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Harry Anslinger - Head of Bureau of Narcotics since 1930

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Harry J. Anslinger - Missing Link into MK/ULTRA

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Harry J. Anslinger

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Harry Jacob Anslinger (May 20, 1892 – November 14, 1975) held office as the Assistant Prohibition Commissioner in the Bureau of Prohibition, before being appointed as the first Commissioner of the Treasury Department's Federal Bureau of Narcotics (FBN) on August 12, 1930.

He held office an unprecedented 32 years in his role (rivaled only by J. Edgar Hoover), holding office until 1962. He then held office two years as US Representative to the United Nations Narcotics Commission. The responsibilities once held by Harry J. Anslinger are now largely under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Office of National Drug Control Policy. Anslinger died at the age of 83 of heart failure in Hollidaysburg, Pennsylvania.

Contents [hide]

1 Early life, marriage

2 Rise to prominence

3 The campaign against marijuana 1930-1937

4 Later years

5 Career timeline, recognition

6 Sources

7 See also

8 External links

[edit]Early life, marriage

Anslinger's father, Robert J. Anslinger, born in Bern, Switzerland and had worked in that country as a barber. His mother, Rosa Christiana Fladt, was born in Baden, Germany. In 1881, the family emigrated to the United States. Robert Anslinger worked in New York for two years, before settling in Altoona, Pennsylvania. In 1892, the same year his son Harry was born, Anslinger went to work for the Pennsylvania Railroad.

Harry Anslinger later claimed that he had witnessed a scene that affected his life. When he was 12, he heard the screams of a morphine addict that were only silenced by a boy returning from a pharmacist to supply the addict with more morphine. He was appalled that the drug was so powerful and that children had ready access to such drugs. However, the experience didn't stop Anslinger, while acting as the Commissioner of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics, he authorized a druggist near the White House to fill a morphine prescription for an addicted Senator Joseph McCarthy. [1]

Anslinger enrolled at Altoona Business College at the age of 17. He also went to work for the Pennsylvania Railroad. In 1913, he was granted a furlough so he could enroll at Pennsylvania State College, where studied in a two-year associate degree program in engineering and business management.

He married Martha Kind Denniston (Sept 1886 - Oct 10, 1961) in 1917. That year, at age 38, he was renting an apartment at 16th & R Street in Washington, DC for $90 per month, where he lived with his wife Martha and son Joseph L. Anslinger (May 24, 1911 - Nov 1982), who were 44 and 18, respectively. Martha Denniston was the niece[2] of Andrew W. Mellon, the Secretary of the US Treasury who would appoint Anslinger to his 32 year post as Commissioner of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics.

[edit]Rise to prominence

Anslinger gained notoriety early in his career. At the age of 23 (1915), while working as an investigator for the Pennsylvania Railroad, he performed a detailed investigation that found the claim of a widower in a railroad accident fraudulent. He saved the company $50,000 and was promoted to captain of railroad police.

From 1917 to 1928, Anslinger worked for various military and police organizations. His tour of duty took him all over the world, from Germany to Venezuela to Japan. His focus was on stopping international drug trafficking, and he is widely credited for shaping not only America's domestic and international drug policies, but for having influence on drug polices of other nations, particularly those that had not debated the issues internally.

By 1929, Anslinger returned from his international tour to work as an assistant Commissioner in the United States Bureau of Prohibition. Around this time, corruption and scandal gripped Prohibition and Narcotics agencies. The ensuing shake-ups and re-organizations set the stage for Anslinger, perceived as an honest and incorruptible figure, to advance not only in rank but to great political stature.

In 1930, Anslinger was appointed to the newly-created FBN (Federal Bureau of Narcotics) as its first Commissioner. The FBN, like the Bureau of Prohibition, was under the auspices of the US Treasury Department. At that time the trade of alcohol and drugs was considered a loss of revenue because as illegal substances they could not be taxed. Anslinger was appointed by Secretary of the Treasury, Andrew W. Mellon and given a budget of $100,000.

