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I have spent the last two days reading the FBI files on William Douglas Pawley. Much of the information in the documents are still blacked out. This is especially true of his activities in the early 1960s concerning the overthrow of Castro. It seems that he worked very closely with Manuel Artime during this period.

The FBI carried out its own investigation into Pawley in 1953. This provides a fairly detailed account of his activities up until this time. For example, he was born in Florence, South Carolina, on 7th September, 1896. His father was a wealthy businessman based in Cuba and Pawley attended private schools in both Havana and Santiago. He later returned to the United States where he studied at the Gordon Military Academy in Georgia.

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The "Pawley" family of SC were engaged in plantation farming of rice. As a result of the Civil War, their wealth was for all practical purposes lost.

William Pawley's father went to Cuba as a representative for large financial interest out of New York & New Jersey which had established the forerunner of the PX system to military bases, as well as also selling US made goods to the local Cuban & American contigent.

Several years later, the Pawley family moved to Haiti as a result of the USMC intervention there, and thus continued this business as well as re-establishment of the family wealth.

At one time or another, virtually all of the Pawley family (William's brothers) were engaged in economic activities in Haiti and/or the Dominican Republic.

These activities came to include large sugar investments.

The father of William D. Pawley is buried in a cemetery in SC.-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

In 1925 Pawley began work as an estate agent in Miami. Two years later he began working for the Curtiss-Wright Corporation. In 1928 Pawley returned to Cuba to become president of the Nacional Cubana de Aviacion Curtiss. He held this post until the company was sold to Pan American Airways in 1932.

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The correct term is "Real Estate Agent". In that regard appears to be how William D. Pawley became involved with the Curtiss-Wright Aircraft company, as "Curtiss" of Curtiss-Wright joined with James H. Bright in the 1920's in the development of Florida's real estate boom.

http://glennhcurtiss.com/id52.htm

In the 1920's, having sold much of his ownership in a post-war reorganization of his company and with a fortune estimated in excess of $32 million (well over a billion today), Curtiss partnered with James H. Bright in south Florida real estate development.

In 1921 they began Hialeah, followed by Country Club Estates, now Miami Springs, with its many Southwest Adobe-style homes (where Curtiss built his own home at 500 Deer Run) - and in 1925 Opa-Locka, its fanciful city hall, above, inspired by Douglas Fairbank's 1924 epic movie, "The Thief of Baghdad."

And Curtiss donated his WW1 training field to the Navy - which became the 'birthplace of Marine aviation' - and also the land for Miami's original airport.

Today the Miami Herald lists him among the 'ten most important people in Dade county history.' -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Pawley now became president of the Intercontinent Corporation based in New York. The following year he moved to China where he became president of the China National Aviation Corporation. Over the next five years he built three aircraft factories for the Chinese government of Chiang Kai-shek.

Pawley also formed a business relationship with Tommy Corcoran. In 1940, President Franklin D. Roosevelt had asked Corcoran to establish a private corporation to provide assistance to the nationalist government in China. Roosevelt even supplied the name of the proposed company, China Defense Supplies. He also suggested that his uncle, Frederick Delano, should be co-chairman of the company. Chiang nominated his former finance minister, Tse-ven Soong, as the other co-chairman.

For reasons of secrecy, Corcoran took no title other than outside counsel for China Defense Supplies. William S. Youngman was his frontman in China. Corcoran's friend, Whitey Willauer, was moved to the Foreign Economic Administration, where he supervised the sending of supplies to China. In this way Corcoran was able to create an Asian Lend-Lease program.

Pawley also worked closely with Claire Lee Chennault, who was military adviser to Chiang Kai-shek since 1937. Chennault told Tommy Corcoran that if he was given the resources, he could maintain an air force within China that could carry out raids against the Japanese. Corcoran returned to the United States and managed to persuade Franklin D. Roosevelt to approve the creation of the American Volunteer Group.

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And Claire Chennault was of Louisiana heredity as well as having died in New Orleans, LA.

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William Pawley became involved and he arranged for one hundred P-40 fighters, built by the Curtiss-Wright Corporation, that had been intended for Britain, to be redirected to Chennault in China. Pawley also arranged for the P-40 to be assembled in Rangoon. It was Tommy Corcoran's son David who suggested that the American Volunteer Group should be called the Flying Tigers. Chennault liked the idea and asked his friend, Walt Disney, to design a tiger emblem for the planes.

On 13th April, 1941, Franklin D. Roosevelt signed a secret executive order authorizing the American Volunteer Group to recruit reserve officers from the army, navy and marines. Pawley suggested that the men should be recruited as "flying instructors".

In July, 1941, ten pilots and 150 mechanics were supplied with fake passports and sailed from San Francisco for Rangoon. When they arrived they were told that they were really involved in a secret war against Japan. To compensate for the risks involved, the pilots were to be paid $600 a month ($675 for a patrol leader). In addition, they were to receive $500 for every enemy plane they shot down.

The Flying Tigers were extremely effective in their raids on Japanese positions and helped to slow down attempts to close the Burma Road, a key supply route to China. In seven months of fighting, the Flying Tigers destroyed 296 planes at a loss of 24 men (14 while flying and 10 on the ground).

In 1944 Pawley became president of the Industan Aircraft Manufacturing Company in Bangalore, India. Pawley was responsible for building India's first ammonium-sulfate plant in Trannvancore.

After the war Pawley became a diplomat. In 1945 Harry S. Truman appointed Pawley as U.S. Ambassador to Peru. Soon afterwards left-wing newspapers in Lima began to claim that Pawley was making "lucrative deals" for himself in Peru. This involved transporting unspecified goods in and out of Peru.

In 1948 Pawley became Ambassador to Brazil. During this time he became a FBI informant. He passed information to J. Edgar Hoover claiming that Spruille Braden, the Ambassador to Argentina was under the control of communist advisers such as Gustavo Duran and George Michanowsky. In a document dated the 7th September, 1948, Pawley suggested that Braden was attempting to expose "non-existant and imagery Nazis in Latin America" as a cover for his communist sympathies. Pawley also claimed that William A. Wieland, who worked as a press officer for the embassy in Brazil, held "anti-capitalist" views.

Pawley continued to be involved in various business projects. He was a close friend of President Rafael Trujillo and together with George Smathers, had invested in the bauxite industry in the Dominican Republic. He was also extremely friendly with Fulgencio Batista and in 1948 he established Autobuses Modernos in Cuba.

On 7th November, 1949, Pawley sent a memorandum to the State Department suggesting that a small group of Americans should be sent to Formosa in order to help protect the government of Chiang Kai-shek. Pawley claimed that Dean Acheson rejected the idea after consulting with advisers such as Owen Lattimore, John C. Vincent and John Davis. In February, 1951 Pawley became special assistant to Acheson. Later that year he held a similar post under Robert A. Lovett. However, he discovered that the State Department considered him to be a reactionary and he was denied access to secret documents concerning Latin America. It seems that he was considered a security risk. Both the CIA and FBI were concerned about his attacks on Braden. He was in fact a right-wing supporter of the John Birch Society. Is it possible that Pawley was involved in Operation Bloodstone and was trying to protect Nazi agents in South America.

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Since John Birch in reality worked directly under General Chennault, and therefore was directly and indirectly controlled and directed by William Pawley/aka CAMCO, it is quite understandable in the association as well as probable formation of "The John Birch Society".

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Pawley played a role Operation Success, a CIA plot to overthrow the Guatemalan government of Jacobo Arbenz in 1954 after he introduced land reforms and nationalized the United Fruit Company.

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http://www.jfk-online.com/jpsgatguat.html

"After leaving the FBI offices, BARRIOS and GATLIN met with a Mr. DUNBAR, who occasionally represents the United Fruit Co. in New Orleans. They asked for one million dollars from the United Fruit Co., in support of BARRIOS' intended revolutionary movement in Guatemala, but they were unsuccessful in obtaining any commitment."

I do also seem to recall having posted Mr. Dunbar's address as listed in "THE SOUTHERNER" for 1944, which of course gave the address of the United Fruit Building.

Which of course ultimately leads us directly to LHO, especially since Mr. Dunbar & the Claverie family were both married into the P.G.T. Beauregard descendents.-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John Foster Dulles decided that he “needed a civilian adviser to the State Department team to help expediate Operation Success". Dulles selected William Pawley. In his book Peddling Influence, David McKean argues that Pawley's most important qualification for the job was his “long association with right-wing Latin America dictators.”

Pawley continued to work closely with Fulgencio Batista. In March 1958, Eisenhower, disillusioned with Batista's government, insisted he held elections. This he did, but the people showed their unhappiness with his government by refusing to vote. Over 75 per cent of the voters in the capital Havana boycotted the polls. In some areas, such as Santiago, it was as high as 98 per cent.

