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CIA Cancer Plot?

John Simkin

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He has called George W Bush the devil and described Barack Obama as a clown.

But Hugo Chávez's customary jabs at his neighbours to the north took an unusual turn this week, when the Venezuelan president suggested that Washington might be behind a wave of cancer among Latin American heads of state.

"Would it be so strange that they've invented the technology to spread cancer and we won't know about it for 50 years?" Chávez pondered, one day after Argentina's president Cristina Fernández de Kirchner announced she had been diagnosed with thyroid cancer and would undergo surgery in January.

Speaking on Wednesday during an end-of-year address to the armed forces, Chávez hinted that a spate of cancer among the region's leaders could be a US plot – although he conceded he had no proof and did not want to make "reckless" accusations.

"I repeat: I am not accusing anyone. I am simply taking advantage of my freedom to reflect and air my opinions faced with some very strange and hard to explain goings-on," he said at the event, broadcast live on state television.

Recent years have seen a series of leftwing Latin America leaders diagnosed with cancer including Brazil's current president, Dilma Rousseff, Paraguay's Fernando Lugo, and the former Brazilian leader Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva.

In late June Chávez admitted he was also being treated for cancer, telling Venezuelans that doctors had removed "cancerous cells" from his body.

"I don't know but … it is very odd than we have seen Lugo affected by cancer, Dilma when she was [presidential] candidate, me, going into an election year, not long ago Lula and now Cristina," Chávez said this week.

"It is very hard to explain, even with the law of probabilities, what has been happening to some leaders in Latin America. It's at the very least strange, very strange," the Venezuelan president said, according to government radio Radio Nacional de Venezuela.

Despite his lack of evidence Chávez hinted that other Latin American leaders should watch out – and recalled how US doctors could have infected 2,500 Guatemalans with STDs during the 1940s.

"Evo take care of yourself. Correa, be careful. We just don't know," he said, referring to Bolivia's first indigenous president, Evo Morales, and Rafael Correa, the president of Ecuador.

Chávez said he had received words of warning from Cuba's former leader Fidel Castro, reputedly the target of dozens of failed and often bizarre assassination plots including a fungus-infected diving suit and an exploding cigar.

"Fidel always told me, 'Chávez take care. These people have developed technology. You are very careless. Take care what you eat, what they give you to eat … a little needle and they inject you with I don't know what,'" he said.

While Venezuela's economy remains closely bound to the United States – the South American country exports more than 800,000 barrels of oil there each day – Chávez's colourful attacks on the Washington have been a regular fixture of his presidency.

Apart from the regular insults hurled at its leaders, Chávez has also accused the US of plotting to invade his country and involvement in a 2002 coup attempt that briefly toppled him from power.

In July this year Evo Morales floated a conspiracy theory of his own, suggesting the CIA might deliberately plant drugs on Bolivia's presidential plane in order to discredit his government.

"Do you know what? I think they have to be preparing something," he said. "So much [so] that I'm afraid to go with our airplane to the United States."


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I have no idea why the CIA would want to get rid of Lula or Dilma. Despite being part of the leftist opposition that resisted the dictatorship (1964-85) and paying lip service to being leftists etc. they maintain budget surpluses, pay off the country’s debts, allow foreign companies to drill for offshore oil etc. I am less familiar with the policies of Lugo and Kirchner but I don’t remember them doing anything especial radical and found nothing in their Wikipedia bios.

"our technology is certainly capable of doing what he fears"

What makes you say that?

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Aside from Evo Morales or perhaps Chavez, I don't really follow current South American leadership.

That being said, your description of Lula and Rousseff (I'm guessing you're familiar with her if you're

using 'Dilma') sounds pretty close to what we don't like (i.e., paying off debt and maintaining

budget surpluses). Our template for implementing the Monroe Doctrine (okay, to be fair, I really mean

the Bretton Woods/IMF template) insists upon indebtedness to Western banks. One of the reasons why

Chavez is so disliked by U.S. leaders (i.e., bankers) is that he's using part of his oil proceeds to help

pay down South American debt. This is a strict no-no and one of the main reasons why the American

press characterizes him so unfavorably. (Full disclosure: Chavez may be crazy for all I know; I'm only

talking about specific actions he has taken.)

As to your alleged shock that certain people have the technology to cause cancer, all I can say is that

I have much more faith in your 'intelligence' than you do.

I never met any of Brazil’s president’s though I once taught English to a former governor, but in Brazil it is common to refer to people by their first name or nickname. Thus we call Lula ‘Lula’ not ‘Silva’ or ‘Sr. da Silva’ and Dilma ‘Dillma’ not ‘Rousseff’ ‘Sra. Rousseff’. The standard CT notion is that the CIA/bankers want to boot leaders who don't pay their debt or follow the dictates of the IMF, so 'heads I win tails you loose'. As for your non answer re: giving people cancer I take that as meaning you have no evidence to back your belief such technology exists.

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The standard CT notion is that the CIA/bankers want to boot leaders who don't pay their debt or follow the dictates of the IMF, so 'heads I win tails you loose'. As for your non answer re: giving people cancer I take that as meaning you have no evidence to back your belief such technology exists.

Nice try, Len. But you said "pay off". There's a big difference between paying your bills

and paying off your debt. There's no way in hell that the bankers want it paid off.

Framing this as a "CT notion" is charming but does more to expose your particular point of view

(or modus operandi) than it does my rather obvious characterization of South American development.

You’ll be happy to know that Brazil still owes about $300 billion about 15% of its GDP thus while they are model IMF customers they are not going to completely payoff their debt anytime soon.


You want proof of cancer-causing technology, eh? Nice try again, Len. I'll try hard not to play dumb

on this forum, so if you want an honest discussion or debate, I suggest that you do the same.

Google Frank Olson and Fort Detrick if you need help (or Unit 731 or ...). Seriously?

You really should play dodge ball Fairly. I feel like I’m asking an Evangelical Christian for evidence the world and universe were created in 6 days. I’ve seen it claimed Olson worked on the technology to “induce cancer” but have yet to see a citation from a reliable source he or anyone else actually successfully developed such technology

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You really should play dodge ball Fairly. I feel like I’m asking an Evangelical Christian for evidence the world and universe were created in 6 days. I’ve seen it claimed Olson worked on the technology to “induce cancer” but have yet to see a citation from a reliable source he or anyone else actually successfully developed such technology

First of all, it's Fairlie.

Sorry Mr. Fairlie

Second of all, where would you expect to find this evidence, Len? Do you suppose

that I am going to publish a classified document here on the forum? Hmmm. No.

Do you suppose that I'm going to peruse my library to find a citation for you?

I guess I could be neighborly and do this for you,

No it would not "be neighborly", that’s the way things work people are expected to document their claims, that why history books and even many forum posts contain citations. Thus YOU are asking ME to do YOUR homework, not the other way round.

but I suspect you already know the answer. It seems that when you are debating someone and have an axe to grind, you have no problems finding evidence to support your cause. In fact, it's almost like you have a team of people poring through various sources.

However, when you are trying to elicit a reply from someone else, you are more cautious and, frequently, you're mysteriously in need of source material. Like I said originally, I have more confidence in you than you do.

Yes that’s the way the world and this forum are supposed to work, people provide evidence for what they believe to be true. You absurdly are asking me to find evidence for something I believe to be incorrect. OK I believe the leaders of the KGB were closeted homosexuals; don’t buy it? OK come up with evidence it wasn’t true, or even more absurdly find evidence it was.

You imply there is an abundance of easily found information corroborating your claim but when pressed to produce any to make excuses and I imagine your next reply will be more of the same.

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COLBY You imply there is an abundance of easily found information corroborating your claim but when pressed to produce any to make excuses and I imagine your next reply will be more of the same.END COLBY


Easily found.......seek and you shall find.....Mr. Colby's constant servile genuflection to the establishment is an an embarrassment to all free thinkers and true researchers of the truth.




A History of Secret Human Experimentations

This is Compiled from Two different sources

1931 - Dr. Cornelius Rhoads, under the auspices of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Investigations, infects human subjects with cancer cells. He later goes on to establish the U.S. Army Biological Warfare facilities in Maryland, Utah, and Panama, and is named to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. While there, he begins a series of radiation exposure experiments on American soldiers and civilian hospital patients.

1932 - The Tuskegee Syphilis Study begins. 200 black men diagnosed with syphilis are never told of their illness, are denied treatment, and instead are used as human guinea pigs in order to follow the progression and symptoms of the disease. They all subsequently die from syphilis, their families never told that they could have been treated.

1935 - The Pellagra Incident. After millions of individuals die from Pellagra over a span of two decades, the U.S. Public Health Service finally acts to stem the disease. The director of the agency admits it had known for at least 20 years that Pellagra is caused by a niacin deficiency but failed to act since most of the deaths occured within poverty-striken black populations.

1940 - Four hundred prisoners in Chicago are infected with Malaria in order to study the effects of new and experimental drugs to combat the disease. Nazi doctors later on trial at Nuremberg cite this American study to defend their own actions during the Holocaust.

1942 - Chemical Warfare Services begins mustard gas experiments on approximately 4,000 servicemen. The experiments continue until 1945 and made use of Seventh Day Adventists who chose to become human guinea pigs rather than serve on active duty.

1943 - In response to Japan's full-scale germ warfare program, the U.S. begins research on biological weapons at Fort Detrick, MD.

1944 - U.S. Navy uses human subjects to test gas masks and clothing. Individuals were locked in a gas chamber and exposed to mustard gas and lewisite.

1945 - Project Paperclip is initiated. The U.S. State Department, Army intelligence, and the CIA recruit Nazi scientists and offer them immunity and secret identities in exchange for work on top secret government projects in the United States.

1945 - "Program F" is implemented by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). This is the most extensive U.S. study of the health effects of fluoride, which was the key chemical component in atomic bomb production. One of the most toxic chemicals known to man, fluoride, it is found, causes marked adverse effects to the central nervous system but much of the information is squelched in the name of national security because of fear that lawsuits would undermine full-scale production of atomic bombs.

1946 - Patients in VA hospitals are used as guinea pigs for medical experiments. In order to allay suspicions, the order is given to change the word "experiments" to "investigations" or "observations" whenever reporting a medical study performed in one of the nation's veteran's hospitals.

1947 - Colonel E.E. Kirkpatrick of the U.S. Atomic Energy Comission issues a secret document (Document 07075001, January 8, 1947) stating that the agency will begin administering intravenous doses of radioactive substances to human subjects.

1947 - The CIA begins its study of LSD as a potential weapon for use by American intelligence. Human subjects (both civilian and military) are used with and without their knowledge.

1950 - Department of Defense begins plans to detonate nuclear weapons in desert areas and monitor downwind residents for medical problems and mortality rates.

1950 - I n an experiment to determine how susceptible an American city would be to biological attack, the U.S. Navy sprays a cloud of bacteria from ships over San Franciso. Monitoring devices are situated throughout the city in order to test the extent of infection. Many residents become ill with pneumonia-like symptoms.

1951 - Department of Defense begins open air tests using disease-producing bacteria and viruses. Tests last through 1969 and there is concern that people in the surrounding areas have been exposed.

1953 - U.S. military releases clouds of zinc cadmium sulfide gas over Winnipeg, St. Louis, Minneapolis, Fort Wayne, the Monocacy River Valley in Maryland, and Leesburg, Virginia. Their intent is to determine how efficiently they could disperse chemical agents.

1953 - Joint Army-Navy-CIA experiments are conducted in which tens of thousands of people in New York and San Francisco are exposed to the airborne germs Serratia marcescens and Bacillus glogigii.

1953 - CIA initiates Project MKULTRA. This is an eleven year research program designed to produce and test drugs and biological agents that would be used for mind control and behavior modification. Six of the subprojects involved testing the agents on unwitting human beings.

1955 - The CIA, in an experiment to test its ability to infect human populations with biological agents, releases a bacteria withdrawn from the Army's biological warfare arsenal over Tampa Bay, Fl.

1955 - Army Chemical Corps continues LSD research, studying its potential use as a chemical incapacitating agent. More than 1,000 Americans participate in the tests, which continue until 1958.

1956 - U.S. military releases mosquitoes infected with Yellow Fever over Savannah, Ga and Avon Park, Fl. Following each test, Army agents posing as public health officials test victims for effects.

1958 - LSD is tested on 95 volunteers at the Army's Chemical Warfare Laboratories for its effect on intelligence.

1960 - The Army Assistant Chief-of-Staff for Intelligence (ACSI) authorizes field testing of LSD in Europe and the Far East. Testing of the european population is code named Project THIRD CHANCE; testing of the Asian population is code named Project DERBY HAT.

1965 - Project CIA and Department of Defense begin Project MKSEARCH, a program to develop a capability to manipulate human behavior through the use of mind-altering drugs.

1965 - Prisoners at the Holmesburg State Prison in Philadelphia are subjected to dioxin, the highly toxic chemical component of Agent Orange used in Viet Nam. The men are later studied for development of cancer, which indicates that Agent Orange had been a suspected carcinogen all along.

1966 - CIA initiates Project MKOFTEN, a program to test the toxicological effects of certain drugs on humans and animals.

1966 - U.S. Army dispenses Bacillus subtilis variant niger throughout the New York City subway system. More than a million civilians are exposed when army scientists drop lightbulbs filled with the bacteria onto ventilation grates.

1967 - CIA and Department of Defense implement Project MKNAOMI, successor to MKULTRA and designed to maintain, stockpile and test biological and chemical weapons.

1968 - CIA experiments with the possibility of poisoning drinking water by injecting chemicals into the water supply of the FDA in Washington, D.C.

1969 - Dr. Robert MacMahan of the Department of Defense requests from congress $10 million to develop, within 5 to 10 years, a synthetic biological agent to which no natural immunity exists.

1970 - Funding for the synthetic biological agent is obtained under H.R. 15090. The project, under the supervision of the CIA, is carried out by the Special Operations Division at Fort Detrick, the army's top secret biological weapons facility. Speculation is raised that molecular biology techniques are used to produce AIDS-like retroviruses.

1970 - United States intensifies its development of "ethnic weapons" (Military Review, Nov., 1970), designed to selectively target and eliminate specific ethnic groups who are susceptible due to genetic differences and variations in DNA.

1975 - The virus section of Fort Detrick's Center for Biological Warfare Research is renamed the Fredrick Cancer Research Facilities and placed under the supervision of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) . It is here that a special virus cancer program is initiated by the U.S. Navy, purportedly to develop cancer-causing viruses. It is also here that retrovirologists isolate a virus to which no immunity exists. It is later named HTLV (Human T-cell Leukemia Virus).

1977 - Senate hearings on Health and Scientific Research confirm that 239 populated areas had been contaminated with biological agents between 1949 and 1969. Some of the areas included San Francisco, Washington, D.C., Key West, Panama City, Minneapolis, and St. Louis.

1978 - Experimental Hepatitis B vaccine trials, conducted by the CDC, begin in New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco. Ads for research subjects specifically ask for promiscuous homosexual men.

1981 - First cases of AIDS are confirmed in homosexual men in New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco, triggering speculation that AIDS may have been introduced via the Hepatitis B vaccine

1985 - According to the journal Science (227:173-177), HTLV and VISNA, a fatal sheep virus, are very similar, indicating a close taxonomic and evolutionary relationship.

1986 - According to the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (83:4007-4011), HIV and VISNA are highly similar and share all structural elements, except for a small segment which is nearly identical to HTLV. This leads to speculation that HTLV and VISNA may have been linked to produce a new retrovirus to which no natural immunity exists.

1986 - A report to Congress reveals that the U.S. Government's current generation of biological agents includes: modified viruses, naturally occurring toxins, and agents that are altered through genetic engineering to change immunological character and prevent treatment by all existing vaccines.

1987 - Department of Defense admits that, despite a treaty banning research and development of biological agents, it continues to operate research facilities at 127 facilities and universities around the nation.

1990 - More than 1500 six-month old black and hispanic babies in Los Angeles are given an "experimental" measles vaccine that had never been licensed for use in the United States. CDC later admits that parents were never informed that the vaccine being injected to their children was experimental.

1994 - With a technique called "gene tracking," Dr. Garth Nicolson at the MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, TX discovers that many returning Desert Storm veterans are infected with an altered strain of Mycoplasma incognitus, a microbe commonly used in the production of biological weapons. Incorporated into its molecular structure is 40 percent of the HIV protein coat, indicating that it had been man-made.

1994 - Senator John D. Rockefeller issues a report revealing that for at least 50 years the Department of Defense has used hundreds of thousands of military personnel in human experiments and for intentional exposure to dangerous substances. Materials included mustard and nerve gas, ionizing radiation, psychochemicals, hallucinogens, and drugs used during the Gulf War .

