas recruitment occurs. I am only aware of this

happening once - in the 1970s. The other exception would be teacher exchange

programs. One such program - which has been running for over 50 years - is

funded by the Cordell Hull Foundation (CHF) through designation of the State

Department. All 3 countries named by Murret are part of the program. The

foundation, long known for it's ties to the CIA, had its New Orleans office

in the Trade Mart building. Alton Ochsner the CHF President at the time

Murret left the US. Murret however, is usually linked to MIT's Center for

International Studies, Prof. Harold Isaacs by virtue of at least two FBI

documents (Isaacs was one of many former Trotskyites turned Cold Warrior).

This centre was, according to its own website, established for the express

purpose of performing "research that would help the United States in its

Cold War Struggle against the Soviet Union." This is a virtual admission of

CIA backing. No doubt, overseas junkets were a perk of the job. The FBI's

information on a Murret/Isaac link came from Paul Scot, a reporter with

extreme right wing views, who in turn had obtained the information from

subversion committees. Who their sources were, is unknown. The only certain

fact here is that Murret did not work in Australia without some form of

government cooperation - whether arranged through the Cordell Hull

Foundation or the through MITs Center for International Studies.

From the CIEE online history: "During the summers of 1947, 1948, and 1949,

the Council handled transportation and orientation programs on former C-4

troop ships and several Dutch vessels for approximately 10,000 U.S. and

foreign students, teachers, professors, research workers, youth members, and

others in educational and religious fields.The American ships were

Marine-type transports made available by the U.S. Maritime Commission with

the approval of the White House and the Departments of State and Commerce.

These were the Marine Jumper, Marine Flasher, and others operated by the

Maritime Administration and the United States Lines and put at the

disposal of education exchange groups by the Department of State. The Dutch

ships were placed in service through the cooperation of the Dutch government

and the Holland-America Line." Holland-America line was the line of choice

for Marxist Marines returning from the Cold.

Oswald wrote to the Albert Schweitzer College from Moscow advising of a date

of arrival - something he had no need to do if he already had plans to

"defect".

An ex-student of the Albert Schweitzer College was contacted. I was advised

by him that it was an ordinary "liberal" college. Enrolments were always

low. Nothing there during his time gave any cause for concern, though he'd

heard after leaving that the college did later have some problems with the

authorities.

The Old Roman Catholic Church (and all variations thereof) was often used

for intelligence purposes. Two examples: (1) Thomas Edward Beckham became

ordained in the Old Catholic Church through Jack Martin in order to run a

Cuban Mission as a front for exiles.(2) Tom Dowling, an "aid worker",

appeared before the House Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on Western

Hemisphere Affairs in april 1985 to counter claims of Contra massascres by

saying it was the Sandinistas doing all the nasty stuff. He was dressed as a

catholic priest - thus lending credibility to his testimony. The committee

however, later learned that he worked for Ollie North and belonged to the

Celtic Catholic Church - one of many of the various strands of the Old Catholic

Church.

Sometime after his return from the Soviet Union, Oswald applied for a job

with DeVilbiss who were based in Toledo Ohio - not far from the home of

Robert Webster (see CE 2444) . DeVilbiss manufactured atomisers and spray

guns similar to those made by Rand Corp. Webster had represented Rand Corp

at the US Exhibition in Moscow by demonstrating spay guns. These guns were

used for coating air and space craft with heat shielding material. Webster

had told the Soviets he would show them how to make the spray guns.

INTERIM CONCLUSIONS

Oswald was not part of a fake defector program. His mission in Moscow -

whatever it may have been - did not need a lot of time.

The decision to stay was through a last minute "window of opportunity" which

probably had the assistance of at least one person within the Soviert

bureaucracy. His goals may have been to gain entry to Patrice Lumamba

Univserity and/or to touch base with White Russians and the somewhat

enigmatic Ziger family.

Up until the above "window of opportunity" to stay, Oswald fully intended

going to the Albert Schweitzer College. The college did have a Cold War

purpose, however benign it may have been.

Exchange student, Edward Keenan, was in Snyder's office in a

witness/observer role at the time Oswald denounced his US citizenship.

Edited by Greg Parker
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  • 4 years later...
OSWALD AND THE WHITE RUSSIAN NEWSPAPER

Mr. DELGADO - Personally; I did; because I thought it funny for him to be

receiving a caller at such a late date time. Also, up to this time he hardly

ever received mail; in fact he very seldom received mail from home, because

I made it a policy, I used to pick up the mail for our hut and distribute it

to the guys in there, and very seldom did I see one for him. But every so

often, after he started to get in contact with these Cuban people, he

started getting little pamphlets and newspapers, and he always got a Russian

paper, and I asked him if it was, you know, a Commie paper--they let you get

away with this in the Marine Corps in a site like this--and he said, "No,

it's not Communist; it's a White Russian. To me that was Greek, you know,

White Russian, so I guess he is not a Communist; but he was steady getting

that periodical. It was a newspaper.

Mr. LIEBELER - In the Russian language?

Mr. DELGADO - Right.

Mr. LIEBELER - And he received that prior to the time he contacted the Cuban

consulate; did he not?

Mr. DELGADO - Right. And he also started receiving letters, you know, and no

books, maybe pamphlets, you know, little like church, things we get from

church, you know, but it wasn't a church.

Mr. LIEBELER - Were they written in Spanish, any of them, do you know?

Mr. DELGADO - Not that I can recall; no.

Mr. LIEBELER. Did you have any reason to believe that these things came to

Oswald from the Cuban consulate?

Mr. DELGADO. Well, I took it for granted that they did after I seen the

envelope, you know.

Mr. LIEBELER. What was on this envelope that made you think that?

Mr. DELGADO. Something like a Mexican eagle, with a big, impressive seal,

you know. They had different colors on it, red and white; almost looked like

our colors, you know. But I can't recall the seal. I just knew it was in

Latin, United, something like that. I couldn't understand. It was Latin.

The problem here is twofold. Delgado and Oswald were together between

December. 1958 and the September, 1959. Castro came to power in January

1959, and, as Delgado himself explained, Castro was still not widely

regarded as a Communist during the time he knew Oswald. It is highly

unlikely therefore that the Cuban Consulate was sending out Communist

literature. The second problem is that the eagle is not a symbol of Cuba. On

the other hand, the double eagle is an Imperialist Russian symbol, and was

used on the seal of White Russian organisations.

As an example: Vonskiansky's All Russian National Revolutionary Party (aka

The Russian National Revolutionary Labor and Workers Peasant Party of

Fascists) seal consisted of a red banner bearing a white swastika on a blue

field, the banner being on a staff topped by the Russian Double

Eagle. Vonskiansky published fascist newspapers up until 1965.

www.fbi.gov/libref/historic/famcases/vonsiatsky/espionage.htm

Back to the testimony:

Mr. LIEBELER. You don't know for sure whether it was from the Cuban

consulate?

Mr. DELGADO. No. But he had told me prior, just before I found that envelope

in his wall locker, that he was receiving mail from them, and one time he

offered to show it to me, but I wasn't much interested because at the time

we had work to do, and I never did ask to see that paper again, you know.

So here we have it... none of the material Delgado got to see was in

Spanish, and he admits that he did not actually see any mail from the Cuban

Consulate. Delgado mistakenly believed the seal with an eagle was of Cuban

origin. Might it not be possible that Oswald was pulling Delgado's leg about

receiving letters from the consulate? Delgado's evidence did not stop the WC

from pushing the Cuban line. Curiously, Oswald, after his August 9 arrest in

NO, was asked by Lt Martello when he first heard about the FPCC. Oswald

answered that it was whilst stationed at Santa Ana. Trouble is, the FPCC did

not come into being until 1960. It could be though, that creating such an

organisation was discussed at the Unitarian Church which Thornley

frequented. As we will see, however, the head of that congregation, Stephen

Fritchman, very likely had ties to the CIA.

Mr. LIEBELER. Did he tell you what his correspondence with the Cuban

consulate was about?

Mr. DELGADO. No; he didn't.

Mr. LIEBELER. Did he ever indicate to you that it had to do with the

conversation that you had about going over to Cuba?

Mr. DELGADO. No. The only thing he told me was that right after he had this

conversation with the Cuban people was that he was going to---once he got

out of the service he was going to Switzerland, he was going to a school,

and this school in Switzerland was supposed to teach him in 2 years--in 6

months what it had taken him to learn in psychology over here in 2 years,

something like that.

Mr. LIEBELER. Did he tell you the name of the school?

Mr. DELGADO. No; but he applied for it while in the service, and as far as I

knew, that's where he was going once he got discharged.

THORNLEY AND THE FREEDOM SCHOOL

At this point we must look to Thornley's testimony: "I don't recall what the

question was- oh, yes, he had asked me something about, I believe it was the

First Unitarian Church in Los Angeles. I had mentioned earlier at the time I

was talking to Oswald, and knew Oswald, I had been going to the First

Unitarian Church in Los Angeles. This is a group of quite far to the left

people politically for the most part, and mentioned in order to explain my

political relationship with Oswald, at that moment, and he [FBI agent] began

to ask me questions about the First Unitarian Church and I answered, and

then he realized or understood or asked what Oswald's connection with the

First Unitarian Church was and I explained to him that there was none."

Was Thornley being truthful here? A connection between Lee and the Unitarian

Church makes perfect sense once you factor in his application to attend the

Albert Schweitzer College during this period. The college was founded by the

International Association for Religious Freedom (IARF) - itself started by

Unitarians along with noted members of the "Free Thinkers" movement - one

being Jack London, who Oswald named as one of his favourite authors on his

college application. London is frequently quoted for inspiration by

Unitarian Ministers. The other two authors named were Charles Darwin - a

Unitarian, and the Catholic-hating author of the Power of Positive Thinking,

Norman Vincent Peale. On a side note, Peale was in Swizerland plotting JFKs

election downfall at the time Oswald was supposed to be there. The Los

Angeles Unitarian Church was run by Stephen (also found as "Steven")

Fritchman. Fritchman's name later turned up in the notebook of Richard Case

Nagell. The pamphlets Oswald received, that Delgado described as "things we

get from church, you know, but it wasn't a church", could in fact, have been

information brochures about the Albert Schweizter College from the Unitarian

Church.

So what was the alleged Marxist Lee doing reading White Russian (Fascist)

newspapers while planning a trip to attend a liberal (in the European sense)

college in Switzerland? For that matter, what was the right-leaning

libertarian Thornley doing attending a "Leftist" Church?