Some members of the State Department came to the conclusion that it would be in America's best long-term interest in Cuba to be seen as opposing Batista. William A. Wieland, Director of the Caribbean and Central American Affairs, was against America providing support for the Cuban dictator. As the U.S. Ambassador of Cuba, Earl E. T. Smith was later to tell a Senate Committee: "He (Wieland) believed that it would be in the best interest of Cuba and the best interest of the world in general when Batista was removed from office."

Wieland was not the only one who took that view. According to Pawley and Smith, Roy R. Rubottom, Assistant Secretary of State for Latin American Affairs, John L. Topping, Chief of the Political Section and the Chief of the CIA Section, held similar opinions. Pawley and Smith also identified Herbert L. Matthews of the New York Times as being an important figure in providing support for the idea of regime change in Cuba. Smith pointed out that "Matthews wrote three articles on Fidel Castro, which appeared on the front page of the New York Times, in which he eulogized Fidel Castro and portrayed him as a political Robin Hood."

On 9th December, 1958, Pawley had a meeting with Batista. Pawley told Batista that he was losing the support of the American government. Pawley suggested that the Cuban dictator should resign and allow an anti-Castro and anti-Batista caretaker junta to take over. Batista rejected the idea and on 14th December, William A. Wieland, speaking for the State Department instructed Earl E. T. Smith, to inform Batista that he no longer had the support of the US government and that he should leave Cuba at once. On 1st January, 1959, Batista fled to the Dominican Republic.

Pawley later told a Senate Committee on Latin American Affairs: "I believe that the deliberate overthrow of Batista by Wieland and Matthews, assisted by Rubottom, is almost as great a tragedy as the surrendering of China to the Communists by a similar group of Department of State officials fifteen or sixteen years ago and we will not see the end in cost of American lives and American recourses for these tragic errors."

After Batista was overthrown by Fidel Castro, Pawley pressurized President Dwight Eisenhower to provide military and financial help to anti-Castro Cubans based in the United States. Recently released FBI files suggest he worked closely with Manuel Artime in efforts to overthrow Castro.

In the winter of 1962 Eddie Bayo claimed that two officers in the Red Army based in Cuba wanted to defect to the United States. Bayo added that these men wanted to pass on details about atomic warheads and missiles that were still in Cuba despite the agreement that followed the Cuban Missile Crisis.

Bayo had originally fought with Fidel Castro against Fulgencio Batista. He disagreed with Castro's policies after he gained power and moved to Miami and helped establish Alpha 66. His story was eventually taken up by several members of the anti-Castro community including Gerry P. Hemming, John Martino, Felipe Vidal Santiago and Frank Sturgis. Pawley became convinced that it was vitally important to help get these Soviet officers out of Cuba. To help this happen he communicated with James Eastland, the chairman of the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, about this story.

Pawley also contacted Ted Shackley, head of the CIA's JM WAVE station in Miami. Shackley decided to help Pawley organize what became known as Operation Tilt. He also assigned William (Rip) Robertson, a fellow member of the CIA in Miami, to help with the operation. David Sanchez Morales, another CIA agent, also became involved in this attempt to bring out these two Soviet officers.

In June, 1963, a small group, including Pawley, Eddie Bayo, William (Rip) Robertson, John Martino, and Richard Billings, a journalist working for Life Magazine, secretly arrived in Cuba. They were unsuccessful in their attempts to find these Soviet officers and they were forced to return to Miami. Bayo remained behind and it was rumored that he had been captured and executed. However, his death was never reported in the Cuban press.

William Pawley died of gunshot wounds in January, 1977. Officially it was suicide but some researchers believe it was connected to the investigations being carried out by the House Select Committee on Assassinations.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/JFKpawley.htm

Pawley was also appointed to a government "oversight" committee which investigated the activities of our Intelligence agencies.

As such, he would have also gained tremendous background information relative to exactly who was involved/engaged in what------on both sides of the fence.

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William Pawley's father went to Cuba as a representative for large financial interest out of New York & New Jersey which had established the forerunner of the PX system to military bases, as well as also selling US made goods to the local Cuban & American contigent.

Several years later, the Pawley family moved to Haiti as a result of the USMC intervention there, and thus continued this business as well as re-establishment of the family wealth.

At one time or another, virtually all of the Pawley family (William's brothers) were engaged in economic activities in Haiti and/or the Dominican Republic.

These activities came to include large sugar investments.

I have found evidence of Pawley’s involvement in the transport industry in Cuba. Was he involved in other areas such as sugar, hotels, gambling, etc? Are there any links between Pawley and the Mafia in Cuba.

The correct term is "Real Estate Agent". In that regard appears to be how William D. Pawley became involved with the Curtiss-Wright Aircraft company, as "Curtiss" of Curtiss-Wright joined with James H. Bright in the 1920's in the development of Florida's real estate boom.

It might be the correct term in the U.S. but you have to remember I am writing this in the UK. We use the term estate agent to describe someone who is involved in buying and selling land and buildings.

I am very interested in Pawley's relationship with the Curtiss-Wright Corporation. Tommy Corcoran arranged for Brown & Root and the Betchel-McCone Corporation to make billions from arms contracts during the Second World War. I wonder if Pawley/Corcoran did the same for the Curtiss-Wright Corporation. It definitely did very well from supplying the P-36 fighter aircraft, the P-40 fighter (Tomahawk, Kittyhawk, and Warhawk). Nearly 14,000 were built and sold between 1940 and 1944. They also sold large numbers of the C-46 Commando cargo plane. Overall, the company produced over 29,000 aircraft during the war.

Pawley was also appointed to a government "oversight" committee which investigated the activities of our Intelligence agencies.

As such, he would have also gained tremendous background information relative to exactly who was involved/engaged in what------on both sides of the fence.

Have you got the dates for this?

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William Pawley's father went to Cuba as a representative for large financial interest out of New York & New Jersey which had established the forerunner of the PX system to military bases, as well as also selling US made goods to the local Cuban & American contigent.

Several years later, the Pawley family moved to Haiti as a result of the USMC intervention there, and thus continued this business as well as re-establishment of the family wealth.

At one time or another, virtually all of the Pawley family (William's brothers) were engaged in economic activities in Haiti and/or the Dominican Republic.

These activities came to include large sugar investments.

I have found evidence of Pawley’s involvement in the transport industry in Cuba. Was he involved in other areas such as sugar, hotels, gambling, etc? Are there any links between Pawley and the Mafia in Cuba.

The correct term is "Real Estate Agent". In that regard appears to be how William D. Pawley became involved with the Curtiss-Wright Aircraft company, as "Curtiss" of Curtiss-Wright joined with James H. Bright in the 1920's in the development of Florida's real estate boom.

It might be the correct term in the U.S. but you have to remember I am writing this in the UK. We use the term estate agent to describe someone who is involved in buying and selling land and buildings.

I am very interested in Pawley's relationship with the Curtiss-Wright Corporation. Tommy Corcoran arranged for Brown & Root and the Betchel-McCone Corporation to make billions from arms contracts during the Second World War. I wonder if Pawley/Corcoran did the same for the Curtiss-Wright Corporation. It definitely did very well from supplying the P-36 fighter aircraft, the P-40 fighter (Tomahawk, Kittyhawk, and Warhawk). Nearly 14,000 were built and sold between 1940 and 1944. They also sold large numbers of the C-46 Commando cargo plane. Overall, the company produced over 29,000 aircraft during the war.

Pawley was also appointed to a government "oversight" committee which investigated the activities of our Intelligence agencies.

As such, he would have also gained tremendous background information relative to exactly who was involved/engaged in what------on both sides of the fence.

Have you got the dates for this?

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I have found evidence of Pawley’s involvement in the transport industry in Cuba. Was he involved in other areas such as sugar, hotels, gambling, etc? Are there any links between Pawley and the Mafia in Cuba.

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Pawley's involvement in the Sugar Industry, as well as his "transportation" enterprises in the Cuban Bus Lines; Miami/Dade Transit, and airline industries has been posted.

It would appear that William D. Pawley, not unlike his father, was the "Front Man" for high dollar investment activities of "money" men out of New York and New Jersey.

There is no indication of any involvment in gambling, and/or any other organized crime activities, which would have been "chump change" for the billion dollar sugar and transportation activities in which Pawley was engaged, as well as his large real estate holdings.

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Tommy Corcoran

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Appears to have been the "coordinator" who put together the money men as well as sold the CAMCO/Flying Tigers concept, as well as most probably the India Aircraft Industry as well.

And since the Flying Tigers utilized the P-40, we come full circle from Pawley's Curtiss Wright operations to Cuba in the late 1920's, to the Curtiss Wright aircraft company of the Flying Tigers.

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Have you got the dates for this?

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Will have to dig it out/find it,

Meanwhile, a refresher that you may find of interest!

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A "Family Tree" refresher!