[edit]The campaign against marijuana 1930-1937

Main article: Legal history of marijuana in the United States

Restrictions for marijuana started in District of Columbia 1906 and was followed by state laws in other parts of the country in the 1910s and 1920s. The early laws against the cannabis drugs were passed with little public attention. Concern about marijuana was related primarily to the fear that marijuana use would spread, even among whites, as a substitute for the opiates. It is largely believed that the early prohibitive marijuana laws were a response by the general public to the popularity of the drug among Mexicans. [3] In 1925 United States supported regulation of Indian hemp, Cannabis for use as a drug, in the International Opium Convention[4]. Recommendations from the International Opium Convention inspired the work with The Uniform State Narcotic Act between 1925 and 1932. Harry J. Anslinger become an active person in this process from about 1930.[5][6]

Some of his critics allege that Anslinger, DuPont petrochemical interests and William Randolph Hearst together created the highly sensational anti-marijuana campaign to eliminate hemp as an industrial competitor. Indeed, Anslinger did not himself consider marijuana a serious threat to American society until in the fourth year of his tenure (1934), at which point an anti-marijuana campaign, aimed at alarming the public, became his primary focus as part of the government's broader push to outlaw all drugs.[7]

Members of the League of Nations had already implemented restrictions for marijuana in the beginning of the 1930s and restrictions started in many states in U.S years before Anslinger was appointed. Both president Franklin D. Roosevelt and his Attorney General publicly supported this development in 1935.[7]

An alternative explanation for Anslinger's opinions about hemp is that he believed that a tax on marijuana could be easier to supervise if it included hemp.

Around 1931 advertising started for hemp as the new billion dollar crop. Anslinger had reports from experiments with mechanical harvesting of hemp in 1936, reporting that the machines were no success.

"they were able to cut only a part of the Tribune Farm crop by machine, two thirds of it they did by hand with a sharp hand cutter...".[8]

"The existence of the old 1934-1935 crop of harvested hemp on the fields of southern Minnesota is a menace to society in that it is being used by traffickers in marijuana as a source of supply "[9]

By using the mass media as his forum (receiving much support from William Randolph Hearst), Anslinger propelled the anti-marijuana sentiment from the state level to a national movement. Writing for The American Magazine, the best examples were contained in his "Gore File", a collection of quotes from police reports, by later opponents described as police-blotter-type narratives of heinous cases, most with no substantiation, linking graphically depicted offenses with the drug:

"An entire family was murdered by a youthful addict in Florida. When officers arrived at the home, they found the youth staggering about in a human slaughterhouse. With an axe he had killed his father, mother, two brothers, and a sister. He seemed to be in a daze… He had no recollection of having committed the multiple crime. The officers knew him ordinarily as a sane, rather quiet young man; now he was pitifully crazed. They sought the reason. The boy said that he had been in the habit of smoking something which youthful friends called “muggles,” a childish name for marijuana."[10]

It appeared that Anslinger was also responsible for racist themes in articles against marijuana in the 1930s:[citation needed]

"Colored students at the Univ. of Minn. partying with (white) female students, smoking [marijuana] and getting their sympathy with stories of racial persecution. Result: pregnancy"[11][12]

"Two Negros took a girl fourteen years old and kept her for two days under the influence of hemp. Upon recovery she was found to be suffering from syphilis."[12][13]

What Anslinger used was language from police reports about illegal drug use. Police reports are typically written with a concise language including such details as age, gender, race, ethnic group, type of crime etc.[citation needed] Anslinger, for example, pointed at the former big bootleggers of alcohol, something that many interpret as the Italian/Jewish mafia, as responsible for a big part of the organized illegal trade with opium and cocaine from mid 1930s.[citation needed] "The first Federal law-enforcement administrator to recognize the signs of a national criminal syndication and sound the alarm was Harry J. Anslinger, Commissioner of the Bureau of Narcotics in the Treasury" (Ronald Reagan 1986)[14]

When Anslinger was interviewed in 1954 about drug abuse (see below), he did not mention anything about race or gender. In his book The Protectors (1964) Anslinger has a chapter called "Jazz and Junk Don't Mix" about the black jazz musicians Billie Holliday and Charlie Parker, who both died after years of heavy drug abuse:

"Jazz entertainers are neither fish nor fowl. They do not get the million-dollar protection Hollywood and Broadway can afford for their stars who have become addicted - and there are many more than will ever be revealed. Perhaps this is because jazz, once considered a decadent kind of music, has only token respectability. Jazz grew up next door to crime, so to speak. Clubs of dubious reputation were, for a long time, the only places where it could be heard. But the times bring changes, and as Billy Holiday was a victim of time and change, so too was Charlie Parker, a man whose music, like Billie's is still widely imitated. Most musicians credit Parker among others as spearheading what is called modern jazz."(p.157)

[edit]Later years

Later in his career, Anslinger was scrutinized for insubordination by refusing to desist from an attempt to halt the ABA/AMA Joint Report on narcotic addiction, a publication edited by the sociology Professor Alfred R. Lindesmith of Indiana University. Lindsmith wrote, among other works, Opiate Addiction (1947), The Addict and the Law (1965), and a number of articles condemning the criminalization of addiction. Nearly everything Lindesmith did was critical of the War on Drugs, specifically condemning Anslinger’s role. The AMA/ABA controversy is sometimes credited with ending Anslinger's position of Commissioner of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics.