1995 - U.S. Government admits that it had offered Japanese war criminals and scientists who had performed human medical experiments salaries and immunity from prosecution in exchange for data on biological warfare research.

1995 - Dr. Garth Nicolson, uncovers evidence that the biological agents used during the Gulf War had been manufactured in Houston, TX and Boca Raton, Fl and tested on prisoners in the Texas Department of Corrections.

On the 3rd October 1995, President Clinton publicly apologized to the thousands of people who became victims of MK ULTRA and other mind-control experimental programs.

1996 - Department of Defense admits that Desert Storm soldiers were exposed to chemical agents.

1997 - Eighty-eight members of Congress sign a letter demanding an investigation into bioweapons use & Gulf War Syndrome.

Read about the History of CIA Atrocities

Chapter - In 1947, the Navy conducted the first known post-war mind control program, Project CHAPTER, which continued the drug experiments. Decades later, journalists and investigators still haven't uncovered much information about this project - or, indeed, about any of the military's other excursions into this field. We know that the Army eventually founded operations THIRD CHANCE and DERBY HAT; other project names remain mysterious, though the existence of these programs is unquestionable.

Chatter - 1951 Project CHATTER, a highly classified Navy program to search for a truth drug, began. They were looking for a way to make someone talk "fast" in the event of a security emergency. These experiments used barbiturates, amphetamines, and heroin. The drugs were supplied by the Bureau of Narcotics and pharmaceutical companies. Some of the experimental subjects included the scientists themselves, and mostly students. 1953 Project CHATTER was abandoned by the Navy.

Bluebird - 1950 Project BLUEBIRD was approved by the first CIA Director, Roscoe Hillenkoetter. He also approved the use of unvouchered funds to pay for its sensitive areas. This began the CIA's first structured behavioral control program. Their goals consisted of "controlling an individual to the point where he will do our bidding against his will and even against such fundamental laws of nature as self-preservation." Some of their experimental subjects included North Korean prisoners of war and suspected double agents.

The newly-formed CIA plunged into this cesspool in 1950, with Project BLUEBIRD, rechristened ARTICHOKE in 1951. To establish a "cover story" for this research, the CIA funded a propaganda effort designed to convince the world that the Communist Bloc had devised insidious new methods of re-shaping the human will; the CIA's own efforts could therefore, if exposed, be explained as an attempt to "catch up" with Soviet and Chinese work. The primary promoter of this "line" was one Edward Hunter, a CIA contract employee operating undercover as a journalist, and, later, a prominent member of the John Birch society. (Hunter was an OSS veteran of the China theatre - the same spawning grounds which produced Richard Helms, Howard Hunt, Mitch WerBell, Fred Chrisman, Paul Helliwell and a host of other noteworthies who came to dominate that strange land where the worlds of intelligence and right-wing extremism meet.

Hunter offered "brainwashing" as the explanation for the numerous confessions signed by American prisoners of war during the Korean War and (generally) UN-recanted upon the prisoners' repatriation. These confessions alleged that the United States used germ warfare in the Korean conflict, a claim which the American public of the time found impossible to accept. Many years later, however, investigative reporters discovered that Japan's germ warfare specialists (who had wreaked incalculable terror on the conquered Chinese during WWII) had been mustered into the American national security apparat - and that the knowledge gleaned from Japan's horrifying germ warfare experiments probably WAS used in Korea, just as the "brainwashed" soldiers had indicated. Thus, we now know that the entire brainwashing scare of the 1950s constituted a CIA hoax perpetrated upon the American public: CIA deputy director Richard Helms admitted as much when, in 1963, he told the Warren Commission that Soviet mind control research consistently lagged years behind American efforts

Artichoke 1951 Project BLUEBIRD was renamed Project ARTICHOKE. The CIA director approved a liaison with the Army and Navy who were interested in finding a truth drug. Another liaison was formed with the Air Force who wanted to study interrogation techniques. Information was also exchanged with the Canadian and British governments.

Some of Project ARTICHOKE's experimental subjects included: suspected agents, suspected double agents, people who "had a known reason for deception," American college students (supposedly for more benign testing), and foreigners (since the CIA was more likely to try certain procedures out on them rather than American citizens.) "Terminal," or "to the death" experiments were usually carried out in other countries.

According to Bowart, the control method used on two agents involved drugs and hypnosis (narco-hypnosis). The subjects were hypnotically regressed and made to relive past experiences. Posthypnotic suggestions were given to induce total amnesia of their interrogations. The CIA called this experiment "very successful."

Castigate - 1952 Project CASTIGATE began when the Navy and the CIA teamed up to test a "secret potion" that consisted of a depressant, a stimulant, and the active ingredient in marijuana. The drugs were to be administered over a three-day period. The experiment was carried out in Germany at a secret CIA base on a military installation. Experimental subjects included one known double agent, one suspected double agent and three defectors. Project CASTIGATE was considered a failure.

MKNAOMI - 1952 MKNAOMI (Pronounced M-K NAOMI with M-K standing for mind control.) TSS's agreement with the Special Operations Division of the Army's biological research center at Fort Detrick, Maryland. SOD's job was to produce germ weapons for the CIA's use.

I (Boyd E. Graves, J.D.)have been asked to give my perspective with regard to the federal program MK-NAOMI . MK-NAOMI is the code for the development of AIDS. The “MK” portion stands for the two co-authors of the AIDS virus, Robert Manaker and Paul Kotin. The “NAOMI” portion stands for “Negroes are Only Momentary Individuals.” The U.S. government continues to orchestrate silence from the very top echelons of the Congress and military. At present there is no accountability. The good people will ultimately create a tsunami of public outrage. We can not allow the state an autocratic right to govern outside of the Constitution. Our society is structured to hide crimes committed by the state, while punishing citizens for minor indiscretions. Their strategy focuses on the general confusion they can create via manipulation of the media. They are very good at what they do. We must become more focused in our continued presentation of the flowchart. The flowchart is the absolute missing link in proving the existence of a coordinated research program to develop a cancer virus that depletes the immune system. New diseases do not create old illnesses.

MKULTRA - 1953 MKULTRA, a CIA program for the covert use of biological and chemical weapons began. Bowart states, "According to CIA documents, MKULTRA was 'an umbrella project for funding sensitive projects' and covered 'policy and procedures for the use of biochemicals in clandestine operations...' " "MKULTRA was exempted from normal CIA financial controls and allowed TSS to begin research projects without contracts or written agreements." TSS stands for Technical Services Staff and was an agency referred to as "the Gadget Wizards," similar to what "Q" is to James Bond.

As usual, MKDELTA and MKNAOMI had already been set up prior to the CIA being given official permission for MKULTRA. MKDELTA became the operational side of MKULTRA.

MKULTRA focused on drugs, specifically LSD since the CIA had a phobia about LSD ending up in the hands of the Russians. The CIA wanted to use LSD as a weapon. The Russians and the Cold War were used as a national security excuse for most of the CIA's actions. The CIA studied hundreds of other drugs besides LSD, as well as experimenting with: "radiation, electroshock, psychology, sociology, anthropology, psychiatry, harassment substances and paramilitary devices and materials."

It appears that the scientists enjoyed trying these drugs on themselves, but they also used many hospital patients, volunteers (mostly students), inmates who were usually paid for their participation with more drugs, and eventually anyone the CIA could get, without their consent, of course. The CIA "scientists" even reduced themselves to misting and spraying unwitting American citizens as they walked down busy city streets. Later they would study how they could manipulate genes, and develop compounds that could simulate heart attack and stroke.

MK-Ultra: The CIA and Radiation

MK-ULTRA Information

Material on the CIA funded MK-ULTRA experiments using LSD.

Radiation Experiments Hearing Text

Transcript of 3/15/95 public hearings of the Advisory Commitee on Human Radiation Experiments.

MKDELTA - See above

MKSEARCH 1964 MKULTRA became MKSEARCH. Many sub-projects stayed under MKULTRA while the most sensitive behavioral experiments went to MKSEARCH. These experiments were conducted on prisoners, terminal cancer patients and people who were described as mental "defectives." They also used radar waves on monkeys' brains (which risked "cooking" their brains) and one scientist took the head of one monkey and tried to attach it to the body of another. Other experiments involved studying telepathy, radio frequencies and memory.-

MKSEARCH continued into the early 1970's, and more experiments were performed under ORD, the Office of Research and Development. Some of these experiments consisted of implanting electrodes into the brains of cats, dogs, and reptiles and controlling the animals remotely. Animal experiments were always (and still are) performed first and heinously, but we don't hear much about these atrocities.

According to Bowart, the following agencies were involved in behavior modification and behavioral research projects: the Defense Department, the Department of Labor, the National Science Foundation, the Veteran's Administration, the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, the National Institute of Mental Health, the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (under the Department of Justice). "All of the above agencies were named in secret CIA documents as those who provided research 'cover' for MKULTRA."

Often/ Chickwit -1967 Or 1968, Project OFTEN/CHICKWIT was initiated by the Army Chemical Corps and the CIA's Office of Research and Development to create new drug compounds "that could be used offensively." Hallucinogens were tested on inmates in Pennsylvania, but very little is known about the experiments. "CIA documents mention 'several laboratory accidents' in which a drug designated as EA-3167 produced 'prolonged psychotic effects in laboratory personnel' "

U.S. Army dispenses Bacillus subtilis variant niger throughout the New York City subway system. More than a million civilians are exposed when army scientists drop lightbulbs filled with the bacteria onto ventilation grates.

It would appear that the CIA's drug testing continued throughout the 1970s since, "A CIA memo dated March 8, 1971, indicates that a backlog of more than twenty-six thousand drugs had been acquired 'for future screening'

Third Chance -In I991 operations Bug, Third Chance, Derby Hat and MKUltra under which various aspects of mind control were performed from BB size ear, eye nose and brain implants had been studied for two decades. And they were placed in the hands of South American dictators and others in operations against high echelon captured drug dealers and other prisoners.

Derby Hat - 1960 - The Army Assistant Chief-of-Staff for Intelligence (ACSI) authorizes field testing of LSD in Europe and the Far East. Testing of the european population is code named Project THIRD CHANCE; testing of the Asian population is code named Project DERBY HAT.

Project MONARCH - Mind control is absolute. Under MK-Ultra Project Monarch trauma-based mind control, ... a subsection of the CIA's Operation Artichoke which is also known as Project MK Ultra ... [involving] the sophisticated manipulation of the child's mind to protect itself from extreme trauma by creating Multiple Personality Disorder.

Mockingbird - This unlikely land of enchantment is the creation of MOCKINGBIRD. It was conceived in the late 1940s, the most frigid period of the cold war, when the CIA began a systematic infiltration of the corporate media, a process that often included direct takeover of major news outlets.

In this period, the American intelligence services competed with communist activists abroad to influence European labor unions. With or without the cooperation of local governments, Frank Wisner, an undercover State Department official assigned to the Foreign Service, rounded up students abroad to enter the cold war underground of covert operations on behalf of his Office of Policy Coordination. Philip Graham, __a graduate of the Army Intelligence School in Harrisburg, PA, then publisher of the Washington Post., was taken under Wisner's wing to direct the program code-named Operation MOCKINGBIRD

Operation MOCKINGBIRD — The CIA begins recruiting American news organizations and journalists to become spies and disseminators of propaganda. The effort is headed by Frank Wisner, Allan Dulles, Richard Helms and Philip Graham. Graham is publisher of The Washington Post, which becomes a major CIA player. Eventually, the CIA’s media assets will include ABC, NBC, CBS, Time, Newsweek, Associated Press, United Press International, Reuters, Hearst Newspapers, Scripps-Howard, Copley News Service and more. By the CIA’s own admission, at least 25 organizations and 400 journalists will become CIA assets.



Covert Action

Quarterly. The Winter 1991-92 issue featured an exposé

written by Richard Hatch entitled "Cancer Warfare." In the

article, Hatch examines the history of research into possibly

cancer-causing agents during the years immediately after

then-President Richard Nixon's 1969 order to halt U.S. offensive

weapons research and stockpiling of biological warfare (BW)

agents. The government extracted big propaganda over the

destruction of the Army's BW stocks of toxins, viruses and

bacteria that had been developed as weapons of mass destruction.

Less-known at the time was that certain of the stored materials,

along with a number of BW researchers, went to work for other

branches of the government, including the CIA and the National

Cancer Institute (NCI). The NCI, a wing of the National Institutes

of Health (NIH), subsequently embarked upon "a highly politicized

public relations effort" as part of Nixon's "War on Cancer."

According to Hatch's article, the "stated aim of the program

was to organize experiments aimed at finding cancer-causing

viruses." Hatch described the program as such:

Potentially cancer-causing viruses were collected, grown

in huge amounts, and distributed through the VCP; thousands

of animals were infected experimentally, and the aerosol

distribution of carcinogenic viruses was studied.

As a key component of the NCI's Viral Cancer Program (VCP),

the government enlisted the assistance of what Hatch calls

"The Military-University Complex." Chief among the numerous

universities which became a part of this vast pseudo-biowarfare

network are some of this country's most prestigious research

colleges including Johns Hopkins University, University of

Maryland, University of Minnesota, Ohio State University and UC

Berkeley (which helps manage the U.S. Naval Biosciences

Laboratory). Some of this university-based research is quite

alarming in its broad implications. Hatch continues:

While UC Berkeley appears to have been at the heart of aerosol

BW research, it was by no means alone. Other Universities

collaborated with the BW effort while working on the VCP in

parallel. From 1955 to 1965, the Ohio State University College

of Medicine conducted research for Fort Detrick into the aerosol

transmission of BW agents including tularemia and Q fever. I

n some of these studies, prisoners from the Ohio State Penitentiary

were used as guinea pigs. Between 1952 and 1969, the affiliated

Ohio State University Research Foundation had eight contracts

with the U.S. Army for BW research. [Tularemia ("rabbit fever")

and Q fever were ultimately stockpiled by the U.S. Army.]

Before he worked with UC, Dr. [Alfred] Hellman supervised an NCI

contract for Ohio State University. Designed to study the aerosol

transmission of cancer-causing viruses, this research started in

1965 and continued at least until 1972. The principal investigator

for this work, Dr. Richard Griesemer, would eventually succeed in

giving tumors to mice and monkeys.

If the reported success of Richard Griesemer is accurate, we [can]

determine that at least nine years before Bob Marley's death to

cancer, the capability of induced cancer in laboratory animals is

reported to have been a "fait accompli."

In addition, there was cooperation between the military research

community and numerous corporations, including two major

defense biosciences contractors: Charles Pfizer & Co. and Litton-

Bionics. A number of notable researchers evolved from this

network, some of which are associated with some of America's

more sinister and secretive research. These include: Robert Gallo

(NCI), Jack Gruber (NIH), Alfred Hellman (US Air Force), James

Duff (US Army), Richard Griesemer (Department Of Energy-the

agency exposed in 1993 for its involvement in widespread human

radiation experiments) and Seymour Kalter (NCI). Throughout my

extensive research into some of the greatest conspiracies of

our time, certain of these names appear in the midst of some

disturbing activities.

It serves us well to remember the names of such individuals

and to remain vigilant to their activities In addition, this secret

research into cancer-causing agents partially overlapped with

the CIA's projects MK-ULTRA (covert human experimentation

with psychedelic drugs and "other chemical agents") and

MK-NAOMI (the agency's managing of biological toxins and

diseases, some of which, as revealed in congressional hearings,

were utilized in attempted assassinations of foreign leaders).

Edited by Steven Gaal
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A crude test on humans...

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I'm not sure if you're just being lazy, Len, or if you're simply being difficult

for the sake of being difficult. Where do you think "successful" cancer causing

exploits are going to be documented? Do you think I have access to such evidence?

Do you think, if I did, that I would post it here? It's apparent that you either

don't know about classification or that you're being willfully ignorant about it.

Now, based on what I have read, I have no doubt that this technology does, in fact,

exist. I'm avoiding my "neighborly" work, not because I can't, but because it's not

important enough to do so. My opinion is based on reading the outlines of 70+ years

of research and billions of dollars spent on studying cancer and related illnesses

and how to cause them using controllable methods.

I will agree that it's hard for the layperson to simply type some words into Google

and find smoking guns in this particular area. However, I do not have the opinion

that you are a layperson. Thus, I believe you are being either willfully ignorant

or just lazy. Pick one. I'm not going to spend hours poring through a dozen books

and pull out references when I'm sure that 1) you have access to the same books,

and 2) you probably already know the conclusion.

