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Agrarian Reform


John Dolva
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(topical bump) with the Alliance for Progress in mind

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Agrarian Reform

Following the Civil War, the Radical Republicans attempted to put a land reform through Congress, promising "forty acres and a mule" to newly-freed blacks in the South, which was ultimately rejected by moderate elements as "socialistic". This failure left blacks without an economic base, and was one of the key contributing factors to the development of sharecropping* and segregation.

*sharecropping can be seen as creating the economic relationships where Emmett Till was murdered sparking the Civil Rights struggles of the 50's. His murderers were dependent on the sharecropping system for their income, and the 'uppity' northener Emmett threatens their livelyhood.

1959 Cuban revolution

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Land_reform#Latin_America

Land reform was among the chief planks of the revolutionary platform of 1959. Almost all large holdings were seized by the National Institute for Agrarian Reform (INRA), which dealt with all areas of agricultural policy. A ceiling of 166 acres (67 hectares) was established, and tenants were given full ownership rights.

1961 The FSLN was founded by José Carlos Fonseca Amador, Silvio Mayorga, Tomás Borge Martínez and others as The National Liberation Front (FLN). The term "Sandinista" was added two years later, by establishing continuity with Sandino’s movement.

1962 Migration of Cuban dispossessed to other Latin American countries, including Costa Rica mentioned by Fidel Castro.

José Carlos Fonseca Amador was in Cuba during the October 1962 “missile” crisis

1967 Che murdered

1969 the jailed Sandinista leader José Carlos Fonseca Amador rescued from his prison in Costa Rica. José Carlos Fonseca Amador was re-captured shortly after, but after a plane carrying executives from the United Fruit Company was hijacked by the FSLN, he was freed and allowed to travel to Cuba.

early 1970s, the FSLN had gained enough support from peasants and students groups to launch limited military initiatives.

1972, a powerful earthquake levelled the capital city, Managua. Anastasio Somoza Debayle's National Guard embezzled much of the international aid that flowed into the country to assist in reconstruction, and several parts of downtown Managua were never rebuilt. The president's ability to take advantage of the people's suffering proved enormous. By some estimates, his personal wealth soared to US$400 million in 1974. This overt corruption caused even people who had previously supported the regime, such as business leaders, to turn against Somoza and call for his overthrow.

1974 a guerrilla group seizes government hostages at a private Managua party, among them several leading Nicaraguan officials and Somoza relatives. The guerrillas received US$1 million ransom, had an official communiqué read over the radio and printed in the newspaper La Prensa, and succeeded in getting fourteen Sandinista prisoners released from jail and flown to Cuba along with the kidnappers. One of the released prisioners was Daniel Ortega Saavedra, who would later become the president of Nicaragua (1985-1990). The Somoza government responded with further censorship, intimidation, torture, and murder.

Bruce Jones establishes his base in Costa Rica

1975 Anastasio Somoza Debayle imposed a state of siege, censoring the press, and threatening all opponents with detention and torture. Somoza's National Guard increased its violence against individuals and communities suspected of collaborating with the Sandinistas.

1975 FSLN leader and founder José Carlos Fonseca Amador had returned to Nicaragua in from his exile in Cuba.

1976 José Carlos Fonseca Amador's group were betrayed by a peasant who informed the National Guard that they were in the area. The guerrilla group was ambushed and José Carlos Fonseca Amador was wounded. The next morning José Carlos Fonseca Amador was shot. (just like Che)

1977 "El Grupo de los Doce", known as the "Twelve", a group of prominent Nicaraguan professionals, business leaders, and clergymen allied to the Terceristas, was formed in Costa Rica. The main idea was to organize a provisional government from Costa Rica.

1979 FSLN triumph

Immediately after the Sandinistas gained power they began implementing agrarian reforms. Initial measures involved appropriating all Somoza owned land (apx. 20% of the arable land in Nicaragua) [this is possible staging posts for drug running that are now taken out of the drug network]

1981 there was a shift in agrarian policy. In August of 1981 the government discarded its credit programs. A few months prior, in March, 1981 the “Law of Forced Rents” was instituted. It required that all idle land be rented at legally established low rent rates. This was a response to the increase in demand for land by providing greater access to good quality low rent land.

