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A Tale of Two Brothers


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A tale of two Brothers

http://laura-knight-jadczyk.blogspot.com/2...01_archive.html

The elder brother, Tiberius (160-133 BC), the son of a consul and born a patrician, had been raised by Greek philosophers. He was a veteran of the Spanish campaign. He was elected a tribune. His fortitude, his temperance, his humanity, his passion for justice and his natural eloquence elicited the admiration of Cicero. It was evident that he would make his mark in politics.

Tiberius was as calm, as sober, and as moderate as his brother Gaius was vehement, impassioned, and impetuous. He worked for Italy, for the people, and for liberty. He would not be stopped by either threats or clamor.

On Rogation Day,(2) he addressed the people massed around the tribune. A fragment of this speech, in which he evoked the misery and the helplessness of the people, the depopulation of Italy and the rapacity of the wealthy, has been preserved.

"The landowners in mourning dress appeared on the Forum in the most wretched and humble condition in order to move the people whom they despoiled so mercilessly to pity. But they had little confidence in this demonstration, and they hired assassins to kill Tiberius . . ."(3)

Tiberius, nevertheless, proceeded with his reforms. One of his laws authorized the people to circulate freely on the roads and highways. Another stipulated that the treasure of Attala, who had made the Roman people his heir, would be distributed among the citizens. Other laws distributed lands, subsidized the cost of the first planting, decreased the length of military service, and reorganized the judiciary. Henceforth, no Roman citizen could own more than 750 acres of public land for himself and 375 for each of his sons. This law threatened the owners of the largest herds.

In his speeches Tiberius declared that the will of the people was the supreme authority of the state. This was too much. On the day of his re-election to the tribunate, which would have enabled Tiberius to complete his reforms, Scipion Nasicaa, one of the richest of the landowners, assembled all of the wealthy Romans. Followed by an army of slaves and clients, they climbed to the Capitol. One of Tiberius' colleagues, a tribune, dealt him the first blow. Other assassins finished the job. His body was profaned and thrown into the Tiber.

Rome, which had found senators to assassinate him, found no historian to stigmatize his assassins. After centuries of law and order, the Empire watched with stupefaction as the violence of a faction that had taken the law into its own hands not only went unpunished, but was admired.

Gaius (152-121 BC), eight years younger than his brother, appeared to accept his death and to be unaware of the identities of his assassins. He was appointed quaestor of Sardinia and, against the wishes of the Senate, he did not disappear from view. He lived the life of his soldiers and looked after their interests. He liked long marches and took long, lonely swims in the sea, and he remained chaste.

"The fate of his brother and his reforms had proved that it was vain to attempt to remedy the ills of Rome without first having destroyed, or at least humiliated, the large landowners and the usurpers of the public domain; that the idea of transforming the poor people of Rome into a landowning class was too simple and, in reality, not very effective.

"But once the terror had disappeared, the little people of Rome began to seek a protector, and the victim's brother, who was known for his virtues and was already suspect to the wealthy, appeared to be just the person they needed.

"The persistent hatred of the nobility precipitated him into the fray, although he had no intention of taking up his brother's reforms. Boldly, Gaius ran for the office of tribune and was elected. He immediately proved that he was no ordinary man. He denounced his brother's assassins and punished them. He promulgated the laws that Tiberius would have wanted. He cited Tiberius incessantly in his speeches. He was re-elected a tribune. He reduced the authority of the Senate. He controlled everything, organized everything, imparting his prodigious activity and his indefatigable energy to everyone.

"He was craftier than his brother. He had learned from him, and he had had time to meditate his revenge without beclouding his mind. For a long while, he retained the support of the wealthy by proposing laws that pleased the rich and others that suited the poor. But eventually he voiced the idea that he had so long meditated in silence: that all Italians should be given the rights of citizens."

Rome would be the capital of a vast Italic nation. No longer would the Empire be founded on a municipal oligarchy allied with the corrupt merchants, but on rival classes working in partnership. The former centers of civilization and commerce, now destroyed or declined, would be restored, and the wealth and the multitudes that poured into Rome, threatening to choke the nerve-center of the Empire, would be distributed evenly throughout the different lands.

It was the historic task of Rome that Gaius had in mind, but he thought he could accomplish alone what it was to take six generations to achieve. His grandiose ideas were too premature. His plan to accord the rights of a Roman citizen to all Italians pleased neither the nobility nor the little people.