In the end, I have to wonder, why are you being this difficult? Either you're trying

to discover my sources and discredit me or you honestly don't believe this technology

exists. If it's the former, I could care less, but if it's the latter, I would be rather amazed.

Do you think that Fort Detrick, as just one example, does not have this capability?

If not, then please explain why you doubt the capabilities of this esteemed organization?

LOL you claim this info is readily available but you prefer to make excuses than post any. You claim I’m being lazy because I don’t want to research YOUR claims but what does that make you for refusing to do the same thing? They are your claims therefore it is up to you, not me to back them up. If really have extensively research this as much as you claim you should be able to post citations with minimal effort. But paradoxically in the same posts you indicate the information is not easy to come by almost as if you are trying to say it would be easy for me but unduly burdensome for you.

“Do you think that Fort Detrick, as just one example, does not have this capability?

If not, then please explain why you doubt the capabilities of this esteemed organization?”

Perhaps they do, perhaps they don’t. I have yet to see evidence they do or that they are trying, thought it seems they might have tried in the past. But then again I have looked into this very much.

“My opinion is based on reading the outlines of 70+ years of research and billions of dollars spent on studying cancer and related illnesses and how to cause them using controllable methods”

Yes I have no doubt “billions of dollars [have been] spent on studying cancer and related illnesses” but I have seen very little evidence of a concerted or continuing effort “to cause them using controllable methods”

“I do not have the opinion that you are a layperson.”

I’m an English teacher and translator who also sells art, I have no biology training, nor have I researched this topic much.

“Thus, I believe you are being either willfully ignorant or just lazy. Pick one”

False dichotomy stemming from a false premise, see above.

“I'm not going to spend hours poring through a dozen books and pull out references”

“Hours”? Funny you claim to have researched this and say it would take you “hours” but elsewhere you imply I could easily find this info. If it would take you hours how many days would it take me?

“I'm sure that 1) you have access to the same books,…”

Let’s see we live in similar size metropolitan areas but you obviously are interested in the subject and live in the rich country where the supposed events took place while I’m not very interested in the topic and live in a non-English speaking 3rd world country; so the notion that I “have access to the same books” is absurd. I don’t even know which books you are ranting about. If any of them are available online post the links.

“2) you probably already know the conclusion”

Well I started off doubting the technology exists and each time you make lame excuses instead of providing evidence the more you convince me I was right. Think how this appears to any lurkers who on the fence, you made a claim but refuse to back it.

“I have to wonder, why are you being this difficult?”

LOL me ‘difficult’ you’re hilarious! Sorry but common sense and the forum rules dictate that it’s up to you to provide citations in support of what you claim exists and to have read dozens of books about.

Also I forgot to add that Lula and Dilma’s Neo-Liberal predecessor, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, also paid the debt a policy he started as finance minister in 1993 and continued as president 1995 – 2002. He is still occasionally mentioned as a future presidential candidate, but neither he, nor any of the other presidential prospects (Serra, Alckmin, Neves) in his party (PSDB) have been diagnosed with cancer.

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COLBY You imply there is an abundance of easily found information corroborating your claim but when pressed to produce any to make excuses and I imagine your next reply will be more of the same.END COLBY


Easily found.......seek and you shall find.....Mr. Colby's constant servile genuflection to the establishment is an an embarrassment to all free thinkers and true researchers of the truth.




A History of Secret Human Experimentations

This is Compiled from Two different sources

1931 - Dr. Cornelius Rhoads, under the auspices of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Investigations, infects human subjects with cancer cells. He later goes on to establish the U.S. Army Biological Warfare facilities in Maryland, Utah, and Panama, and is named to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. While there, he begins a series of radiation exposure experiments on American soldiers and civilian hospital patients.


It serves us well to remember the names of such individuals

and to remain vigilant to their activities In addition, this secret

research into cancer-causing agents partially overlapped with

the CIA's projects MK-ULTRA (covert human experimentation

with psychedelic drugs and "other chemical agents") and

MK-NAOMI (the agency's managing of biological toxins and

diseases, some of which, as revealed in congressional hearings,

were utilized in attempted assassinations of foreign leaders).

Nice wall of text Gaal you are the forum’s pre-eminent cutter and paster!!

Why don’t you whittle it down a bit? First get rid of the parts that have nothing to do with cancer, then get rid of the ones that don’t say there was an intentional effort to cause it, them get rid of the ones that don’t have any citations. Based on my skim/scan of your post there would be nothing left.

As for Dr. Rhodes the only evidence against him he wrote while drunk and supposedly pissed off because his car had been stolen. He never even sent the letter, rather he tossed in the trash but someone found it causing a big stink. Three investigations concluded none of his patients died unexpectedly, he wasn’t even a cancer researcher at the time. Do a forum search I debate this with Duane

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A false choice? Perhaps But I think you're exhibiting signs of *both* qualities.

Let’s review:

i) YOU are the one making the claim therefore common sense and the forum rules dictate that it’s up to you to produce the evidence.

ii) YOU are the one who claims there is an abundance of evidence I’m the saying there is a dearth of it therefore common sense dictates that it’s up to you to produce the evidence.

iii) YOU wrote “I'm not going to spend hours poring through a dozen books and pull out references” which indicated you’re read a dozen books on the topic and have access to them. I have no idea what books you are talking about and unless they are online won’t have access to them; therefore common sense dictates that it’s up to post the citations.

Therefore it’s clearly up to YOU to produce the evidence yet over the course of four posts you’ve only come up with excuses and tried to dump YOUR responsibility on to me and then claim I’m lazy, you’re hilarious!

I have read countless threads from you Len where you've pulled extraordinary minutiae

out of your hat to make incredibly specific points on a wide range of esoteric topics. Now

you want to claim that you're a poor south American teacher without access to my rich

American library. There's an LOL for you.

You are the one who claims to have read and have access to “a dozen books” on the topic and you live in a mid-sized American city I live in mid-sized Brazilian one. The odds of any of your “dozen books” being in a local library or bookstore are quite slim. With exception of my small collection of non-fiction books on topic applicable to subjects discussed on this forum, all my sources are online.

Good job skipping past the Fort Detrick question too. You haven't seen evidence? What, do you think they have a blog or a monthly magazine? Priceless.

LOL there you go again with you schizophrenic attitude towards the evidence when it suits you it readily available and I’m lazy for not tracking it down but when I ask you for some it suddenly becomes obscure! YOU are one who keeps citing the facility as near proof of your claims. So what exactly did I supposedly 'skip past'?

BTW, forget about the cloak and dagger stuff for a moment. You get that cancer isn't all that hard to acquire in the first place right? There are no 100% solutions, but if you have close/intimate access to the victim, you can increase success by implementing several approaches at once (e.g., irradiation + toxic ingestion). Add in the billion dollars of research now and the documentation starts to become unnecessary.

OK I’ll unquestioningly take your word for it! Isn’t that what you want? “Billion dollars of research” have been spent on CAUSING cancer? Really? I don’t suppose you have evidence in support of this claim? Your position is, ‘they have been researching this for years, they must have the capability’. The first problem is that you’ve yet to produce a citation in support of your 1st premise, the 2nd is that non-toxic cures for cancer, a cure or vaccine for AIDS and cold fusion among other projects have been researched for decades with billions spent on research with little if any success. So despite the fact high profile research projects have gone nowhere but you believe it obvious that a clandestine one must have obtained success

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One again I’ve no idea what you are going on about

“Sitting in your easy chair in Brazil asking others to act out both sides of the argument isn't your most compelling facet.”

“BOTH sides”? As with you I’ve only asked Jim D., Greg Parker and others to document THEIR side “of the argument” you are the one asking me to find evidence for something for which I don’t think there is any evidence.

Until you live up to YOUR obligation to document YOUR claims further discussion is pointless

Edited by Len Colby
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COLBY You imply there is an abundance of easily found information corroborating your claim but when pressed to produce any to make excuses and I imagine your next reply will be more of the same.END COLBY


Easily found.......seek and you shall find.....Mr. Colby's constant servile genuflection to the establishment is an an embarrassment to all free thinkers and true researchers of the truth.




A History of Secret Human Experimentations

This is Compiled from Two different sources

1931 - Dr. Cornelius Rhoads, under the auspices of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Investigations, infects human subjects with cancer cells. He later goes on to establish the U.S. Army Biological Warfare facilities in Maryland, Utah, and Panama, and is named to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. While there, he begins a series of radiation exposure experiments on American soldiers and civilian hospital patients.


It serves us well to remember the names of such individuals

and to remain vigilant to their activities In addition, this secret

research into cancer-causing agents partially overlapped with

the CIA's projects MK-ULTRA (covert human experimentation

with psychedelic drugs and "other chemical agents") and

MK-NAOMI (the agency's managing of biological toxins and

diseases, some of which, as revealed in congressional hearings,

were utilized in attempted assassinations of foreign leaders).

Nice wall of text Gaal you are the forum’s pre-eminent cutter and paster!!

Why don’t you whittle it down a bit? First get rid of the parts that have nothing to do with cancer, then get rid of the ones that don’t say there was an intentional effort to cause it, them get rid of the ones that don’t have any citations. Based on my skim/scan of your post there would be nothing left.

As for Dr. Rhodes the only evidence against him he wrote while drunk and supposedly pissed off because his car had been stolen. He never even sent the letter, rather he tossed in the trash but someone found it causing a big stink. Three investigations concluded none of his patients died unexpectedly, he wasn’t even a cancer researcher at the time. Do a forum search I debate this with Duane



Len there is a big,big gulf between us..you call it a "wall of TEXT" and I call it a 'wall of sorrow'. Great, great suffering and sorrow here caused by DOD,AEC,and CIA. Cornelius Rhoads later participated in CBW programs. Many of these programs hurt people....so his outburst ,showed what was in his heart.

Gee ,whats in Colby's heart ??????????

Len you seem to never suprise me how small you are...............the sorrow & the pity.Pity for you Len. I will pray for you. sg


Unethical human experimentation in the United States


There have been numerous experiments performed on human test subjects in the United States that have been considered unethical, and were often performed illegally, without the knowledge, consent, or informed consent of the test subjects.

The experiments include: the deliberate infection of people with deadly or debilitating diseases, exposure of people to biological and chemical weapons, human radiation experiments, injection of people with toxic and radioactive chemicals, surgical experiments, interrogation/torture experiments, tests involving mind-altering substances, and a wide variety of others. Many of these tests were performed on children, the sick, and mentally disabled individuals, often under the guise of "medical treatment". In many of the studies, a large portion of the subjects were poor racial minorities or prisoners.

Funding for many of the experiments was provided by United States government, especially the Central Intelligence Agency, United States military and federal or military corporations. The human research programs were usually highly secretive, and in many cases information about them was not released until many years after the studies had been performed.

The ethical, professional, and legal implications of this in the United States medical and scientific community were quite significant, and led to many institutions and policies that attempted to ensure that future human subject research in the United States would be ethical and legal. Public outcry over the discovery of government experiments on human subjects led to numerous congressional investigations and hearings, including the Church Committee, Rockefeller Commission, and Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments, amongst others.

[edit] Surgical experiments

Throughout the 1840s, J. Marion Sims, who is often referred to as "the father of gynecology", performed surgical experiments on enslaved African women, without anaesthesia. The women—one of whom was operated on 30 times—regularly died from infections resulting from the experiments.[1] In order to test one of his theories about the causes of trismus in infants, Sims performed experiments where he used a shoemaker's awl to move around the skull bones of the babies of enslaved women.[2][3]

In 1874, Mary Rafferty, an Irish servant woman, came to Dr. Roberts Bartholow of the Good Samaritan Hospital in Cincinnati for treatment of her cancer. Seeing a research opportunity, he cut open her head, and inserted needle electrodes into her exposed brain matter.[4] He described the experiment as follows:

When the needle entered the brain substance, she complained of acute pain in the neck. In order to develop more decided reactions, the strength of the current was increased ... her countenance exhibited great distress, and she began to cry. Very soon, the left hand was extended as if in the act of taking hold of some object in front of her; the arm presently was agitated with clonic spasm; her eyes became fixed, with pupils widely dilated; lips were blue, and she frothed at the mouth; her breathing became stertorous; she lost consciousness and was violently convulsed on the left side. The convulsion lasted five minutes, and was succeeded by a coma. She returned to consciousness in twenty minutes from the beginning of the attack, and complained of some weakness and vertigo.

—Dr. Bartholow's research report[4]

Bartholow and his team of physicians discontinued with experimentation when her condition worsened. She died a few days later; Bartholow concluded that her death was a result of her cancer.[4]

In 1896, Dr. Arthur Wentworth performed spinal taps on 29 young children, without the knowledge or consent of their parents, at the Children's Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts to discover if doing so would be harmful.[5]

From 1913 to 1951, Dr. Leo Stanley, chief surgeon at the San Quentin Prison, performed a wide variety of experiments on hundreds of prisoners at San Quentin. Many of the experiments involved testicular implants, where Stanley would take the testicles out of executed prisoners and surgically implant them into living prisoners. In other experiments, he attempted to implant the testicles of rams, goats, and boars into living prisoners. Stanley also performed various eugenics experiments, and forced sterilizations on San Quentin prisoners.[6] Stanley believed that his experiments would rejuvenate old men, control crime (which he believed had biological causes), and prevent the "unfit" from reproducing.[6][7]

[edit] Pathogens, disease, and biological warfare agents

In the 1880s, in Hawaii, a California physician working at a hospital for lepers injected twelve young girls under the age of 12 with syphilis.[5]

In 1895, the New York pediatrician Henry Heiman intentionally infected two "idiots" (mentally disabled boys)—one 4-year-old and one 16-year old—with gonorrhea as part of a medical experiment. A review of the medical literature of the late 19th and early 20th century found that there were more than forty reports of experimental infections with gonorrheal culture, including some where gonorrheal organisms were applied to the eyes of sick children.[5][8][9]

In 1900[verification needed], U.S Army doctors in the Philippines infected five prisoners with bubonic plague and induced beriberi in 29 prisoners; four of the test subjects died as a result.[10][11] In 1906, Professor Richard Strong of Harvard University intentionally infected 24 Filipino prisoners with cholera, which had somehow become infected with plague. He did this without the consent of the patients, and without informing them of what he was doing. All of the subjects became sick and thirteen died.[11][12]

In 1908, three Philadelphia researchers infected dozens of children with tuberculin at the St. Vincent's House orphanage in Philadelphia, causing permanent blindness in some of the children and painful lesions and inflammation of the eyes in many of the others. In the study they refer to the children as "material used".[13]

In 1909, F. C. Knowles released a study describing how he had deliberately infected two children in an orphanage with Molluscum contagiosum after an outbreak in the orphanage, in order to study the disease.[5]

In 1911, Dr. Hideyo Noguchi of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research injected 146 hospital patients (some of whom were children) with syphilis. He was later sued by the parents of some of the child subjects, who allegedly contracted syphilis as a result of his experiments.[14]


The Tuskegee syphilis experiment[15] was a clinical study conducted between 1932 and 1972 in Tuskegee, Alabama, by the U.S. Public Health Service. In the experiment, 400 impoverished black males who had syphilis were offered "treatment" by the researchers, who told the test subjects that they were treating them for the disease, but in reality did nothing—even though they possessed penicillin, which was known to cure the deadly disease at the time—so that they could observe the effects of syphilis on the human body. By the end of the study in 1972, only 74 of the test subjects were alive. Twenty-eight of the original 399 men had died of syphilis, 100 were dead of related complications, 40 of their wives had been infected, and 19 of their children were born with congenital syphilis. The study was not shut down until 1972, when its existence was leaked to the press, forcing the researchers to stop in the face of a public outcry.[16]

In 1941, at the University of Michigan, doctors Francis and Jonas Salk and other researchers deliberately infected patients at several Michigan mental institutions with the influenza virus by spraying the virus into their nasal passages.[17] Francis Rous, editor of the Journal of Experimental Medicine wrote the following to Francis regarding the experiments:

"It may save you much trouble if you publish your paper ... elsewhere than in the Journal of Experimental Medicine. The Journal is under constant scrutiny by the anti-vivisectionists who would not hesitate to play up the fact that you used for your tests human beings of a state institution. That the tests were wholly justified goes without saying."[18]

In 1941 Dr. William C. Black inoculated a twelve month old baby "offered as a volunteer" with herpes. He submitted his research to The Journal of Experimental Medicine and it was rejected on ethical grounds. The editor of the Journal of Experimental Medicine, Francis Payton Rous, called the experiment "an abuse of power, an infringement of the rights of an individual, and not excusable because the illness which followed had implications for science."[19][20][21] It was later published in the Journal of Pediatrics.[22]