1982 The Counter revolution (Contras) kicks into overdrive.

http://www.themilitant.com/2005/6913/691363.html

John,

Thanks for this great provocative thought and informative message. I hope to learn as I go, this is some great information.

Edited by Scott Kaiser
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That's ok, Scott. I hope to learn more too.

My personal opinion is that The Alliance for Progress as an example of using a fundamental Socialist aim, Agrarian Reform, in a Capitalist endeavour and how it therefore is bound to fail in its perceived objectives even though Fidel has on a number of occasion stated that the AfP was the greatest threat to the survival of the Cuban Revolution. It is no longer. US economic terrorism is.

However on that note, that latest on Socialist reform is now taking shape following the nationwide grassroots contributions (latest Congress papers) to the next steps in the transformation (and strengthening) of Cuba into a viable sovereign alternative to US style Imperialism.

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  • 1 month later...

Agrarian Reform

Following the Civil War, the Radical Republicans attempted to put a land reform through Congress, promising "forty acres and a mule" to newly-freed blacks in the South, which was ultimately rejected by moderate elements as "socialistic". This failure left blacks without an economic base, and was one of the key contributing factors to the development of sharecropping* and segregation.

*sharecropping can be seen as creating the economic relationships where Emmett Till was murdered sparking the Civil Rights struggles of the 50's. His murderers were dependent on the sharecropping system for their income, and the 'uppity' northener Emmett threatens their livelyhood.

1959 Cuban revolution

http://en.wikipedia....m#Latin_America

Land reform was among the chief planks of the revolutionary platform of 1959. Almost all large holdings were seized by the National Institute for Agrarian Reform (INRA), which dealt with all areas of agricultural policy. A ceiling of 166 acres (67 hectares) was established, and tenants were given full ownership rights.

1961 The FSLN was founded by José Carlos Fonseca Amador, Silvio Mayorga, Tomás Borge Martínez and others as The National Liberation Front (FLN). The term "Sandinista" was added two years later, by establishing continuity with Sandino's movement.

1962 Migration of Cuban dispossessed to other Latin American countries, including Costa Rica mentioned by Fidel Castro.

José Carlos Fonseca Amador was in Cuba during the October 1962 "missile" crisis

1967 Che murdered

1969 the jailed Sandinista leader José Carlos Fonseca Amador rescued from his prison in Costa Rica. José Carlos Fonseca Amador was re-captured shortly after, but after a plane carrying executives from the United Fruit Company was hijacked by the FSLN, he was freed and allowed to travel to Cuba.

early 1970s, the FSLN had gained enough support from peasants and students groups to launch limited military initiatives.

1972, a powerful earthquake levelled the capital city, Managua. Anastasio Somoza Debayle's National Guard embezzled much of the international aid that flowed into the country to assist in reconstruction, and several parts of downtown Managua were never rebuilt. The president's ability to take advantage of the people's suffering proved enormous. By some estimates, his personal wealth soared to US$400 million in 1974. This overt corruption caused even people who had previously supported the regime, such as business leaders, to turn against Somoza and call for his overthrow.

1974 a guerrilla group seizes government hostages at a private Managua party, among them several leading Nicaraguan officials and Somoza relatives. The guerrillas received US$1 million ransom, had an official communiqué read over the radio and printed in the newspaper La Prensa, and succeeded in getting fourteen Sandinista prisoners released from jail and flown to Cuba along with the kidnappers. One of the released prisioners was Daniel Ortega Saavedra, who would later become the president of Nicaragua (1985-1990). The Somoza government responded with further censorship, intimidation, torture, and murder.

Bruce Jones establishes his base in Costa Rica

1975 Anastasio Somoza Debayle imposed a state of siege, censoring the press, and threatening all opponents with detention and torture. Somoza's National Guard increased its violence against individuals and communities suspected of collaborating with the Sandinistas.