1. William Douglas Pawley-----Married: Annie Hahr Dobbs

2. Annie Hahr Dobbs-----------Daughter of Herbert Clifton Dobbs & Annie Von Schele Hahr

3. Herbert Clifton Dobbs-------Son of David Judson Dobbs & Martha Josephine Prothro

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1. David Judson Dobbs & Martha Josephine Prothro

2. Son: James Monroe Dobbs (brother to Herbert Clifton Dobbs & Uncle to Annie Hahr Dobbs Pawley)

3. Daughter of James Monroe Dobbs: Emma Hahr Dobbs, first cousin of Annie Hahr Dobbs Pawley

4. Emma Hahr Dobbs: Marries Walter Herbert Smith

5. Eugene Hamilton Smith:-------Father to Walter Herbert Smith

6. Father of Eugene Hamilton Smith:-----Dr. Charles Moody Smith

7. Mother of Eugene Hamilton Smith:------Eliza Green Birch

8. Father of Eliza Green Birch:-------John Neville Birch (Sr)

9. Brother of Eliza Green Birch:-----John Neville Birch (II)

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John Neville Birch (II)

1. Son:---George Snider Birch (Sr,), marries Elizabeth Mae Morrison

2. George Snider Birch (II), son of George Snider Birch (Sr.) & Elizabeth Mae Morrison

Marries: Ethel Mae Ellis

3. John Morrison Birch:

Born: 28 May, 1918 in Landaur India

Death: 25 August, 1945 in China

John Morrison Birch, namesake of The John Birch Society, who served with the AVG/Flying Tigers/Clair Chennault/CAMCO in China, was an indirect relative to Annie Hahr Dobbs, wife of William D. Pawley.

That should make your day Mr. Simkin!

Tom

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William Pawley's father went to Cuba as a representative for large financial interest out of New York & New Jersey which had established the forerunner of the PX system to military bases, as well as also selling US made goods to the local Cuban & American contigent.

Several years later, the Pawley family moved to Haiti as a result of the USMC intervention there, and thus continued this business as well as re-establishment of the family wealth.

At one time or another, virtually all of the Pawley family (William's brothers) were engaged in economic activities in Haiti and/or the Dominican Republic.

These activities came to include large sugar investments.

I have found evidence of Pawley’s involvement in the transport industry in Cuba. Was he involved in other areas such as sugar, hotels, gambling, etc? Are there any links between Pawley and the Mafia in Cuba.

The correct term is "Real Estate Agent". In that regard appears to be how William D. Pawley became involved with the Curtiss-Wright Aircraft company, as "Curtiss" of Curtiss-Wright joined with James H. Bright in the 1920's in the development of Florida's real estate boom.

It might be the correct term in the U.S. but you have to remember I am writing this in the UK. We use the term estate agent to describe someone who is involved in buying and selling land and buildings.

I am very interested in Pawley's relationship with the Curtiss-Wright Corporation. Tommy Corcoran arranged for Brown & Root and the Betchel-McCone Corporation to make billions from arms contracts during the Second World War. I wonder if Pawley/Corcoran did the same for the Curtiss-Wright Corporation. It definitely did very well from supplying the P-36 fighter aircraft, the P-40 fighter (Tomahawk, Kittyhawk, and Warhawk). Nearly 14,000 were built and sold between 1940 and 1944. They also sold large numbers of the C-46 Commando cargo plane. Overall, the company produced over 29,000 aircraft during the war.

Pawley was also appointed to a government "oversight" committee which investigated the activities of our Intelligence agencies.

As such, he would have also gained tremendous background information relative to exactly who was involved/engaged in what------on both sides of the fence.

Have you got the dates for this?

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

I have found evidence of Pawley’s involvement in the transport industry in Cuba. Was he involved in other areas such as sugar, hotels, gambling, etc? Are there any links between Pawley and the Mafia in Cuba.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Pawley's involvement in the Sugar Industry, as well as his "transportation" enterprises in the Cuban Bus Lines; Miami/Dade Transit, and airline industries has been posted.

It would appear that William D. Pawley, not unlike his father, was the "Front Man" for high dollar investment activities of "money" men out of New York and New Jersey.

There is no indication of any involvment in gambling, and/or any other organized crime activities, which would have been "chump change" for the billion dollar sugar and transportation activities in which Pawley was engaged, as well as his large real estate holdings.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Tommy Corcoran

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Appears to have been the "coordinator" who put together the money men as well as sold the CAMCO/Flying Tigers concept, as well as most probably the India Aircraft Industry as well.

And since the Flying Tigers utilized the P-40, we come full circle from Pawley's Curtiss Wright operations to Cuba in the late 1920's, to the Curtiss Wright aircraft company of the Flying Tigers.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Have you got the dates for this?

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Will have to dig it out/find it,

Meanwhile, a refresher that you may find of interest!

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Have you got the dates for this?

http://www.eisenhowermemorial.org/presiden...cuments/993.cfm

Document #993; July 26, 1954

To James Harold Doolittle

Re: Panel of Consultants on Covert Activities of the Central Intelligence Agency

Dear General Doolittle:1 I have requested you, and you have agreed, to act as Chairman of a panel of consultants to conduct a study of the covert activities of the Central Intelligence Agency.2 With your concurrence I have invited Messrs. William B. Franke, Morris Hadley, and William Pawley to act with you as members of the panel. Mr. S. Paul Johnston has kindly agreed to serve as Executive Director of the panel.3

It is my desire that the Panel of Consultants should undertake a comprehensive study of the covert activities of the Central Intelligence Agency, in particular those carried out under the terms of NSCID #5 of August 28, 1951, and NSC 5412 of March 15, 1954.4 You will consider the personnel factors, the security, the adequacy, the efficacy and the relative costs of these operations and, as far as possible, equate the cost of the over-all efforts to the results achieved. You will make any recommendations calculated to improve the conduct of these operations. To the extent that agencies of the Government, other than the Central Intelligence Agency, are engaged in covert operations which may parallel, duplicate, or supplement the operations of CIA, you may investigate such other operations conducted by any other department or agency of the Government in order to insure, insofar as practicable, that the field of foreign clandestine operations is adequately covered and that there is no unnecessary duplication of effort or expense.

In view of the particularly sensitive nature of these covert operations, their relation to the conduct of our foreign policy, and the fact that these sensitive operations are carried on pursuant to National Security Council action approved by me, I desire that your report be made to me personally and classified TOP SECRET. I will determine whether or not the report or any part thereof should have any further dissemination. I should appreciate it if your report could be available to me prior to October 1, 1954.

As you know, the Commission on Organization of the Executive Branch of the Government, generally known as the Hoover Commission, is constituting a Task Force to study and make recommendations with respect to the organization and methods of operations of the CIA. General Mark W. Clark has been designated by Mr. Hoover to head this Task Force which, I understand, will probably be organized and start its work sometime in September next.5 Under the law constituting the Hoover Commission, the Task Force shall study and investigate the present organization and methods of operation of the Agency to determine what changes therein are necessary to accomplish the policy of Congress to promote economy, efficiency, and improved service by:

a. recommending methods and procedures for reducing expenditures to the lowest amount consistent with the efficient performance of essential services, activities and functions;

b. eliminating duplication and overlapping of services, activities, and functions;

c. consolidating services, activities, and functions of a similar nature;

d. abolishing services, activities, and functions not necessary to the efficient conduct of Government;

e. eliminating nonessential services, functions, and activities which are competitive with private enterprise;

f. defining responsibilities of officials; and

g. relocating agencies now responsible directly to the President in departments or other agencies.

As the work of the Hoover Task Force will get under way shortly, I suggest that you and General Clark confer in order to avoid any unnecessary duplication of work as between you. The distinction between the work of your Study Group and the Hoover Task Force is this:

You will deal with the covert activities of the CIA as indicated in paragraph (2) above, and your report will be submitted to me. General Clark's Task Force will deal largely with the organization and methods of operation of the CIA and other related agencies within the limits prescribed in the law as outlined in paragraph (4) above. Reports of the Hoover Commission are made to the Congress.

The purpose of these studies, both that of the Hoover Task Force and that of your Group, is to insure that the United States Government develops an appropriate mechanism for carrying out its over-all intelligence responsibilities and the related covert operations. I consider these operations are essential to our national security in these days when international Communism is aggressively pressing its world-wide subversive program.6 Sincerely

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A "Family Tree" refresher!

