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The Plan (Washington, D.C.)

Len Colby

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OK if you insist on splitting hairs “let’s try again, post the relevant excerpts from credible studies (or articles about them) that show serious health issues caused by exposure to fluoride levels typical of people living in developed countries. Not to claims on kook sites but to actual studies or articles about them from neutral sources

If you'd actually bothered to have looked at the source document for the chart you'd have see that most cases of dental fluorosis were mild or minor.

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largest scholarly database for fluoride related contaminants.

The Fluoride Action Network develops and maintains the world’s most comprehensive online database on fluoride compounds. The information in the database is free and available for anyone seeking to educate themselves. As they say: information is power

Health Effects Database

FAN's comprehensive catalog of fluoride research, including detailed summaries and exhaustive references for over 80 aspects of fluoride toxicity. A gold mine of information for anyone interested in the science.

Professionals Statement

FAN's Professionals Statement to End Water Fluoridation has been signed by over 4,000 medical, dental, scientific, and environmental professionals. See the list of signatories and add your name to the list. Professionals can add their name to this statement by clicking here.

FAN's Translation Project

FAN regularly accesses and translates studies written in Chinese. FAN's collection includes over 40 studies examining fluoride's impacts on human health, including its effects on the brain, bones, fertility, the fetus, thyroid, and glucose metabolism.

State Fluoride Database

Read the latest fluoride news from your state; find out if your town is fluoridated, see if any communities have recently rejected fluoridation, learn if your state has a law that mandates fluoridation, and other fluoride-related information.

National Research Council (2006)

An overview of the NRC's groundbreaking report on fluoride toxicity, including excerpts of its key findings and recommendations, statements from the panelists, and a discussion of its relevance to water fluoridation and sulfuryl fluoride.

EPA/Fluoride Files

FAN's extensive documentary history of EPA's decision in 1985 to increase the allowable levels of fluoride in drinking water. The documents show that EPA Management allowed political pressures to trump the clear consensus among its scientists that the altered standard was not safe.

FDA/Fluoride Files

The documents that show (1) the Food & Drug Administration (FDA) has never approved fluoride supplementation as a safe and effective treatment despite 50+ years of prescriptions, and (2) FDA's explanations for this situation do not withstand scrutiny.

Harvard/Bone Cancer Files

The documents that sparked national headlines and a year-long investigation into scientific misconduct by the Harvard dental professor who led NIH's ongoing study of fluoride and bone cancer. Plus, new documents obtained from under the Freedom of Information Act.


The most comprehensive database for fluorinated pesticides, including the inorganic compounds Cryolite and Sulfuryl Fluoride, as well as hundreds of organo-fluorine compounds that may well prove to be as toxic, or more toxic, than the chlorinated pesticides they are replacing.

Government Reports & FAN Submissions

FAN's compilation of official reports from the US, EU, WHO, UN, Australia, Canada, Ireland, NZ, and the UK. The majority of FAN's submissions to various government agencies over the years are also included.

FAN Bibliography

The FAN Bibliography provides the complete reference list for all studies cited by the Fluoride Action Network, whether in electronic or print format. Many new studies have recently been added.

Perfluorinated Chemicals

Sometimes called "The Teflon Chemicals," FAN's Pesticide Project began tracking them in 2000 because of their use in several pesticides. Here we document the toxicity studies, government reports, class action suits, and newspaper accounts.

Edited by Steven Gaal
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Risk Factors for Fluoride Toxicity in the Black Community


Numerous studies, including a national survey by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), have found that black children suffer significantly higher rates of dental fluorosis than white children. (Martinez-Mier 2010; Beltran-Aguilar 2005; Kumar 2000, 1999; Williams 1990; Butler 1985; Russell 1962). Not only do black children suffer higher rates of fluorosis, they suffer the most severe forms of the condition which are marked by dark brown staining and deterioration of the enamel. While the reasons for this increased rate of fluorosis have yet to be definitively determined, there are several risk factors for fluoride toxicity that are present at elevated rates in the black community. These risk factors include:

  1. Reduced nutrient intake;
  2. Higher levels of lead exposure;
  3. Higher prevalence of health conditions (e.g., kidney disease and diabetes) that render the body more vulnerable to fluoride intake; and
  4. Higher intakes of fluoride.