The Stateville Penitentiary Malaria Study was the site of a controlled study of the effects of malaria on the prisoners of Stateville Penitentiary near Joliet, Illinois beginning in the 1940s. The study was conducted by the Department of Medicine at the University of Chicago in conjunction with the United States Army and the State Department. At the Nuremberg trials, Nazi doctors cited the malaria experiments as part of their defense.[23][24] The study continued at Stateville Penitentiary for 29 years. In related studies from 1944 to 1946, Dr. Alf Alving, a professor at the University of Chicago Medical School, purposely infected psychiatric patients at the Illinois State Hospital with malaria, so that he could test experimental malaria treatments on them.[25]

In a 1946 to 1948 study in Guatemala, U.S. researchers used prostitutes to infect prison inmates, insane asylum patients, and Guatemalan soldiers with syphilis and other sexually transmitted diseases, in order to test the effectiveness of penicillin in treating sexually transmitted diseases. They later tried infecting people with "direct inoculations made from syphilis bacteria poured into the men's penises and on forearms and faces that were slightly abraded . . . or in a few cases through spinal punctures". Approximately 700 people were infected as part of the study (including orphan children). The study was sponsored by the Public Health Service, the National Institutes of Health and the Pan American Health Sanitary Bureau (now the World Health Organization's Pan American Health Organization) and the Guatemalan government. The team was led by John Charles Cutler, who later participated in the Tuskegee syphilis experiments. Cutler chose to do the study in Guatemala because he would not have been permitted to do it in the United States.[26][27][28][29]

In 1950, in order to conduct a simulation of a biological warfare attack, the US Navy used airplanes to spray large quantities of the bacteria Serratia marcescens - considered harmless at this time - over the city of San Francisco, California, which caused numerous citizens to contract pneumonia-like illnesses, and killed at least one person.[30][31][32][33][34][35] The family of the man who was killed sued for gross negligence, but a federal judge ruled in favor of the government in 1981.[36] Serratia tests were continued until at least 1969.[37]

Also in 1950, Dr. Joseph Stokes of the University of Pennsylvania deliberately infected 200 female prisoners with viral hepatitis.[38]

From the 1950s to 1972, mentally disabled children at the Willowbrook State School in Staten Island, New York were intentionally infected with viral hepatitis, in research whose purpose was to help discover a vaccine.[39] From 1963 to 1966, Saul Krugman of New York University promised the parents of mentally disabled children that their children would be enrolled into Willowbrook in exchange for signing a consent form for procedures that he claimed were "vaccinations." In reality, the procedures involved deliberately infecting children with viral hepatitis by feeding them an extract made from the feces of patients infected with the disease.[40][41]

In 1952, Sloan-Kettering Institute researcher Chester M. Southam injected live cancer cells into prisoners at the Ohio State Prison. Half of the prisoners in this NIH-sponsored study were black - the other half weren't. Also at Sloan-Kettering, 300 healthy women were injected with live cancer cells without being told. The doctors stated that they knew at the time that it might cause cancer.[42]

In 1955, the CIA conducted a biological warfare experiment (despite the Fourth Geneva Convention) where they released whooping cough bacteria from boats outside of Tampa Bay, Florida, causing a whooping cough epidemic in the city, and killing at least 12 people.[43][44][45]

In 1956 and 1957, several U.S. Army biological warfare experiments were conducted on the cities of Savannah, Georgia and Avon Park, Florida. In the experiments, Army bio-warfare researchers released millions of infected mosquitoes on the two towns, in order to see if the insects could potentially spread yellow fever and dengue fever. Hundreds of residents contracted a wide array of illnesses, including fevers, respiratory problems, stillbirths, encephalitis, and typhoid. Army researchers pretended to be public health workers, so that they could photograph and perform medical tests on the victims. Several people died as a result of the experiments.[10][46]

In 1962, twenty-two elderly patients at the Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital in Brooklyn, New York were injected with live cancer cells by Chester M. Southam, who in 1952 had done the same to prisoners at the Ohio State Prison, in order to "discover the secret of how healthy bodies fight the invasion of malignant cells". The administration of the hospital attempted to cover the study up, but the New York State medical licensing board ultimately placed Southam on probation for one year. Two years later, the American Cancer Society elected him as their Vice President.[47]

In 1966, the U.S. Army released the harmless Bacillus globigii into the tunnels of the New York subway system as part of a field study called A Study of the Vulnerability of Subway Passengers in New York City to Covert Attack with Biological Agents.[43][48][49][50][51] The Chicago subway system was also subject to a similar experiment by the Army.[43]

[edit] Human radiation experiments

Researchers in the United States have performed thousands of human radiation experiments to determine the effects of atomic radiation and radioactive contamination on the human body, generally on people who were poor, sick, or powerless.[52] Most of these tests were performed, funded, or supervised by the United States military, Atomic Energy Commission, or various other US federal government agencies.

The experiments included a wide array of studies, involving things like feeding radioactive food to mentally disabled children or conscientious objectors, inserting radium rods into the noses of soldiers, deliberately releasing radioactive chemicals over U.S. and Canadian cities, measuring the health effects of radioactive fallout from nuclear bomb tests, injecting pregnant women and babies with radioactive chemicals, and irradiating the testicles of prison inmates, amongst other things.

Ultimately, public outcry over the experiments led to the 1994 Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments.

[edit] Radioactive iodine experiments

In 1953, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) ran several studies on the health effects of radioactive iodine in newborns and pregnant women at the University of Iowa. In one study, researchers gave pregnant women from 100 to 200 microcuries of iodine-131, in order to study the women's aborted embryos in an attempt to discover at what stage, and to what extent, radioactive iodine crosses the placental barrier. In another study, they gave 25 newborn babies (who were under 36 hours old and weighed from 5.5 to 8.5 lbs) iodine-131, either by oral administration or through an injection, so that they could measure the amount of iodine in their thyroid glands.[53]

In another AEC study, researchers at the University of Nebraska College of Medicine fed iodine-131 to 28 healthy infants through a gastric tube to test the concentration of iodine in the infants' thyroid glands.[53]

In a 1949 operation called the "Green Run," the AEC released iodine-131 and xenon-133 to the atmosphere which contaminated an 500,000-acre (2,000 km2) area containing three small towns near the Hanford site in Washington.[54]

In 1953, the AEC sponsored a study to discover if radioactive iodine affected premature babies differently from full-term babies. In the experiment, researchers from Harper Hospital in Detroit orally administered iodine-131 to 65 premature and full-term infants who weighed from 2.1 to 5.5 lb (2.5 kg).[53]

In 1962, the Hanford site again released I-131, stationing test subjects along its path to record its effect on them. The AEC also recruited Hanford volunteers to ingest milk contaminated with I-131 during this time.[53]

[edit] Uranium experiments

Between 1946 and 1947, researchers at the University of Rochester injected uranium-234 and uranium-235 in dosages ranging from 6.4 to 70.7 micrograms per kilogram of body weight into six people to study how much uranium their kidneys could tolerate before becoming damaged.[55]

Between 1953 and 1957, at the Massachusetts General Hospital, Dr. William Sweet injected eleven terminally ill, comatose and semi-comatose patients with uranium in an experiment to determine, among other things, its viability as a chemotherapy treatment against brain tumors, which all but one of the patients had (one being a mis-diagnosis). Dr. Sweet, who died in 2001, maintained that consent had been obtained from the patients and next of kin.[56][57]

[edit] Plutonium experiments

In 1945, as part of the Manhattan Project, three patients at Billings Hospital at the University of Chicago were injected with plutonium.[58]

In 1946, six employees of a Chicago metallurgical lab were given water that was contaminated with plutonium-239, so that researchers could study how plutonium is absorbed into the digestive tract.[55]

[edit] Experiments involving other radioactive materials

Immediately after World War II, researchers at Vanderbilt University gave 829 pregnant mothers in Tennessee what they were told were "vitamin drinks" that would improve the health of their babies, but were, in fact, mixtures containing radioactive iron, to determine how fast the radioisotope crossed into the placenta. At least three children are known to have died from the experiments, from cancers and leukemias.[59][60] Four of the women's babies died from cancers as a result of the experiments, and the women experienced rashes, bruises, anemia, hair/tooth loss, and cancer.[52]

From 1946 to 1953, at the Walter E. Fernald State School in Massachusetts, in an experiment sponsored by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and the Quaker Oats corporation, 73 mentally disabled children were fed oatmeal containing radioactive calcium and other radioisotopes, in order to track "how nutrients were digested". The children were not told that they were being fed radioactive chemicals and were told by hospital staff and researchers that they were joining a "science club".[59][61][62][63]

In the 1950s, researchers at the Medical College of Virginia performed experiments on severe burn victims, most of them poor and black, without their knowledge or consent, with funding from the Army and in collaboration with the AEC. In the experiments, the subjects were exposed to additional burning, experimental antibiotic treatment, and injections of radioactive isotopes. The amount of radioactive phosphorus-32 injected into some of the patients, 500 microcuries, was 50 times the "acceptable" dose for a healthy individual; for people with severe burns, this likely led to significantly increased death rates.[64][65]

Between 1948 and 1954, funded by the federal government, researchers at the Johns Hopkins Hospital inserted radium rods into the noses of 582 Baltimore, Maryland schoolchildren as an alternative to adenoidectomy.[66][67][68] Similar experiments were performed on over 7,000 U.S. Army and Navy personnel during World War II.[66] It went on to become a standard medical treatment and was used in over two and a half million Americans.[66]

In another study at the Walter E. Fernald State School, in 1956, researchers gave mentally disabled children radioactive calcium orally and intravenously. They also injected radioactive chemicals into malnourished babies and then pushed needles through their skulls, into their brains, through their necks, and into their spines to collect cerebrospinal fluid for analysis.[63][69]

An eighteen-year-old woman at an upstate New York hospital, expecting to be treated for a pituitary gland disorder, was injected with plutonium.[70]

In 1961 and 1962, ten Utah State Prison inmates had blood samples taken which were then mixed with radioactive chemicals and reinjected back into their bodies.[71]

In a 1967 study that was published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, pregnant women were injected with radioactive cortisol to see if it would cross the placental barrier and affect the fetuses.[72]

[edit] Fallout research

In 1954, American scientists conducted fallout exposure research on the citizens of the Marshall Islands after they were inadvertently irradiated[73] by the Castle Bravo nuclear test in Project 4.1. The Bravo test was detonated upwind of Rongelap Atoll and the residents were exposed to serious radiation levels, up to 180 rads. Of the 236 Marshallese exposed, some developed severe radiation sickness and one died, and long term effects included birth defects, "jellyfish" babies, and thyroid problems.[74]

In 1957, atmospheric nuclear explosions in Nevada, which were part of Operation Plumbbob were later determined to have released enough radiation to have caused from 11,000 to 212,000 excess cases of thyroid cancer amongst U.S. citizens who were exposed to fallout from the explosions, leading to between 1,100 and 21,000 deaths.[75]

Early in the Cold War, in studies known as Project GABRIEL and Project SUNSHINE, researchers in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia attempted to determine just how much nuclear fallout would be required to make the Earth uninhabitable.[76][77] They realized that atmospheric nuclear testing had provided them an opportunity to investigate this. Such tests had dispersed radioactive contamination worldwide, and examination of human bodies could reveal how readily it was taken up and hence how much damage it caused. Of particular interest was strontium-90 in the bones. Infants were the primary focus, as they would have had a full opportunity to absorb the new contaminants.[78]

As a result of this conclusion, researchers began a program to collect human bodies and bones from all over the world, with a particular focus on infants. The bones were cremated and the ashes analyzed for radioisotopes. This project was kept secret primarily because it would be a public relations disaster; as a result parents and family were not told what was being done with the body parts of their relatives.[79]

[edit] Irradiation experiments

Between 1960 and 1971, the Department of Defense funded non-consensual whole body radiation experiments on poor, black cancer patients, who were not told what was being done to them. Patients were told that they were receiving a "treatment" that might cure their cancer, but in reality the Pentagon was attempting to determine the effects of high levels of radiation on the human body. One of the doctors involved in the experiments, Robert Stone, was worried about litigation by the patients, so he only referred to them by their initials on the medical reports. He did this so that, in his words, "there will be no means by which the patients can ever connect themselves up with the report", in order to prevent "either adverse publicity or litigation".[80]

From 1960 to 1971, Dr. Eugene Saenger, funded by the Defense Atomic Support Agency, performed whole body radiation experiments on more than 90 poor, black, terminally ill cancer patients with inoperable tumors at the University of Cincinnati Medical Center. He forged consent forms, and did not inform them of the risks of irradiation. The patients were given 100 or more rads of whole-body radiation, which in many caused intense pain and vomiting. Critics have questioned the medical rationale for this study, and contend that the main purpose of the research was to study the acute effects of radiation exposure.[81][82]

From 1963 to 1973, a leading endocrinologist, Dr. Carl Heller, irradiated the testicles of Oregon and Washington prisoners. In return for their participation, he gave them $5 a month, and $100 when they had to receive a vasectomy upon conclusion of the trial. The surgeon who sterilized the men said that it was necessary to "keep from contaminating the general population with radiation-induced mutants". One of the researchers who had worked with Keller on the experiments, Dr. Joseph Hamilton, said that the experiments "had a little of the Buchenwald touch".[83]

In 1963, University of Washington researchers irradiated the testes of 232 prisoners to determine the effects of radiation on testicular function. When these inmates later left prison and had children, at least four of them had offspring born with birth defects. The exact number is unknown because researchers never followed up on the status of the subjects.[84]

[edit] Chemical experiments

From 1942 to 1944, the U.S. Chemical Warfare Service conducted experiments which exposed thousands of U.S. military personnel to mustard gas, in order to test the effectiveness of gas masks and protective clothing.[85][86][87][88]

From 1950 through 1953, the US Army sprayed toxic chemicals over six cities in the United States and Canada, in order to test dispersal patterns of chemical weapons. Army records stated that the chemicals which were sprayed on the city of Winnipeg, Canada, included zinc cadmium sulfide.[89]

To test whether or not sulfuric acid, which is used in making molasses, was harmful as a food additive, the Louisiana State Board of Health commissioned a study to feed "Negro prisoners" nothing but molasses for five weeks. One report stated that prisoners didn't "object to submitting themselves to the test, because it would not do any good if they did".[12]

A 1953 article in the medical/scientific journal Clinical Science[90] described a medical experiment in which researchers intentionally blistered the skin on the abdomens of 41 children, who ranged in age from 8 to 14, using cantharide. The study was performed to determine how severely the substance injures/irritates the skin of children. After the studies, the children's blistered skin was removed with scissors and swabbed with peroxide.[72]

From approximately 1951 to 1974, the Holmesburg State Prison in Pennsylvania was the site of extensive dermatological research operations, using prisoners as subjects. Led by Dr. Albert M. Kligman of the University of Pennsylvania, the studies were performed on behalf of Dow Chemical Company, the U.S. Army, and Johnson & Johnson.[91][92][93] In one of the studies, for which Dow Chemical paid Kligman $10,000, Kligman injected dioxin—a highly toxic, carcinogenic component of Agent Orange, which Dow was manufacturing for use in Vietnam at the time—into 70 prisoners (most of them black). The prisoners developed severe lesions which went untreated for seven months.[10] Dow Chemical wanted to study the health effects of dioxin and other herbicides, and how they affect human skin, because workers at their chemical plants were developing chloracne. In the study, Kligman applied roughly the amount of dioxin Dow employees were being exposed to. In 1980 and 1981, some of the people who were used in this study sued Professor Kligman for a variety of health problems, including lupus and psychological damage.[94]

Kligman later continued his dioxin studies, increasing the dosage of dioxin he applied to 10 prisoners' skin to 7,500 micrograms of dioxin, which is 468 times the dosage that the Dow Chemical official Gerald K. Rowe had authorized him to administer. As a result, the prisoners developed inflammatory pustules and papules.[94]

The Holmesburg program also paid hundreds of inmates a nominal stipend to test a wide range of cosmetic products and chemical compounds, whose health effects were unknown at the time.[95][96] Upon his arrival at Holmesberg, Kligman is claimed to have said "All I saw before me were acres of skin ... It was like a farmer seeing a fertile field for the first time".[97] It was reported in a 1964 issue of Medical News that 9 out of 10 prisoners at Holmesburg Prison were medical test subjects.[98]

In 1967, the U.S. Army paid Kligman to apply skin-blistering chemicals to the faces and backs of inmates at Holmesburg to, in Kligman's words, "learn how the skin protects itself against chronic assault from toxic chemicals, the so-called hardening process."[94]

[edit] Psychological and torture experiments

[edit] U.S. government research

The United States government funded and performed numerous psychological experiments, especially during the Cold War era. Many of these experiments were performed to help develop more effective torture and interrogation techniques for the U.S. military and intelligence agencies, and to develop techniques for resisting torture at the hands of enemy nations and organizations.