The Senate decided that things had gone far enough. The Consul Lucien Opimius led the conspiracy. Pursued and about to be taken, Gaius killed himself in a wood dedicated to the Furies. Septimuleius cut off his head. Gaius in his turn was thrown into the Tiber, along with 3,000 of his followers. The year of Gaius' death, the grape harvest was exceptionally good. The nobles, the wealthy, the big and the small landowners bought up all the slaves on the market.

The Gracchus brothers were the last true aristocrats of Rome. Licentiousness robbed the aristocracy of its traditional energy and its virtues. Most of their laws were abolished. The robber barons rid the Roman Empire of all the leaders who had dreamed of being generous, or simply of being just. Balbinus, Emilian, Valerian, Aurelius, and Maximus were assassinated in their turn. Probus lasted six years, Tacitus ten months, and Pertinax 97 days.

Sixteen centuries later, Machiavelli wrote that "men forget the death of their father more easily than the loss of their patrimony, and they hesitate less to harm a man who is loved than another who is feared."

Later, after Honorius, the frontiers of the Empire were overrun by the barbarians. The Empire, invaded, was split asunder, and Rome faded into oblivion. The Gracchus brothers were not forgotten by the Roman people. Statues were erected in their memory, and a cult was founded in their honor.

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Or: (using find > replace function)

The elder brother, John F. Kennedy(160-133 BC), the son of a consul and born a patrician, had been raised by Greek philosophers. He was a veteran of the Pacific campaign. He was elected a Senator. His fortitude, his temperance, his humanity, his passion for justice and his natural eloquence elicited the admiration of the citizens of the world. It was evident that he would make his mark in politics.

John F. Kennedy was as calm, as sober, and as moderate as his brother Robert F. Kennedy was vehement, impassioned, and impetuous. He worked for USA, for the people, and for liberty. He would not be stopped by either threats or clamor.

On Rogation Day,(2) he addressed the people massed around the tribune. A fragment of this speech, in which he evoked the misery and the helplessness of the people, the depopulation of USA and the rapacity of the wealthy, has been preserved.

"The landowners in mourning dress appeared on the Forum in the most wretched and humble condition in order to move the people whom they despoiled so mercilessly to pity. But they had little confidence in this demonstration, and they hired assassins to kill John F. Kennedy. . ."(3)

John F. Kennedy nevertheless, proceeded with his reforms. One of his laws authorized the people to circulate freely on the roads and highways. Another stipulated that the treasure of Attala, who had made the US Citizens people his heir, would be distributed among the US Citizens. Other laws distributed lands, subsidized the cost of the first planting, decreased the length of military service, and reorganized the judiciary. Henceforth, no US Citizens citizen could own more than 750 acres of public land for himself and 375 for each of his sons. This law threatened the owners of the largest herds.

In his speeches John F. Kennedy declared that the will of the people was the supreme authority of the state. This was too much. On the day of his re-election to the tribunate, which would have enabled John F. Kennedyto complete his reforms, Scipion Nasicaa, one of the richest of the landowners, assembled all of the wealthy US Citizenss. Followed by an army of slaves and clients, they climbed to the Capitol. One of John F. Kennedy colleagues, a tribune, dealt him the first blow. Other assassins finished the job. His body was profaned and thrown into the Arlington Cemetery.

the White House which had found senators to assassinate him, found no historian to stigmatize his assassins. After centuries of law and order, the USA watched with stupefaction as the violence of a faction that had taken the law into its own hands not only went unpunished, but was admired.

Robert F. Kennedy (152-121 BC), eight years younger than his brother, appeared to accept his death and to be unaware of the identities of his assassins. He was appointed quaestor of Sardinia and, against the wishes of the Senate, he did not disappear from view. He lived the life of his soldiers and looked after their interests. He liked long marches and took long, lonely swims in the sea, and he remained chaste.

"The fate of his brother and his reforms had proved that it was vain to attempt to remedy the ills of the White House without first having destroyed, or at least humiliated, the large landowners and the usurpers of the public domain; that the idea of transforming the poor people of the White Houseinto a landowning class was too simple and, in reality, not very effective.

"But once the terror had disappeared, the little people of the USA began to seek a protector, and the victim's brother, who was known for his virtues and was already suspect to the wealthy, appeared to be just the person they needed.

"The persistent hatred of the nobility precipitated him into the fray, although he had no intention of taking up his brother's reforms. Boldly, Robert F. Kennedy ran for the office of tribune and was elected. He immediately proved that he was no ordinary man. He denounced his brother's assassins and punished them. He promulgated the laws that John F. Kennedywould have wanted. He cited John F. Kennedyincessantly in his speeches. He was re-elected a tribune. He reduced the authority of the Senate. He controlled everything, organized everything, imparting his prodigious activity and his indefatigable energy to everyone.