1. William Douglas Pawley-----Married: Annie Hahr Dobbs

2. Annie Hahr Dobbs-----------Daughter of Herbert Clifton Dobbs & Annie Von Schele Hahr

3. Herbert Clifton Dobbs-------Son of David Judson Dobbs & Martha Josephine Prothro

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1. David Judson Dobbs & Martha Josephine Prothro

2. Son: James Monroe Dobbs (brother to Herbert Clifton Dobbs & Uncle to Annie Hahr Dobbs Pawley)

3. Daughter of James Monroe Dobbs: Emma Hahr Dobbs, first cousin of Annie Hahr Dobbs Pawley

4. Emma Hahr Dobbs: Marries Walter Herbert Smith

5. Eugene Hamilton Smith:-------Father to Walter Herbert Smith

6. Father of Eugene Hamilton Smith:-----Dr. Charles Moody Smith

7. Mother of Eugene Hamilton Smith:------Eliza Green Birch

8. Father of Eliza Green Birch:-------John Neville Birch (Sr)

9. Brother of Eliza Green Birch:-----John Neville Birch (II)

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John Neville Birch (II)

1. Son:---George Snider Birch (Sr,), marries Elizabeth Mae Morrison

2. George Snider Birch (II), son of George Snider Birch (Sr.) & Elizabeth Mae Morrison

Marries: Ethel Mae Ellis

3. John Morrison Birch:

Born: 28 May, 1918 in Landaur India

Death: 25 August, 1945 in China

John Morrison Birch, namesake of The John Birch Society, who served with the AVG/Flying Tigers/Clair Chennault/CAMCO in China, was an indirect relative to Annie Hahr Dobbs, wife of William D. Pawley.

That should make your day Mr. Simkin!

Tom

http://www.who2.com/johnbirch.html

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All roads "lead" somewhere!

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I am very interested in Pawley's relationship with the Curtiss-Wright Corporation. Tommy Corcoran arranged for Brown & Root and the Betchel-McCone Corporation to make billions from arms contracts during the Second World War. I wonder if Pawley/Corcoran did the same for the Curtiss-Wright Corporation.

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In 1927 Corcoran joined the law firm established by William McAdoo. At the time it was run by George Franklin and Joseph Cotton.

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William Gibbs McAdoo (October 31, 1863–February 1, 1941) was a U.S. Senator, United States Secretary of the Treasury and director of the United States Railroad Administration (USRA).

McAdoo's autobiography "Crowded Years" tells of his childhood in Georgia and Tennessee

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From 1897 to 1903 he was a law partner in New York with William McAdoo– no relation!– who had been a congressman from Hudson County NJ up to 1890, Assistant Secretary of the Navy 1893-1897, and would be Police Commissioner in New York in 1905.

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McAdoo was lured away from business after he worked for the Wilson presidential campaign in 1912. President Woodrow Wilson asked him to serve as Secretary of the Treasury from 1913 to 1918. McAdoo was instrumental in forging the legislation that founded the Federal Reserve. He also married Wilson's daughter, Eleanor Randolph Wilson, at the White House on May 7, 1914

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After leaving the Wilson Cabinet, he ran twice for the Democratic nomination for President, losing to James M. Cox in 1920, and to John W. Davis in 1924, even though in both years he led on the first ballot. He served as Senator for California from 1933–1938. He and Eleanor were divorced in 1934.

McAdoo was a "Dry" with respect to Prohibition, and was the favored candidate of the Ku Klux Klan in 1924 when the other front-runner appeared to be the Catholic Al Smith of New York. McAdoo took a payment of $25,000 from oil executive Edward Doheny in connection with the Teapot Dome scandal, but returned it once he discovered Doheny's links with Secretary of the Interior Albert Bacon Fall.

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McADOO, William Gibbs, a Senator from California; born on a farm near Marietta, Cobb County, Ga., October 31, 1863; attended the rural schools and the University of Tennessee at Knoxville; a

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http://educationforum.ipbhost.com/index.ph...=5340&hl=mcadoo

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William Gibbs McAdoo---------------------------Born: Marietta, Cobb County, Georgia

Annie Von Schele Hahr-------------------------

Married: Herbert Clifton Dobbs---------------------- Marietta, Cobb County, Georgia

Daughter: Annie Hahr Dobbs:-----------------Born: Marietta, Cobb County, Georgia

Married: William Douglas Pawley---July 25, 1918* Marietta, Cobb County, Georgia

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-----4. NONA HAZLEHURST McADOO born 08 June 1893 in New York, NY; married 1st FERDINAND de MOHRENSCHILDT a Russian diplomat in May 1917. One child. He died in 1919

("He" being Ferdinand de Mohrenschildt)

The one child being a daughter, Fernanda de Mohrenschildt, 1st Cousin of George De Mohrenschildt.

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Mr. De MOHRENSCHILDT. Well, he was First Secretary of the Czarist Embassy, the last Czarist Embassy here in Washington. He married McAdoo's daughter.

Mr. JENNER. William Gibbs McAdoo's daughter. She is now Mrs. Post.

Is she still alive?

Mr. De MOHRENSCHILDT. Yes; she is still alive.

Mr. JENNER. Do you recall her first name?

Mr. De MOHRENSCHILDT. Nona.

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http://www.cnac.org/allison01.htm

ERNEST M. ALLISON (1894-1976)

"Allie"

(CNAC 1929-193?, 1940 and 1947-1949)

(Captain - 1929)

(Hump Flights - XXX)

September 1937 became an advisor with Gen. Chennault to Commission on Aeronautical Affairs. Directed the work of establishing and maintaining airfields to be used against the invaders, improved plane-to-ground communications of China's small defending air force and set up an air-raid alarm system. Also piloted Commission aircraft, flying high level governmental officials: Chiang Kai-shek, Mme. Chiang, T.V. Soong, H.H. Kung, etc.

December 1937 and January 1938 flight-tested Vultee V-11 bombers for William D. Pawley.

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http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlere...i?artid=1305831

They were full of kids, offspring of people working in the Fort Worth Consolidated Vultee bomber plant making B-24s. There was an influx of people into west Fort Worth when they built that bomber plant.

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http://www.mcall.com/news/specials/bethste...l-bethsteel-nav

The company built American defense plants such as the Chrysler Tank Arsenal near Detroit, which was five city blocks long and two blocks wide, and the almost mile-long Consolidated Vultee bomber plant in Fort Worth, Texas.

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http://educationforum.ipbhost.com/index.ph...opic=4970&st=15

William D. Pawley--- Formed Inter-Continent Aircraft Corporation.

William D. Pawley---President of Intercontinent Aircraft Corporation, formed in Miami, FL in 1945 with headquarters in Rockefeller Plaza, New York City.

Intercontinent (Inter-Continent) Aircraft Corporation was a subsidary of the Consolidated-Vultee Corporation.

The Consolidated-Vultee Corporation was formed in 1943 with the merger of Consolidated Aircraft Corporation and Vultee Aircraft Corporation.

The "commonly" accepted name for the "Consolidated-Vultee" Corporation was

CONVAIR.

Later, the name was changed to General Dynamics.

And of course, serious researchers know exactly where CONVAIR/aka General Dynamics comes into play in the JFK assassination scenario.

Tom

P.S. Don't forget that Robert E. L. Oswald, brother to LHO, also worked for CONVAIR in the 1950's.

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http://historymatters.com/archive/jfk/wc/w...Vol22_0147b.htm

(page 264) and one will find:

"Records of the West Side Bank reveal the following information:"

"On December 3, 1956, an account was opened in the name of Mr. or Mrs. Robert L. Oswald, 4910 West Lancaster, Fort Worth, Texas, with a deposit of $376.13.

At the tilme the account was opened, Robert L. Oswald indicated employment at "Convair

Edited by Thomas H. Purvis
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http://www.cnac.org/allison01.htm

ERNEST M. ALLISON (1894-1976)

"Allie"

(CNAC 1929-193?, 1940 and 1947-1949)

(Captain - 1929)

(Hump Flights - XXX)

September 1937 became an advisor with Gen. Chennault to Commission on Aeronautical Affairs. Directed the work of establishing and maintaining airfields to be used against the invaders, improved plane-to-ground communications of China's small defending air force and set up an air-raid alarm system. Also piloted Commission aircraft, flying high level governmental officials: Chiang Kai-shek, Mme. Chiang, T.V. Soong, H.H. Kung, etc.

December 1937 and January 1938 flight-tested Vultee V-11 bombers for William D. Pawley.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlere...i?artid=1305831

They were full of kids, offspring of people working in the Fort Worth Consolidated Vultee bomber plant making B-24s. There was an influx of people into west Fort Worth when they built that bomber plant.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

http://www.mcall.com/news/specials/bethste...l-bethsteel-nav

The company built American defense plants such as the Chrysler Tank Arsenal near Detroit, which was five city blocks long and two blocks wide, and the almost mile-long Consolidated Vultee bomber plant in Fort Worth, Texas.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

http://educationforum.ipbhost.com/index.ph...opic=4970&st=15

William D. Pawley--- Formed Inter-Continent Aircraft Corporation.

William D. Pawley---President of Intercontinent Aircraft Corporation, formed in Miami, FL in 1945 with headquarters in Rockefeller Plaza, New York City.

Intercontinent (Inter-Continent) Aircraft Corporation was a subsidary of the Consolidated-Vultee Corporation.

The Consolidated-Vultee Corporation was formed in 1943 with the merger of Consolidated Aircraft Corporation and Vultee Aircraft Corporation.