In studies running from 1947 to 1953, which were known as Project Chatter, the U.S. Navy began identifying and testing truth serums, which they hoped could be used during interrogations of Soviet spies. Some of the chemicals tested on human subjects included mescaline and the anticholinergic drug scopolamine.[99]

Shortly thereafter, in 1950, the CIA initiated Project Bluebird, later renamed Project Artichoke, whose stated purpose was to develop "the means to control individuals through special interrogation techniques", "way to prevent the extraction of information from CIA agents", and "offensive uses of unconventional techniques, such as hypnosis and drugs".[99][100][101] The purpose of the project was outlined in a memo dated January 1952 that stated, "Can we get control of an individual to the point where he will do our bidding against his will and even against fundamental laws of nature, such as self preservation?" The project studied the use of hypnosis, forced morphine addiction and subsequent forced withdrawal, and the use of other chemicals, among other methods, to produce amnesia and other vulnerable states in subjects.[102][103][104][105][106] In order to "perfect techniques for the abstraction of information from individuals, whether willing or not", Project Bluebird researchers experimented with a wide variety of psychoactive substances, including LSD, heroin, marijuana, cocaine, PCP, mescaline, and ether.[107] Project Bluebird researchers dosed over 7,000 U.S. military personnel with LSD, without their knowledge or consent, at the Edgewood Arsenal in Maryland. More than 1,000 of these soldiers suffered from several psychiatric illnesses, including depression and epilepsy, as a result of the tests. Many of them tried to commit suicide.[108]

In 1952, professional tennis player Harold Blauer died when injected with a fatal dose of a mescaline derivative at the New York State Psychiatric Institute of Columbia University, by Dr. James Cattell. The United States Department of Defense, which sponsored the injection, worked in collusion with the Department of Justice, and the New York State Attorney General to conceal evidence of its involvement for 23 years. Cattell claimed that he did not know what the army had given him to inject into Blauer, saying: "We didn't know whether it was dog piss or what we were giving him."[109][110]

In 1953, the CIA placed several of its interrogation and mind-control programs under the direction of a single program, known by the code name MKULTRA, after CIA director Allen Dulles complained about not having enough "human guinea pigs to try these extraordinary techniques".[111] The MKULTRA project was under the direct command of Dr. Sidney Gottlieb of the Technical Services Division.[111] The project received over $25 million, and involved hundreds of experiments on human subjects at eighty different institutions.

In a memo describing the purpose of one MKULTRA program subprogram, Richard Helms said:

We intend to investigate the development of a chemical material which causes a reversible, nontoxic aberrant mental state, the specific nature of which can be reasonably well predicted for each individual. This material could potentially aid in discrediting individuals, eliciting information, and implanting suggestions and other forms of mental control.

—Richard Helms, internal CIA memo[112]

In 1954, the CIA's Project QKHILLTOP was created to study Chinese brainwashing techniques, and to develop effective methods of interrogation. Most of the early studies are believed to have been performed by the Cornell University Medical School's human ecology study programs, under the direction of Dr. Harold Wolff.[99][113][114] Wolff requested that the CIA provide him any information they could find regarding "threats, coercion, imprisonment, deprivation, humiliation, torture, 'brainwashing', 'black psychiatry', and hypnosis, or any combination of these, with or without chemical agents". According to Wolff, the research team would then:

...assemble, collate, analyze and assimilate this information and will then undertake experimental investigations designed to develop new techniques of offensive/defensive intelligence use ... Potentially useful secret drugs (and various brain damaging procedures) will be similarly tested in order to ascertain the fundamental effect upon human brain function and upon the subject's mood ... Where any of the studies involve potential harm of the subject, we expect the Agency to make available suitable subjects and a proper place for the performance of the necessary experiments.

—Dr. Harold Wolff, Cornell University Medical School[114]

... it was fun, fun, fun. Where else could a red-blooded American boy lie, kill, cheat, steal, rape and pillage with the sanction and bidding of the All-highest?

George Hunter White, who oversaw drug experiments for the CIA as part of Operation Midnight Climax[115]Another of the MKULTRA subprojects, Operation Midnight Climax, consisted of a web of CIA-run safehouses in San Francisco, Marin, and New York which were established in order to study the effects of LSD on unconsenting individuals. Prostitutes on the CIA payroll were instructed to lure clients back to the safehouses, where they were surreptitiously plied with a wide range of substances, including LSD, and monitored behind one-way glass. Several significant operational techniques were developed in this theater, including extensive research into sexual blackmail, surveillance technology, and the possible use of mind-altering drugs in field operations.[115]

In 1957, with funding from a CIA front organization, Dr. Ewan Cameron of the Allan Memorial Institute in Montreal, Canada began MKULTRA Subproject 68.[116] His experiments were designed to first "depattern" individuals, erasing their minds and memories—reducing them to the mental level of an infant—and then to "rebuild" their personality in a manner of his choosing.[117] To achieve this, Cameron placed patients under his "care" into drug-induced comas for up to 88 days, and applied numerous high voltage electric shocks to them over the course of weeks or months, often administering up to 360 shocks per person. He would then perform what he called "psychic driving" experiments on the subjects, where he would repetitively play recorded statements, such as "You are a good wife and mother and people enjoy your company", through speakers he had implanted into blacked-out football helmets that he bound to the heads of the test subjects (for sensory deprivation purposes). The patients could do nothing but listen to these messages, played for 16–20 hours a day, for weeks at a time. In one case, Cameron forced a person to listen to a message non-stop for 101 days.[117] Using CIA funding, Cameron converted the horse stables behind Allen Memorial into an elaborate isolation and sensory deprivation chamber which he kept patients locked in for weeks at a time.[117] Cameron also induced insulin comas in his subjects by giving them large injections of insulin, twice a day for up to two months at a time.[99] Several of the children who Cameron experimented on were sexually abused, in at least one case by several men. One of the children was filmed numerous times performing sexual acts with high-ranking federal government officials, in a scheme set up by Cameron and other MKULTRA researchers, to blackmail the officials to ensure further funding for the experiments.[118]

The frequent screams of the patients that echoed through the hospital did not deter Cameron or most of his associates in their attempts to depattern their subjects completely

John D. Marks, The Search for the Manchurian Candidate, Chapter 8[119]The CIA leadership had serious concerns about their unethical and illegal behavior, as evidenced in a 1957 Inspector General Report, which stated:

Precautions must be taken not only to protect operations from exposure to enemy forces but also to conceal these activities from the American public in general. The knowledge that the agency is engaging in unethical and illicit activities would have serious repurcussions in political and diplomatic circles ...

—1957 CIA Inspector General Report[120]

In 1957, Dr. Robert Heath of Tulane University performed experiments on schizophrenic patients, which were funded by the U.S. Army. In the studies, he dosed them with high levels of LSD, and then implanted "deep electrodes" in their brains to take EEG readings.[121]

MKULTRA activities continued until 1973 when CIA director Richard Helms, fearing that they would be exposed to the public, ordered the project terminated, and all of the files destroyed.[111] However, a clerical error had sent many of the documents to the wrong office, so when CIA workers were destroying the files, some of them remained, and were later released under a Freedom of Information Act request by investigative journalist John Marks. Many people in the American public were outraged when they learned of the experiments, and several congressional investigations took place including the Church Committee and the Rockefeller Commission.

In 1963, CIA had synthesized many of the findings from its psychological research into what became known as the KUBARK Counterintelligence Interrogation handbook,[122] which cited the MKULTRA studies, and other secret research programs as the scientific basis for their interrogation methods[117] Cameron regularly traveled around the U.S. teaching military personnel about his techniques (hooding of prisoners for sensory deprivation, prolonged isolation, humiliation, etc.), and how they could be used in interrogations. Latin American paramilitary groups working for the CIA and U.S. military received training in these psychological techniques at places like the School of the Americas, and even today, many of the torture techniques developed in the MKULTRA studies and other programs are being used at U.S. military and CIA prisons such as Guantanamo Bay and Abu Ghraib.[117][123] In the aftermath of the Congressional hearings, major news media mainly focused on sensationalistic stories related to LSD, "mind-control", and "brainwashing", and rarely used the word "torture". This put off the image that CIA researchers were, as one author put it "a bunch of bumbling sci-fi buffoons", rather than a rational group of men who had run torture laboratories and medical experiments in major U.S. universities, and who had tortured, raped, and psychologically abused young children, driving many of them permanently insane.[117]

From 1964 to 1968, the U.S. Army paid $386,486 to professors Albert Kligman and Herbert W. Copelan to perform experiments with mind-altering drugs on 320 inmates of Holmesburg Prison. The goal of the study was to determine the minimum effective dose of each drug needed to disable 50 percent of any given population. Kligman and Copelan initially claimed that they were unaware of any long-term health effects the drugs could have on prisoners, however, documents later revealed that this was not the case.[94]

Medical professionals gathered and collected data on the CIA’s use of torture techniques on detainees, in order to refine those techniques, and to "to provide legal cover for torture, as well as to help justify and shape future procedures and policies", according to a report by Physicians for Human Rights. The report stated that: “Research and medical experimentation on detainees was used to measure the effects of large-volume waterboarding and adjust the procedure according to the results.” As a result of the waterboarding experiments, doctors recommended adding saline to the water “to prevent putting detainees in a coma or killing them through over-ingestion of large amounts of plain water.” Sleep deprivation tests were performed on over a dozen prisoners, in 48-, 96- and 180-hour increments. Doctors also collected data intended to help them judge the emotional and physical impact of the techniques so as to “calibrate the level of pain experienced by detainees during interrogation" and to determine if using certain types of techniques would increase a subject's "susceptibility to severe pain.". The CIA denied the allegations, claiming they never performed any experiments, and saying "The report is just wrong"; however, the U.S. government never investigated the claims.[124][125][126][127][128][129]

In August 2010, the U.S. weapons manufacturer Raytheon announced that it had partnered with a jail in Castaic, California in order to use prisoners as test subjects for a new non-lethal weapon system that "fires an invisible heat beam capable of causing unbearable pain."[130]

[edit] Academic research

In 1939, at the Iowa Soldiers' Orphans' Home in Davenport, Iowa, twenty-two children were the subjects of the so-called "monster" experiment. This experiment attempted to use psychological abuse to induce children who spoke normally to stutter. The experiment was designed by Dr. Wendell Johnson, one of the nation's most prominent speech pathologists, for the purpose of testing one of his theories on the cause of stuttering.[131]

In 1961, in response to the Nuremberg Trials, the Yale psychologist Stanley Milgram performed his study "Obedience to Authority Study", also known as the Milgram Experiment, in order to determine if it was possible that the Nazi genocide could have resulted from millions of people who were "just following orders". The Milgram Experiment raised questions about the ethics of scientific experimentation because of the extreme emotional stress suffered by the participants, who were told, as part of the experiment, to apply electric shocks to test subjects (who were actually actors not really receiving electric shocks).

[edit] Pharmacological research

At Harvard University, in the late 1940s, researchers began performing experiments where they tested diethylstilbestrol, a synthetic estrogen, on pregnant women at the Lying-In Hospital of the University of Chicago. The women experienced an abnormally high number of miscarriages and babies with low birth weight. None of the women were told that they were being experimented on.[132]

Researchers at the Laurel Children's Center in Maryland tested experimental acne medications on children, and continued their tests even after half of the children developed severe liver damage from the medications.[72]

From 1988 to 2008, the number of overseas clinical trials for drugs intended for American consumption increased by 2,000%, to approximately 6,500 trials. These trials are often conducted in areas with large numbers of poor and illiterate people who grant their consent by signing an "X" or making a thumb print on a form. These tests are rarely monitored by the FDA, and have in some cases proved deadly, such as a case where 49 babies died in New Delhi, India during a 30-month trial. The cost of testing in countries without safety regulations is much lower; and, due to lax or nonexistent oversight, pharmaceutical corporations (or research companies they've contracted out to) are able to more easily suppress research that demonstrates harmful effects and only report positive results.[133][134]

[edit] Other experiments

The 1846 journals of Dr. Walter F. Jones of Petersburg, Virginia describe how he poured boiling water onto the backs of naked slaves afflicted with typhoid pneumonia, at four-hour intervals, because he thought that this might "cure" the disease by "stimulating the capillaries".[135][136][137]

From early 1940 until 1953, Dr. Lauretta Bender, a highly respected pediatric neuropsychiatrist who practiced at Bellevue Hospital in New York City, performed electroshock experiments on at least 100 children. The children's ages ranged from 3–12 years. Some reports indicate that she may have performed such experiments on more than 200. Electroconvulsive treatment was used on more than 500 children at Bellevue Hospital from 1942 to 1956, including Bender's experiments, and then at Creedmoor State Hospital Children's Service from 1956 to 1969. Publicly, Bender claimed that the results of the "therapy" were positive, but in private memos, she expressed frustration over mental health issues caused by the treatments.[138] Bender would sometimes shock schizophrenic children (some less than 3 years old) twice per day, for 20 consecutive days. Several of the children became violent and suicidal as a result of the treatments.[139] At Willowbrook State School for the mentally retarded in Staten Island, NY, a hightly controversial medical study was carried out there between 1963 and 1966 by medical researchers Saul Krugman and Robert W. McCollum. Healthy children who were mentally retarded, were secretly intentionally inoculated, orally and by injection, with the virus that causes the Hepatitis disease, then monitored to gauge the effects of gamma globulin in combating it.[3] A public outcry forced the study to be discontinued after it was exposed and condemnend by Senator Robert F. Kennedy. [140] NYS Senator Robert Kennedy and a television crew visit Willowbrook State school in Staten Island NY. "He likens the conditions at Willowbrook to that of a “snake pit,” and states that the residents of these institutions were “denied access to education and are deprived of their civil liberties.” Later that same year, he addressed a joint session of the NYS Legislature on the “dehumanizing conditions” of the State’s institutions.[141]

In 1942, the Harvard University biochemist Edward Cohn injected 64 Massachusetts prisoners with cow blood, as part of an experiment sponsored by the U.S. Navy.[142][143][144]

In 1950, researchers at the Cleveland City Hospital ran experiments to study changes in cerebral blood flow where they injected people with spinal anesthesia, and inserted needles into their jugular veins and brachial arteries to extract large quantities of blood, and after massive blood loss which caused paralysis and fainting, measured their blood pressure. The experiment was often performed multiple times on the same subject.[72]

In a series of studies which were published in the medical journal Pediatrics, researchers from the University of California Department of Pediatrics performed experiments on 113 newborns ranging in age from 1 hour to 3 days, where they studied changes in blood pressure and blood flow. In one of the studies, researchers forced a catheter through the babies' umbilical arteries and into their aortas, and then submerged their feet in ice water. In another of the studies, they strapped 50 newborn babies to a circumcision board, and then turned them upside down so that all of their blood rushed into their heads.[72]

From 1963 to 1969 as part of Project Shipboard Hazard and Defense (SHAD), the U.S. Army performed tests which involved spraying several U.S. ships with various biological and chemical warfare agents, while thousands of U.S. military personnel were aboard the ships. The personnel were not notified of the tests, and were not given any protective clothing. Chemicals tested on the U.S. military personnel included the nerve gases VX and Sarin, toxic chemicals such as zinc cadmium sulfide and sulfur dioxide, and a variety of biological agents.[145]

The San Antonio Contraceptive Study was a clinical research study about the side effects of oral contraceptives published in 1971. Women came to a clinic in San Antonio for preventing pregnancies and were not told they were participating in a research study or receiving placebos. 10 of the women became pregnant while on placebos.[146][147][148]

In the 2000s, artificial blood was transfused into research subjects across the United States without their consent by Northfield Labs.[149] Later studies showed the artificial blood caused a significant increase in the risk of heart attacks and death.[150]

[edit] Legal, academic and professional policy

Main article: Human subject research legislation in the United States

During the Nuremberg trials, several of the Nazi doctors and scientists who were being tried for their human experiments claimed that the inspiration for their studies had come from studies that they had seen performed in the United States.[10][47] In 1945, as part of Operation Paperclip, the United States government recruited 1,600 Nazi scientists, many of whom had performed horrific human experimentation in Nazi concentration camps. The scientists were offered immunity from any war crimes they had committed during the course of their work for the Nazi government, in return for doing research for the United States government. Many of the Nazi scientists continued their human experimentation when they arrived in the United States.[151]

A secret AEC document dated April 17, 1947, titled Medical Experiments in Humans stated: "It is desired that no document be released which refers to experiments with humans that might have an adverse reaction on public opinion or result in legal suits. Documents covering such fieldwork should be classified Secret."[53]

At the same time, the Public Health Service was instructed to tell citizens downwind from bomb tests that the increases in cancers were due to neurosis, and that women with radiation sickness, hair loss, and burned skin were suffering from "housewife syndrome".[53]

In 1964, the World Medical Association passed the Declaration of Helsinki, a set of ethical principles for the medical community regarding human experimentation.