"He was craftier than his brother. He had learned from him, and he had had time to meditate his revenge without beclouding his mind. For a long while, he retained the support of the wealthy by proposing laws that pleased the rich and others that suited the poor. But eventually he voiced the idea that he had so long meditated in silence: that all US citizens should be given the rights of US Citizens."

the White House would be the capital of a vast US nation. No longer would the USA be founded on a municipal oligarchy allied with the corrupt merchants, but on rival classes working in partnership. The former centers of civilization and commerce, now destroyed or declined, would be restored, and the wealth and the multitudes that poured into the White House threatening to choke the nerve-center of the USA, would be distributed evenly throughout the different lands.

It was the historic task of the White House that Robert F. Kennedy had in mind, but he thought he could accomplish alone what it was to take six generations to achieve. His grandiose ideas were too premature. His plan to accord the rights of a US Citizens citizen to all Italians pleased neither the nobility nor the little people.

The Senate decided that things had gone far enough. The Consul Lucien Opimius led the conspiracy. Pursued and about to be taken, Robert F. Kennedy killed himself in a wood dedicated to the Furies. Septimuleius cut off his head. Robert F. Kennedy in his turn was thrown into the Arlington Cemetery, along with 3,000 of his followers. The year of Robert F. Kennedy' death, the grape harvest was exceptionally good. The nobles, the wealthy, the big and the small landowners bought up all the slaves on the market.

The Kennedy brothers were the last true Democrats of the USA. Licentiousness robbed the Democracy of its traditional energy and its virtues. Most of their laws were abolished. The robber barons rid the US Citizens USA of all the leaders who had dreamed of being generous, or simply of being just. Martin Luther King, Medgar Evers, Malcolm X, John Lennon, and Olaf Palme were assassinated in their turn. Anna Lindh lasted six years, Ghandi ten months, and Allende 97 days.

Sixteen centuries later, Machiavelli wrote that "men forget the death of their father more easily than the loss of their patrimony, and they hesitate less to harm a man who is loved than another who is feared."

Later, after Bush, the frontiers of the USA were overrun by the barbarians. The USA, invaded, was split asunder, and the White House faded into oblivion. The Kennedy brothers were not forgotten by the US Citizens people. Statues were erected in their memory, and a cult was founded in their honor.

Those who forget History are Bound to Repeat it.

Edited by John Dolva
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  • 6 months later...

20+ centuries later, the more things change the more they stay the same...

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  • 2 years later...

bump

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Guest Stephen Turner

To quote Karl Marx, History always repeats itself, first as tragedy then as farce.

Hope things are going OK for you John.

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Thank you , Stephen, things are good.

I trust this is so for you as well.

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  • 2 years later...

(using find > replace function) and some updating in edit, the point is of course not to look for exact repetition of past events but to understand why things evolve as they do. In a way it epitomises the process of social evolution from a materialist dialectic perspective but like so many events fail to deal with the fact that the very societies that allow such aberrations and corrections intrinsically cannot fundamentally solve the problems that people like JFK set out to solve and certainly in turn any supporter of such persona who also approach the solution with the idea that the system they operate in expecting it to provide the solution cannot do so : it is the antithesis of itself. This is the story taken from the past and projected into the future and one can see a repeating pattern. There must be a way to break it.

The elder brother, John F. Kennedy, the son of a consul and born a patrician, had been raised by Greek philosophers. He was a veteran of the Pacific campaign. He was elected a Senator. His fortitude, his temperance, his humanity, his passion for justice and his natural eloquence elicited the admiration of the citizens of the world. It was evident that he would make his mark in politics.

John F. Kennedy was as calm, as sober, and as moderate as his brother Robert F. Kennedy was vehement, impassioned, and impetuous. He worked for the USA, for the people, and for liberty. He would not be stopped by either threats or clamor.

In mid '63 he addressed the people massed around the tv. This speech, in which he evoked the misery and the helplessness of the people and the rapacity of the wealthy, has been preserved.

The landowners in mourning dress appeared on the Forum in the most wretched and humble condition in order to move the people whom they despoiled so mercilessly to pity. But they had little confidence in this demonstration, and they hired assassins to kill John F. Kennedy.