1975 FSLN leader and founder José Carlos Fonseca Amador had returned to Nicaragua in from his exile in Cuba.

1976 José Carlos Fonseca Amador's group were betrayed by a peasant who informed the National Guard that they were in the area. The guerrilla group was ambushed and José Carlos Fonseca Amador was wounded. The next morning José Carlos Fonseca Amador was shot. (just like Che)

1977 "El Grupo de los Doce", known as the "Twelve", a group of prominent Nicaraguan professionals, business leaders, and clergymen allied to the Terceristas, was formed in Costa Rica. The main idea was to organize a provisional government from Costa Rica.

1979 FSLN triumph

Immediately after the Sandinistas gained power they began implementing agrarian reforms. Initial measures involved appropriating all Somoza owned land (apx. 20% of the arable land in Nicaragua) [this is possible staging posts for drug running that are now taken out of the drug network]

1981 there was a shift in agrarian policy. In August of 1981 the government discarded its credit programs. A few months prior, in March, 1981 the "Law of Forced Rents" was instituted. It required that all idle land be rented at legally established low rent rates. This was a response to the increase in demand for land by providing greater access to good quality low rent land.

1982 The Counter revolution (Contras) kicks into overdrive.

http://www.themilita...913/691363.html

http://educationforu...57

_______________

R.I.P Thomas Borge

edit add

Commandante Tomás Borge Martínez (Matagalpa, 13 August 1930 – Managua, 30 April 2012)

639x360_1334116171_tomas.jpg

Edited by John Dolva
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  • 9 months later...

B.T.N.

Havana. February 11, 2013

Colombian government and FARC-EP end round of talks

Dalia González Delgado

ANOTHER round of talks between representatives of the Juan Manuel Santos government and delegates from the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia- People’s Army (FARC-EP) has concluded in Havana.

farc-11febrero.jpg

Humberto de la Calle, leader of the government delegation, reads a press statement. Photo: Juvenal Balán.

According to a joint communiqué released February 10, the two delegations have moved closer "on the proposal to give progressive access to land to the greatest possible number of Colombians who do not possess it."

Comandante Iván Márquez, leader of the FARC-EP guerrilla movement delegation, affirmed during a press conference at the International Convention Center – the principal venue of the talks – that agreement on this issue "is the greatest achievement of these sessions."

Former President Humberto de la Calle, leader of the government delegation, confirmed advances "on concrete issues related to the first point on the agenda, known as a policy of comprehensive agrarian development, and some of the specific points within this, such as access to land and the formalization of property."

De la Calle reported that the talks are proceeding at a positive rate, but noted, "We are not here to talk about the divine and the human. There is a clear agenda for the issues prompting these talks and we are not going to be diverted from it."

farc-1-11febrero.jpg

From left to right, guerrilla movement representatives Ricardo Téllez, Iván Márquez and Jesús Santrich. Photo: Juvenal Balán.

"Some of the proposals from the guerrilla movement, such as the mining-energy issue or the idea of halting the construction of mega-projects for the generation of electrical energy are simply not part of discussions on the table," he noted.

In this context, Comandante Márquez affirmed, "If the government persists with its mining-energy projects it must forego the idea of developing them on territory which the country urgently needs to guarantee its food sovereignty."

A new round of talks begins in Cuba on February 18.

PRINT THIS ARTICLE

_

Havana. February 14, 2013

Cuba’s anti-drug strategy strengthened as global challenges intensify

Francisco Arias Fernández

DESPITE growing international challenges and the complexity of the region’s drug trafficking problem, 10 years after Cuba implemented two anti-drug operations: Coraza Popular and Aché III, the country’s strategy continues to demonstrate its effectiveness. In 2012 a minimal presence of such illegal substances was detected internally (25kg); no suspicious flights were noted; the interception of drug-trafficking boats declined from 52 in 2011 to 24, and practically all drugs thrown overboard along the country’s coastline were collected by, or turned over to authorities (2,961kg).

tecnica-canina-11febrero.jpg

An increase has been noted in the

number of international trafficking

operations frustrated by airport customs

personnel. (Photo: archivo)

These outcomes reflect the success of the two operations begun in 2003 - Coraza Popular in January and Aché III in March of that year. The first was designed for the Ministry of the Interior (MINIT) and other institutions, with the support of the population, to take action against delinquent elements linked to drug trafficking and sales across the country. Aché III was directed at controlling suspicious speed boats and aircraft passing through Cuban territorial waters and airspace; confronting individuals searching for washed up parcels of drugs; the systematic inspection of uninhabited cays and coastlines determined to be at risk for illegal activity; as well as the destruction of marijuana plantings.