In 1966, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office for Protection of Research Subjects (OPRR) was created, and issued its Policies for the Protection of Human Subjects which recommended establishing independent review bodies, which were later called institutional review boards.

In 1969, Kentucky Court of Appeals Judge Samuel Steinfeld dissented in Strunk v. Strunk, 445 S.W.2d 145, and made the first judicial suggestion that the Nuremberg Code should be applied to American jurisprudence.

In 1974 the National Research Act established the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects, and mandated that the Public Health Service to come up with regulations that would protect the rights of human research subjects.

Project MK-ULTRA was first brought to wide public attention in 1975 by the U.S. Congress, through investigations by the Church Committee, and by a presidential commission known as the Rockefeller Commission.[152][153]

In 1975, the Department of Health, Education and Welfare (DHEW) created regulation which included the recommendations laid out in the NIH's 1966 Policies for the Protection of Human Subjects. Title 45 of the Code of Federal Regulations, known as "The Common Rule," requires the appointment and utilization of institutional review boards (IRBs) in experiments using human subjects.

On April 18, 1979, prompted by an investigative journalist's public disclosure of the Tuskegee syphilis experiments, the United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (later renamed to Health and Human Services) released a report entitled "Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research," authored by Dan Harms, which laid out many modern guidelines for ethical medical research.

In 1987 the United States Supreme Court ruled in United States v. Stanley, 483 U.S. 669, that a U.S. serviceman who was given LSD without his consent, as part of military experiments, could not sue the U.S. Army for damages.

Dissenting the verdict in U.S. v. Stanley, Justice Sandra Day O'Connor stated:

No judicially crafted rule should insulate from liability the involuntary and unknowing human experimentation alleged to have occurred in this case. Indeed, as Justice Brennan observes, the United States played an instrumental role in the criminal prosecution of Nazi officials who experimented with human subjects during the Second World War, and the standards that the Nuremberg Military Tribunals developed to judge the behavior of the defendants stated that the 'voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential ... to satisfy moral, ethical, and legal concepts.' If this principle is violated, the very least that society can do is to see that the victims are compensated, as best they can be, by the perpetrators.

On January 15, 1994, President Bill Clinton formed the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE). This committee was created to investigate and report the use of human beings as test subjects in experiments involving the effects of ionizing radiation in federally funded research. The committee attempted to determine the causes of the experiments, and reasons why the proper oversight did not exist, and made several recommendations to help prevent future occurrences of similar events.[154]

As of 2007, not a single U.S. government researcher had been prosecuted for human experimentation, and many of the victims of U.S. government experiments have not received compensation, or in many cases, acknowledgment of what was done to them.[155]

[edit] See also

Eugenics in the United States

Tuskegee syphilis experiment

Guatemala syphilis experiment

Nazi human experimentation

Japanese human experimentation

Human subject research

Human rights in the United States

North Korean human experimentation

Operation MKULTRA

Operation May Day

Stateville Penitentiary Malaria Study

Research involving prisoners

Belmont Report

Operation LAC

Operation Dew

Operation Big Buzz

Operation Drop Kick

Henry Cotton (doctor)

Animal research

Operation Crossroads


[edit] References

[edit] Notes

^ Some defend 'father of gynecology' by Barron H. Lerner, The Tuscaloosa News, Oct 30, 2003 (accessed: 02/17/2010)

^ Washington, 2008: pp. 62-63

^ Cina & Perper, 2010: p. 88

^ a b c Lederer, 1997: pp. 7-8

^ a b c d Grodin & Glantz, 1994: pp. 7-11

^ a b The Strange Career of Leo Stanley: Remaking Manhood and Medicine at San Quentin State Penitentiary, 1913–1951, Ethan Blue‌, Pacific Historical Review, May 2009, Vol. 78, No. 2, pp. 210–241, DOI 10.1525/phr.2009.78.2.210

^ Hornblum, 1998: p. 79

^ Lederer, 1997: p. 3

^ Shamoo & Resnick, 2009: pp. 238-239

^ a b c d Germ War: The US Record – Alexander Cockburn, Counterpunch

^ a b Cina & Perper, 2010: p. 89

^ a b Hornblum, 1998: pp. 76-77

^ Roger Cooter (1992). In the Name of the Child. Routledge. pp. 104–105. ISBN 9780203412237. http://books.google.com/?id=0HRWtjV4mm0C&pg=PA104&dq=st+vincent%27s+tuberculin&cd=5#v=onepage&q=st%20vincent%27s%20tuberculin.

^ Reviews and Notes: History of Medicine: Subjected to Science: Human Experimentation in America before the Second World War, Annals of Internal Medicine, American College of Physicians, July 15, 1995 vol. 123 no. 2 159

^ "Tuskegee Study - Timeline". NCHHSTP. CDC. 2008-06-25. http://www.cdc.gov/tuskegee/timeline.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-04.

^ The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment Borgna Brunner. Retrieved 2010-03-25

^ Meiklejohn, Gordon N., M.D. "Commission on Influenza." in Histories' of the Commissions Ed. Theodore E. Woodward, M.D., The Armed Forced Epidemiological Board, 1994

^ Halpern, 2006: p. 199

^ Grodin & Glantz, 1994: p. 14

^ Brody, 1998: p. 120

^ Cina & Perper, 2010: p. 94

^ Black WC (February 1942). "The etiology of acute infectious gingivostomatitis (Vincent's stomatitis)". The Journal of Pediatrics 20 (2): 145–60. doi:10.1016/S0022-3476(42)80125-0.

^ George Annas & Michael Grodin, 1995: p. 267

^ Hornblum, 1999: p. 76

^ Rothman, 1992: p.36

^ "U.S. sorry for Guatemala syphilis experiment". CBC News. October 1, 2010. http://www.cbc.ca/health/story/2010/10/01/syphilis-guatemala.html.

^ Rob Stein (October 1, 2010). "U.S. apologizes for newly revealed syphilis experiments done in Guatemala". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/10/01/AR2010100104457.html?hpid=topnews.

^ "US sorry over deliberate sex infections in Guatemala". BBC News. October 1, 2010. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-11454789.

^ Chris McGreal (October 1, 2010). "US says sorry for 'outrageous and abhorrent' Guatemalan syphilis tests". Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/oct/01/us-apology-guatemala-syphilis-tests.

^ Moreno, 2001: pp. 233-234

^ Blum, William (2006). Rogue state: a guide to the world's only superpower. Zed Books. pp. 147–149. ISBN 9781842778272. http://books.google.com/?id=oBM8UiDYz1MC&pg=PA150&lpg=PA147&dq=%22whooping+cough%22+CIA+tampa+1955&q=%22whooping%20cough%22%20CIA%20tampa%201955.

^ "How the U.S. Government Exposed Thousands of Americans to Lethal Bacteria to Test Biological Warfare", Democracy Now!, 7/13/2005

^ Howard Gordon Wilshire, Jane E. Nielson, Richard W. Hazlett (2008). The American West at risk: science, myths, and politics of land abuse and recovery. Oxford University Press. p. 176. ISBN 9780195142051. http://books.google.com/books?id=0D_fW5XBqRoC&pg=PA176.

^ Tansey, Bernadette (October 31, 2004). "Serratia has dark history in region: Army test in 1950 may have changed microbial ecology". San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2004/10/31/SIDER.TMP.

^ Anía BJ (October 1, 2008). "Serratia: Overview". eMedicine. WebMD. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/228495-overview. Retrieved on November 23, 2011.

^ Cole, 1996: p. 17

^ Melnick, Alan L. (2008). Biological, Chemical, and Radiological Terrorism: Emergency Preparedness and Response for the Primary Care Physician. Springer. p. 2. ISBN 9780387472317. http://books.google.com/books?id=JCU9KV00aCkC&pg=PA2.

^ Hornblum, 1998: p. 91

^ Frederick Adolf Paola, Robert Walker, Lois Lacivita Nixon, ed (2009). Medical Ethics and Humanities. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. pp. 185–186. ISBN 9780763760632. http://books.google.com/?id=9pM2pw-2wl4C&pg=PA185&dq=willowbrook+school+hepatitis&cd=1#v=onepage&q=willowbrook%20school%20hepatitis.

^ Hammer Breslow, Lauren. "The Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act of 2002: The Rise of the Voluntary Incentive Structure and Congressional Refusal to Require Pediatric Testing", Harvard Journal of Legislation, Vol. 40

^ Offit, Paul A. (2007). The Cutter Incident: How America's First Polio Vaccine Led to the Growing Vaccine Crisis. Yale University Press. p. 37. ISBN 9780300126051. http://books.google.com/books?id=JumHQwdeAd0C&pg=PA37.

^ Goliszek, 2003: p. 228

^ a b c Blum, William (2006). Rogue state: a guide to the world's only superpower. Zed Books. pp. 150–151. ISBN 9781842778272. http://books.google.com/?id=oBM8UiDYz1MC&pg=PA150&lpg=PA150&dq=%22whooping+cough%22+CIA+tampa+1955&q=%22whooping%20cough%22%20CIA%20tampa%201955.

^ Michael Parenti, The Sword and the Dollar: Imperialism, Revolution, and the Arms Race, St. Martins Press, 1989, pp.74-81, Excerpt available online at:[1] (accessed: 02/18/2010)

^ Biological Warfare and the National Security State: A Chronology, Tom Burghardt

^ Cole, 1996: pp. 28-30

^ a b Loue, 2000: pp. 26-29

^ Moreno, 2001: p. 234

^ Cina & Perper, 2010: p. 95

^ Wheelis, Mark;Rózsa, Lajos; Dando, Malcolm (2006). Deadly cultures: biological weapons since 1945. Harvard University Press. pp. 27–28. ISBN 9780674016996. http://books.google.com/books?id=Usskez9NfEYC&pg=PA27.

^ How the U.S. Government Exposed Thousands of Americans to Lethal Bacteria to Test Biological Warfare

^ a b Loue, 2000: pp. 19–23

^ a b c d e f Goliszek, 2003: pp. 132-134

^ Goliszek, 2003: pp. 130-131

^ a b Goliszek, 2003: pp. 136-137

^ Moreno, 2001: p. 132

^ LeBaron, Wayne D. (1998). America's nuclear legacy. Nova Publishers. pp. 109–111. ISBN 9781560725565. http://books.google.com/?id=cr81ZHY-6H0C&pg=PA109&dq=massachusetts+general+hospital+uranium&cd=16#v=onepage&q=massachusetts%20general%20hospital%20uranium.

^ Eileen Welsome (1999). The Plutonium Files: America's Secret Medical Experiments in the Cold War. New York: Dial Press. pp. 146–148. ISBN 0-385-31402-7.

^ a b LeBaron, Wayne D. (1998). America's nuclear legacy. Nova Publishers. pp. 97–98. ISBN 9781560725565. http://books.google.com/?id=cr81ZHY-6H0C&pg=PA97&dq=human+radiation+experiments&cd=2#v=onepage&q=human%20radiation%20experiments.

^ Pacchioli, David, (March 1996) "Subjected to Science", Research/Penn State, Vol. 17, no. 1

^ Goliszek, 2003: p. 139

^ "America's Deep, Dark Secret". CBS News. April 29, 2004. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/04/29/60minutes/main614728.shtml. Retrieved February 18, 2010.

^ a b Abhilash R. Vaishnav (1994). The Tech online edition. The Tech. http://tech.mit.edu/V114/N28/fernald.28n.html.

^ "Transcript - February 15, 1995", Eleventh Meeting, February 19–20, 1995 - Washington D.C., Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (accessed: 02/19/2010) – see testimony of Honicker

^ Eckart, 2006: p. 263

^ a b c Cherbonnier, Alice (October 1, 1997) "Nasal Radium Irradiation of Children Has Health Fallout", Baltimore Chronicle and Sentinel (accessed: 02/19/2010)

^ Danielle Gordon (January 1996). "The Verdict: No harm, no foul". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 52 (1). http://books.google.com/books?id=ywwAAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA32.

^ Stewart A. Farber (March 12, 1996). "Nasal Radium Irradiation: Bad Science, Bad Medicine, Bad Ethics". Testimony to U.S. Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs (ACHRE hearings). http://books.google.com/books?id=smhFRTC3jqEC&pg=PA75.

^ Goliszek, 2003: p. 253

^ "Plutonium Files: How the U.S. Secretly Fed Radioactivity to Thousands of Americans", Democracy Now!, May 5, 2004

^ LeBaron, Wayne D. (1998). America's nuclear legacy. Nova Publishers. p. 105. ISBN 9781560725565. http://books.google.com/?id=cr81ZHY-6H0C&pg=PA105&dq=human+radiation+experiments&cd=2#v=onepage&q=human%20radiation%20experiments.

^ a b c d e Goliszek, 2003: pp. 223-225

^ "Operation Castle". Operation Castle. http://nuclearweaponarchive.org/Usa/Tests/Castle.html. Retrieved 6/11/2011.

^ Nuclear Issues

^ Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Committee on Thyroid Screening Related to I-131 Exposure, National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Exposure of the American People to I-131 from the Nevada Atomic Bomb Tests, ed (1999). Exposure of the American people to Iodine-131 from Nevada nuclear-bomb tests: review of the National Cancer Institute report and public health implications. National Academies Press. pp. 113–114. ISBN 9780309061759. http://books.google.com/?id=vGtce6RjjM0C&pg=PA114. – deaths taken from 90% survival rate, applied to # of cases

^ ACHRE Report:New Ethical Questions for Medical Researchers

"In 1949, the AEC undertook Project Gabriel, a secret effort to study the question of whether the tests could threaten the viability of life on earth. In 1953, Gabriel led to Project Sunshine..."

^ U.S. Department of Energy, "Report on Project Gabriel", July 1954

^ Goncalves, Eddie (June 3, 2001). "Britain snatched babies' bodies for nuclear labs". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,4197264,00.html.

^ Dundee University Medical School; PDF

^ LeBaron, Wayne D. (1998). America's nuclear legacy. Nova Publishers. pp. 99–100. ISBN 9781560725565. http://books.google.com/?id=cr81ZHY-6H0C&pg=PA99&dq=human+radiation+experiments&cd=2#v=onepage&q=human%20radiation%20experiments.

^ Thomas H. Maugh II, "Eugene Saenger, 90; physician conducted pivotal studies on effects of radiation exposure", Los Angeles Times, October 06, 2007 (accessed: February 18, 2010)

^ Human Experiments

^ Cockburn, Alexander; Jeffrey St. Clair (1998). Whiteout: The CIA, Drugs and the Press. New York: Verso. pp. 157–159. ISBN 1859842585. http://books.google.com/?id=s5qIj_h_PtkC&pg=PA157&dq=heller+oregon+testicles&cd=9#v=onepage&q=heller%20oregon%20testicles.

^ Goliszek, 2003: Ch. 4

^ Moreno, 2001: pp. 40-43

^ Freeman, Karen (December 1991). "The Unfought Chemical War". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists: 30–39. http://books.google.com/books?id=rQwAAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA30.

^ Pechura, Constance M. & Rall, David P., ed (1993). Veterans at Risk: the health effects of mustard gas and Lewisite. National Academies Press. p. 31. ISBN 9780309048323. http://books.google.com/books?id=UMJw_6sx1jIC&pg=PA31.

^ Cina & Perper, 2010: p. 96

^ Mangold, Tom; Goldberg, Jeff (2000). Plague wars: a true story of biological warfare. Macmillan. p. 37. ISBN 9780312203535. http://books.google.com/books?id=y69nhn-9FqcC&pg=PA37.

^ B.M. Ansell, F. Antonini, L.E. Glynn: "Cantharides blisters in children with rheumatic fever". Clinical Science, November 1953, 12 (4): 367-373.

^ Hornblum, 1998: p. 216

^ Cina & Perper, 2010: pp. 92-93

^ Washington, 2008: pp. 249-262

^ a b c d Kaye, Jonathan. "Retin-A's Wrinkled Past", Pennsylvania History Review, Spring 1997.