Whoever coined the phrase "nothing is as it seems" was one step ahead of all

of us.

There has to be an answer, and that answer may be found in people like

Fritchman, the Unitarian Church, Richard Case Nagell, and in The White

Russian Church (aka the Russian Orthodox Church)... which was also a member

of the IARF, among other groups and individuals we'll come to in this

attempt to untangle the web.

First we need to jump forward to 1964. Thornley tells us in his book,

Zenarchy, that he spent part of 1964 at the Freedom School in Larkspur,

Colarado. This was operated by Robert LeFevre, but the money behind it came

from publisher, RC Hoile - founder of a movement he called "Voluntaryism".

According to voluntaryists, the state (ie government) is "coercive" in all

of its actions, and though the state can take "credit" for all or most of

the harm and evil in the world, it can take absolutely no credit for any

advances in society. At the core of the matter, is tax and free

market enterprise. In late 1958 and early 1959, Hoile had given lectures on

voluntaryism to the Uniatrian Fellowship of Orange County, and the Exchange

Club of Santa Ana. No doubt, Hoile first came to Thornley's attention during

on of those lectures. Orange County, in which Santa Ana is located, was a

noted right wing haven. The Unitarian Fellowship of Orange County was not out of

place - yet Thornley preferred attending a left wing church in Los Angeles!

Hoile and LeFevre abandoned their usual shyness about publicly supporting

political candidtates once, and once only, to throw their collective weight

behind Goldwater's 1964 run for office.

The Freedom School, meanwhile, was a recruiting ground for the Minutemen

(source: "A Generation Divided: The New Left, The New Right, and the 1960's"

by Rebecca E Klatch.)

PERCIVAL FLACK BRUNDAGE AND THE ALBERT SCHWEITZER COLLEGE

His activities in government, civic, and community services were numerous.

He was director (1940-54) and chairman (1951-54) of Federal Union, Inc.,

which advocates federation of the Atlantic democracies. He was also

treasurer of the International Movement for Atlantic Union, which was

affiliated with Federal Union, Inc. He was director, American Christian

Committee for Refugees (1938); director, American Relief for Austria;

chairman of the board, Refugee Relief Trustees, and president, Society of

Business Advisory Professions. He was active in the National Bureau of

Economic Research, serving as president (1954), vice president (1952; 1953),

director (1943-66), and director emeritus from 1967 until his death. He was

also chairman of the Executive Committee of the New York Chamber of

Commerce (1952-54) and director, Montclair Community Chest (1950-54).

He was an honorary president of the American Youth Hostels. An active

member in church and charitable organizations, he was director of the

American Unitarian Association (1942-48) and in 1949 began the first of

five years as a director of the Unitarian Service Commfttee (1949-54). He

was also chairman, Unitarian Development Fund Campaign (1959-62). He

served as treasurer and director of the Atlantic Council of the United

States and Project HOPE. But of most interest here, he was president,

International Association for Religious Freedom (1952-55), and from 1953

to 1958, he President of the Friends of Albert Schweitzer College (source:

Fisher Business College).

Although Brundage resigned as Director of Budgets during the early part of

1958, he actually did stay on for a couple of more years in an "advisory"

capacity.

Brundage was linked to Robert R Mullen, Double-Chek. Southern Air Transport,

and Zenith Technical Enterprises in the May 19, 1975 issue of Newsweek.

FRITCHMAN AND THE WESTERN BEHAVIOURAL INSTITUTE

"For 25 years the Fellowship was lay led. John Shannon, 'the ministerial

presence,' was an excellent speaker and filled the pulpit himself on many

Sunday mornings. With his many contacts in the University system, in the

Unitarian Association, and in the community, he recruited many speakers over

the years. Andy Kay also brought speakers from the Western Behavioral

Institute including Earnest Mandeville, Steven Fritchman, Carl Rogers, and

Abraham Maslow, as well as many visiting Unitarian ministers."

I obtained the above quote from the website of the San Dieguito Unitarian

Fellowship history page. It was rewritten minus the above information

(coincidentally, I'm sure) after I had posted it some time ago on a jfk

newsgroup.

Carl Rogers had been funded by the CIA at the Society for the Investigation

of Human Ecology with the idea that his research would aid in finding a way

to control human behaviour - and this, no doubt, was the purpose of the

mysterious Western Behavioural Institute.

From the CIA on campus website: In an interview, Rogers told how he became

involved with Human Ecology: "James Monroe came to me and told me that Dr.

Harold Wolff, a neuropsychiatrist whom I had a lot of respect for, was

heading up an organization to do research on personality and so on. Then he

told me more and I realized that it had secret aspects to it."

"We did get, I think, a couple of grants from them, actually among the first

money we got to do research on psychotherapy. It was the research work we'd

been trying to do for a long time but couldn't get money enough to do it.

The fact that we got these grants, I think, helped us get the track record

so that we began to get some other support. "Then he (Monroe) did ask me to

go on the Board." As a board member, Rogers thought the money "was coming

from intelligence funds as a cover for secret work that was going on." He

said he was asked not to tell people where the money was coming from and saw

helping to maintain the cover as part of his duty.

"It was an organization which, as far as I knew at the time, was doing

legitimate things.... It's impossible in the present-day climate of attitude

toward intelligence activities to realize what it was like in the 1950s. It

seemed as though Russia was a very potential enemy and as though the United

States was very wise to get whatever information it could about things that

the Russians might try to do, such as brainwashing or influencing people. So

that it didn't seem at all dishonorable to me to be connected with an

intelligence outfit at that time. I look at it quite differently now."

Rogers states that now he would not touch covert funding "with a ten-foot

pole. Undoubtedly the government has to carry on intelligence activities,

but I don't like fooling our people."

The last meeting Rogers remembers did have an overt intelligence angle. He

and other people in the field of personality and psychotherapy were given a

lot of information about Khrushchev. "We were asked to figure out what we

thought of him and what would be the best way of dealing with him. And that

seemed to be an entirely principled and legitimate aspect. I don't think we

contributed very much, but, anyway, we tried."

Rogers furnished reports of his work to Human Ecology, but had no knowledge

of its application by the CIA. While Rogers saw himself as being funded to

study techniques and outcomes of nondirective therapy, the CIA seems to have

had other ideas. A CIA memo from January 1960 says of Rogers' research that

it could provide a mechanism for evaluating certain techniques of

influencing human behavior. Rogers never saw the memo.

http://www.cia-on-campus.org/social/behavior.html

Of interest here is that the Freedom School Thornley attended had

"praxeology" as one of the subjects students could study. It is defined as

the study of human behaviour. This sounds like the kind of study you would

expect to find within the CIA funded Society for Human Ecology and the

Western Behavioral Institute.

Frichtman, who was investigated by the HUAC in 1961, was, it seems, on the

CIA payrole through his connection to the Western Behavioral Institute.

RUTH PAINE AND THE US-USSR STUDENT EXCHANGE PROGRAM

Ruth Paine had worked for a number of years as part of a subcommittee within

the AFSC to bring students over from the USSR. According to the history page

of the Council on International Educational Exchange (CIEE), "the

possibility of such exchanges had been studied for several years by the

sponsoring agencies [note: one mentioned elsewhere in the history is the

AFSC]. Interest was renewed both with the easing of visa requirements by the

U.S. Congress in September 1957 and the relaxation of travel policies by the

U.S.S.R.The Cultural Agreement between the Soviet and U.S. governments in

January 1958 facilitated securing Soviet agreement on the exchange. That

agreement, signed by Ambassador William S.B. Lacey for the United States and

Ambassador Georgi N.Zaroubin for the Soviet Union, pledged the two

governments to encourage this type of student exchange as well as many other

cultural programs. On February 21, 1958, the Council on Student Travel and

the Soviet Youth Committee announced in New York and Moscow that the

exchange would take place."

The FBI supplemental report on their investigation of the assassination,

noted:"The April 26, 1958, issue of the 'Friends Journal,' a Quaker weekly

published by the Friends Publishing Corporation, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,

reported that 'Young Friends' had made final plans for a six-week summer

visit of four Russians to the United States. The article stated that six

Americans were to accompany the Russians by automobile, and their plans

included contact with Friends, visits to industry, farms, and schools, as

well as visits to areas of public interest to Soviet young people. The

article identified the members of the planning group, among them being the

name Ruth Hyde Paine."

Both Michael and Ruth Paine confirmed to the WC that Ruth was the committee

member who liaised with the State Department, but Ruth, when asked, was

unable to recall the name of the person she dealt with.

The CIEE website however, reveals that the buck stopped with the Director of

East-West Contacts within the State Department, Frederick T Merrill

("The entire project had the official encouragement of the U.S. Department

of State and received approbation from Frederick T. Merrill, director of the

East-West Contacts Staff...").

OSWALD AND THE EXCHANGE STUDENT

From Marina and Lee (p 68): "The exchange lasted less than an hour, but it

had so nasty a tone that it was remembered long afterward by three Americans

besides Snyder and Oswald, who were present during parts of it - John

McVickar, the vice-consul, Marie Cheatham, the receptionist, and Edward L

Keenan, a graduate exchange student down for the weekend from Leningrad."

What McMillan failed to mention was that, like her, Keenan had come to the USSR

from Harvard, and like her, worked at the Harvard Russian Research Center

upon his return. Keenan, in fact, is now a Professor of Russian Studies at

Harvard. According to The Compromised Campus: The Collaboration of

Universities with the Intelligence Community, 1945-1955 by Sigmund Diamond,

The Russian Research Center was sponsored by the CIA via funding laundered

through the Carnegie, Rockefeller and Ford Foundations. Academia was being

funded to give rationale to the Cold War, while, according to Richard

Bissell, as quoted in Marchetti's book, The Cult of Intelligence, the CIA

also had an interest in exchange programs, adding that such programs...

""are more effective if carried out by private auspices than if officially

supported by the United States Government."

PERCIVAL FLACK BRUNDAGE AND THE SPACE RACE

The apparent sudden urgency for an exchange program with the USSR, after

years of dithering, according to the CIEE, was because "the Sputnik

launched by the Soviet Union on October 4, 1957, changed history. Sputnik

changed the attitudes of thousands of Americans by revealing the necessity

to study other cultures and initiating a new wave in the development of

international education." It also was the impetus for the International

Geophysical Year (IGY) which spawned Project Vanguard. The IGY was

ostensibly designed to be a hybrid scientific/political response to Cold War

tensions involving the sharing of scientific data on a global scale, and it

was no coincidence that the US eased visa restrictions to the USSR the month

before the launch of Sputnik.