Preventative and enforcement activities by a variety of social and political organizations and institutions, under the direction of the National Drugs Commission, allowed the country to mitigate the impact of international drug-trafficking in neighboring waters; to frustrate attempts - fundamentally by Cubans resident abroad - to introduce drugs by air for internal distribution; to cut short the introduction of ‘designer’ drugs from Europe and North America; to address the illicit use of prescription drugs and alcohol abuse; as well as to prevent the development of marijuana cultivation.

As a result of enforcement and preventative efforts, in 2012, 3,045 kilograms of drugs were confiscated (2,997kg of marijuana, 43kg of cocaine, 2kg of hashish and small quantities of other illicit drugs).

Most of these drugs were found in parcels washed up on the country’s coastline. Some 2,961kg of marijuana were discovered this way, significantly less than the 8,508kg found in 2011.

Nine attempted offshore drug drops were frustrated and one speedboat was detained in waters off the northern coast of Camagüey, with four Bahamian citizens aboard who had thrown a cache of drugs into the sea to be subsequently collected by accomplices in the provinces of Villa Clara, Ciego de Avila and Camagüey.

As tourism and travel abroad has increased, an increase has been noted in the number of international trafficking operations frustrated by airport customs personnel. The total number of incidents amounted to 42 in 2012, with 69 persons arrested (48 Cubans and 21 foreigners); 42 kilograms of drugs were confiscated (33.6kg of cocaine, 7.4kg of marijuana and one kilo of synthetic drugs known as cannabimimetics).

Enforcement efforts undertaken at the country’s borders have had an impact on internal drug-dealing. As previously mentioned, only 25kg of drugs were seized in 2012 from individuals attempting sales within the country - significantly less than the 67kg confiscated in 2011.

Over the course of the year, 628 persons were convicted of drug-related crimes,

273 (43 %) were given sentences ranging from six 6-10 years in prison, based on the severity of infractions as defined in relevant legislation.

A number of organizations have collaborated closely with institutions involved in drug abuse prevention and law enforcement. The Federation of Cuban Women

(FMC), Committees for the Defense of the Revolution (CDR), the National Association of Small Farmers (ANAP), the University Students Federation (FEU) and the High School Students Federation (FEEM), have played an important role in various efforts to strengthen the systems in place to confront domestic and international challenges.

For example, the 7th joint CDR-MINIT Border patrol operation reinforced the work of 306 Mirando al Mar (Watching the Sea) brigades. The Ministry of Public Health – in conjunction with CDR and the FMC – continued its active monitoring efforts to identify drug users and offer timely help and treatment. As the Ministry has focused on reorganization and consolidation of health care services, emphasis has been placed on the maintenance of multidisciplinary teams in Community and Regional Mental Health Centers which serve drug abusers and of the existing community based systems which assure needed assistance.

Likewise, the confidential drug abuse telephone line, 103, offered nationally 24 hours a day, continued to provide help and advice, serving 12,285 callers in 2012. The majority of those calling sought help in stopping smoking (4,074) and dealing with alcoholism (3,820), while 1,426 callers were concerned about illicit drug use. An indication of the confidence the service has gained is that the vast majority of callers are seeking help for themselves personally.

National Prevention, Detection and Enforcement Exercises focused on marijuana cultivation and other illegalities continue to take place twice a year, with the participation of the Ministries of Agriculture, Interior, Public Health, Education, Higher Education, Culture, the National Sports Institute, the Association of Small Farmers, the sugar industry, and agricultural units of the FAR and MININT, in conjunction with local government bodies, such as neighborhood Popular Councils.

During the April 2012 exercises, 1,453 Popular Councils participated and in October, 2,693 were involved. Conducted were a total of 67,669 land inspections; 11,653 surprise visits to farms and plots held in usufruct or personally owned; 250,632 self-inspections; 6,451 reviews of prevention plans and 46,915 efforts to inform, train and alert the population.

