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Molten Metal In The Rubble

Firefighters and cleanup crews encountered puddles of molten metal in the weeks after 9/11 even though the rubble had undergone nearly constant soaking with firehoses.



Below glowing hot metal can be seen at the ends of debris being pulled out of the molten puddles. Shills will often claim that this should have destroyed the shovels as if by that distraction they would like you to believe that pictures like these must somehow be fabrications. In fact a heavy steel shovel could even be dunked into molten steel without immediately melting because it takes some time for steel in contact with such hot metal to itself heat up to the same temperature and melt. And we don't know that some shovels digging into molten steel didn't suffer some damage.



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Sample of the previously molten metal

Photo below shows a large piece of the now-solidified metal with entrained material, stored (as of November 2005) in a warehouse in New York. From Dr. Steven Jone's paper Why Indeed Did the WTC Buildings Completely Collapse?. The image is divided horizontally in two pieces, click on either one to examine it more closely.

MoltenMetalLargeImage1.jpg MoltenMetalLargeImage2.jpg

Rust indicates the presence of iron and/or steel. This sample of previously molten metal has inclusions of what appear to be reinforced concrete and likely other materials. Some have suggested that some or all of this metal could be aluminum but aluminum does not alloy with steel nor does it rust like steel. There are however some granular areas top center of the top photo above which look like they might be small deposits of aluminum which would be expected to float on top of any molten steel. A great deal of forensic analysis remains to be performed on this and the other chunks of molten iron/steel found in the basements of WTC 1, 2, and 7.

Edited by Steven Gaal
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Some have suggested that the flowing molten metal could have been aluminum from office furnishings and plane wreckage (that must have somehow been heated in some kind of container that spontaneously formed and then dumped its contents out the windows) but the problem with that idea is that molten aluminum does not glow reddish when molten, for two reasons: 1) it melts at lower temperatures (which could almost conceivably be achieved by jet fuel and office furnishings) but does not glow red at such low temperatures, and 2) aluminum's properties being different from iron and steel (see below) causes it to not glow red even at temperatures where iron or steel might. Below is a photograph of molten aluminum being poured so that you can see it shows no trace of a red glow.


Metal Temperature by Color

The text and temperature graphic below were taken from Dr. Steven Jone's paper Why Indeed Did the WTC Buildings Completely Collapse?.

The following table (see
) provides data regarding the melting temperatures of lead, aluminum, structural steel and iron, along with approximate metal temperatures by color. Note that the approximate temperature of a hot metal is given by its color, quite independent of the composition of the metal. (A notable exception is falling liquid aluminum, which due to low emissivity and high reflectivity appears silvery-gray in daylight conditions, after falling through air 1-2 meters, regardless of the temperature at which the poured-out aluminum left the vessel. Aluminum does incandesce (glow) like other metals, but faintly, so that with the conditions described in the previous sentence (which prevailed at the WTC on 9/11), falling liquid aluminum will appear silvery-gray. Rapid oxidation of the hot flowing aluminum will contribute to the observed appearance. [Experiments: Jones, 2006])


For comparison, the official NIST study which examined WTC steel that had actually been exposed to fire at higher floors near the points of impact found that the maximum temperaturess achieved were about 600 degrees C., far lower than necessary to melt steel or even soften it to the point of structural failure. No explanation for this apparent discrepancy with the official conspiracy was offered.

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A novel approach to determining gas temperatures in compartment fires is employed, in order to establish whether the observed molten steel or iron in the ruins of the World Trade Center could have been formed as a natural consequence of aircraft impact, combustion of jet fuel and office furnishings, and fire-induced building collapse. The information provided below will enable any Windows-based PC user to readily calculate temperatures after inputting several variables. We find that not only is there zero probability of the office fires melting any steel, but formation of molten steel or iron would have been impossible in the post-collapse fires within the debris pile ... unless accelerants had been installed as a means of ensuring global collapse.


As late as February 2002, Bronx firefighter Joe "Toolie" O'Toole saw a crane lift a steel beam vertically from deep within the catacombs of Ground Zero. "It was dripping from the molten steel," he said. Some molten material could have been aluminum, but analysis confirmed significant quantities of iron. Since the existence of molten steel or iron cannot be denied, NIST has even made a (failed) attempt to address the matter in its recently released "FAQ"- scroll down to #13 at this link. Molten steel or iron was also observed pouring from the side of WTC 2 in the minutes prior to its collapse [see pp. 10-16 in the paper at this link].

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Individuals such as these are numbered among the ranks of skeptics and critics of the official theory of conspiracy regarding the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Some pose questions, others draw conclusions...