The "space race" issue was dominated at government committee levels by the

likes of Lyndon Johnson, James Killian of MIT, Nelson Rockefeller, and

Percival Brundage.

According to NASA, Project Vanguard was "the result of NSC 5520 and was

intended to establish 'Freedom of Space'--the right to overfly foreign

territory for future intelligence satellites." The U2s tracked by Oswald at

Atsugi were fast becoming obsolete.

FREDERICK T MERRILL AND THE FREE EUROPE COMMITTEE

The Free Europe Committee (FEC) was covertly funded by the CIA in order to

further the U.S. government's Cold War attempts to fight communism through

the use of exiled nationals. Among its projects, the FEC funded Radio Free

Europe, and the Assembly of Captive European Nations (ACEN). Merrill's role

with the FEC was in ensuring the flow of cash to the exile groups. Members

of ACEN for instance, had mostly been government and cultural leaders from

Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania,

Poland, and Romania. Founded on September 20, 1954, some had come from a

group calling itself Intermarium which had formed in the early 1930s.

According to The Secret History of the Jesuits by Edmund Paris, "in an

attempt to regain power in the Balkans and destroy the Orthodox Church, in

the 1920s the Vatican cooperated with a group of White Russians who fled

Soviet Russia and planned to return and defeat the Bolsheviks. This group

became known as the Intermarium - an international underground committee to

liberate and unite the peoples of the 'Intermare' region bounded by the

Baltic, Black, Aegean, and Adriatic Seas..."

Roaming around Europe during this period was Alexander Orlov (real name Leon

Feldbin), a Jewish White Russian (as was Joseph Rubenstein - father of Jack)

who had taken part in the Russian revolution, and then the Civil War against

his own people. Orlov's role was to establish Soviet spy networks in Western

Europe. The possibility is however, that he himself was recruited by the US

during this period. His flight from the Soviet Union to the US via Canada

was from fear of being named as a Nazi collaborator and summarily executed -

the same fate as a handful of colleagues.

GEORGE DE MOHRENSCHILDT AND "COL. LAWRENCE ORLOV"

De Mohrenschildt's first visit to the Oswald's abode was in the company of a

person he named before the WC as Colonel Lawrence Orlov, an American of

Russian descent. He appears to be one of the very few persons known to have

come into contact with the Oswalds - especially of Russian background - who

was never interviewed by the FBI, the WC or HSCA staff. That raises a very

big red flag as to just who this Orlov really was. But when you add that the

above-mentioned Alexander Orlov was working at the University of Michigan at

the same time Marina took an eight week course at the English Language

Institute at UM, the flag pole needs to be extended.

But Alexander Orlov is only one of no two potential players for the

role of "Lawrence".

There is also a Colonel Igor Orlov who "defected" from the Russian army to

join the Ghelen spy network. By 1944, Gehlen realised that Germany would

lose the war, and by early 1945, both Ghelen and Orlov were recruited by the

US. Operation Paperclip was under way. Orlov was said to be a ruthless

individual whose true allegiances are yet to be fully understood. Like

Alexander, Igor was in the US at the time of George Mohrenschildt and "Lawrence

Orlov's" visit to the Oswalds.

MISCELLANY

Like the administration that followed, Eisenhower's employed overt and

covert operations, as well as back channels to achieve objectives. Private

organisations were often used for these purposes.

The Old Roman Catholic Church and the Russian Orthodox Church have the same

roots, and became "unified" during

WWII. www.rmbowman.com/catholic/Hist15h.htm .

Both churches gave aid to Cuban exile groups.

CD Jackson, of Life Magazine, was President of the Free Europe Committee,

and later became embroiled in Cuban affairs. His magazine bought the

Zapruder film.

Oswald received a stipend while living in Minsk. It is unclear from reading

the Defector Study, whether this was from the International Red Cross, or

the Russian equivalent, the Red Crescent. The confusion arises because, in

the case of Libero Ricciardelli for example, the organisation is named as

the "Red Crescent", whereas with Oswald, it states "Red Cross". The authors

were clearly aware of the difference (as Oswald himself seemed to be, noting

in his Historic Diary that the money came from the MVD). The study shows

that the Red Crescent not only provided money to defectors such as

Ricciardelli, but interviewed them, and provided other types of support. It

is in fact, a little odd that this organisation is notably absent in

Oswald's life in Russia. Where were they, for instance during his

recuperation from his alleged suicide attempt? Riciardelli, when

hospitilised with rheumatic fever, was visited by the Red Crescent. They

also provided him with assistance with various paper work. The Red Crescent

came into existence in 1940 when the Soviets annexed part of Latvia. At that

time, the Latvian Red Cross and the Russian red Cross were incorporated into

the Red Crescent. The management of the former organisations were dismissed,

and humanitarian objectives were replaced by the new objective of aiding in

the implementation of the Communist Party's political resolutions. In short,

they "helped" people toe the party line and to be model citizens, aware of

their "voluntary" obligations. Oswald, stubbornly independant, seems to

nevertheless have had little difficulty in bringing himself to seek help

from the Red Cross. It was the Red Cross who assisted him in obtaining his

fraudulent dependancy discharge. It was the Red Cross he asked his mother

to seek fare assistance from for his return to the US (though it was

eventually the State Dept which did so). And it was the Red Cross he advised

Marina to turn to should anything happen to him in the so-called "Walker"

letter ("We have friends in the Red Cross. They will help you.").

Oswald also sought help in returning from the International Rescue

Committee - another committee with intelligence links from OSS/CIA to the

Gehlan network.

Spas T Raikin, who was sent by the State Department to pick up the Oswalds

on their arrival from the Soviet Union, was a member of the American Friends

of Anti-Bolshevic Nations. Like other such groups discussed earlier, this

group existed to destroy Communism, and was mainly made up of fascists and

their sympathisers.

Ferenc Nagy, former Hungarian leader, and leader to emigres, was the founder

of Permindex and was also on the board of the Centro Mondiale Commerciale

(CMC). Board members included State Secretary of agriculture under

Mussolini, Prince Gutierez di Spadafora, another Italian fascist named

Giuseppe Zigiotti, Swiss banker Hans Seligman and Georgio Mantello, whose

later claims that he helped Jews escape the holocaust were false according

to 1950s dept of State documents which indicate all he helped was himself to

their money. Clay Shaw referred to this rats nest of Nazi sympathisers

during his interview with Penthouse as mostly "Italian senators,

journalists, lawyers, and other responsible people." Shaw was a spin doctor

ahead of his time.

Gutierez di Spadafora's son married the daughter of Hitler's financial

wizard, Hjalmar Schacht. Schacht's parents had given him the full name of

Hjalmar Horace Greeley Schacht. As explained by Antony Sutton in Wall Street

and the Rise of Hitler, "The early history of Hjalmar Schacht, and in

particular his role in the Soviet Union after the Bolshevik Revolution of

1917, was described in my earlier book, Wall Street and the Bolshevik

Revolution. The elder Schacht had worked at the Berlin office of the

Equitable Trust Company of New York in the early twentieth century. Hjalmar was

born in Germany rather than New York only by the accident of his mother's

illness, which required the family to return to Germany. Brother William

Schacht was an American-born citizen. To record his American origins,

Hjalmar's middle names were designated "Horace Greeley" after the well-known

Democrat politician. Consequently, Hjalmar spoke fluent English and the

post-war interrogation of Schacht in Project Dustbin was conducted in both

German and English. The point to be made is that the Schacht family had its

origins in New York, worked for the prominent Wall Street financial house of

Equitable Trust (which was controlled by the Morgan firm)..." Horace Greeley

was originally involved with the Whigs - a liberal (in the US sense) party,

though decidedly anti-Catholic. He also became involved in experiments in

Utopian societies before eventually being nominated for president first by

the Republicans, then later. by the Democrats. Greeley belonged to the

Universalist Church which had close ties to the Unitarians - eventually

combining with them in the 1960s under the presidency of Dana McLean Greeley

[note: Charles Dana was an editor in the employ of Greeley before

establishing his own publishing company]. In the papers of Dana Greeley

held at Harvard, you will find letters, reports and memos between Dana

Greeley, Percival Brundage (who, as shown earlier, was the President of the

Friends of Albert Schweitzer College) and Robert Schacht, among others.

These papers are filed under "Albert Schweitzer College". Robert Schacht, a

Unitarian minister, was the US contact for the college, and the person to

whom Oswald sent his college application. Although I have not yet been able

to prove any blood relationship between Robert Schacht and Hjalmar, I

believe the strong possibility exists that they were related in some way

through Hjlamar's brother William [note: Robert Schacht's son was contacted

on my behalf and has denied any knowledge of a family relationship to

Hjalmar - lack of knowledge of such a relationship however, is not proof

that it did not exist].

John Pic's in-laws were Hungarian refugees. The apartment the Pic's lived in

in New York was that of Mary Fuhrman - Pic's mother-in-law. Mary and her

husband had separated some time after the birth of Pic's wife, Marge. Mary Fuhrman, for reasons never explained, left her home and stayed with her sister, Doris Ebel, thus making room for Marguerite and Lee.

Among those, along with Norman Vincent Peale, plotting JFK's election defeat

in Switzerland on religious grounds were Southern pro-segregationists, a

retired general, two former Klansman, and Paul Blanshard. Blanshard was a

prominent Unitarian who had been an aid to Norman Thomas. His involvement

with the League for Industrial Democracy (co-founded by Jack London), and

that organisation working hand in glove with the CIA during the height of

Anti-Communism - and the subsequent control of the labour movement - may

have been the cause of his own shift to the right, and his alignment with a

secretive conservative faction wihin the Unitarian church, and with Peale.

Recall that Oswald had named Peale, Jack London, and another Unitarian -

Charles Darwin as his three favourite authors.

Oswald's cousin, Marilyn Murret's testimony regarding her overseas travels:

Mr. LIEBELER. Did you work during the time you were gone on this trip?

Miss MURRET. I worked in Australia and New Zealand and Japan.

Mr. LIEBELER. As a teacher?

Miss MURRET. As a teacher; yes.