A) Reduced Nutrient Intake

Voluminous research spanning back to the 1930s shows that populations with nutrient deficiencies are harmed by fluoride exposures otherwise safe for the general population. A 1952 study in the Journal of the American Dental Association warned:

“The data from this and other investigations suggest that malnourished infants and children, especially if deficient in calcium intake, may suffer from the effects of water containing fluorine while healthy children would remain unaffected…Thus low levels of fluoride ingestion which are generally considered to be safe for the general population may not be safe for malnourished infants and children. Therefore, the nutritional status must be carefully assessed and guarded in areas with endemic fluorosis. Nutritional studies should be included in any comprehensive program of fluoridation of water with special attention to chronically ailing infants and children…When an individual or a population group shows mottling beyond the degree expected, the health and nutritional status of that group should be investigated.” (Massler & Schour 1952).

Research has repeatedly shown that black Americans have lower nutrient intakes than caucasians. (Fulgoni 2007, Goolsby 2006; Sharma 2004). As summarized in a recent review:

“As a group, African-Americans consume a diet that is lower in recommended nutrients and meet fewer of the national recommendations than the average American. In comparison to national recommendations, the African-American diet is more likely to be low in vitamins and minerals, including calcium, and higher in fat. Additionally, the food pattern in the African-American diet includes more meat and fats, while being lower in fruits, vegetables and dairy foods.” (Byers 2005).

One reason for the lower nutrient intake in the black community is the higher prevalence of lactose intolerance that is known to exist. (Byers 2005). Due to this high rate of lactose tolerance, black children consume significantly less milk than white children. Since milk is an important source of calcium, and since calcium is important for reducing fluoride’s toxic effects on mineralized tissues (bones and teeth), lower milk consumption could be an important reason for the increased fluorosis rate in the black community. Indeed, recent research has specifically found that milk consumption is associated with reduced severity of fluorosis in areas with high levels of fluoride in water. (Rango 2012).

Another reason for the reduced nutrient intake in the black community is the scarcity of fresh grocery stores in low-income urban areas. Recent studies have found that the lack of grocery stores in low-income black neighborhoods severely limits access to fresh fruits and vegetables (a major source of anti-oxidants). (Kolker 2008; Burt 2006; Tellez 2006). Consistent with this, the level of anti-oxidants in the blood of otherwise healthy black adults has been found to be significantly lower than the anti-oxidant levels in white adults. (Watters 2007). This is important because research has repeatedly shown that fluoride increases the level of oxidative stress in the body and, as a result, anti-oxidants play a critical role in defending the body from fluoride toxicity. (Barbier 2010).

B) Lead Exposure

Research has found that the black community has higher levels of lead intake than the white community. (Bernard 2003; Lanphear 1996; Brody 1994). This has been demonstrated through studies of lead levels in both blood and bone. (Jones 2009; Theppeang 2008). This is significant because, according to recent animal research, heightened exposure to lead can exacerbate the toxicity of fluoride exposures. (Leite 2011; Niu 2009). In one animal study, rats with both fluoride and lead exposure had more severe forms of fluorosis than rats with fluoride exposure alone. (Leite 2011). Thus, the higher lead exposure in the black community may help to explain the greater severity of dental fluorosis found in the black community.

C) Fluoride Intake

Some studies have found that black children consume more fluoride from water and beverages than white children. (Sohn 2001). This may be the result of increased lactose intolerance which leads to the substitution of milk with water and other processed beverages. In addition, studies have found that black children are less likely to be breast-fed than other racial groups. (Robinson 2009). A recent national survey by the CDC, for example, found that “non-Hispanic blacks had a lower prevalence of breastfeeding initiation than non-Hispanic whites in all but two states.” (CDC 2010). This is significant because infants consuming formula made with fluoridated water can ingest up to 200 times more fluoride than a breast fed infant, and have been found to be at greater risk of developing dental fluorosis in their permanent teeth. (Hong 2006).