As part of Cuba’s commitment to join with other nations in fighting drug-trafficking, agreements have been established with 33 countries and two memoranda of understanding which are yielding positive results. Regular cooperative police contact has been maintained with 27 nations. Alerts, modes of operation, current information and valuable experiences are shared.

Noteworthy 2012 accomplishments include an inter-ministerial accord with Russia’s Drug Trafficking Control Federal Service and the beginning of negotiations to establish similar agreements with other Latin American and European countries.

In 2012, Cuba received a delegation from the International Narcotics Control Board which met with representatives from various organizations collaborating via the National Drug Commission in preventing and confronting illicit drug use and trafficking. The group confirmed the positive situation in the country.

In March of 2012, a U.S. State Department report on illegal drugs control during 2011 was released. The document acknowledged efforts Cuba has made to prevent drug traffickers from making inroads on the island; that the production of narcotics is minimal, and that drug use is not widespread within the country. It also recalled that the Cuban government has proposed to the U.S. an agreement to facilitate cooperation in drug-fighting efforts, which if established could support the work of both countries.

The continual improvement and updating of Cuba’s strategies has allowed the country to successfully confront and limit drug trafficking, as indicated by the 2012 statistics. However, the complexity of the international problem, the worldwide extension of drug trafficking, the dangerous situation in neighboring countries and the advance of drugs "like a terrible tide moving south," as President Raúl Castro said in Santiago de Chile this past January 28, obliges the country to continue the struggle "tooth and nail," without allowing itself to be distracted or lulled into complacency. Institutions and the population are continually warned; concrete, effective and timely actions are organized, conscious that "dangers must not be noticed when they are upon us, but rather when they can still be averted," as José Martí said and as the leadership of the Revolution firmly believes. •

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  • 4 weeks later...

Havana. March 25, 2013

Colombia

Advances on agrarian issue lead to political debate

Laura Bécquer & Sergio Alejandro Gómez

THE advances achieved by the Colombian government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia - People's Army (FARC-EP) have opened the way to a citizens’ debate on political participation, the next issue on the agenda established in the Havana General Agreement.

paz1.jpg

Members of the government delegation.

In front, former Vice President

Humberto de la Calle.

paz-2.jpg

Members of the guerrilla delegation.

Comandante Iván Márquez, second from

right to left. (Photos: Juvenal Balán)

A communiqué issued March 21, at the end of another round of peace talks in the Cuban capital, states that "advances continue" on the agrarian issue, considered key to a resolution of the conflict.

Addressing the press at Havana’s International Convention Center, Humberto de la Calle, head of the Colombian government delegation, stated, "The process of agreement building is proceeding normally, although we should like to move ahead more quickly… Rhythm, content and results are essential for the positive outcome of this process," he added.

In the context of a timeframe, Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos has confirmed his confidence that a peace agreement with the guerrilla movement will be achieved before the end of this year. In addition to the two points mentioned, the agenda includes the issue of victims, a solution to the problem of illegal narcotics cultivation, the end in itself of the conflict and the endorsement of peace.

Comandante Iván Márquez, leading the FARC-EP delegation, said at a later press conference, "We are prepared to move at high speed, but we need to clear the way for that."

Among persisting opposed points of view, Márquez mentioned the issues of mining, latifundia, land in foreign hands, extensive cattle breeding and mono-cultivation for biofuels.

The two parties agreed that they hope to overcome these problems during the next round of talks, to be reinitiated April 2.

The joint communiqué adds that, given the advances attained, "The delegations have asked the United Nations Office in Colombia and the National University Center of Thought for Peace to begin preparing a new forum on the next point on the agenda: political participation, to take place at the end of next month."

This is a key issue, as it has to do with democracy in the country, affirmed guerrilla delegate Ricardo Téllez. "The door to democracy was violently closed to the FARC-EP, but we believe that the conditions for undertaking political reform have matured in the country."

De la Calle also emphasized the interest in the peace process recently expressed by Pope Francis to Colombian Foreign Minister María Angela Holguín, as well as support for the peace talks on the part of acting Venezuelan President Nicolás Maduro and the U.S. ambassador in Colombia.

Both delegations thanked Cuba and Norway for their "effective support" as guarantor countries.

- Our America

Edited by John Dolva
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