Mr. LIEBELER. Did you teach in Australian schools or----

Miss MURRET. Yes.

Mr. LIEBELER. Did you have any trouble with the teacher certification

problems, or don't they have that problem in those places?

Miss MURRET. Well, it depends what your field is. I was teaching science,

which is the same--they have a teacher's college which is 2 years, and, if

anything, you would have more than they have.

Mr. LIEBELER. You are a science teacher?

Miss MURRET. Yes.

Clearly, Liebeler knew enough about the subject to query Murret regarding

her claim to have taught in Australia. He did have cause for doubt. As far

as I am aware, teaching qualifications in Australia take 4 years, and it's

been that way for a very, very long time. But the more important issue is

the one on certification. You do indeed, need teacher certification to be

employed in that profession in Australia. And even today - it can be very

difficult to obtain. Exceptions are during times of teachers shortages - in

which case, specific overseas recruitment occurs. I am only aware of this

happening once - in the 1970s. The other exception would be teacher exchange

programs. One such program - which has been running for over 50 years - is

funded by the Cordell Hull Foundation (CHF) through designation of the State

Department. All 3 countries named by Murret are part of the program. The

foundation, long known for it's ties to the CIA, had its New Orleans office

in the Trade Mart building. Alton Ochsner the CHF President at the time

Murret left the US. Murret however, is usually linked to MIT's Center for

International Studies, Prof. Harold Isaacs by virtue of at least two FBI

documents (Isaacs was one of many former Trotskyites turned Cold Warrior).

This centre was, according to its own website, established for the express

purpose of performing "research that would help the United States in its

Cold War Struggle against the Soviet Union." This is a virtual admission of

CIA backing. No doubt, overseas junkets were a perk of the job. The FBI's

information on a Murret/Isaac link came from Paul Scot, a reporter with

extreme right wing views, who in turn had obtained the information from

subversion committees. Who their sources were, is unknown. The only certain

fact here is that Murret did not work in Australia without some form of

government cooperation - whether arranged through the Cordell Hull

Foundation or the through MITs Center for International Studies.

From the CIEE online history: "During the summers of 1947, 1948, and 1949,

the Council handled transportation and orientation programs on former C-4

troop ships and several Dutch vessels for approximately 10,000 U.S. and

foreign students, teachers, professors, research workers, youth members, and

others in educational and religious fields.The American ships were

Marine-type transports made available by the U.S. Maritime Commission with

the approval of the White House and the Departments of State and Commerce.

These were the Marine Jumper, Marine Flasher, and others operated by the

Maritime Administration and the United States Lines and put at the

disposal of education exchange groups by the Department of State. The Dutch

ships were placed in service through the cooperation of the Dutch government

and the Holland-America Line." Holland-America line was the line of choice

for Marxist Marines returning from the Cold.

Oswald wrote to the Albert Schweitzer College from Moscow advising of a date

of arrival - something he had no need to do if he already had plans to

"defect".

An ex-student of the Albert Schweitzer College was contacted. I was advised

by him that it was an ordinary "liberal" college. Enrolments were always

low. Nothing there during his time gave any cause for concern, though he'd

heard after leaving that the college did later have some problems with the

authorities.

The Old Roman Catholic Church (and all variations thereof) was often used

for intelligence purposes. Two examples: (1) Thomas Edward Beckham became

ordained in the Old Catholic Church through Jack Martin in order to run a

Cuban Mission as a front for exiles.(2) Tom Dowling, an "aid worker",

appeared before the House Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on Western

Hemisphere Affairs in april 1985 to counter claims of Contra massascres by

saying it was the Sandinistas doing all the nasty stuff. He was dressed as a

catholic priest - thus lending credibility to his testimony. The committee

however, later learned that he worked for Ollie North and belonged to the

Celtic Catholic Church - one of many of the various strands of the Old Catholic

Church.

Sometime after his return from the Soviet Union, Oswald applied for a job

with DeVilbiss who were based in Toledo Ohio - not far from the home of

Robert Webster (see CE 2444) . DeVilbiss manufactured atomisers and spray

guns similar to those made by Rand Corp. Webster had represented Rand Corp

at the US Exhibition in Moscow by demonstrating spay guns. These guns were

used for coating air and space craft with heat shielding material. Webster

had told the Soviets he would show them how to make the spray guns.

INTERIM CONCLUSIONS

Oswald was not part of a fake defector program. His mission in Moscow -

whatever it may have been - did not need a lot of time.

The decision to stay was through a last minute "window of opportunity" which

probably had the assistance of at least one person within the Soviert

bureaucracy. His goals may have been to gain entry to Patrice Lumamba

Univserity and/or to touch base with White Russians and the somewhat

enigmatic Ziger family.

Up until the above "window of opportunity" to stay, Oswald fully intended

going to the Albert Schweitzer College. The college did have a Cold War

purpose, however benign it may have been.

Exchange student, Edward Keenan, was in Snyder's office in a

witness/observer role at the time Oswald denounced his US citizenship.

Another obscure factoid in the post assassination era regards the Minsk radio factory, and a trip to Russia almost exactly one year after President Kennedy's assassination, in which one of the members traveling there was a science advisor who served in the Kennedy Administration.......

VISIT TO THE USSR BY DR. DONALD HORNIG AND INFO ON RADIO PLANT AT WHIC

http://www.maryferrell.org/mffweb/archive/...amp;relPageId=1

Donald Frederick Hornig, fourteenth president of Brown University, was born in Milwaukee on March 17, 1920. He graduated from Harvard in 1940 and earned his Ph.D. in chemistry there in 1943. After working at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, he became a group leader at the Los Alamos Laboratory. When the first atomic bomb was detonated Hornig was the last man to leave the 100-foot tower on which the bomb was mounted just prior to the detonation. After this experience he came to Brown as assistant professor in 1946, and was promoted to associate professor in 1949. He was director of the Metcalf Research Laboratory from 1949 to 1957. He was associate dean of the Graduate School in 1951-52 and acting dean in 1952-53. He was promoted to full professor in 1951, when he was only 31 years old. In 1957 he left for Princeton where he became chairman of the Department of Chemistry and the first to hold the Donner Chair of Science. He became a member of the Space Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences in 1959. As a scientific advisor he served four presidents of the United States. President Eisenhower appointed him to his Science Advisory Committee in 1960. He was retained by President Kennedy, who announced a week before his assassination his appointment of Hornig as his science advisor, an appointment which was honored by President Johnson.

From Martha Mitchell’s Brunoniana

Edited by Robert Howard
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I had mentioned earlier at the time I was talking to Oswald, and knew

Oswald, I had been going to the First Unitarian Church in Los Angeles.

This is a group of quite far to the left people politically for the most part, and

mentioned in order to explain my political relationship with Oswald, at that

moment, and he [FBI agent] began to ask me questions about the

First Unitarian Church and I answered, and then he realized or understood

or asked what Oswald's connection with the First Unitarian Church was

and I explained to him that there was none."

Was Thornley being truthful here? A connection between Lee and the Unitarian

Church makes perfect sense once you factor in his application to attend the

Albert Schweitzer College during this period. The college was founded by the

International Association for Religious Freedom (IARF) - itself started by

Unitarians along with noted members of the "Free Thinkers" movement - one

being Jack London, who Oswald named as one of his favourite authors on his

college application. London is frequently quoted for inspiration by

Unitarian Ministers. The other two authors named were Charles Darwin - a

Unitarian, and the Catholic-hating author of the Power of Positive Thinking,

Norman Vincent Peale. On a side note, Peale was in Swizerland plotting JFKs

election downfall at the time Oswald was supposed to be there. The Los

Angeles Unitarian Church was run by Stephen (also found as "Steven")

Fritchman. Fritchman's name later turned up in the notebook of Richard Case

Nagell. The pamphlets Oswald received, that Delgado described as "things we

get from church, you know, but it wasn't a church", could in fact, have been

information brochures about the Albert Schweizter College from the Unitarian

Church.

So what was the alleged Marxist Lee doing reading White Russian (Fascist)

newspapers while planning a trip to attend a liberal (in the European sense)

college in Switzerland? For that matter, what was the right-leaning

libertarian Thornley doing attending a "Leftist" Church?

Whoever coined the phrase "nothing is as it seems" was one step ahead of all

of us.

There has to be an answer, and that answer may be found in people like

Fritchman, the Unitarian Church, Richard Case Nagell, and in The White

Russian Church (aka the Russian Orthodox Church)... which was also a member

of the IARF, among other groups and individuals we'll come to in this

attempt to untangle the web.

First we need to jump forward to 1964. Thornley tells us in his book,

Zenarchy, that he spent part of 1964 at the Freedom School in Larkspur,

Colarado. This was operated by Robert LeFevre, but the money behind it came

from publisher, RC Hoile - founder of a movement he called "Voluntaryism".

According to voluntaryists, the state (ie government) is "coercive" in all

of its actions, and though the state can take "credit" for all or most of

the harm and evil in the world, it can take absolutely no credit for any

advances in society. At the core of the matter, is tax and free

market enterprise. In late 1958 and early 1959, Hoile had given lectures on

voluntaryism to the Uniatrian Fellowship of Orange County, and the Exchange

Club of Santa Ana. No doubt, Hoile first came to Thornley's attention during

on of those lectures. Orange County, in which Santa Ana is located, was a

noted right wing haven. The Unitarian Fellowship of Orange County was not out of

place - yet Thornley preferred attending a left wing church in Los Angeles!

Hoile and LeFevre abandoned their usual shyness about publicly supporting

political candidtates once, and once only, to throw their collective weight

behind Goldwater's 1964 run for office.

The Freedom School, meanwhile, was a recruiting ground for the Minutemen

(source: "A Generation Divided: The New Left, The New Right, and the 1960's"

by Rebecca E Klatch.)

For what it's worth, if anything:

Project MKULTRA: Did the U.S. Government Actually Create Programmed Assassins?

By Curt Rowlett

Kerry Thornley

Kerry Thornley has claimed that he and Oswald were both mind-controlled patsys and involved in the JFK assassination without conscious knowledge.

Thornley served in the Marine Corps with Oswald. He too, was once stationed at Atsugi, Japan. Thornley has come to believe that he was, against his will and without his knowledge, part of the conspiracy that killed John Kennedy. (Thornley once worked at a Mexican restaurant in the Little Five Points area, my former neighborhood in Atlanta, Georgia. I remember him being pointed out to me once at a party and he was a familiar local figure to everyone. At that time, Thornley was regarded as just another oddball street personality who had wacky ideas about the JFK assassination, and no one really gave any particular credence to what he had to say. This was prior to the revival of mass interest in the Kennedy assassination that was generated by the release of the Oliver Stone film,
JFK
).