This is not to say, however, that the issue has gone entirely unaddressed by mainstream sources. Hand in hand with the marginalization of informed dissent and deep concern expressed by qualified skeptics like ...James Quintiere (former Chief of NISTs Fire Science Division),

This implies that Dr. Quintiere is a “truther” but nothing could be further from the truth. He in fact was the lead author of a paper entitled “A suggested cause of the fire-induced collapse of the World Trade Towers”, here's the abstract:

An analysis is presented that calculates the temperature of the steel truss rods in the World
towers subject to a fire based on the building ventilation factor. The CIB correlation is used for the fire. Conduction analyses are made taking into account variable properties for the steel and the insulation. A structural failure model is described based on compression buckling of the truss rods due to a reduction in the Young's modulus. The computed times for the estimated failure or incipient collapse of the floors in both towers has been computed as 105±20 min for WTC 1 (north) and 51±9 min for WTC 2 (south), compared to the collapse times from the aircraft impact of 104 and 56 min, respectively. The insulation thickness and the difference of 19.1 mm () and 38.1 mm () between the two towers appear to have been the root cause of the collapses.

There are several diagrams on the linked page


Even in the commentary cited by truthers he said:

If you go to World Trade Center One, nine minutes before its collapse, there was a line of smoke that puffed out. This is one of the basis of the ‘conspiracy theories’ that says the smoke puffing out all around the building is due to somebody setting off an explosive charge. Well, I think, more likely, it’s one of the floors falling down.”


He made very specific criticism of the NIST Report, the part about the report for 7 WTC not being complete is now moot. I've not seen evidence of support for views with in the scientific community. That said he never demonstrated any evidence of doubting that the towers fell due to combination of impact damage and the resultant fires.

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The Un-Debunkable Molten Metal



Molten STEEL Flowed Under Ground Zero for Months After 9/11

Washington's Blog

April 28, 2008

In response to the numerous reports of molten metal under ground zero, defenders of the official version of 9/11 have tried to argue that it was not steel, but some other kind of metal with a lower melting point.

Well, here are what top experts who eyewitnessed the molten metal say...


Face off with the Debunkers, Part 2 - Ryan Owens

Stewart Bradley


January 11, 2009

From videos like "

" and "
" you claim that the there was no molten steel, just molten aluminum. But I have never heard you address the WPI metallurgical study of WTC steel done for the FEMA investigation, which indeed found steel had melted by eutectic reactions, which caused "intergranular melting capable of turning a solid steel girder into Swiss cheese." I can't fault you for not knowing about the study because FEMA buried it in appendix C of their final report and NIST totally ignored it, but you can read it here... No response from Ryan Owens.

9/11 - Ground Zero Molten Metal Confirmed link

Molten Steel in the Rubble of the World Trade Centre Collapse = Inside Job link

Edited by Steven Gaal
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Your latest posts suffer from the same defects as the previous ones namely:

  1. There are no images of the supposedly molten or once molten steel. The so called 'meteorites' that Jones and Gage point to are actually compacted debris, they even have bits of paper in them. The flame point of paper is well below the temperature at which steel melts.



  1. In order for a demolition to be controlled the columns have to cut in fractions of seconds There is no explanation as to why thermite reactions which which normally burn out in seconds would have continued for days, let alone week or even months. This would only have been possible if the plotters had used exponentially more thermite than needed. But even the amount need to cut the columns would have been prohibitively large.

  2. While so witnesses said molten steel other simply said molten metal and there are several metals that melt a temperatures reached by carbon fueled fires. Some witnesses did say steel but the could have mistaken other molten metals for steel. There are problems with some the supposed witness accounts

See my previous posts for links

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Forensic Metallurgy

Metallurgical Examination of WTC Steel Suggests Explosives


Although virtually all of the structural steel from the Twin Towers and Building 7 was removed and destroyed, preventing forensic analysis, FEMA's volunteer investigators did manage to perform "limited metallurgical examination" of some of the steel before it was recycled. Their observations, including numerous micrographs, are recorded in Appendix C of the WTC Building Performance Study. Prior to the release of FEMA's report, a fire protection engineer and two science professors published a brief report in JOM disclosing some of this evidence. 1

The results of the examination are striking. They reveal a phenomenon never before observed in building fires: eutectic reactions, which caused "intergranular melting capable of turning a solid steel girder into Swiss cheese." The New York Times described this as "perhaps the deepest mystery uncovered in the investigation." 2 WPI provides a graphic summary of the phenomenon.

A one-inch column has been reduced to half-inch thickness. Its edges--which are curled like a paper scroll--have been thinned to almost razor sharpness. Gaping holes--some larger than a silver dollar--let light shine through a formerly solid steel flange. This Swiss cheese appearance shocked all of the fire-wise professors, who expected to see distortion and bending--but not holes.

FEMA's investigators inferred that a "liquid eutectic mixture containing primarily iron, oxygen, and sulfur" formed during a "hot corrosion attack on the steel." The eutectic mixture (having the elements in such proportion as to have the lowest possible melting point) penetrated the steel down grain boundaries, making it "susceptible to erosion." Following are excerpts from Appendix C, Limited Metallurgical Examination.

Evidence of a severe high temperature corrosion attack on the steel, including oxidation and sulfidation with subsequent intergranular melting, was readily visible in the near-surface microstructure. A liquid eutectic mixture containing primarily iron, oxygen, and sulfur formed during this hot corrosion attack on the steel.


The thinning of the steel occurred by high temperature corrosion due to a combination of oxidation and sulfidation.