The "commonly" accepted name for the "Consolidated-Vultee" Corporation was

CONVAIR.

Later, the name was changed to General Dynamics.

And of course, serious researchers know exactly where CONVAIR/aka General Dynamics comes into play in the JFK assassination scenario.

Tom

P.S. Don't forget that Robert E. L. Oswald, brother to LHO, also worked for CONVAIR in the 1950's.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

http://historymatters.com/archive/jfk/wc/w...Vol22_0147b.htm

(page 264) and one will find:

"Records of the West Side Bank reveal the following information:"

"On December 3, 1956, an account was opened in the name of Mr. or Mrs. Robert L. Oswald, 4910 West Lancaster, Fort Worth, Texas, with a deposit of $376.13.

At the tilme the account was opened, Robert L. Oswald indicated employment at "Convair

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Name: Howard Harper MARKS

Title: Jr.

Sex: M

Occupation: Fighter Pilot

Birth: 19 APR 1923 in Ft. Worth, Tx.

Death: 15 NOV 1952 in Alaska

Father: Howard Harper MARKS b: 28 JUN 1893 in New Orleans, La.

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http://www.bt-13.org/Unknown_1/unknown_1.html

Howard H. Marks, Jr. Son of Howard Harper Marks, Sr. Grandson of Henry Malvern Marks (named after Civil War battle of Malvern Hill in which Louisiana member of the Marks family was killed), & cousin to Sumter D. Marks of New Orlean, LA.

Three photo's of Howard M. Marks with his Vultee BT (Basic Trainer) aircraft, taken at Majors Field in Greenville, TX in 1943

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Howard H. Marks, Jr's Aunt:

Name: Mabel Lillian MARKS

Sex: F

Birth: 18 FEB 1901 in New Orleans, La.

Death: 31 OCT 1986 in Dallas, Tx

Burial: DALLAS, TX.

Father: Henry Malvern MARKS b: 04 AUG 1865 in New Orleans, La.

Mother: Carrie Agatha RICE b: 26 FEB 1863 in New Orleans, La.

Marriage 1 Louis Roy VAN LANDINGHAM b: 17 JUL 1899 in Lone Oak, Hunt County, Tx.

Married: 17 FEB 1920 in Ft. Worth, Texas

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William D. Pawley---President of Intercontinent Aircraft Corporation, formed in Miami, FL in 1945 with headquarters in Rockefeller Plaza, New York City.

Intercontinent (Inter-Continent) Aircraft Corporation was a subsidary of the Consolidated-Vultee Corporation.

The Consolidated-Vultee Corporation was formed in 1943 with the merger of Consolidated Aircraft Corporation and Vultee Aircraft Corporation.

The "commonly" accepted name for the "Consolidated-Vultee" Corporation was

CONVAIR.

Later, the name was changed to General Dynamics.

And of course, serious researchers know exactly where CONVAIR/aka General Dynamics comes into play in the JFK assassination scenario.

Fascinating. Was Pawley still linked to General Dynamics in 1963? Who was head of General Dynamics in 1963? Do you know if Tommy Corcoran worked for General Dynamics as a lobbyist?

For those members who don't know, Fred Korth, Secretary of the Navy, was forced to resign on 1st November, 1963, because of his relationship with General Dynamics. Korth had been given this position by JFK after lobbying by LBJ. Don Reynolds testified in secret to the Senate Rules Committee that LBJ had received money via Bobby Baker for helping General Dynamics to get the TFX contract.

In the 1960s a book was written about the TFX scandal. Does anyone know what it was called?

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http://www.ajweberman.com/nodules2/nodulec12.htm

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5. Pawley's PW Efforts: Pawley is not in agreement with the Administration of President Kennedy on matters effecting the U.S. position relative to Cuba and the Caribbean. As a result, Pawley occasionally engages in propaganda activities of his own which are designed to bring the Cuban issue and Pawley's disagreement with President Kennedy's Administration to the attention of the U.S. public. [CIA 18460]

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WILLIAM PAWLEY

Millionaire William Pawley (SF 078 435) was part of OPERATION Red Cross. Pawley was born in Florence, South Carolina, in 1896. From 1928 to 1943 he was president of the National Aviation Company of Havana, which he later sold to Pan American Airlines. He became President of the China National Aviation Corporation in 1933, and in 1934 organized, and became President of the Central Aircraft Manufacturing Company, which pioneered in the field of aircraft construction in China. In 1940 he organized, recruited and maintained the American Volunteer Group (Flying Tigers) for the Chinese Air Force. The Flying Tigers were a volunteer group of American pilots who fought for General Chiang Kai-shek before becoming part of the regular U.S. Army. HEMMING called the Flying Tigers "America's first clandestine endeavor. They were only recently given veterans status. They were considered mercenaries." After the war, Pawley purchased the Havana Bus System. William Pawley was appointed Ambassador to Peru (1945) and Ambassador to Brazil (1946), then served as Special Assistant to the Secretary of State. In 1951 he became the Special Representative of the Secretary of Defense. He was an outside advisor to the State Department during the planning of PB SUCCESS. In May 1954 the FBI investigated William Pawley. The CIA asked the FBI to send the White House copies of its investigation because William Pawley was part of the Doolittle Committee. Sheffield Edwards, Director of Security, generated this report on July 13, 1954:

1. Forwarded herewith are the Security Office files concerning the captioned individual.

2. In January 1952, the Subject (deleted) information to be given information classified up to and including Secret provided discretion were exercised in his development as a source. At that time National Agency name checks were conducted which disclosed no unfavorable information regarding the Subject's loyalty, although some allegations were disclosed regarding his honesty. The Subject's investigative file at the State Department was not available for review at that time.

3. In July 1952 (deleted) which request was then canceled on December 30, 1952. At that time the Subject's State Department Security File was made available and contained derogatory information alleging black market activities, income tax difficulties, possible misuse of lend lease material, and questionable money transactions. It was also shown the Subject's wife had written the President of the United States questioning the legality of Subject's Cuban divorce from her, after which he married his secretary.

4. In March 1953, the Subject's Treasury Department file was reviewed and reflected the Subject was investigated for income tax evasion for the years 1934 to 1944 and found to have been a non-resident citizen during that period and not guilty of tax evasion. The Secret Service had conducted an investigation of Subject's first wife, following her letter of complaint to the President, and found her sane, although suffering from severe mental strain. Considerable derogatory information was contained in this file relative to Subject's business reputation and ethics." [CIA Sheffield Edward to D/CI 7.13.54]

On December 9, 1958, William Pawley went to Cuba as Washington's secret emissary, in an unsuccessful attempt to persuade Batista to establish a junta, relinquish his power, and leave Cuba altogether. This would have forced Fidel Castro into the political arena as a Presidential candidate. William Pawley became the unofficial spokesman for the old-line Cuban conservatives. He had the ear of Vice President NIXON, and spoke often with Allen Dulles. In October 1959, with his consent, the CIA installed a recording device in William Pawley's Miami office due to his connection with the Director of GOLIATH:

"Headquarters Field Office is requested to dispatch an agent to Miami, Florida, so as to arrive during the afternoon or early evening of October 6, 1959, for the purpose (deleted) in certain matters of interest to GOLIATH. Upon the arrival of your agent at Miami, he should contact Mr. (Deleted) a staff employee of GOLIATH who shares (deleted) will make all the necessary arrangements for your representative to gain access to Subject's office over the weekend of October 16, 1959 to October 18, 1959. It should be noted that this is being done with the full consent and approval of the Subject. The necessary equipment to be used in this assignment will be made available to your representative. On October 14, 1959, Pawley was granted a POA. In 1960 Allen Dulles and General Robert E. Cushman, Jr., NIXON'S Executive Assistant for National Security Affairs, met with William Pawley in Miami. They discussed a scheme to print up Cuban bonds to jar the Castro economy. [Wyden Bay Of Pigs p29] HUNT wrote that William Pawley and CIA Western Hemisphere Chief J.C. King spent long hours talking with Cuban exiles who, because of their ties to Batista, were out of favor with the Kennedy Administration. HUNT described them as Cubans who were "dead but did not know it." [HUNT Day p29] On November 18, 1960, the CIA reported: "For (deleted CIA component) [CI] You should be aware and somewhat interested in the fact that Pawley has established a new (and according to him productive) channel to President Elect Kennedy through George Smathers. According to Pawley, Smathers conversations with Kennedy have led now to take the position that he should not go along with the DOS and have the dictator step down. It appears that Mr. Kennedy may take a considerably more conservative position than many people in the Department and 'fun house.'"

William Pawley was a supporter of the Cuban Revolutionary Front. During his HUNT v. WEBERMAN deposition, BARKER stated: "Pawley was involved with the Cuban Revolutionary Front. Indirectly, William Pawley, at that time, helped Cubans. He was very active in the beginning, remembering as a matter of fact, the people who later came in, they were people he had organized."