D) Health Conditions

Fluoride’s toxicity is significantly exacerbated by health conditions, including kidney disease and diabetes, that are significantly more prevalent among communities of color. Black Americans, for example, are over two times as likely to develop chronic kidney disease and nearly four times as likely to experience kidney failure as caucasians. (Muntner 2012; US Renal Data System, 2005). to develop kidney failure than caucasians, and nearly twice as likely to suffer from diabetes than are whites. (Katzmarzyk 2012).


Barbier O, et al. (2010). Molecular mechanisms of fluoride toxicity. Chemico-Biological Interactions 188(2):319-33.

Beltran-Aguilar ED et al. (2005). Surveillance for dental caries, dental sealants, tooth retention, edentulism, and enamel fluorosis — United States, 1988–1994 and 1999—2002. MMWR Surveillance Summaries 54(3): 1-44.

Bernard SM, McGeehin MA. (2003). Prevalence of blood lead levels >or= 5 micro g/dL among US children 1 to 5 years of age and socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with blood of lead levels 5 to 10 micro g/dL, Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. Pediatrics 112(6 Pt 1):1308-13.

Brody DJ, et al. (1994). Blood lead levels in the US population. Phase 1 of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988 to 1991). Journal of the American Medical Association 272(4):277-83.

Butler WJ, et al. (1985). Prevalence of dental mottling in school-aged lifetime residents of 16 Texas communities. American Journal of Public Health 75:1408-1412.

Byers KG, Savaiano DA. (2005). The myth of increased lactose intolerance in African-Americans. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 24(6 Suppl):569S-73S.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2010). Racial and ethnic differences in breastfeeding initiation and duration, by state – National Immunization Survey, United States, 2004-2008. MMWR Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report 59(11):327-34.

Fulgoni V, et al. (2007). Dairy consumption and related nutrient intake in African-American adults and children in the United States: continuing survey of food intakes by individuals 1994-1996, 1998, and the National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2000. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 107(2):256-64.

Goolsby SL, et al. (2006). Consumption of calcium among African American adolescent girls. Ethnicity & Disease 16(2):476-82.

Hong L, Levy SM, et al. (2006). Timing of fluoride intake in relation to development of fluorosis on maxillary central incisors. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 34:299-309.

Jones RL, et al. (2009). Trends in blood lead levels and blood lead testing among US children aged 1 to 5 years, 1988-2004. Pediatrics 123(3):e376-85.

Katzmarzyk PT, Staiano AE. (2012). New race and ethnicity standards: elucidating health disparities in diabetes. BMC Medicine 10(1):42.

Kumar JV, Swango PA. 2000. Low birth weight and dental fluorosis: is there an association? Journal of Public Health Dentistry 60(3):167-71.

Kumar JV, Swango PA. (1999). Fluoride exposure and dental fluorosis in Newburgh and Kingston, New York: policy implications. Community Dentistry & Oral Epidemiology 27:171-80.

Lanphear BP, et al. (1996). Racial differences in Urban children’s environmental exposures to lead. American Journal of Public Health 86(10):1460-3.

Leite GA, et al. (2011). Exposure to lead exacerbates dental fluorosis. Archives of Oral Biology 56(7):695-702.

Martinez-Mier EA, Soto-Rojas AE. (2010). Differences in exposure and biological markers of fluoride among White and African American children. Journal of Public Health Dentistry 70:234-40.

Massler M, Schour I. (1952). Relation of endemic dental fluorosis to malnutrition. JADA. 44: 156-165.

Muntner P, et al. (2012). Racial differences in the incidence of chronic kidney disease. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 7(1):101-7.

Niu R, et al. (2009). Decreased learning ability and low hippocampus glutamate in offspring rats exposed to fluoride and lead. Environmental Toxicology & Pharmacology 28(2):254-8.

Rango T, et al. (2012). Groundwater quality and its health impact: An assessment of dental fluorosis in rural inhabitants of the Main Ethiopian Rift. Environment International 43:37-47.

Robinson K, VandeVusse L. (2009). Exploration of African-American women’s infant feeding choices. Journal of the National Black Nurses Association 20(2):32-7.