John F. Kennedy nevertheless, proceeded with his reforms. One of his laws authorized the people to circulate freely on the roads and highways. Another stipulated that Rights who had made the US Citizens people his heir, would be distributed among the US Citizens. Other laws distributed lands, subsidized the cost of the first planting, decreased the length of military service, and reorganized the judiciary. Henceforth, no US Citizens citizen could own more than 750 acres of public land for himself and 375 for each of his sons. This law threatened the owners of the largest herds.

In his speeches John F. Kennedy declared that the will of the people was the supreme authority of the state. This was too much. In the year leading to his re-election, which would have enabled John F. Kennedyto complete his reforms, Scipion Nasicaa, one of the richest, assembled others. Followed by an army of slaves and clients, they climbed to the Capitol. One of John F. Kennedy colleagues dealt him the first blow. Other assassins finished the job. His body was profaned and thrown into the Arlington Cemetery.

the White House which had found senators to assassinate him, found no historian to stigmatize his assassins. After centuries of law and order, the USA watched with stupefaction as the violence of a faction that had taken the law into its own hands not only went unpunished, but was admired.

Robert F. Kennedy, younger than his brother, appeared to accept his death and to be unaware of the identities of his assassins. Against the wishes of the assassins, he did not disappear from view. He lived the life of his people and looked after their interests. He traveled the world and forged new alliances.

The fate of his brother and his reforms had proved that it was vain to attempt to remedy the ills of the White House without first having destroyed, or at least humiliated, theassassins and the usurpers of the public domain; that the idea of transforming the poor people of the nation into a landowning class was too simple and, in reality, not very effective.

Once the terror had disappeared, the little people of the USA began to seek a protector, and the victim's brother, who was known for his virtues and was already suspect to the wealthy, appeared to be just the person they needed.

The persistent hatred of the nobility precipitated him into the fray, although he had shown no intention of taking up his brother's reforms. Boldly, Robert F. Kennedy ran for the office of tribune and was elected. He immediately proved that he was no ordinary man. He denounced his brother's assassins and punished them. He promulgated the laws that John F. Kennedywould have wanted. He cited John F. Kennedy incessantly in his speeches. He was re-elected President. He reduced the authority of the wealthy. He controlled everything, organized everything, imparting his prodigious activity and his indefatigable energy to everyone.

He was craftier than his brother. He had learned from him, and he had had time to meditate his revenge without beclouding his mind. For a long while, he retained the support of the wealthy by proposing laws that pleased the rich and others that suited the poor. But eventually he voiced the idea that he had so long meditated in silence: that all US citizens, regardless of race, gender or age, should be have equal rights, wherever they may be.

The White House would be the capital of a vast US nation. No longer would the USA be founded on a municipal oligarchy allied with the corrupt merchants, but on rival classes working in partnership. The former centers of civilization and commerce, now destroyed or declined, would be restored, and the wealth and the multitudes that poured into the White House threatening to choke the nerve-center of the USA, would be distributed evenly throughout the different lands.

It was the historic task of the White House that Robert F. Kennedy had in mind, but he thought he could accomplish alone what it was to take six generations to achieve. His grandiose ideas were too premature. His plan to accord the rights of a US Citizens citizen to all pleased neither the nobility nor the little people.

The wealthy decided that things had gone far enough and led the counterrevolution. Pursued and about to be taken, Robert F. Kennedy killed himself in a wood dedicated to the Furies. Septimuleius cut off his head. Robert F. Kennedy in his turn was thrown into the Arlington Cemetery, along with 3,000 of his followers. The year of Robert F. Kennedy' death, the grape harvest was exceptionally good. The nobles, the wealthy, the big and the small landowners bought up all the slaves on the market.

The Kennedy brothers were the last true Democrats of the USA. Licentiousness robbed the Democracy of its traditional energy and its virtues. Most of their laws were abolished. The robber barons rid the US Citizens USA of all the leaders who had dreamed of being generous, or simply of being just. Martin Luther King, Medgar Evers, Malcolm X, John Lennon, and Olaf Palme were assassinated in their turn. Anna Lindh lasted six years, Ghandi ten months, and Allende 97 days.

Sixteen centuries later, Machiavelli wrote that "men forget the death of their father more easily than the loss of their patrimony, and they hesitate less to harm a man who is loved than another who is feared."

Much later, the frontiers of the USA were overrun by the barbarians. The USA, invaded, was split asunder, and the White House faded into oblivion. The Kennedy brothers were not forgotten by the people. Statues were erected in their memory, and a cult was founded in their honor.

Those who forget their History are Bound to Repeat it.

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