The unusual thinning of the member is most likely due to an attack of the steel by grain boundary penetration of sulfur forming sulfides that contain both iron and copper.


liquid eutectic mixture containing primarily iron, oxygen, and sulfur formed during this hot corrosion attack on the steel.


The severe corrosion and subsequent erosion of Samples 1 and 2 are a very unusual event. No clear explanation for the source of the sulfur has been identified. The rate of corrosion is also unknown. It is possible that this is the result of long-term heating in the ground following the collapse of the buildings. It is also possible that the phenomenon started prior to collapse and accelerated the weakening of the steel structure. A detailed study into the mechanisms of this phenomenon is needed to determine what risk, if any, is presented to existing steel structures exposed to severe and long-burning fires.


<a name="thermite" shape="rect">Thermite Use as an Explanation

The "deep mystery" of the melted steel may be yielding its secrets to investigators not beholden to the federal government. Professor Steven Jones has pointed out that the severe corrosion, intergranular melting, and abundance of sulfur are consistent with the theory of thermite arson.


1. An Initial Microstructural Analysis of A36 Steel from WTC Building 7, JOM, 12/01 [cached]

2. The 'Deep Mystery' of Melted Steel, WPI Transformations, spring 02 [cached]

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This was believed to have been caused by the presence of sulfur for which there could have been various sources from acid rain to the gypsum in drywall. According to a paper by WPI engineers "These observations indicate that steel had experienced temperature between 550 and 850 degrees C." such temperatures in office fires.



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NOPE Biederman says hotter than office fires 1000 degrees

An Initial Microstructural Analysis of A36 Steel from WTC Building 7

J.R. Barnett, R.R. Biederman, and R.D. Sisson, Jr.


An Initial Microstructural Analysis of A36 Steel from WTC Building 7 by J.R. Barnett, R.R. Biederman, and R.D. Sisson, Jr.

A section of an A36 wide flange beam retrieved from the collapsed World Trade Center Building 7 was examined to determine changes in the steel microstructure as a result of the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001. This building was not one of the original buildings attacked but it indirectly suffered severe damage and eventually collapsed. While the exact location of this beam could not be determined, the unexpected erosion of the steel found in this beam warranted a study of microstructural changes that occurred in this steel. Examination of other sections in this beam is underway.


Rapid deterioration of the steel was a result of heating with oxidation in combination with intergranular melting due to the presence of sulfur. The formation of the eutectic mixture of iron oxide and iron sulfide lowers the temperature at which liquid can form in this steel. This strongly suggests that the temperatures in this region of the steel beam approached ~1,000ºC, forming the eutectic liquid by a process similar to making a “blacksmith’s weld” in a hand forge.

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That's what they said in late 2001 after only a few months analysis he and the other did however repeated the 1000 C estimate in the May 2002 ASCE/FEMA report. But by 2006 he seems to have reassessed that. In none of the documents however did any of the authors indicate that they though any added substances (i.e. not from the buildings, plane or environment) were involved. Perhaps that because temps over 1000 C are not uncommon in ordinary hydrocarbon fires.



ASCE 2002 - http://web.archive.org/web/20110211212751/http://www.fema.gov/pdf/library/fema403_apc.pdf

2006 report - http://web.archive.org/web/20060901142853/http://www.me.wpi.edu/MTE/People/Images/IMSBiedermanA2.pdf

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Too much molten metal to not be stuctural steel.

I assume you are referring to this:

Looking at that one video which shows molten aluminum as orange, the theory that's it's aluminum can't be ruled out completely just yet.

More Evidence: NASAs Infrared Imaging Spectrometer located the molten metal, and found large amounts not just in the rubble of the twin towers but also WTC7:

How can molten aluminum from the airplane possibly be in the rubble of WTC7? Did a large chunk of the fuselage fall from the towers while covered in burning jet fuel, land inside of the farthest building in that complex, and turn molten? Nope, so now the molten aluminum theory can be ruled out. Plus NIST, the organization that official story believers fight tooth and nail to defend, even said it themselves: "Pure liquid aluminum would be expected to appear silvery", and Steven Jones debunked their theory that molten aluminum mixed with solid inorganic material would appear orange.

1) Neither NOAA, nor NASA nor any scientists not associated with the “truth” movement ever said the hotspots were molten steel. Even most truthers, especially the ones with scientific training simply say this is ‘evidence’ of molten steel.

2) The Twin Towers and IIRC WTC had aluminum cladding

3) The very same author just wrote “Looking at that one video which shows molten aluminum as orange, the theory that's it's aluminum can't be ruled out completely just yet.” Huhhh?

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2) The Twin Towers and IIRC WTC had aluminum cladding

3) The very same author just wrote “Looking at that one video which shows molten aluminum as orange, the theory that's it's aluminum can't be ruled out completely just yet.” Huhhh? //end Colby


The WTC had aluminum cladding by fallining down outside of the building got MOLTEN HOT ??? HUH ?? MAKES NO SENsE

Orange Aluminum was done in experimental vat ,UNKNOW ADDITIVES (?). Professor JONES made same experiments with Alumminum and common office materials .......not orange ....always silver.

Edited by Steven Gaal
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