OPERATION RED CROSS

In 1964 MARTINO told the FBI that during the Spring and Summer of 1963 he "personally led a mission which infiltrated Cuba and returned to Florida...he said the purpose of the mission was to bring Russians out..." Robert K. Brown asserted a group of anti-Castro Cubans and Americans planned to spirit two Soviet colonels out of Cuba, to testify that Soviet offensive missiles were still on Cuban soil. Robert K. Brown wrote about this operation in Soldier-of-Fortune magazine: "Five months before he was shot to death in Dallas, a group of conspirators attempted to destroy John F. Kennedy by political means. The group, which included officials of Time Inc., William Pawley, disgruntled CIA agents and anti-Castro Cubans, proposed to spirit two Russian colonels out of Cuba to testify that Soviet ballistic missiles were still based on Cuban soil. Their testimony, if true and if it could be proved, would have meant the end of John Kennedy's political career, for it would have shown that the Cuban Missile Crisis had ended, not in a qualified U.S. victory, but in a monumental bungle eclipsing the Bay of Pigs disaster." The leader of Operation Red Cross was "Colonel Alberto Bayo." The Soldier-of-Fortune article continued: "HEMMING first met "Colonel Alberto Bayo" (Eduardo Perez Gonzalez) in early 1960. He and Howard Kenneth Davis introduced Bayo to Johnny Abbes who had lost his lucrative job upon Trujillo's death, and was plotting with a group of Haitian exiles to put together one of their periodic attempts to overthrow Duvalier. Realizing that the Haitians involved were short on military training, not to mention combat experience, Abbes was looking for some kind of commando group to bolster the eager but amateur Haitians. Bayo met with Abbes several times and Abbes was impressed. HEMMING related: 'In fact the two of them signed a formal agreement in Abbes living room that stated in return for helping overthrow Duvalier, the new Haitian regime would grant the Cubans bases from which they could operate against Castro.'"

HEMMING named JOHN MARTINO, William Pawley, Joe Garman, FRANK STURGIS, Jerry Buchanan and Howard K. Davis as plotters. After MARTINO'S death in the late 1970's, Gaeton Fonzi found the telephone number of Howard K. Davis in his address book. Howard K. Davis was asked about this: "JOHN MARTINO and I got to be pretty good friends. The CIA tried to recruit him. He told them to stuff it, he wouldn't have anything to do with them because he didn't trust...Maybe he didn't have confidence in the people he was in touch with in Cuba." Fonzi also found a letter from Robert K. Brown addressed to MARTINO. In The Fish Is Red, Warren Hinckle and William Turner reported that Howard K. Davis contacted New York financier Theodore Racoosin, who was well connected with the White House. A week later Rascoosin came to Miami and told Davis there was a high level interest in bringing out the Russian defectors. A week later Rascoosin called Davis and informed him that his contacts in Washington could not locate any reports about Russian defectors in Cuba. Hinckle and Turner reported that Howard K. Davis organized meetings to effectuate this operation in the offices of Bill Boggs, the editor of the Miami News. They reported that Rascoosin was there, as was Hal Hendrix, Jay Mallin and a cross section of Cuban leaders. Marita Lorenz testified that STURGIS and MARTINO were good friends; when STURGIS was questioned about MARTINO, he said: "I met him."

MARTINO had Nathaniel Weyl contact Senate Internal Security Subcommittee investigator James Sourwine. James Sourwine contacted William Pawley, who contacted MARTINO. On May 22, 1963, William Pawley discussed the legality of OPERATION CRYPT with the JMWAVE Station Chief, Ted Shackley:

2. Pawley stated that he had been approached on April 16, 1963, by Mr. Jay Sourwine of the Senate Internal Security Committee, who had asked that Pawley participate in an operation which was designed to bring several Soviet military defectors into the United States. Mr. Sourwine indicated that the main reason behind his involvement in this operation was his desire to obtain the testimony of the Soviets before the Senate Internal Security Committee as soon after their arrival in the United States as possible. In view of this objective, Mr. Sourwine was prepared to give Pawley several blank subpoenas from the Senate Internal Security Committee, which could be filled out by Pawley and served on the defectors as soon as they came within the United States three mile limit. Pawley claims that he told Mr. Sourwine that he would be interested in helping in the defection operation, as he thought that the surfacing of Soviet military defectors from Cuba in the United States before an open public forum would contribute to the national security of the United States. Armed with this commitment from Pawley, Mr. Sourwine indicated that he would arrange for the author, Nathaniel Weyl, to visit Pawley within the next few days in order to discuss the operation in detail. Mr. Weyl subsequently contacted Pawley on April 17, 1963, and stated that he and his unidentified associates had an opportunity to bring four Soviet military defectors to the United States. Mr. Weyl described the Soviet defectors as being a captain and three lieutenants from a Soviet SAM site. It was Mr. Weyl's contention that these Soviets had pictures of underground missile storage sites in Cuba. Pawley indicated that he would be glad to participate in this operation and would put the full facilities of his organization at the disposal of the operation. Armed with this response, Mr. Weyl suggested that Pawley contact JOHN MARTINO of Alton Road, Florida, for further details of the operation. At this point Pawley stated that he was becoming quickly immersed in a complex operation. As a result Pawley decided to call COS in order to discuss the operation with a CIA representative. Pawley then asked COS's advice as to how the Soviet defectors could be brought into the United States and turned over to the Senate Internal Security Committee...The point was made that...facilitating the 'black' entry of aliens into the United States would put Pawley in violation of existing U.S. laws. COS ventured the opinion that Pawley could not obtain immunity from prosecution for the violation of these laws through any intercession on the part of the Senate Internal Security Committee. At this point Pawley stated it was obvious that his only course of action was to cooperate fully with the COS as CIA's official representative.

3. Once Pawley reached the decision that he had no alternative except to cooperate with the CIA he asked if COS could make a commitment to the effect that once the Soviets were brought into the U.S. they would be turned over to the Internal Security Committee within 36 hours. COS stated he was not in a position to make this kind of commitment on CIA's behalf. Pawley the suggested that he call Mr. Sourwine and indicate that while Pawley was prepared to participate in the operation he had ascertained that the only way to legally bring the defectors into the United States under secure conditions was to cooperate with the CIA. Pawley then indicated that if Mr. Sourwine would agree to cooperate with the CIA then Pawley would continue to pursue the operation. If Mr. Sourwine would not agree to cooperate with the CIA Pawley would withdraw from the venture.

4. After obtaining Mr. Sourwine's permission to cooperate with the CIA, Pawley asked how he should proceed with the implementation of the operation. COS suggested that the best way of handling the operation would be for COS to outline the information currently at hand to his Headquarters. Once this was done Pawley would probably be well-advised to personally contact officer or D/DCI in order to obtain firm commitments relative to the period of time which would elapse between the Soviets entry into the U.S. and their referral to the Internal Security Committee. Pawley thought this over for several minutes and then stated that he would prefer to contact D/CI directly and not have any record of this transaction in normal CIA cable channels.

5. Once it was clear that Pawley could not reach D/DCI by telephone, COS attempted to press for additional details relative to the defection operation. In this connection, COS asked what Pawley knew about JOHN MARTINO. Pawley stated that he knew nothing about him but was under the impression that MARTINO was in some way involved in acting as the middleman between the Cuban underground in Cuba and Weyl, who was the U.S. frontman for the transaction. COS then suggested that Pawley contact MARTINO and obtain all of the available information on the operation from MARTINO. In this connection COS stated that MARTINO was known to the CIA and that available information indicated that MARTINO had spent some time in Cuban prisons and could at best be described as an unsavory character. In this same context COS pointed out that MARTINO had previously claimed to have leads, but none of these had ever been substantiated once they were put to the test of producing results. Pawley then agreed to contact MARTINO.

6. On April 18, 1963, Pawley contacted COS by telephone and stated that he had just finished a meeting with MARTINO. Pawley stated that he was impressed with COS's accurate characterization of MARTINO, i.e. he was an unsavory lowlife. Pawley then went on to say that as things now stood MARTINO claimed that the three Soviets could be delivered to a point three miles off Mangrove Key, which was located north of Grand Bahama. MARTINO indicated that the four Soviets had been AWOL for some time and they were currently in hiding in Oriente Province. MARTINO stated that two men from the Cuban underground would bring the defectors to the Mangrove Key area. MARTINO indicated that he had a secure means of communications with Cuba, but he would not identify this system. MARTINO did claim that it would take about a week or ten days for the exfiltration to be competed.