^ Hornblum, 1998: p. 320

^ "Ex-Inmates Sue Penn and Kligman over Research". The Pennsylvania Gazette (The University of Pennsylvania). Jan/Feb 2001. http://www.upenn.edu/gazette/0101/0101gaz3.html. Retrieved 9 November 2009.

^ Hornblum, 2007: p. 52

^ Goliszek, 2003: p. 226

^ a b c d Goliszek, 2003: pp. 152-154

^ Science, Technology and the CIA

^ Church Committee; p. 390 "MKULTRA was approved by the DCI [Director of Central Intelligence] on April 13, 1953"

^ Estabrooks, G.H. Hypnosis comes of age. Science Digest, 44-50, April 1971

^ Gillmor, D. I Swear By Apollo: Dr. Ewen Cameron and the CIA-Brainwashing Experiments. Montreal: Eden press, 1987.

^ Scheflin, A.W., & Opton, E.M. The Mind manipulators. New York: Paddington Press, 1978.

^ Thomas, G. Journey into Madness: The Secret Story of Secret CIA Mind Control and Medical Abuse. New York: Bantam, 1989 (paperback 1990).

^ Weinstein, H. Psychiatry and the CIA: Victims of Mind Control. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, 1990.

^ Otterman, 2007: p. 23

^ Otterman, 2007: pp. 21-22

^ John S. Friedman, ed (2005). The secret histories: hidden truths that challenged the past and changed the world. Macmillan. p. 146. ISBN 9780312425173. http://books.google.com/?id=wERx-0P2HPsC&pg=PA146&dq=Henry+blauer+mescaline&cd=1#v=onepage&q=Henry%20blauer%20mescaline.

^ Cole, 1996: pp. 31-32

^ a b c McCoy, 2006: pp. 28-30

^ Goliszek, 2003: p. 155

^ APPENDIX C: Documents Referring To Subprojects – 1977 Senate MKULTRA Hearing (accessed: 02/18/2010)

^ a b Otterman, 2007: pp. 24-25

^ a b Cockburn, Alexander; Jeffrey St. Clair (1998). Whiteout: The CIA, Drugs and the Press. New York: Verso. pp. 206–209. ISBN 1859842585.

^ Otterman, 2007: pp. 45-47

^ a b c d e f Naomi Klein (2007). "1". The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism. New York: Metropolitan Books. ISBN 0805079831. http://books.google.com/?id=Pse7S3Q8YYQC&lpg=PA25&dq=ewen%20cameron&pg=PA25#v=onepage&q=ewen%20cameron.

^ Goliszek, 2003: pp. 170-171

^ Marks, John D., Chapter 8, The Search for the Manchurian Candidate

^ Otterman, 2007: p. 27

^ Mohr, Clarence L.; Joseph E. Gordon (2001). Tulane: the emergence of a modern university, 1945-1980. LSU Press. p. 123. ISBN 9780807125533. http://books.google.com/?id=xof4BkbI1DQC&pg=PA123&lpg=PA123&dq=tulane+army+lsd+electrodes+heath&q=tulane%20army%20lsd%20electrodes%20heath.

^ McCoy, 2006: pp. 50-53

^ U.S. Has a History of Using Torture – Alfred W. McCoy, Z Magazine.

^ Sheldon Richman (June 23, 2010). "Did the CIA Conduct Medical Experiments on Detainees?". Counterpunch. http://www.counterpunch.org/richman06232010.html.

^ Experiments in Torture: Human Subject Research and Experimentation in the “Enhanced” Interrogation Program, Physicians for Human Rights, June 2010

See also:

*Related Publications

*Outside Academic Experts Respond to Experiments in Torture

*Complaint to Office of Human Research Protections Regarding Evidence of CIA Violations of Common Rule

*Experiments in Torture (video)

^ Experiments in Torture: Medical Group Accuses CIA of Carrying Out Illegal Human Experimentation, Democracy Now!, June 08, 2010

^ Accounting for Torture: Being Faithful to our Values, (video) National Religious Campaign Against Torture (cited by PHR)

^ Risen, James (6 June 2010). "Medical Ethics Lapses Cited in Interrogations". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/07/world/07doctors.html.

^ ICRC Report on the Treatment of Fourteen “High Value Detainees” in CIA Custody, International Committee of the Red Cross, 14 February 2007

^ "California Jail to Test Ray Gun on Prisoners". Democracy Now!. August 23, 2010. http://www.democracynow.org/2010/8/23/headlines/california_jail_to_test_ray_gun_on_prisoners.

^ Theory improved treatment and understanding of stuttering: Ethics concerns led researchers to conceal the experiment Decades later, the experiment's victims struggle to make sense of their past, Jim Dyer, San Jose Mercury News, Monday, June 11, 2001 (accessed: 02/17/2010)

^ Loue, 2000: p. 30

^ Deadly Medicine: FDA Fails to Regulate Rapidly Growing Industry of Overseas Drug Testing, Democracy Now!, December 17, 2010

^ Barlett, Donald L. & Steele, James B. (January 2011). "Deadly Medicine". Vanity Fair. http://www.vanityfair.com/politics/features/2011/01/deadly-medicine-201101?printable=true&currentPage=3#ixzz18NY8yGh9.

^ Washington, 2008: pp. 60-63

^ Savitt, Todd Lee (2002). Medicine and slavery: the diseases and health care of Blacks in antebellum Virginia. University of Illinois Press. p. 299. ISBN 9780252008740. http://books.google.com/books?id=ru_tDLLB0wMC&pg=PA299.

^ Shamoo & Resnick, 2009: p. 239

^ Albarelli Jr., H.P.; Kaye, Jeffrey S.; "The Hidden Tragedy of the CIA's Experiments on Children", Truthout, Wednesday 11 August 2010

^ Whitaker, Robert (2010). Mad in America: Bad Science, Bad Medicine, and the Enduring Mistreatment of the Mentally Ill. Basic Books. p. 315. ISBN 9780465020140. http://books.google.com/books?id=mDqxay6-51oC&pg=PA315.

^ http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=87975196

^ http://www.museumofdisability.org/newyork_timeline_1960s.asp

^ Cina & Perper, 2010: p. 92

^ Hornblum, 1999: p. 80

^ Dober, Gregory "Cheaper than Chimpanzees: Expanding the Use of Prisoners in Medical Experiments", Prison Legal News, VOL. 19 No. 3, March 2008

^ Blum, William (2006). Rogue state: a guide to the world's only superpower. Zed Books. pp. 152–154. ISBN 9781842778272. http://books.google.com/?id=oBM8UiDYz1MC&pg=PA150&lpg=PA150&dq=%22whooping+cough%22+CIA+tampa+1955&q=%22whooping%20cough%22%20CIA%20tampa%201955.

^ Goldzieher JW, Moses LE, Averkin E, Scheel C, Taber BZ. A placebo-controlled double-blind crossover investigation of the side effects attributed to oral contraceptives. Fertil Steril. 1971 Sep;22(9):609-23. “PMID4105854”

^ Levine, Robert J. “Ethics and regulation of clinical research, 2nd ed”. Yale University Press, 1986, p.71-72. ISBN Special:BookSources/0806711124

^ Veatch RM. “Experimental pregnancy: the ethical complexities of experimentation with oral contraceptives”. Hastings Cent Rep. 1971 Jun; (1):2-3. “PMID4137658”

^ Brian Ross (May 23, 2007). "Test of Controversial Artificial Blood Product a Failure". ABC News, "The Blotter". http://blogs.abcnews.com/theblotter/2007/05/test_of_controv.html.

^ Ed Edelson (April 28[when?]). "Experimental Blood Substitutes Unsafe, Study Finds". ABC News. http://abcnews.go.com/Health/Healthday/Story?id=4741269&page=1.

^ Goliszek, 2003: pp. 108-109

^ Science, Technology, and the CIA, National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book, Jeffrey T. Richelson, Editor, September 10, 2001 (accessed: 02/18/2010)

^ "U.S. Senate: Joint Hearing before The Select Committee on Intelligence and The Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research of the Committee on Human Resources", 95th Cong., 1st Sess. August 3, 1977.

^ Final report of ACHRE

^ Henry N. Pontell, Gilbert Geis, ed (2007). International handbook of white-collar and corporate crime. Springer. p. 62. ISBN 9780387341101. http://books.google.com/?id=H5PLm3pUHeYC&pg=PA62&dq=single+researcher+%22has+been+prosecuted%22+human+experiments+united+states&q.

[edit] Bibliography

Annas, George J.; Grodin, Michael A. (1995). The Nazi doctors and the Nuremberg Code: human rights in human experimentation. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195101065.

Brody, Baruch A. (1998). The ethics of biomedical research: an international perspective. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195090079. http://books.google.com/books?id=mERfunMVv_oC.

Cina, Stephen J.; Perper, Joshua A. (2010). When Doctors Kill. Springer. ISBN 9781441913685.

Cole, Leonard A. (1996). The Eleventh Plague: The Politics of Biological and Chemical Warfare. MacMillan. ISBN 9780805072143.

Eckart, Wolfgang Uwe (2006). Man, medicine, and the state: the human body as an object of government sponsored medical research in the 20th century. Franz Steiner Verlag. ISBN 9783515087940.

Goliszek, Andrew (2003). In The Name of Science. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 9780312303563.

Grodin, Michael A. & Glantz, Leonard H., ed (1994). Children as research subjects: science, ethics, and law. Oxford University Press US. ISBN 9780195071030.

Halpern, Sydney A. (2006). Lesser Harms: The Morality of Risk in Medical Research. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226314525. http://books.google.com/books?id=_bMV8GPQW2gC.

Hornblum, Allen M. (1998). Acres of skin: human experiments at Holmesburg Prison : a story of abuse and exploitation in the name of medical science. Routledge. ISBN 9780415919906.

Hornblum, Allen M. (2007). Sentenced to Science: One Black Man's Story of Imprisonment in America. The Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 9780271033365.

Lederer, Susan E. (1997). Subjected to Science: Human Experimentation in America Before the Second World War. JHU Press. ISBN 9780801857096.

Loue, Sana (2000). Textbook of research ethics: theory and practice. Springer. ISBN 9780306464485.

McCoy, Alfred W. (2006). A question of torture: CIA interrogation, from the Cold War to the War on Terror. New York: Metropolitan Books. ISBN 978-0-8050-8041-4.

Moreno, Jonathan D. (2001). Undue Risk: Secret State Experiments on Humans. Routledge. ISBN 0415928354.

Otterman, Michael (2007). American torture: from the Cold War to Abu Ghraib and beyond. Melbourne Univ. Publishing. ISBN 9780522853339.

David J. Rothman (1992). Strangers at the Bedside: A History of How Law and Bioethics Transformed Medical Decision Making. Basic Books. ISBN 9780465082100.

Shamoo, Adil E.; Resnik, David B. (2009). Responsible Conduct of Research. Oxford University Press US. ISBN 9780195368246.

Washington, Harriet A. (2008). Medical Apartheid: The Dark History of Medical Experimentation on Black Americans from Colonial Times to the Present. Random House. ISBN 9780767915472.

[edit] Further resources

[edit] General

Albert R. Jonsen (1998). The Birth of Bioethics. Oxford University Press. http://www.us.oup.com/us/catalog/general/subject/Medicine/Ethics/?view=usa&ci=9780195171471.

Mark S. Frankel (1975). "The Development of Policy Guidelines Governing Human Experimentation in the United States". Ethics in Science and Medicine. 2.

Wolfgang Weyers (2003). The abuse of man: an illustrated history of dubious medical experimentation. Ardor Scribendi. ISBN 9781893357211.

Human Experimentation: Before the Nazi Era and After, Roberta Kalechofsky

[edit] Biological warfare and disease/pathogen experiments

Bibliography of Chemical and Biological Warfare documents

The History of Bioterrorism in America, Richard Sanders, Race and History, Sunday, November 24, 2002 (accessed: 02/18/2010)

Biological Weapons – Federation of American Scientists

Franz, et al., The U.S. Biological Warfare and Biological Defense Programs

US Army Activities in the US Biological Warfare Program, 1977 Congressional report

Christopher et al., "Biological warfare. A historical perspective", Journal of the American Medical Association. 6 August 1997;278(5):412-7.

Years Ago, The Military Sprayed Germs on U.S. Cities", Wall Street Journal, October 22, 2001, via American Patriot Friends Network, accessed November 13, 2008.

[edit] Human radiation experiments

[edit] Books

Killing Our Own: The disaster of America's experience with atomic radiation, by Harvey Wasserman, Delacorte Press, c1992, ISBN 978-0440045670

The Plutonium Files: America's Secret Medical Experiments, by Eileen Welsome, The Dial Press, 1999, ISBN 978-0385314022

The Treatment: The Story of Those Who Died in the Cincinnati Radiation Tests, by Martha Stephens, Duke University Press, c2002, Durham, N.C., ISBN 0-8223-2811-9

Bravo for the Marshallese: Regaining Control in a Post-Nuclear, Post-Colonial World, by Holly M. Barker, Wadsworth, 2004. ISBN 0-534-61326-8

[edit] Government documents

Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE) – National Security Archives

Exposure of the American population to radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons tests: a review of the CDC-NCI draft report on a feasibility study of the health consequences to the American population from nuclear weapons tests conducted by the United States and other nations, National Research Council (U.S.). Committee to Review the CDC-NCI Feasibility Study of the Health Consequences from Nuclear Weapons Tests, National Academies Press, 2003 ISBN 9780309087131

[edit] Journals

"'A Little Touch of Buchenwald': America's Secret Radiation Experiments", Reviews in American History - Volume 28, Number 4, December 2000, pp. 601–606

Chair's Perspective on the Work of the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments by Ruth Faden

[edit] Psychological/torture/interrogation experiments

Bibliography of U.S. interrogation/torture research

Truth, torture, and the American way, Jennifer Harbury

Biderman, A. Social-Psychological Needs and "Involuntary" Behavior as Illustrated by Compliance in Interrogation, Sociometry, Vol. 23, No. 2 (Jun., 1960), pp. 120–147

The CIA: Mind-Bending Disclosures – Time Magazine, Monday, Aug. 15, 1977 (accessed: 02/18/2010)

Resources on Drug Experimentation and Related Mind Control Experiments by the U.S. Government

[edit] Video

MKULTRA Victim Testimony A – 1977 MKULTRA Congressional Hearings

MKULTRA Victim Testimony B – 1977 MKULTRA Congressional Hearings

MKULTRA Victim Testimony C – 1977 MKULTRA Congressional Hearings

President Clinton apologizes to MKULTRA victims

Physicians for Human Rights Accuses CIA of Carrying Out Illegal Human Experimentation - video report by Democracy Now!

The Dark History of Medical Experimentation from the Nazis to Tuskegee to Puerto Rico - video report by Democracy Now!

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Unethical_human_experimentation_in_the_United_States&oldid=468962658"



Beecher Paper

In a 1966 paper noted anesthesiologist Henry K. Beecher described 22 published medical studies where patients had been experimented on with no expected benefit to the patient.[9] In one study, for example, patients infused with live cancer cells had been told they were receiving "some cells" without specifying that they were cancer. Though identities of the authors and institutions had been stripped, the 22 studies were later identified as having been conducted by mainstream researchers and published in prestigious journals within approximately the previous decade. The 22 cases had been selected from a set of 50 that Beecher had collected, and he presented evidence that studies he considered unethical were even more widespread and represented a systemic problem in medical research rather than exceptions.[9][10] Though Beecher had been writing about human experimentation and publicizing cases that he considered to be bad practice for nearly a decade, it was a 1965 briefing to science writers and the 1966 paper that finally earned widespread news coverage and stimulated public reaction.[10][11] The paper has been described as "the most influential single paper ever written about experimentation involving human subjects."[12] The Office for Human Research Protections credits this paper as "ultimately contributing to the impetus for the first NIH and FDA regulations."[13]

In addition to documenting the extent of problems in human subjects research, Beecher was instrumental in formulating the solutions. One common aspect to many of Beecher's cases was that some experimental subjects, such as military personnel and mentally handicapped children in institutions, were not in a position to freely decline consent.[10] Beecher believed that rules requiring informed consent were not by themselves sufficient, as truly informed consent was an unattainable ideal. He worked both in defining the rules and conditions for informed consent and in establishing institutional review boards as an additional layer of oversight regarding research protocols.[10][11]

(9)^ a b Beecher, HK (1966). "Ethics and Clinical Research" (pdf). New England Journal of Medicine 274 (24): 1354–1360. doi:10.1056/NEJM196606162742405. PMID 5327352. http://www.who.int/docstore/bulletin/pdf/2001/issue4/vol79.no.4.365-372.pdfReprint in Harkness, Lederer & Wikler, 2001, PMID 11357216 edit

(10)^ a b c d Rothman, D. J. (1987). "Ethics and Human Experimentation" (pdf). New England Journal of Medicine 317 (19): 1195–1199. doi:10.1056/NEJM198711053171906. PMID 3309660. http://tracerkinetics.engr.iupui.edu/emorris_web/Ethics%20Course%2009/Journal%20articles/Ethics%20and%20Human%20Experimentation%20Henry%20Beecher%20revisited.pdf. edit

(11)^ a b Kopp, V. (1999). "Henry Knowles Beecher and the development of informed consent in anesthesia research". Anesthesiology 90 (6): 1756–1765. PMID 10360876. http://journals.lww.com/anesthesiology/Fulltext/1999/06000/Henry_K__Beecher__The_Introduction_of_Anesthesia.34.aspx. edit

(12)^ Harkness, J.; Lederer, S.; Wikler, D. (2001). "Laying ethical foundations for clinical research" (pdf). Bulletin of the World Health Organization 79 (4): 365–366. PMC 2566394. PMID 11357216. http://www.who.int/docstore/bulletin/pdf/2001/issue4/vol79.no.4.365-372.pdf. edit

(13)^ "History of the Human Subjects Protection System". Institutional Review Board Guidebook. Office for Human Research Protections. 1993. http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/archive/irb/irb_introduction.htm. Retrieved 2011-06-03.