Russell Al. (1962). Dental fluorosis in Grand Rapids during the seventeenth year of fluoridation. Journal of the American Dental Association 65:608-12.

Sharma S, et al. (2004). Adherence to the food guide pyramid recommendations among African Americans and Latinos: results from the Multiethnic Cohort. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 104(12):1873-7.

Sohn W, et al. (2001). Fluid consumption related to climate among children in the United States. Journal of Public Health Dentistry 61(2):99-106.

Theppeang K, et al. (2008). Gender and race/ethnicity differences in lead dose biomarkers. American Journal of Public Health 98(7):1248-55.

Watters JL, et al. (2007). Associations of antioxidant nutrients and oxidative DNA damage in healthy African-American and White adults. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 16(7):1428-36.

Williams JE, Zwemer JD. (1990). Community water fluoride levels, preschool dietary patterns, and the occurrence of fluoride enamel opacities. Journal of Public Health Dentistry 50:276-81.

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LOL if that's the best you can come up with we can go home now. AFICT dental fluorosis is not life threatening, the primary adverse effect seems to be aesthetic. Almost as bad (for your case) is that elevated fluoride intake is only one of four risk factors.

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GEE MR. Colby I stayed on topic RE THE PLAN and the DC area is a minority area ??

BUT IF YOU WANT MORE SERIOUS HEALTH CONCERNS SEE LIST BELOW. Dental fluorosis is the proverbial canary in the coal mind of serious fluoride consumption .................thats common sense ..........and you .........


The Health Database sets forth the scientific basis for FAN’s concerns regarding the safety and effectiveness of ingested fluorides. The database is the product of over 10 years of research by FAN’s research team, led by attorney-at-law Michael Connett. In 2012, Connett conducted an exhaustive review of recent scientific findings, including research that, up to now, has only been available in Chinese and Russian. The current database reflects the findings of this new review.

II. FAN’s Health Summaries:

Arthritis Gastrointestinal Effects Bone Fracture Fluoride Hypersensitivity Brain Effects Kidney Disease Cancer Male Fertility Cardiovascular Disease Pineal Gland Dental Fluorosis Skeletal Fluorosis Diabetes Tooth Decay Endocrine Disruption Thyroid Disease


IV. analysis & documentation:

Acute Toxicity:


Doses Minimum Lethal Dose (5 mg/kg) Minimum Dose that Produces Acute Toxicity (0.1-0.3 mg/kg) Causes of

Acute Toxicity Fluoride toothpastes Fluoride gels Water fluoridation accidents


Arthritis Fluoride & Arthritis Fluoride & Osteoarthritis Fluoride & Rheumatoid Arthritis Fluoride & Repetitive Stress Bone

Density Fluoride’s differential effect on bone density (trabecular vs. cortical bone) Epidemiology: Fluoride in water & bone density The “Iowa Fluoride Study” Relationship between fluoride, bone density, and bone strength Bone Mineralization Fluoride increases osteoid content of bone Fluoride & osteomalacia Fluoride & rickets Fluoride exposure increases calcium requirement Bone Fluorosis The Misdiagnosis Problem Skeletal fluorosis & individual variability Factors which increase risk for skeletal fluorosis Exposure pathways linked to skeletal fluorosis Estimated threshold doses for skeletal fluorosis Skeletal fluorosis in India & China Skeletal fluorosis in the U.S. “Pre-skeletal” fluorosis X-ray diagnosis of skeletal fluorosis Variability in radiographic variability of skeletal fluorosis Fluorosis & Spondylosis/Spondylitis Fluorosis & DISH (Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis) Fluorosis & Spinal Stenosis Fluorosis & Secondary Hyperparathyroidism Fluorosis & Osteopetrosis Bone Fracture Mechanisms by which fluoride can reduce bone strength Clinical Trials / Fracture Rates Animal Studies / Bone Strength In vitro studies / Bone Strength Epidemiology: Fluoride in Water & Bone Fracture Fluoride reduces bone strength prior to onset of skeletal fluorosis Skeletal fluorosis & Bone fracture Bone Cells Fluoride & osteoblasts Fluoride & osteocytes Fluoride & osteoclasts