9. In a telephone conversation with COS on April 19, 1963, Pawley stated he had received a telephone call from Mr. Weyl. In this conversation Pawley advised Mr. Weyl of Pawley's discussions with Sourwine and the D/DCI. Initially, this infuriated Mr. Weyl as he claimed that he did not want to cooperate with CIA and, as this was his operation, he was incensed that Sourwine had made a decision on this operation without consulting Weyl. After discussing the relative merits of the case for some time, Pawley claims he convinced Weyl the operation was now on a sound footing and there was no alternative but to cooperate with the CIA. Weyl apparently ultimately accepted this position and promised to keep Pawley informed on all developments in the operation. Pawley in return, advised COS that he would keep COA informed on all developments. (Deleted) Chief of Station. Ted Shackley

MARTINO was unable to supply the names of the defectors, nor had the CIA received reports of desertions by Soviets within Cuba. In 1976 William Pawley recalled his role in OPERATION RED CROSS: "Through the CIA, I arranged to bring my boat to Sunset Island without having to go through Customs or Immigration should we be successful in bringing out the defectors...CIA could not do anything directly. They did supply three good men, an armaments expert, a navigator and a radio operator. I was in constant touch with the Miami CIA office. In June 1963, at about 6:00 p.m., the team took off on a flying boat I had chartered, to a tiny uninhabited island that was a rendezvous point with my yacht, The Flying Tiger, which dropped them off ten miles off the coast of Cuba where they boarded a smaller CIA-supplied landing craft and headed for the 'sugar cane curtain.'" The CIA reported: "Pawley's 65 foot yacht Flying Tiger will depart Miami at 6:00 p.m. on June 5, 1963. Aboard yacht will be Pawley's Captain Luis Paez Guerra who Cuban national but long time trusted employee. CIA will have (Staff Employee) alias (deleted) and (Staff Employee) alias (deleted) on board Pawley yacht. This yacht due to arrive Hogsty reef 6:00 a.m. on June 8, 1963. Yacht will anchor reef area.

"CIA vessel Leda [a heavily armed 140 foot minesweeper] with intermediate craft aboard which furnished by Perez will arrive Hogsty reef 4:00 a.m. on June 8, 1963. Cuban craft which 21 foot Chris Craft will be anchored one quarter mile east northwest cay light Hogsty reef. Craft will be loaded with arms and exfil/infil equipment, water, etc. Cubans will not know Leda carried their craft Hogsty reef but will believe it towed there by Pawley yacht. Once craft anchored Leda withdraws and surveils Hogsty reef with radar to insure no other vessel picks up craft. Leda will radar watch Pawley yacht come into Hogsty reef at 6:00 a.m. Thus as of 6:00 a.m. June 8, 1963, Pawley yacht and Cuban craft will be Hogsty reef.

"CIA PBY, under dry lease to Pawley, will arrive Hogsty Reef at 6:30 a.m. June 8, 1963 and land in protected area. PBY will contain Pawley, MARTINO, Spencer from Life, Staff Employee alias (Deleted) Staff Employee alias (Deleted) and eight Cubans. Party will be transferred by RB-12 from PBY to Pawley yacht. Entire party will board Pawley yacht, take Cuban craft in tow, and head for launch point. PBY leaves area. Pawley yacht, surveilled by Leda Radar at ten mile distance, goes from reef to launch point which 20 miles off Cuba in commercial sea lanes. Here Cubans loaded into their craft. Once they in the craft they pass ammo in boxes and while being covered by arms on Pawley yacht Cubans are then cut loose at 10:00 p.m. June 8, 1963, for trip to Cuba...While above is skeleton presentation will assure headquarters all known safe guards have been taken minimize possibilities any type flap, compromise, hijacking etc. CIA involvement, while extensive, is not visible per se and fits into pattern those assets which Pawley able to acquire due his wealth, and or contacts. Pawley has played tough game with Cubans and indicated that while he desires to help, he will not risk his life, the lives of his employees, or loss of his property."

The men of OPERATION RED CROSS were never heard from again. The CIA attempted to find out what had happened to them by questioning their wives. The CIA reported: "On September 21, 1963, JOHN MARTINO contacted Staff Employee in order to report that MARTINO had received a letter from a Victor Garcia who was employed at Cuba. The Garcia letter was dated August 28, 1963, and it stated that Eduarda Perez, aka Bayo, and his men had recently caused the death of a number of militiamen and some Russian officers in a fire-fight which took place at Mayari in Oriente Province. (Field Comment: JMWAVE has no information which would confirm such a firefight). According to the Garcia letter, Perez lost two men in this firefight... After the action, Perez retreated to the Moa area of Oriente. The Garcia letter also stated that Perez was awaiting reinforcements and he expected that these reinforcements would be brought to him in Cuba by Angel Luis Castillo Cabrera. MARTINO asked employee if his organization would infiltrate Castillo and his men if MARTINO determined they were ready to go to Cuba to help Perez. Employee told MARTINO that he doubted he could obtain any help for the infiltration of additional people into Cuba. MARTINO then stated that Victor Garcia had originally written his letter to one Andre Venegas, who was residing in Miami. This Venegas wanted to infiltrate into Cuba, and he passed the letter to Castillo who passed the letter to MARTINO. Once MARTINO determined that the employee was not interested in facilitating the infiltration or additional men into Cuba to aid Perez, MARTINO broke off the conversation with employee. The information obtained from MARTINO, though not hard intelligence, does indicate that if a letter from Garcia to Venegas is bona fide, and not a fabrication prepared by MARTINO, then there was an indication the Perez was still alive and active in Cuba as of August 23, 1963...Traces: Angel Luis Castillo Cabrera, ACSI Source #670, DPOB October 2, 1924, Santiago de Cuba, Oriente Provence. Under Angel Luis Castillo (Deleted) September 27, 1961; (Deleted) 5807, September 18, 1962; WAVE-2592 September 18, 1962; Agent Report September 9, 1961, states Subject ex-Rebel Army Lieutenant. Witting informant of Agent. Report, December 19, 1962, states Subject fought clandestinely in Santiago de Cuba during Batista regime, joined 26th of July Movement, advanced and was a lieutenant under order of Com. Hubert Matos. Has been on Cuba since 1961. Has left and entered Cuba several times. Has complete confidence of Agent RED CROSS Report AA-1402, February 1, 1963, states he among first leaders of Cuban National Junta. Has been in Miami since January 15, 1963. RED CROSS report DD-368, August 26, 1963, states that according to Mr. Venegas, Subject was the person who put Perez (head of the group of Cuban exiles who left Miami for Cuba on a clandestine operation) in contact with JOHN MARTINO, the man who helped them. When Subject was a rebel officer in Cuba, he gave very good treatment to MARTINO when the latter was in prison. Subject disappeared from Miami and Venegas claims that he had gone to Cuba through the same via as Perez and his men.

"Andres Venegas, JMWAVE Personality File, A 12 143 273, DPOB December 25, 1923, Cuba, Occupation: Mechanic. Subject was stowaway on SS Transcaribbean from Cuba to Charleston, South Carolina. Supplied information regarding Communists worked at Cuba. Agent Memo May 3, 1962, recommended Subject for infiltration in region of Montanosa of Oriente Province.[CIA FOIA 18458, 18456, 18462, 18355, 18348]

The CIA could not verify any of MARTINO'S information and concluded the Soviet defector story was a fake: "Comment: A review of the information above leads to the conclusion that in the period June 1963 to January 1964, JMWAVE has not obtained any hard information on the current status of those individuals who infiltrated into Cuba on Operation RED CROSS. This review does reveal, however, that the circumstantial evidence does indicate that these infiltrees are still operating in Oriente in the Sagua de Tanamo area. This conclusion is based primary on the fact that none of the infiltrees have returned to Miami and we have not received any information from any reporting sources which would indicate that the infiltrees have been captured, killed or imprisoned. As a result of this negative reporting, JMWAVE can only conclude that the analysis which was previously reported in Reference A was correct i.e. the individuals who participated in Operation RED CROSS did not have any Soviet contacts but they developed a story about notional Soviet contacts in order to develop an operational proposal which was designed to obtain for them transportation, arms and infiltration into Cuba via the good offices of Pawley." [CIA FOIA 18462 To Chief, Special Affairs Staff, from COS JMWAVE] Robert K. Brown told this researcher: "This might have just been ploy to get the CIA to transport MARTINO to Cuba so he could do his own Rambo type operation."

On July 25, 1963, the CIA reported on Pawley's activities with JMWAVE.

1. As a result of the initial meeting between Pawley and COS [Ted Shackely] a relationship has developed in which Pawley as a well-informed businessman with excellent connections in the Miami community has been used as a special contact for the development of certain background data, operational intelligence, and the conduct of operational support tasks. In the period August 28, 1962 to July 25, 1963, Pawley has shown himself to be a discreet loyal American who is interested in helping his country solve those problems which it faces in the Western Hemisphere...