Thornley testified before the Warren Commission and at the time he claims he was satisfied that Oswald was Kennedy's killer. In the book,
Conspiracies, Cover-ups and Crimes
, author Jonathan Vankin interviewed

Thornley and reveals, among other things, that Thornley was living/working in New Orleans at the same time that Oswald was living there and in a neighborhood that was host to a whole cadre of intelligence agencies. Thornley reportedly met both Guy Bannister and David Ferrie while in New Orleans, and after moving to L.A., he met John Roselli, one of the country's most powerful mobsters and an object of suspicion regarding the Kennedy assassination. (Roselli was later found chopped into pieces and stuffed into an oil drum which had been dumped off the Florida coast shortly before he was to testify before the House Select Committee on Assassinations).

Vankin's book discusses how in 1961, while living in New Orleans, Thornley was introduced to a man named "Gary Kirstein" in a New Orleans bar called the Bourbon House. Thornley recalls that Kirstein was "sort of a neanderthal racist" and was writing a book titled, "Hitler Was a Good Guy". Thornley, in recalling the most memorable parts of his conversation with Kirstein states that he (Kirstein) and himself debated theoretically on how to assassinate President Kennedy, as if they were two writers discussing how it could be written in a novel. Thornley also says that Kirstein basically predicted everything that was going to happen in the next twenty years, including the Manson Family, the war in Vietnam, etc. (Thornley states that at the time he listened to this conversation, he was bored and disbelieving of Kirstein and that he had blotted out the memory of this conversation for ten years).

Thornley now believes that Kirstein may have been E. Howard Hunt, CIA spook extraordinaire and infamous Watergate "plumber". Thornley later wrote an article entitled, "Did the Plumbers Plug J.F.K., Too?" that appeared in an Atlanta underground newspaper. In the book
Secret and Suppressed,
Thornley wrote an article titled, "Is Paranoia a Form of Awareness?" in which he writes:

After I wrote Did the Plumbers Plug J.F.K., Too?, I got two unusual phone calls. First was a male voice imitating the sounds of a speeded-up tape recorder or a gibberish-talking cartoon character. Ten years earlier a (New Orleans resident) named Roger Lovin and I used to address one another in the Bourbon House with identical noises to those I was now hearing on the other end of the line...This time I simply replied with a word or two of bewilderment, and the caller hung up. Within seconds, the phone rang again. Now a male voice-not Roger's-said very clearly, "Kerry, do you know who this is?" When I answered in the negative, he said, "Good!" and again the caller hung up. (7)

Thornley said the voice on the telephone brought back "eerie memories" and sounded similar to the voice of the "Kirstein/Hunt" individual from New Orleans. (Shades of Telefon?) Also while in Atlanta, Thornley went to the Atlanta police during a time that an interest in new allegations regarding the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. were being investigated because he again "remembered that Kirstein had also talked about killing King". Twelve days after making statements to the police, Thornley was attacked and pistol-whipped by two men in ski masks who, strangely, took only his identification.

Thornley believed that he was programmed for some part in the assassination of Kennedy and that "Kirstein" was his controller and may have implanted some sort of device in his brain.

Greg,

Could you furnish the source for this statement:

Of interest here is that the Freedom School Thornley attended had

"praxeology" as one of the subjects students could study. It is defined as

the study of human behaviour. This sounds like the kind of study you would

expect to find within the CIA funded Society for Human Ecology and the

Western Behavioral Institute.

Frichtman, [sic] who was investigated by the HUAC in 1961, was, it seems, on the

CIA payrole [sic] through his connection to the Western Behavioral Institute.

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Mind Control, World Control

By Jim Keith

Chapter 18

FUTURE SHOCK

AND THE JFK HIT

If any event this century was calculated as a "future shock" programming of the American populace, it must be the assassination of John F. Kennedy. Although a majority of Americans believe that the murder of Kennedy was performed by a conspiracy, there are few who would suggest that it was an act of pure mind control.

The seminal research suggesting this interpretation of the assassination is that of "William Torbitt," reported to have been the pseudonym for deceased Texas lawyer David Copeland. Copeland was a prosecuting attorney in the early 1950s, later serving as a civil and criminal lawyer. He had been a close supporter of the Lyndon Johnson/Lloyd Bentsen political steamroller in Texas until 1963, when he severed his ties with the group for reasons that will become apparent. In 1970 Copeland wrote Nomenclature of an Assassination Cabal circulated widely in photocopy, detailing information that he had gathered while investigating the murder of President John F. Kennedy. Nomenclature has only recently been brought out in paperback from Adventures Unlimited under the title NASA, Nazis & JFK, 27 years after the fact.

While revealing much of the information relating to the thesis of the present chapter, Copeland was not aware of certain facts that I believe would have allowed him to see the broader overall picture. According to Copeland,'The killing of President Kennedy was planned and supervised by Division Five of the Federal Bureau of Investigation... Actually, Division Five acted dually with the Defense Intelligence Agency which was acting on behalf of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in the Pentagon." FBI Director and 33rd degree Freemason--the ranking Freemason in Washington, D.C. at the time--J. Edgar Hoover was according to Copeland, one of the conspirators. Vice President Lyndon Johnson was another. Not surprisingly, William Sullivan, former assistant FBI director, has stated that Hoover and Johnson "mistrusted and disliked all three Kennedy brothers. President Johnson and Hoover had mutual fear and hatred for the Kennedys." (I)

According to Copeland, ''L.M. Bloomfield, a Montreal, Canada lawyer bearing the reputation as a sex deviate, the direct supervisor of all contractual agents with J. Edgar Hoover's Division Five, was the top coordinator for the network planning the execution. A Swiss corporation, Permindex, was used to head five front organizations responsible for furnishing personnel and supervisors to carry out assigned duties."

Almost buried within the Nomenclature text is information that I consider among the most important revelations. He reports that prior to the assassination, in 1963, there was a top secret meeting at the Tryall Compound in Jamaica of Sir William Stephenson, Britain's top intelligence agent. At the meeting was Major Louis Mortimer Bloomfield of the British Special Operations Executive (SOE), an element of British intelligence allegedly created to infiltrate American intelligence: Colonel Shaw, formerly of the OSS; Ferenc Nagy, who had been a cabinet minister in the pro-Nazi Horthy government of Hungary, and later the prime minister of that country; Georgio Mantello, aka George Mandel, former trade minister for Mussolini; and White Russian imigries Jean de Menil and Paul Raigorodski. Shaw, Nagy, Montello, and Bloomfleld were all officials of Permindex. According to Copeland, the matter discussed at the meeting was the assassination of JFK. [21]

The Kennedy family themselves were products of "The Conspiracy. During Prohibition "Papa Joe" Kennedy worked with Newark, New Jersey's Reinfeld Syndicate, half of which was owned by the Bronfman bootlegging gang of Canada. After the war, Kennedy was given a British distiller's license personally approved by Winston Churchill, with the Kennedy fortune administered by the the Lazard Brothers, Ltd., Rothschild affiliates and one of Europe's most influential families. As American ambassador to Great Britain, Kennedy attached himself to the pro-Nazi Cliveden set, where Round Tablets and Fabians congregated. Kathleen Kennedy, the sister of John, Edward, and Robert, married the Marquess of Hartington, son and heir to the Duke of Devonshire, the head of worldwide Freemasonry, and of course prominent among the British ruling elite. Harold Macmillan, who became British prime minister during the John Kennedy presidency, was a member of the Duke's family.

While in Britain Joseph Kennedy was inducted into the Most Venerable Order of St. John of Jerusalem. Joseph and John Kennedy were trained in the Fabian-founded London School of Economics under the personal tutorage of Harold Laski, a Fabian Society controller. John Kennedy apparently crossed the conspiracy, and died because of it. Robert Kennedy's much touted war on the Mafia was in fact mostly a personal vendetta against Jimmy Hoffa, and a targeting of lower level operatives. Men like Meyer Lansky remained untouched. But in a number of foolhardy moves Kennedy began to buck the directives of the British, winding down U.S. presence in Southeast Asia, opening up a detente with the Soviet Union, and putting out feelers for secret talks with Castro. Although Copeland, in Nomenclature, implicates a complex weave of conspirators, including members of the Mafia, the fascist Solidarist movement, the FBI, NASA, and other groups, what he may have missed are what appear to me to be the highest levels of planning. Major Louis Mortimer Bloomfield had been recruited into the SOE in 1938, and while under commission in that organization, had been assigned to the American OSS, then detailed into the counterespionage Division Five of the FBI. At the time of John Kennedy's assassination, Bloomfleld was still an officer in Division Five.

After the war, Bloomfield had resumed his career as an attorney in Montreal, Canada in the law firm of Phillips, Vinefield, Bloomfield, and Goodman. He was attorney and controller for the Bronfman family fortune who in these latter days affected an air of propriety for those who didn't know their beginnings. The Bronfman family is the owner of Seagrams, the largest liquor company in North America. During prohibition the Bronfmans made their fortune in bootlegging, furnishing the networks of men like Arthur Flegenheimer, a.ka. Dutch Schultz, Amold Rothstein, Meyer Lansky, Benjamin "Bugsy" Siegel, and Charles 'Lucky" Luciano with their British-distilled p'OdUCt. After the repeal of hohibition, the Bronfmans became street- legal, with members of the family being elected into the highest levels of the Most Venerable Order of St. John of Jerusalem and intermarrying with the Rothschilds. [13]

Bloomfield was also a high-ranking official in the United Nations, providing legal advice to that august body. He found his way into that position by being a representative of the Round Table-established International Executive Board of the International Law Association, an offshoot formed in 1873 and charged with developing a one-world code of law. Bloomfield was also a high-ranking member of the Most Venerable Order of St. John of Jerusalem, and the annual chairman of the Histadrut campaign in Canada, that owns over one-third of the Gross National Product of Israel. Among his many positions, Bloomfield took on the role of consul-general in charge of the Western Hemisphere and Liberia, one of the largest centers in the world for the transfer of black market monies.