In fact, Anslinger was surprised to be re-appointed by President John F. Kennedy in February 1961. The new President had a tendency to invigorate the government with more youthful civil servants and by 1962 Anslinger was 70 years old, the mandatory age for retirement in his position. In addition, during the previous year he had witnessed his wife Martha's slow and agonizing death due to heart failure and is said to have lost some of his drive and ambition. He submitted his resignation to President Kennedy on his 70th birthday, May 20, 1962. Since Kennedy did not have a successor, Anslinger stayed in his $18,500 a year ($125,535 in 2007 dollars) position until later that year. He was succeeded by Henry Giordano. Following that, he was the United States Representative to the United Nations Narcotics Commission for two years after which he retired.

By 1973, Anslinger was completely blind, had a debilitatingly enlarged prostate gland, and suffered from angina. Some of his opponents find it ironic that despite his aggressive stance against addictive painkilling drugs, he himself was taking morphine to alleviate his pain[citation needed].

On November 14, 1975, at 1 pm, Anslinger died of heart failure at Mercy Hospital (now known as Bon Secours Hospital Campus of the Altoona Regional Health System) in Altoona, Pennsylvania. He was 83. He was survived by his son Joseph L. Anslinger and a sister. According to John McWilliams' 1990 book The Protectors, Anslinger's daughter-in-law Bea at that time still lived in Anslinger's home in Hollidaysburg, Pennsylvania.

Anslinger is buried in Hollidaysburg Presbyterian Cemetery, Hollidaysburg, Pennsylvania, USA Plot: Sec. C, Lot 320.

[edit]Career timeline, recognition

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Harry J. Anslinger

1913-1915 : Student, Pennsylvania State University, State College PA

1917-1918 : Member, Efficiency Board, Ordinance Division, War Department

1918-1921 : Attached to American Legation, The Hague

1921-1923 : Vice-Consul, Hamburg, Germany

1923-1925 : Consul, La Guaira, Venezuela

1926 : Consul, Venezuela

1926 : Delegate of US to Conference on Suppression of Smuggling, London

1926-1929 : Chief Division of Foreign Control, US Treasury Department

1927 : Delegate of US to Conference on Suppression of Smuggling, Paris

1928 : International Congress against Alcoholism, Antwerp, Belgium

1928 : Conference to Revise Treat with US, Ottawa, Canada

1929-1930 : Assistant Commissioner of Prohibition

1930 : LL.B., Washington College of Law

? : LL.D., University of Maryland

1930-1962 : Commissioner of Federal Bureau of Narcotics

1931 : Conference of Limitation of Manufacture of Narcotic Drugs

1932-34, 1936-39 : Co-Observer of US at League of Nations Opium Advisory Commission

1936 : US delegation International Conference for Suppression of Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs, League of Nations, Geneva

1952 : US representative commission on Narcotic Drugs of UN Recipient Pennsylvania Ambassador, Proctor Gold Medal Awards

1958 : One of ten outstanding career men, Federal Government, National Civil Service League

1959 : Alumni Recognition Award, American University

1959 : Distinguished Alumnus award, Pennsylvania State University

1962-1963 : US Representative to United Nations Narcotics Commission

1964: Retired

Alexander Hamilton Medal

Remington Medal

Presidential Citation

Member, Commission Drug Addiction NRC

Honorable Member, Terre Haute Academy of Medicine

Associate Member, International Police Chief Association

Member, Advisory Committee, International Cooperation Common Law, American Bar Association

Life Member, Pennsylvania and Blair County Pharm. Association

Diplomatic and Consular Officers Reg. (board of governors)

Sigma Nu Phi

[edit]Sources

^ [Drugs & Washington, D. C., by Maxine Cheshire, from the Home Journal, Dec 1978, Vol. 195, pp. 62, 176, 178, 180, 182, morphine ref. p. 180. See also "The Murders" by Harry Anslinger p 182.]

^ Valentine, Douglas (2004). The Strength of the Wolf: The Secret History of America's War on Drugs. Verso Books. pp. 16. ISBN 1-85984-568-1.