2. Operational Support. On occasion, it has been possible to use Pawley's background knowledge on Cuba as a reference point for the acquisition of operational intelligence and or/personality assessments. In addition, Pawley has, in some instances, been used to carry out operational support tasks for JMWAVE. These tasks are recorded in the comments which follow:

c. Crypt Cargo. After the Crypt corporation was established and in the initial period when JMWAVE was attempting to build a solid (deleted) cover for the Crypt Pawley was instrumental in obtaining (deleted) cargo for the Crypt (deleted) METHODS. (deleted)

3. OPERATION RED CROSS: On April 18, 1963, Pawley started a series of discussions with COS which ultimately led to the mounting of Operation RED CROSS. This operation is described in detail in WAVE 9342, dated June 5, 1963. In summary, this operation involved the infiltration into the Northern Coast of Oriente of ten Cuban exiles who claimed that they could go into Cuba and exfiltrate four Soviet Officers who were knowledgeable of Soviet missile activities in Oriente. This operation involved an odd assortment of bedfellows, such as Mr. Jay Sourwine of the Senate Internal Security Committee, Nathaniel Weyl, author, JOHN MARTINO, small time gangster, Life Magazine and Pawley. Operation RED CROSS was launched on June 9, 1963, with a large amount of assistance from JMWAVE. The infiltrees did not return from the infiltration operation as scheduled on June 10, 1963, June 11, 1963, or June 12, 1963. Subsequent developments revealed that the ten-man team which was infiltrated was part of the invasion force which the rump Cuban Revolutionary Council announced on June 20, 1963 that they had infiltrated into Cuba. It would appear, in retrospect, that the ten Cubans who went into Cuba on Operation RED CROSS did not have any Soviet contacts, but they dreamed those contacts up in order to find an angel who would facilitate their infiltration into Cuba. Their plan worked and they did find an angel i.e. Pawley, Life Magazine, Sourwine and a firm helping hand from the CIA. Despite this, Operation RED CROSS has to be viewed as a long shot target of opportunity which neither JMWAVE nor the CIA could refuse to pursue because, had their been an exfiltration of four Soviets, we would have had a veritable gold mine of current intelligence on Cuba. JMWAVE's analysis of Operation RED CROSS is contained in WAVE 0438, dated June 28, 1963.

5. Pawley's PW Efforts: Pawley is not in agreement with the Administration of President Kennedy on matters effecting the U.S. position relative to Cuba and the Caribbean. As a result, Pawley occasionally engages in propaganda activities of his own which are designed to bring the Cuban issue and Pawley's disagreement with President Kennedy's Administration to the attention of the U.S. public. [CIA 18460]

ANALYSIS

MARTINO made up the story about the Russian Generals who wanted to defect and told the story to Nathaniel Weyl. Weyl told the story to CIA informant Hede Massing and Massing told the CIA, which passed her report to the FBI. This gave the story a degree of authenticity within the government.

MARTINO had Weyl contact Sourwine with the story. Weyl contacted Sourwine and told him that MARTINO was the source of this story. Sourwine contacted Pawley and referred him to MARTINO. Pawley contacted Ted Shackley of the CIA.

Operation RED CROSS was a plan to get the CIA to infiltrate a commando team into Cuba despite the reluctance of the Kennedy Administration to have the CIA violate the territorial integrity of Cuba.

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There can be little doubt that many of the answers are to be found within the Weberman "nodules".

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3. Colonel King was then asked to describe Agency activities on the Cuban problem prior to the establishment of the Task Force, i.e., Branch 4 of the Western Hemisphere Division on 18 January 1960. In his remarks Colonel King stated that in late 1958 CIA made two attempts (each approved by the Department of State) to block Castro's ascension to power. The first attempt was made in November 1958 when contact was established with Justo Carrillo and the Montecristi Group. The second attempt was made on or about the 9th of December 1958 when former Ambassador William D. Pawley, supported by the CIA Chief of Station in Havana, [less than 1 line of source text not declassified] and Colonel King, approached Batista and proposed the establishment of a Junta to whom Batista would turn over the reins of government.

From here, one can move either forward or backward!

From records released by the FBI:

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"Mr. Pawley is reported to have had considerable bauxite holdings in the Dominican Republic, and may still have them.

Mr. Pawley's brother, Ed, is a big sugar man there, who "praises Trujullo.

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"Pawley expressed belief that Betancourt, President of Venezuela, is one of the most dangerous men in this hemisphere and predicted that what is happening in Cuba today is going to happen in Venezuela in three years unless something very drastic is done in the United States (apparently referring to change in State Department policy).

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Mr. Donovan: Yes. I would say that he was particularly interested in Latin America. He, for instance, was relatively familar with the Betancourt family, which is a prominent North, South American and Central American family, and their regime as a family.

WC Testimony of Cpt. Donovan, former MC Detachment Commander of LHO.

\

Oswald Emily Constance William Margaret Bethancourt F W 03/18/1884 84 116 Oswald Sidney Augustine William Margaret Bethancourt M W 04/28/1886 84 117 Oswald Aline Amelia William Margaret Bethancourt F W 01/24/1888 101 908 Oswald James Alvin William Margaret Bethancourt M W 07/12/1891 101 908 Oswald Irma Eulalie William Margaret Bethancourt F W 01/12/1894 101 909 Oswald William Sprague William Margaret Payekeu M W 01/14/1889 87 392 Oswald Charles William Margareth Beth M - 09/10/1873 60.5 1397 Oswald William Peter William Margaretha Betencourt M - 11/06/1871 60.5 541 Oswald Azelia Magdalain William Margaretta Bethancourt F - 10/05/1875 67 833 Oswald Lee William Mary Harvey M W 03/04/1896 127 260 Oswald Clara Elba William Rita Bethancourt F W 01/02/1880 75 236 Oswald Mary Edna William Rita Bethancourt F W 12/24/1878 73 876 Oswald Emma Valentine William Rita Bethancourt

Betancourt, Carlos: 23 February 1963, executed by firing squad, Santa Clara, LV. Freedom fighter. Of the Farmer-Peasant Guerrillas..

Betancourt Chacón, Gilberto: 19 April 1961, executed by firing squad, Pinar del Río, PR. Exile, executed by firing squad en grupo. Ver data executed by firing squads en Menú #1 CS.

Betancourt, Eduardo: January 1992, Disappeared in the sea, Florida Strait, Rafter.

Betancourt, Ramón: 1962, executed by firing squad, Matanzas, MA:

Betancourt, Zenén: 13 August 1963, executed by firing squad, Manacas, Las Villas, LV.

Betancourt, Facundo: 31 March 1959, Murdered, Isle of Pines, Havana, LH, Murdered in prison:

Betancourt Cueto, Angel María: April,1966, Murdered, by State Security Police, Havana, LH. He was flight engineer. He treated to kidnap an airplane. Case priest Miguel Loredo condemned to prison to serve as middleman so that he surrendered, and they accused the priest of concealing.

Betancourt, René A: 1 March 1959, executed by firing squad, Artemisa, PR.

Betancourt Osorio, Ramón: 12 August 1959, Dead in action, Airport of Trinidad, Trinidad, LV. He went in the airplane. Case: invasion from Dominican Republic.

Betancourt Pérez, July: 13 September 1989, Murdered, Holguín, OR.

Betancourt, Edelmiro: August 1961, executed by firing squad, Matanzas, LV.

Betancourt, Mario Julio: 1959, executed by firing squad, Sagua la Grande, LV.

Betancourt, Maurilio: 5 January 1959, executed by firing squad, Los Palacios, PR:

Betancourt, José: January 1964, Disappeared in the sea, Florida Strait:

Betancourt Ochoa, José: 13 June 1980, Murdered, Boniato, Santiago de Cuba, OR.

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http://www.cnac.org/keys01.htm

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Store for later reference: helped organize Peruvian International Airways, which began operating in South America in 1947

Edward D. Pawley: U.S. Ambassador to Peru, 1945-46;

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/JFKpawley.htm

After the war Pawley became a diplomat. In 1945 Harry S. Truman appointed Pawley as U.S. Ambassador to Peru. Soon afterwards left-wing newspapers in Lima began to claim that Pawley was making "lucrative deals" for himself in Peru. This involved transporting unspecified goods in and out of Peru.

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http://www.cnac.org/pawley01.htm

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http://www.cnac.org/arthuryoung01.htm

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http://www.cnac.org/bond01.htm

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http://www.cnac.org/allison01.htm

December 1937 and January 1938 flight-tested Vultee V-11 bombers for William D. Pawley.

1939 conferred with U.S. State Department: Currie, Gen. Magruder re: peril to China.

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http://www.exploresaikung.com/people/Roosevelt.html

A fiery air crash, in which all 28 passengers and 7 crew were killed, put Sai Kung's Basalt Island in the news on both sides of the Pacific in 1948. Quentin Roosevelt, the grandson of American president Theodore Roosevelt, and vice-president of China National Aviation Corp. (CNAC), an affiliate of Pan American World Airways, was one of the passengers on that fateful flight from Shanghai.

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http://www.cnac.org/roosevelt01.htm

QUENTIN ROOSEVELT (1918-1948)

(CNAC 1948 - 1948)

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