By 1958 Bloomfield had established Permindex, incorporated in Switzerland and purporting to be a trade exposition company, but in fact an international assassination bureau of the Special Operations Executive. All of the participants in the Kennedy plot at the Tryall Compound were officials and investors in Permindex. One of the chief operatives of Permindex was Colonel Clay Shaw of the OSS. Shaw, like Bloomfield, was a homosexual--this mentioned to make the connection to the long term homosexual orientation of many premier operatives at the highest level of the conspiracy. Shaw himself has testified that he was the OSS liaison officer to the headquarters of British Prime Minister Winston Churchill. Shaw returned to the U.S. after the war and took over the directorship of the International House/World Trade Center. leaving it to found the International Trade Market in New Orleans. Later, Shaw would become a director of Permindex, and the ITM would become a subsidiary of Centro Mondiale Commerciale, an arm of that assassination bureau. In all probability, all of these companies were fronts for the Special Operations Executive, that had long adhered to a policy of working through commercial fronts. At the time of this writing, there are over 50 World Trade Centers around the world, run from the World Trade Center Association of Clay Shaw, and connected by computer and satellite.

On March 16, 1967, Ferry Raymond Russo testified before a criminal district court panel in New Orleans, that he had been present during a conversation between Claw Shaw, David Ferrie, and a person calling himself "Leon Oswald." Ferrie, an agent of Division Five, talked about the necessity of three shooters and a "triangulation of fire, and that a scapegoat could be used to enable the actual assassins to escape. According to Copeland, in Nomenclature of an Assassination Cabal the person going by the name "Leon Oswald" was in fact William Seymour, an agent for a private detective agency called Double-Chek, reportedly used as a cut-out for Division Five and CIA operations. According to Nomenclature, seven riflemen were used to shoot Kennedy, a Mexico-based assassination squad whose Oaxaca-based organization had been put together in 1943 by FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover and SOE Commander Sir William Stephenson.

Copeland seems to have intuited that there was a programming behind the assassination, although not apparently making the connection of who was responsible. He said, "It should be pointed out that during a few years following John Kennedy's murder, the crime rate in the United States more than doubled. Public opinion surveys during the time reflected about 80% of the people did not believe the Warren Commission report. The general public felt someone or some group had been behind the murder of John F. Kennedy and the guilty ones had not been punished. Such an attitude on the part of the public leads to a gradual breakdown of law, order and morals of society.

What Copeland did not see was that that breakdown was engineered by the very forces responsible for the mind control of America and the destruction of its way of life. The Kennedy assassination was a British intelligence--read Tavistock--hit, and its purpose was to shock the American consciousness into a near-comatose state for reprogramming, the standard Tavistock modus operandi. Specific techniques of mind control may have also been employed in the Kennedy assassination at the microcosmic level.

Lee Harvey Oswald in September, 1957, arrived at the Atsugi Naval Air Base to work as a radar operator with a security clearance, odd for a man so forthcoming about his pro-Communist views that he was dubbed "Oswaldovitch" by his fellow soldiers. Atsugi, aside from being the launch base for the top secret U-2 spy plane, also housed the Joint Technical Advisory Group, where MKULTRA LSD experimentation is said to have taken place. [4]

Once in Atsugi, Oswald engaged in more than radar monitoring. At a Tokyo nightclub called the Queen Bee, Oswald became intimate with a hostess who was believed to be a Russian spy, and contracted gonorrhea. Oswald's medical record states that the disease was contracted "in line of duty, not due to own misconduct." Obviously, Oswald was at the time functioning as an agent of the military, probably performing surveillance on the believed Russian spy at the Queen Bee. [5]

Kerry Thornley, perhaps Oswald's closest friend at the Atsugi base, in correspondence with the author recalls an attempt to recruit himself, Oswald, and a third man into a possible intelligence operation. Thornley writes, "In the late 1970s I was contacted by David Bucknell, who said he was in Marine Air Control Squadron Nine with Oswald and me. When he mentioned that his nickname was 'Bucky Beaver,' I recalled Bucknell--a large man with buck teeth who wore his utility cap all the way down on his head, giving it a dome shape instead of the common stretched, flat-top shape.

"Bucknell asked me if I remembered an attempt to recruit us (Bucknell, Oswald, me) to military intelligence. I did not. Then he asked if I remembered approaching he and Oswald one day and being told by Oswald that 'This is a private conversation.' That I recalled clearly. Bucknell said it happened as we were on our way to the recruitment lecture.

"Indeed, I remembered the incident occurred as all three of us were walking in the same direction toward 'Mainside' on the base and away from the radar outpost. Bucknell said that minutes earlier, on the outpost, the names of Oswald, Bucknell and Thornley had been called over the P.A. system and that we were told to report to the squadron office. In the squadron office, we were ordered to report to base security over at 'Mainside' of L.T.A., the satellite of El Toro Marine Base where we were stationed.

"Bucknell said he and Oswald were running a loan sharking operation and their private conversation concerned whether or not they were now being called in for questioning about that. Oswald doubted it, because I had been called up at the same time and knew nothing about the operation.

"Bucknell says when we arrived at base security we were seated in a small auditorium or lecture room with a number of men from other outfits. Up in front, according to Bucknell, was a Marine captain and a Hispanic man in civilian clothes with a flat-top haircut. Bucknell was surprised to see that the Captain was acting as an 'errand boy' for this civilian, whom the Captain finally introduced as 'Mister B.'

" 'Mister B' said, 'We have reason to believe that Castro's new revolutionary government has been infiltrated by Soviet agents.' (This would have been in late May or early June of 1959, just after the New Year's Day Revolution, before Castro 'went Communist·' I recalled someone making that statement in a lecture I attended, but did not remember the context).

"We had all been called together, said Mr, B., because we were reputed to be admirers of Fidel Castro. As I understand it, and dimly recall it, the pitch was that Castro needed our help in getting rid of these agents. We were being asked to volunteer for a counter-espionage program!

"I'm sure I would have volunteered. To the best of my recollection, I was ostensibly turned down because I was already slated for a tour of duty in the Far East, to begin in June, and the training program was in the U.S.-But not before I signed some papers authorizing using me for intelligence purposes.

"Bucknell made detailed notes of this extraordinary event the day after it occurred, and when we met in San Francisco in the late 1970s he read me those notes.

"Volunteers were interviewed on a one-on-one basis after the recruitment lecture. Bucknell says he had a maternal grandfather named E.H. Hunt, who he listed on the recruitment form as a reference. Mister B. looked startled and said, 'Who is this E.H. Hunt?' Bucknell explained. Mister B. said, 'Oh!,' and laughed. (E. Howard Hunt was second in command under Nixon on the Bay of Pigs operation.) Bucknell was never contacted again in relation to this program. Neither was I.

"Bucknell says that the Marine Air Control Squadron's covert security was handled by Army Intelligence, and we now both suspect that Oswald may already have been an Army Intelligence agent pretending to be a Marxist at the time of Mr. B.'s recruitment attempt, which may have enhanced his qualifications for Mr. B.'s program.

"At about the time all this happened, I began having vivid audio hallucinations, usually just before falling asleep." [6] Two weeks prior to Oswald's defection to the Soviet Union, Robert E. Webster, formerly with the Navy, renounced his American citizenship, Like Oswald,Webster would later do a turnabout and return to the United States--his return greased by 'affidavits from Rand."

Webster had been at a trade exhibition in Moscow with the Rand Development Corporation. When Webster renounced his citizenship, he was accompanied by two Rand executives, Henry Rand and George Bookbinder, both of whom had been with the OSS. The Rand Corporation had been involved with American mind control research since at least 1949, when it issued a report on Soviet hypnosis experiments and proposed an American counter-offensive.

Although there is no direct evidence linking Webster or Oswald, who inquired about Webster at the time of his own return to the U.S., to Rand mind control experiments. it is plain that if Oswald and Webster had been American spies pretending to defect, then they probably would have received hypnotic programming to counter the inevitable interrogation in Moscow.

It is also fascinating to learn that the address of Webster's apartment building was in Marina Oswald's address book, and that she is known to have said that her husband defected after employment at an American exhibition that took place in Moscow. This was obviously not Oswald, but Webster. [7) The pseudonymous "Lincoln Lawrence," in Were We Controlled, recalls a "deadly rumor" that Lee Harvey Oswald had been admitted to the Third Clinical Hospital's Ear. Nose, and Throat division in Minsk, Russia. Lawrence says that after Oswald was anaesthetized, a tiny radio receiver was implanted in Oswald's head that could trigger at will post-hypnotic suggestions that had already been induced. The same device could be used to erase his memory of events.

Whether or not Oswald was implanted, the "deadly rumor seems to have reached the ears of CIA Director McCone, who penned a memo to Secret Service head James Rowley on March 3, 1964. McCone's memo stated that Oswald had possibly been "chemically or electronically controlled'.., a sleeper agent. Subject spent 11 days hospitalized for a 'minor ailment' which should have required no more than three days hospitalization at best." [8]

One person who reacted with shock about Lincoln Lawrence's allegation that Oswald had been implanted with a control device was Marguerite Oswald, Lee's mother. She told Dallas assassination researcher Mary Ferrell, "I've got to find out who wrote this book, because he knew my son. Marguerite Oswald would not explain to Ferrell how she knew this, but Dick Russell, author of The Man Who Knew Too Much, speculates, "Marguerite would sometimes stand behind Lee's chair as he played some board game and rub his back and head. And she said the texture of his hair had changed, it wasn't soft like it used to be. Suddenly it came to me: What if, when she was doing that, she felt a little scar up inside the hairline." Another person concerned about Oswald's appearance was his brother Robert. According to Epstein, in Legend, "The most marked change was his hair. Not only had it thinned almost to the point of baldness on top, but the texture had changed from soft to kinky. Struck by this loss of hair, Robert couldn't help wondering what happened to his brother during the intervening years in the Soviet Union... [and] later speculated that it might have been caused by medical or shock treatments." [9]

Herman Kimsey, an Army counter intelligence operative and CIA official who claimed an insider's knowledge of the Kennedy hit, was quoted in Hugh McDonald's Appointment in Dallas as saying, "Oswald was programmed to kill like a medium at a Seance. Then the mechanism went on the blink and Oswald became a dangerous toy without direction." Three weeks after Kimsey offered these revelations to McDonald, he died of a heart attack, at age 55. [10]

One of CIA pilot and hypnotist David Ferrie's associates in Bowart's Operation Mind Control, is quoted as having suggested that Oswald had been hypnotized by Ferrie to murder the president. Ferrie was a CIA contract agent and the high priest of a small religious group called the Apostolic Old Catholic Church of North America that, according to researcher Loren Coleman, engaged in animal sacrifice and the drinking of blood. Coleman states, "During Lee Harvey Oswald's last weeks in New Orleans, he attended many ritualistic parties in private homes and apartments with David Ferrie." [11]

If hypnotism was used to program Oswald, hypnotism may have been employed for his ultimate "deprogramming" through death by another assassin. On the scene immediately prior to the John F, Kennedy assassination was William Crowe, whose Stage name was Bill DeMar. Crowe was employed as a stage hypnotist at Jack Ruby's Carousel Club on the week of the assassination. Jack Ruby, of course, was the man who shot Lee Harvey Oswald. [12]

Another mind-controlled assassin may have participated in the Kennedy h In 1967 the Philippine National Bureau of Investigation (NBI) arrested 24-year-old Luis Angel Castillo on suspicion of planning to assassinate President Ferdinand Marcos in league with a group of Philippine guerrillas. Castillo's passport identified him as Antonio Reyes Eloriaga, a Philippine resident returning after expulsion from America for car theft and exceeding the time limit of his Visa. The Manila Times said that, while in America, Castillo had used at least five aliases.