Guatemalans used for STD experiments

Main article: Syphilis experiments in Guatemala

U.S. scientific researchers infected hundreds of Guatemalan mental patients with sexually transmitted diseases from 1946 to 1948. Researchers from the U.S. Public Health Service conducted experiments on 696 male and female patients housed at Guatemala's National Mental Health Hospital. The scientists injected the patients with gonorrhea and syphilis—and even encouraged many of them to pass the disease on to others. The experiments were done in conjunction with the Guatemalan government. The US Public Health Service carried out the experiments under the guise of syphilis inoculations. When some of the inmates did not contract the disease, the researchers created abrasions on the inmate's body and poured the bacteria into the abrasion. When that failed, they injected the disease straight into the inmates' spines. In 2010 these experiments were revealed by Susan Reverby of Wellesley College who was researching a book on Tuskegee experiments. This led to Secretary of State Hillary Clinton issuing an official apology.[14] President Barack Obama apologized to President Álvaro Colom who had called these experiments 'a crime against humanity'.[15]

(14)^ "U.S. Apologizes for Syphilis Experiment". The New York Times. 1 October 2010. http://www.nytimes.com/reuters/2010/10/01/world/americas/news-us-usa-guatemala-experiment.htm. Retrieved 2 October 2010.

(15)^ "US medical tests in Guatemala 'crime against humanity'". BBC News. 1 October 2010. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-11457552. Retrieved 2 October 2010.

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Argentine President Cristina Kirchner wrongly diagnosed with cancer

Argentine President Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner never had cancer despite having been diagnosed with the disease, her spokesman said.

3:27PM GMT 07 Jan 2012

Mrs Kirchner had her thyroid gland removed on Jan 4 and is currently recovering at home in the south of the country. The government announced just after Christmas that the recently re-elected leader had thyroid cancer.

The operation to remove the gland went well, but when the gland was analysed it turned out to have never contained cancerous cells, said spokesman Alfredo Scoccimaro.

"The original diagnosis has been modified," he told a news conference. "The presence of cancer cells was discarded."



Len there is a big,big gulf between us..

I couldn't agree more you're a loon and I'm (relatively) sane.

..you call it a "wall of TEXT" and I call it a 'wall of sorrow'. Great, great suffering and sorrow here caused by DOD,AEC,and CIA.

I agree, but your WoT was sans citations and very little of it was relevant to the question at hand.

Cornelius Rhoads later participated in CBW programs. Many of these programs hurt people....so his outburst ,showed what was in his heart.

Get back to us when you have reliable citation for that, I don't imagine you will come with anything more definative than Wikipedia or a decades after the fact article from an obscure wire service.

Gee ,whats in Colby's heart ??????????

Let's see: blood, oxygen valves, muscles and other tissue

Len you seem to never suprise me how small you are

All things are relative and I'm pretty sure I'm a lot smaller than you but compared to the average Brazilian I'm quite big!

"the sorrow & the pity.Pity for you Len."

Spare me your faux pitty

"I will pray for you. Sg"

As an atheist/agnostic you have no idea how much that means to me.

"Unethical human experimentation in the United States"

I agree with you most (if not all) of those experiments were horrendous but 'only' half a dozen or so had the potential to cause cancer, though it seems not to have been the intention of any of them, and with one exception there is no indication they caused cancer. That was an atmospheric nuclear test – I think unlikely the CIA dropped nukes on the presidential places in Caracas, Brasilia and Asuncion. There was no indication of a coordinated effort among the tests, most of which were in the 1940s & 50s, the most recent ended in 1971.

PS – atleast this time you cut and paste from a souce that provided citations

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Gee,subproject 45 and the Nation magazine,should be enough DATA even for you.(bottom)


A cynical unempathetic secularist is unsympathetic to prayer. IMHO Atheism as a handicap to people skills/compassion. Here is some help, Video/Book.

thanks my prayers to you Steven Gaal Christ is Lord


Chemical Evolution: The Miller Experiment -

"It's a shame that there are precious few hard facts when it comes to the origin of life... the how part has everybody stumped. Nobody knows how a mixture of lifeless chemicals spontaneously organized themselves into the first living cell."Paul Davies (Australian Centre for Astrobiology, Macquarie Univ.), Born Lucky, New Scientist, Vol. 179 (2403):32, July 12, 2003"

"Certain physical limits seem inescapable. In approximately 50,000 years, water alone strips bases from the DNA...Oxygen also contributes to the destruction of DNA. Even in ideal conditions -- in the absence of water and oxygen and at low temperature -- background radiation must finally erase all genetic information."

*Scientific American, 11/93, p. 92

Dr. D. E. Hull in "Nature", "The physical chemist guided by the approved principles of chemical thermodynamics in kinetics cannot offer any encouragement to the biochemist who needs an ocean full of organic compound to form even lifeless co-asevate [blob of goo]."

Mathematics, Probabilities and DNA -


Spontaneous Generation -


DNA and RNA -


Mutations -


Darwin's Black Box: The Biochemical Challenge to Evolution -

Quotes by Evolutionary Scientists Against Evolution - http://www.warneveryone.com/evolution_scientists_quotes.htm

Duane Gish Ph.D. Biochemistry, University of California, Berkley. Dr. Gish is the Vice President of the Institute for Creation Research, and frequently travels abroad to give seminars and lectures on creation science. He is arguably the foremost debater of creation science in the world, and many of his debate transcripts can be found below. He spent a total of 18 years in biochemical research; with Cornell University Medical College (NYC), with the Virus Laboratory, U of Cal-Berkley and and on the research staff of the Upjohn Pharmaceutical Company (Michigan). Dr. Gish has also published approximately 40 articles in scientific journals.



This book rests on top of my computer screen.

This is a fantastic book.


Signature in the Cell: DNA and the Evidence for Intelligent Design Stephen C. Meyer

Book Description

Publication Date: June 23, 2009

Meyer tells the story of the successive attempts to solve this mystery of DNA and argues that fundamental objections now exist to the adequacy of all purely naturalistic or materialistic theories. The book then proposes a radical alternative based upon developments in molecular biology and the information sciences: it proposes the design hypothesis as the best explanation for the origin of the information necessary to produce the first life. SIGNATURE IN THE CELL will not merely provide a critique of evolutionary theories. It also shows that, based on our uniform and repeated experience-the basis of all scientific reasoning about the past-there is a strong positive case for intelligent design. From our experience we know that intelligence alone produces large amounts of information. Thus, the book shows that the argument for intelligent design from DNA is not based on ignorance or a desire to 'give up on science,' but instead upon just the opposite: our growing scientific knowledge of the inner workings of the cell and our experience-based knowledge of the cause-and-effect structure of the world. For just this reason the argument for design can be formulated as a rigorous and positive scientific argument-specifically one called 'an inference to the best explanation.' The book shows, ironically, that the argument for intelligent design from DNA is based on the same method of scientific reasoning that Darwin himself used.

========== Amazon comment on book below ===============================================:

A lot of the one star book reviews seem to be attacking Dr. Meyers, and not the topic of his book. Please let us get something out of the way up front. "Signature of the Cell" is not about Stephen Meyer, the Discovery Institute or God for that matter. It is about an argument, and a lot of the negative (and positive, let's be honest) reviews seem to overlook this fact. There is a lot of spin on both sides of the Intelligent Design debate. One side often states that Judge Jones III was appointed by George W Bush, while another side makes certain we know that Judge Jones III was previously a former Head of a Liquor Control Board. Please let us approach this topic with reason and give our honest-if biased-opinions.

In "Signature in the Cell", Dr. Meyers walks us through what information is and the different ways information is defined, created and discovered. He also goes into great detail on probability theory and the history of scientific reasoning. He then lays out the history of origins of life research including a fascinating exposition of the discovery of the DNA double helix, and the surprise of specified information that lies within. Dr. Meyers argues why the current OOL theories fail to explain how the first cell could have arisen by chance alone due to the insufficient probabilistic resources (temporal as well as physical) of the universe. He further argues why self organization/bio-chemical predestination models do not provide an adequate explanation for the origin of life. He also explains why the RNA world and other current models fail to explain the OOL, or what Dr Meyers calls the "DNA enigma"

The DNA Enigma is that which researchers have not been able to uncover. That is, the origin of specified information or digital code in every living cell. The information in the DNA molecule is not only complex, but has specified complexity. All of the current OOL models Dr. Meyer critiques contain what he terms the "displacement problem" That is they push back the source of the information or assume that the information simply occured or merely ignore the source, and put it on the back burner. In the book Dr. Meyers explains why evolutionary computer simulations and that why trying to manufacture "life in the lab" are actually very good examples of ID and are ideal cases for design theory.

Dr. Meyer does not make an appeal from ignorance or a "God of the Gaps" argument, but makes a positive case for design in OOL. Dr. Meyer appeals to the same historical branch of science that Darwin employed, and argues that if ID theory is arbitrarily deemed unscientific then Darwin's theory would fail to be classified as scientific on the same reasoning.

For those that say that "ID is not science", please read chapter 18 of the book-"But is it Science?" Following are the headings for the reasons Dr. Meyers regards ID as science, specifically historically scientific..

Reason 1: The case for ID is based on Empirical Evidence.

Reason 2: Advocates of ID use Established Scientific Methods.

Reason 3: ID is a Testable Theory.

Reason 4: The Case for ID Exemplifies Historical Scientific Reasoning.

Reason 5: ID Addresses a Specific Question in Evolutionary Biology (OOL).

Reason 6: ID Is Supported by Peer-Reviewed Scientific Literature.

(You'll have to read the book for the details.)

"Signature in the Cell" is not "Creationist Tripe", but a 600 page argument. Dr. Meyers does not necessarily argue for a God as the intelligent agent behind the OOL, but that an intelligent agent is the most likely cause of the specified information in the double helix and information processing systems of the cell. Dr. Meyers argument is not that "It is way too complicated to understand

so therefore God did it" but an appeal to what we know about how information is created and that information comes from minds, or agents. As some like to say and I'm paraphrasing several ID opponents here.."Let's not kid ourselves, we all know who Dr. Meyers means when he says an intelligent agent, he means God" Well maybe, or if your ontology will allow, probably, but both Richard Dawkins and Francis Crick believe in, or are at least sympathetic to an intelligent agent as the cause of life on earth. They just believe that the intelligent agent was or could have been extra-terrestrial. The panspermia theory too has it's problems, and ultimately pushes back the OOL or "DNA Enigma" to an earlier time and certainly from what we know of the universe, one is stopped by the previously mentioned wall of probabilistic resources.

In the epilouge Dr. Meyers opens the door to some of the latest discoveries of the hierarchical nature of DNA information storage. Quite interesting really, Super folders, folders within folders in optimized locations for efficient retrieval. He also touches briefly on what used to thought of as "Junk DNA" or non protein coding regions of the DNA molecule. What was once considered to be only leftovers and redundancies from transcriptions can now be shown to work as a sort of operating system. It will be interesting to see what comes from the ongoing research..

Dr. Meyer concludes the book in Appendix B with solid critique of multiverse theories and in chapter 17 provides a very powerful answer(rebuttal) to the ubiquitous "Who designed the designer?" question (challenge).

There IS an answer to the DNA Enigma, and Dr Meyer's positive argument is that life on earth was caused ~3-4 billion years ago by an intelligent agent, most likely God. Perhaps he is correct.



See list of MKULTRA documents and subprojects at the National Security Archive:

Subproject 42: MKULTRA: Safehouse Chapter 7: MKULTRA Interview Notes White, George Hunter Dope Traffickers' Nemesis Subproject 43: MKULTRA: Combination drug, Hypnosis, Sensory Deprivation

Subproject 44: MKULTRA: Testing of Aromatic Amines at University of Illinois

Subproject 45: MKULTRA: Knockout, Stress, Cancer

Subproject 46: MKULTRA: Rochester LSD Drugs Subproject 47: MKULTRA: Pfeiffer Atlanta

Subproject 47: MKULTRA: (1) Pfeiffer Atlanta/Bordertown

Subproject 48: MKULTRA: HEF Cornell Relationship: Artichoke Team Proposals and Reports Subproject 49: MKULTRA: Hypnosis at [excised] University

Subproject 50: MKULTRA: CIA Imprest Fund for $500

Subproject 51: MKULTRA: (1) Moore Collecting Botanicals

Subproject 52: MKULTRA: (2) Moore Collecting Botanicals

Subproject 53: MKULTRA: (3) Moore Collecting Botanicals

Subproject 53: MKULTRA: Review Pharmacological lit.

Subproject 54: MKULTRA: Brain Concussion

Subproject 55: MKULTRA: Unwitting Drug Tests at [excised] University

Subproject 56: MKULTRA: Studies on Alcohol, Stanford Medical school

Subproject 57: MKULTRA: Sleep and Insomnia at GW: MKULTRA: Lloyd Gould

Subproject 57: MKULTRA: Sleep



June 5, 1982 The Nation

C.I.A.: Carcinogen

The multi-million-dollar project of the Central Intelligence Agency to develop and test psychotropic drugs has been known for some years now, but details of its bizarre intrigues are still trickling out. Documents recently pried loose by the Freedom of Information Act show that during the height of the cold war, the C.I.A. developed cancer-causing drugs to use in assassinating political opponents so. it would appear that they died from natural causes.

A C.I.A. memorandum of February 4, 1952, reports on the carcinogenic properties of beryllium: "This is certainly the most toxic inorganic element and it produces a peculiar fibrotic tumor at the site of local application. The amount necessary to produce that tumors is a few micrograms." The document goes on to recommend a study on "the effect of inhaling small amounts of beryllium in the lungs, and other studies to evaluate the potentialities of beryllium as a covert weapon."

The memorandum also reports that the C.I.A. had laboratory facilities for "any type of medical research involving physiologically active chemical compounds," and it assured C.I.A. doctors that "human subjects would be available for work that could be carried out as legitimate medical research."

Another document, dated August 4, 1954, describes a drug called methylcholanthrene as "probably the most potent known carcinogen in the production of tumors of various types." The drug could be used as an "initiating agent" leading "to a palpable cancerous proliferation after an induction period during which the initiating agent may have been eliminated from the system."

This cancer scheme was only one of hundreds pursued by the C.I.A. during its twenty-five-year effort to develop techniques to control human behavior. Some of the more sensational aspects of this program, such as the testing of LSD on unwitting American citizens, were investigated by Congress and reported by the press in the 1970s. In The Search for the Manchurian Candidate: The CIA & Mind Control, John Marks told of other C.I.A. experiments with sensory deprivation, sleep teaching, parapsychology, subliminal perception, electronic brain stimulation and similarly arcane methods of mind control.

In addition to the cancer venture, newly, released documents also show how the C.I.A. used "anticancer" research as a cover for its behavior-alteration studies. In an experiment at Georgetown University, the agency tested anticancer drugs as knockout substances and incapacitating agents. One document indicates that a "pool of subjects" would be made available in order to evaluate "the cardiovascular and anti-carcinogenic effects of compounds." In this case, the pool of subjects consisted of terminal cancer patients who had no idea they were being used as guinea pigs in a C.I.A. drug project.

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