Human Studies Fluoride & IQ: 33 Studies Fluoride’s neurobehavioral effects Fluoride’s effect on fetal brain Animal Studies Fluoride’s effect on learning/memory Fluoride’s effect on brain cells/tissue


Mutagenicity In vitro studies In vivo studies Indiana’s Oral Health Research Institute’s Studies NTP’s Bioassay (1990) Overview of NTP Bioassay Liver cancer (hepatocholangiocarcinoma) findings Human Epidemiological Studies Fluoride & Osteosarcoma: A Timeline A critique of Gelberg’s study on fluoride/osteosarcoma in New York Fluoride & Bladder/Lung Cancer Biological plausibility of fluoride/osteosarcoma link

Cardiovascular system

Fluoride & Cardiovascular Disease: An Overview Fluoride, Blood Pressure & Hypertension Fluoride & Arterial Calcification Fluoride & Arteriosclerosis Fluoride & Electrocardiogram Abnormalities Fluoride & Myocardial Damage

Endocrine Function

Glucose Metabolism Fluoride & Impaired Glucose Metabolism Fluoride & Insulin Fluoride Sensitivity Among Diabetics National Research Council’s Summary (2006) Pineal Gland Luke (2001): Fluoride accumulation in human pineal gland Luke (1997): Fluoride’s effect on pineal function in gerbils Thyroid Gland Fluoride Aggravates Iodine Deficiency Fluoride Aggravates Iodine Excess Fluoride & Goitre Fluoride & Thyroid Hormones NRC’s (2006) Review of Fluoride/Thyroid Parathyroid Gland Fluorosis & Secondary Hyperparathyroidism


Acute Toxicity Gastric symptoms: Early sign of acute fluoride toxicity Clinical Trials Fluoride-induced damage to gastric mucosa Gastric symptoms: common side effect Fluorosis patients Gastric symptoms: common side effect


Fluoride’s Effect on Kidney Patients Kidney patients at increased risk of fluoride poisoning Health authorities are ignoring the risk Similarities between skeletal fluorosis & renal osteodystrophy Fluoridation, dialysis, & osteomalacia Fluoride’s Effect on Kidney Kidneys are exposed to high concentrations of fluoride Fluoride as a cause of kidney disease in humans Fluoride as a cause of kidney disease in animals Fluoride & Kidney Stones

Reproductive System

Male Fertility Human studies Animal studies In vitro studies The Sprando/Collins Anomaly


Caries (Syntheses) Fluoride’s Topical vs. Systemic effect Tooth decay trends in F vs. NF countries Tooth decay rates in F vs. NF communities Fluoridation & “baby bottle tooth decay” Water fluoridation, tooth decay, & poverty Studies on tooth decay rates after fluoridation was stopped Caries (Specific Studies) The “Iowa Fluoride Study” (1990s-Present Day) Armfield & Spencer (2004) National Institute of Dental Research (1986-87) Dental Fluorosis Dental fluorosis rates in the U.S.: 1950-2004 Racial disparities in dental fluorosis rates Dental fluorosis: The “Cosmetic Factor” Severe Fluorosis: Perception & Psychological Impact “Mild” Fluorosis: Perception & Psychological Impact Moderate/Severe Fluorosis: Impact on Tooth Quality Dental Fluorosis’s impact on enamel (“Hypo-mineralization”) Dental fluorosis impacts dentin in addition to enamel Mechanisms by which fluoride causes dental fluorosis Diagnostic criteria for dental fluorosis: Dean Index Diagnostic criteria for dental fluorosis: TF Index Diagnostic criteria for dental fluorosis: TSIF Index Community Fluorosis Index (CFI)

Vulnerable Populations

Age groups: Infants Racial/Ethnic groups African Americans Populations with the Following Conditions: Diabetes Kidney Disease Nutrient Deficiencies Polydipsia Individuals with Fluoride Sensitivity Topical Fluorides Systemic Fluorides

Edited by Steven Gaal
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