At his request, Castillo was given truth serum and hypnotized. The hypnotist reported, "Initially, the subject indicated an admixture of desired susceptibility to hypnosynthesis but deepseated resistance due to the presence of a posthypnotic block. This block appeared to have been connected with the presence--nightmarish--of a Mrs. Kreps. The total removal of this block may pave the way for maximum results." [13] The hypnotist discovered that Castillo could be inducted to four different levels of hypnosis, which he termed Zombie states I-IV, with each level possessing a different personality. Zombie I went by the name Antonio Loriaga, and he was involved in antiAmerican espionage. Zombie II was an unidentified CIA agent, Zombie III was an agent who was suicidal over having his cover revealed, Zombie IV may have been Castillo's true identity, Manuel Angel Ramirez, a 29-year-old native of the Bronx, Although he had little memory of his childhood, his later life had apparently been as an hypnotically-programmed operative for the Special Operations Group of the CIA.

Castillo revealed to the NBI that he had been contacted for training in espionage when he was a private in the Cuban militia, and received his initial training from Americans and Cubans near the Bay of Pigs.

Castillo also revealed that he had been programmed for another assassination, this one involving a man riding in an open car in Dallas, Texas, on November 22, 1963.

According to Castillo, the earlier-mentioned Mrs, Kreps, who had a German accent, was one of several persons who hypnotically programmed him in Dallas. He also recognized the names of several persons at the time being investigated for the assassination of John Kennedy by District Attorney Jim Garrison, and was able to provide a detailed account of his participation in the plot.

After the NBI contacted the FBI, the story was squelched. Castillo was returned to the U,S., and imprisoned for 37 months for robbery. After his release, Castillo apparently dropped off the face of the earth, and has not been located since. [14]

NOTES:

1. Sullivan, William, Quoted in "The Nazi Connection to the John F. Kennedy Assassination." by Mae Brussell, The Rebel, November 22, 1983 2.Brussell

3. Edltors of the Executtve Intelligence Review, Dope. Inc. (Washington,

D.C.: EIR, 1992)

4. Krupey, G. J. "The High and The Mighty: JFK, MPM, LSD and the CIA",

Steamshovel Press magazine, number 11, 1994 5. Krupey 6. Thomley, Kerry, correspondence with the author, August 30, 1997 7. Russell, Dick, The Man Who KnewToo Much. (New York, Carrol & Graf, 1992): Dickson, Paul, Think Tanks. (New York: Ballentine Books, 1971) 8. Lawrence, Lincoln, pseud., Were WeControlled? (New Hyde Park, New York: University Books, 1967); Russell 9. Cited in Russell

10. Constantine, Alex, Psychic Dictatorship in the U.S.A. (Portland,

Oregon: Feral House, 1995): Russell

11. Constantine; Coleman. Loren.'The Occult. MIB's. UFO's and Assassinations", The Conspiracy Trackcker, December 1985

12. Russell

13. Bowart, Walter, Operation Mind Control. (New York: Dell

Paperback. 1977)

14. Ibid.

See:

http://books.google.com/books?id=zzY6qjOpS...esult#PPA143,M1

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Greg,

Could you furnish the source for this statement:

Of interest here is that the Freedom School Thornley attended had

"praxeology" as one of the subjects students could study. It is defined as

the study of human behaviour. This sounds like the kind of study you would

expect to find within the CIA funded Society for Human Ecology and the

Western Behavioral Institute.

Frichtman, [sic] who was investigated by the HUAC in 1961, was, it seems, on the

CIA payrole [sic] through his connection to the Western Behavioral Institute.

Hi Linda,

Thornley at Freedom School - source "Zenarchy" by Kerry Thornley

Praxeology taught at Freedom School - source - The Voluntaryist magazine - issue unrecalled

Frichman giving lectures for the Western Behavior (Sciences) Institute - the website of the San Dieguito Unitarian

Fellowship history page (since altered - though I copied and kept the exact quote prior to it disappearing).

Robert LeFevre btw had been involved with a cult which had split from the Theosophist movement. They apparently had spells they world cast against political enemies. One such was cast upon Roosevelt. (source: "The Farther Shores of Politics: The American Political Fringe Today" by Goeoge Thayer

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It is amazing to me (am I the only one?) that nobody has connected the WORLD TRADE CENTER of

Permindex, New Orleans and Clay Shaw, the WORLD TRADE CENTER'S Market Hall where JFK was to speak,

and the WORLD TRADE CENTER COMPLEX of Manhattan, which was destroyed on 9-11.

Why are "World Trade Centers" the scenes of major disasters? Coincidence?

Jack

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It is amazing to me (am I the only one?) that nobody has connected the WORLD TRADE CENTER of

Permindex, New Orleans and Clay Shaw, the WORLD TRADE CENTER'S Market Hall where JFK was to speak,

and the WORLD TRADE CENTER COMPLEX of Manhattan, which was destroyed on 9-11.

Why are "World Trade Centers" the scenes of major disasters? Coincidence?

Jack

Also don't forget that Joseph P. Kennedy acquired much of his family's wealth, not from Somerset Importers, in which he seems to have been fronting for the Roosevelt family--but from the trade mart in Chicago. I think he bought out some of the Marshall Field heirs. One of the Field heirs who lived in Chicago was married to an heir of Alexander Brown, the banker, and related to the surviving Brown Brothers heirs who sold out to Averell Harriman. These were all Democrats, by the way. They were the ones who sponsored Adlai Stevenson. There was an important connection between these wholesale and retail merchants and the old Irish linen trade (based in Liverpool and later in the market section of London) that originally brought Alexander Brown to Baltimore, where he became a sponsor for George Peabody, forerunner to J.S. Morgan, father of J.P. Morgan. If you want to find a conspiracy, simply follow the family money from one generation to another.

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It is amazing to me (am I the only one?) that nobody has connected the WORLD TRADE CENTER of

Permindex, New Orleans and Clay Shaw, the WORLD TRADE CENTER'S Market Hall where JFK was to speak,

and the WORLD TRADE CENTER COMPLEX of Manhattan, which was destroyed on 9-11.

Why are "World Trade Centers" the scenes of major disasters? Coincidence?

Jack

As I know that you are now aware of this ... maybe others can be enlightened by the following information I obtained from Gary Mack ...

There was no World Trade Center in Dallas in 1963. JFK’s speech was to have been at the Trade Mart, part of the Market Hall complex. The Dallas World Trade Center was created in the same complex in 1974.

Clay Shaw was director of the International Trade Mart in New Orleans, an organization he helped to organize in 1947.

The World Trade Center in New York was built in the late 60s and the first building was dedicated in 1970.

Gary Mack

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For those who think that Dallas Trade Mart and Dallas World Trade Center are

separate entities, I quote Wikipedia:

..........

The four-building campus houses nearly 2,300 permanent showrooms offering more than 35,000 product lines from leading manufacturers. It consists of World Trade Center, Trade Mart, International Floral & Gift Center (IFGC), and Market Hall.

The largest building on the campus is World Trade Center, standing 15 stories tall. Its product categories include gifts, home accessories, lighting, floral, holiday, jewelry, rugs, toys, garden, gourmet foods, furniture, bed, bath and linens. It is also home to FashionCenterDallas, an apparel and accessories marketplace for men’s, women’s, and children’s fashion merchandise. The building features several restaurants including District One Five Lounge, a top floor buyers’ lounge and event space with a panoramic view of downtown Dallas.

Buyers looking for gift, paper products, tabletop, collectibles, housewares, lighting, and decorative accessories can find them in the four floors of the Dallas Trade Mart. In affiliation with the American Lighting Association, DMC calls the Dallas Trade Mart the "International Home of Lighting," including a 500,000-square-foot (46,000 m2) expansion that opened in January 2007.

The two-story IFGC is devoted to permanent floral, floral accessories, and gift merchandise.

Most local consumers are familiar with Market Hall, the 214,000-square-foot (19,900 m2) exhibit hall which hosts around 60 consumer shows and exhibits annually, attracting more than 400,000 patrons.

[edit]History

Dallas Market Center was founded in 1957 by real estate developer Trammell Crow. The first building opened was called Dallas Homefurnishings Mart. This structure was reborn in 1999 as the International Floral & Gift Center. It is the national home of permanent floral and seasonal products.

The first market was held in July 1957 and was attended by 1,850 visitors. Today, the largest markets attract more than 50,000 attendees from all 50 states and 84 countries.

The Dallas Trade Mart opened its doors in 1958. It was the destination of the President John F. Kennedy motorcade in 1963 where he was scheduled to give a speech to 2,600 people at a sold-out luncheon. Upon hearing the news of his assassination, the luncheon guests bowed their heads in prayer. In 1964, Elizabeth Erink of England created the bronze sculpture “The Eagle” which sits outside the main Trade Mart entrance today. It features a William Blake quote and a plaque which reads, “Placed in memorial by the friends of President John Fitzgerald Kennedy who awaited his arrival at the Dallas Trade Mart Nov. 22, 1963.”

In 1964, the original Apparel Mart opened for business at a cost of $15 million. Forty years later, the apparel and accessories showrooms moved to their current home in FashionCenterDallas on the top floors of World Trade Center. Today, fashion remains a centerpiece of the Dallas marketplace attracting buyers from across the globe.

World Trade Center is the centerpiece of the campus featuring 15 floors. It opened in 1974 with only seven stories.

A hand-full of home-furnishings showrooms in a single building grew in 50 years to nearly 2,300 permanent showrooms across four buildings totaling over 5,000,000 square feet (460,000 m2).

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For those who think that Dallas Trade Mart and Dallas World Trade Center are

separate entities, I quote Wikipedia:

..........

The four-building campus houses nearly 2,300 permanent showrooms offering more than 35,000 product lines from leading manufacturers. It consists of World Trade Center, Trade Mart, International Floral & Gift Center (IFGC), and Market Hall.

The largest building on the campus is World Trade Center, standing 15 stories tall. Its product categories include gifts, home accessories, lighting, floral, holiday, jewelry, rugs, toys, garden, gourmet foods, furniture, bed, bath and linens. It is also home to FashionCenterDallas, an apparel and accessories marketplace for men’s, women’s, and children’s fashion merchandise. The building features several restaurants including District One Five Lounge, a top floor buyers’ lounge and event space with a panoramic view of downtown Dallas.

Buyers looking for gift, paper products, tabletop, collectibles, housewares, lighting, and decorative accessories can find them in the four floors of the Dallas Trade Mart. In affiliation with the American Lighting Association, DMC calls the Dallas Trade Mart the "International Home of Lighting," including a 500,000-square-foot (46,000 m2) expansion that opened in January 2007.

The two-story IFGC is devoted to permanent floral, floral accessories, and gift merchandise.

Most local consumers are familiar with Market Hall, the 214,000-square-foot (19,900 m2) exhibit hall which hosts around 60 consumer shows and exhibits annually, attracting more than 400,000 patrons.

[edit]History

Dallas Market Center was founded in 1957 by real estate developer Trammell Crow. The first building opened was called Dallas Homefurnishings Mart. This structure was reborn in 1999 as the International Floral & Gift Center. It is the national home of permanent floral and seasonal products.

The first market was held in July 1957 and was attended by 1,850 visitors. Today, the largest markets attract more than 50,000 attendees from all 50 states and 84 countries.

The Dallas Trade Mart opened its doors in 1958. It was the destination of the President John F. Kennedy motorcade in 1963 where he was scheduled to give a speech to 2,600 people at a sold-out luncheon. Upon hearing the news of his assassination, the luncheon guests bowed their heads in prayer. In 1964, Elizabeth Erink of England created the bronze sculpture “The Eagle” which sits outside the main Trade Mart entrance today. It features a William Blake quote and a plaque which reads, “Placed in memorial by the friends of President John Fitzgerald Kennedy who awaited his arrival at the Dallas Trade Mart Nov. 22, 1963.”

In 1964, the original Apparel Mart opened for business at a cost of $15 million. Forty years later, the apparel and accessories showrooms moved to their current home in FashionCenterDallas on the top floors of World Trade Center. Today, fashion remains a centerpiece of the Dallas marketplace attracting buyers from across the globe.

World Trade Center is the centerpiece of the campus featuring 15 floors. It opened in 1974 with only seven stories.

A hand-full of home-furnishings showrooms in a single building grew in 50 years to nearly 2,300 permanent showrooms across four buildings totaling over 5,000,000 square feet (460,000 m2).

Jack, please guide me in an area that I have been meaning to research but have been sidetracked from: What is the relationship between this inter-civic network of Trade Marts and World Trade Centers and the NYC World Trade Center? (The "twin towers," a Rockefeller family project of the late 1960s, which came to house within its complex various intelligence agencies by the 1990s.) Is there a good resource on the relationship, if any, that I should be aware of? Thanks!

Edited by David Andrews
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For those who think that Dallas Trade Mart and Dallas World Trade Center are

separate entities, I quote Wikipedia:

..........

The four-building campus houses nearly 2,300 permanent showrooms offering more than 35,000 product lines from leading manufacturers. It consists of World Trade Center, Trade Mart, International Floral & Gift Center (IFGC), and Market Hall.

The largest building on the campus is World Trade Center, standing 15 stories tall. Its product categories include gifts, home accessories, lighting, floral, holiday, jewelry, rugs, toys, garden, gourmet foods, furniture, bed, bath and linens. It is also home to FashionCenterDallas, an apparel and accessories marketplace for men’s, women’s, and children’s fashion merchandise. The building features several restaurants including District One Five Lounge, a top floor buyers’ lounge and event space with a panoramic view of downtown Dallas.

Buyers looking for gift, paper products, tabletop, collectibles, housewares, lighting, and decorative accessories can find them in the four floors of the Dallas Trade Mart. In affiliation with the American Lighting Association, DMC calls the Dallas Trade Mart the "International Home of Lighting," including a 500,000-square-foot (46,000 m2) expansion that opened in January 2007.

The two-story IFGC is devoted to permanent floral, floral accessories, and gift merchandise.

Most local consumers are familiar with Market Hall, the 214,000-square-foot (19,900 m2) exhibit hall which hosts around 60 consumer shows and exhibits annually, attracting more than 400,000 patrons.

[edit]History

Dallas Market Center was founded in 1957 by real estate developer Trammell Crow. The first building opened was called Dallas Homefurnishings Mart. This structure was reborn in 1999 as the International Floral & Gift Center. It is the national home of permanent floral and seasonal products.

The first market was held in July 1957 and was attended by 1,850 visitors. Today, the largest markets attract more than 50,000 attendees from all 50 states and 84 countries.

The Dallas Trade Mart opened its doors in 1958. It was the destination of the President John F. Kennedy motorcade in 1963 where he was scheduled to give a speech to 2,600 people at a sold-out luncheon. Upon hearing the news of his assassination, the luncheon guests bowed their heads in prayer. In 1964, Elizabeth Erink of England created the bronze sculpture “The Eagle” which sits outside the main Trade Mart entrance today. It features a William Blake quote and a plaque which reads, “Placed in memorial by the friends of President John Fitzgerald Kennedy who awaited his arrival at the Dallas Trade Mart Nov. 22, 1963.”

In 1964, the original Apparel Mart opened for business at a cost of $15 million. Forty years later, the apparel and accessories showrooms moved to their current home in FashionCenterDallas on the top floors of World Trade Center. Today, fashion remains a centerpiece of the Dallas marketplace attracting buyers from across the globe.

World Trade Center is the centerpiece of the campus featuring 15 floors. It opened in 1974 with only seven stories.

A hand-full of home-furnishings showrooms in a single building grew in 50 years to nearly 2,300 permanent showrooms across four buildings totaling over 5,000,000 square feet (460,000 m2).

Jack, please guide me in an area that I have been meaning to research but have been sidetracked from: What is the relationship between this inter-civic network of Trade Marts and World Trade Centers and the NYC World Trade Center? (The "twin towers," a Rockefeller family project of the late 1960s, which came to house within its complex various intelligence agencies by the 1990s.) Is there a good resource on the relationship, if any, that I should be aware of? Thanks!

The following, is the DMN article above that was posted in .pdf format, reproduced here for those who don't have Adobe Acrobat.

11-28-1948

By Felix K. McKnight

Staff correspondent of the News

New Orleans, La., -

NEW ORLEANS PROJECT

WORLD TRADE MART

READY FOR OPENING

Old New Orleans formerly open a new trade gateway to the world

next week.

It is the International Trade Mart, the only world marketplace, and

it will open new avenues of plenty for the Southwest and the broad

Mississippi Valley.

Eighteen foreign missions from Europe, the Far East and Latin

America are here for the formal dedication of the $1,500,000 Inter-

national Trade Mart— the latest in international trade facilities in this

port established by the same local businessmen who created the

world famous International House.

OPEN TO WORLD

In a few days manufacturers from every corner of the United States

will open their doors to the trade of the world.

Many foreign economic missions in the United States who purchase

for their countries under the Marshall Plan are in New Orleans to see

the facilities of the Southwest and Mississippi Valley for the first

time.

Most purchasing and shipping by these foreign missions has been

done in the Industrial East.

Keynote speakers for these economic functions will be William

McChesney Martin, President of the Import-Export Bank and Mayor

Aloys P. Kaufman of St. Louis. Scores of ambassadors, commercial

counselors and attaches from Washington and officials of many

states in this region began arriving in New Orleans Saturday.

Countries which accepted invitations to the opening include

Belguim, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Finland, Guatemala,

Honduras, the Netherlands, Paraguay, Spain, Venezuela, Argentina,

Costa Rica, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, the Dominican Republic,

France, India, Luxembourg, Norway, Portugal and Sweden.

The new mart headed by Clay Shaw, is a direct offshoot of the

International House, founded to provide a common meeting place

for foreign traders. Its world trade development program provides

trade information, helps American manufacturers enter the export

field, aids importers in discovering new American markets and

matches up exporters and importers on everything from toothpicks

to railroad bridges.

It has served as a successful link between the Southwest, the

Mississippi Valley and the remainder of the United States and the world

in its unique program, dedicated to world trade, peace and understanding.

No diplomats were those men who conceived the idea and made a

dream come true— just everyday New Orleans businessmen.

Edited by Robert Howard
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  • 8 years later...
On 10/2/2004 at 0:07 AM, Greg Parker said:

Oswald received a stipend while living in Minsk. It is unclear from reading

the Defector Study, whether this was from the International Red Cross, or

the Russian equivalent, the Red Crescent. The confusion arises because, in

the case of Libero Ricciardelli for example, the organisation is named as

the "Red Crescent", whereas with Oswald, it states "Red Cross". The authors

were clearly aware of the difference (as Oswald himself seemed to be, noting

in his Historic Diary that the money came from the MVD). The study shows

that the Red Crescent not only provided money to defectors such as

Ricciardelli, but interviewed them, and provided other types of support. It

is in fact, a little odd that this organisation is notably absent in

Oswald's life in Russia. Where were they, for instance during his

 

 

This is a small matter, but it was fresh on my mind from reading today so I thought I would mention it. 

1994 Boris Yeltsin cave Billl Clinton a cache of Oswald and JFKA related papers. One of the documents explains that Oswald was given 5000 rubles and a 700 ruble per month allowance from the Red Cross and the Red Crescent.

http://aarclibrary.org/publib/jfk/other/yeltsin/html/Yeltsin_0008a.htm

 

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