^ Richard J. Bonnie & Charles H. Whitebread, II:THE FORBIDDEN FRUIT AND THE TREE OF KNOWLEDGE: AN INQUIRY INTO THE LEGAL HISTORY OF AMERICAN MARIJUANA PROHIBITION

^ W.W. WILLOUGHBY: OPIUM AS AN INTERNATIONAL PROBLEM, BALTIMORE, THE JOHNS HOPKINS PRESS, 1925

^ Statement of Harry J. Anslinger

^ The Marihuana Tax Act, ADDITIONAL STATEMENT OF H. J. ANSLINGER

^ a b ROOSEVELT ASKS NARCOTIC WAR AID, 1935

^ Letter from Elizabeth Bass - November 5, 1936

^ REPORT OF SURVEY COMMERCIALIZED HEMP (1934-35 CROP)

^ Victor Licata Research by Uncle Mike

^ Gray, Michael (1998). Drug Crazy: How We Got Into this Mess and How We Can Get Out. Random House. ISBN 0679435336.

^ a b Inciardi, James A. (1986). The War on Drugs: Heroin, cocaine, crime, and public policy. Palo Alto: Mayfield Publishing Company. pp. 231. ISBN 0874847435.

^ Encyclopedia of American Civil Liberties By Paul Finkelman

^ Ronald Reagan: DECLARING WAR ON ORGANIZED CRIME, 1986

Note (1): Larry Sloman, Reefer Madness: A History of Marijuana in America (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1979), pp 30–31

United States Census, Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 1930

The Traffic in Narcotics: An interview with the Hon. Harry J. Anslinger United States Commissioner of Narcotics, Jan. 1, 1954

HARRY J. ANSLINGER, WILL OURSLER:THE STORY OF THE NARCOTIC GANGS, 1961

Obituaries, New York Times, November 18, 1975

Who Was Who in America with World Notables (ISBN 0-8379-0207-X), Vol VI 1974-1976, by Marquis Who's Who, 1976

The Protectors: Anslinger and the Federal Bureau of Narcotics (1930-1962) (ISBN 0-87413-352-1), by John C. McWilliams, University of Delaware Press, August 1, 1990

The War on Drugs II (ISBN 1-55934-016-9), by J.A. Inciardi, California: Mayfield Publishing Company, 1992

Cannabis: A History (ISBN 0-312-42494-9), by Martin Booth, Picador USA, June 2005

[edit]See also

Havana Conference

LaGuardia Commission

Legal history of marijuana in the United States

Legal issues of cannabis

Prohibition (drugs)

L.G. Nutt

[edit]External links

Harry J. Anslinger, Commissioner of the US Bureau of Narcotics, "Marijuana: assassin of Youth", The American Magazine, July 1937

Statement by Harry J. Anslinger, Commissioner of the US Bureau of Narcotics, to the Senate Ways and Means Committee, 1937

Guide to the H.J. Anslinger Papers, 1835-1970, Pennsylvania State University

[1]

Free ebook about hemp and the Anslinger/Dupont/Hearst triumvirate

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Timeline of LSD - Anslinger MKULTRA

1938 - Dr. Albert Hofmann synthesizes LSD-25

Spring 1942 - The Office of Strategic Services convenes a committee to oversee the search for a truth drug

April 16, 1943 - Hofmann accidentally discovers the hallucinogenic effects of LSD

April 19, 1943 - Hofmann undertakes the first self-experiment with LSD

September 1945 - OSS disbanded

October 1945 - US Navy Technical Mission reports on Nazi mescaline experiments at the Dachau concentration camp

1947 - CIA formed; U.S. Navy initiates mescaline studies under the auspices of Project Chatter

1947 - First report on LSD appears in a Swiss pharmacological journal

1948 - CIA authorized to undertake covert operations

1949 - Dr. Max Rinkel brings LSD to the United States from Sandoz Pharmaceuticals in Switzerland and initiates work with LSD in Boston; Nick Bercel commences LSD study in Los Angeles

1950 - CIA launches Project Bluebird

May 1950 - First article about LSD appears in the American Psychiatric Journal

1951 - Captain Al Hubbard turns on to LSD

August 1951 - The CIA's Inspection & Security Staff initiates the Artichoke Project

October 21, 1951 - First documented evidence of CIA experimentation with LSD

1952 - Dr. Humphry Osmond discloses similarity between mescaline and adrenaline molecule; begins experiments with hallucinogenic at a hospital in Saskatchewan

December 1952 - George Hunter White, on loan from the Federal Narcotics Bureau, begins administering LSD to unwitting U.S. citizens at a CIA safehouse in Greenwich Village

January 1953 - Harold Blauer dies of an overdose of MDA during an Army-sponsored drug experiment

April 13, 1953 - The CIA's Technical Services Staff initiates the MK-ULTRA Project

1953 - Dr. Humphry Osmond begins treating alcoholics with LSD

May 1953 - Aldous Huxley's first mescaline experience

November 1953 - Army biochemist Frank Olsen commits suicide after CIA doses him with LSD

1954 - CIA begins Operation MK-PILOT at Lexingon Narcotics Hospital

1954 - Aldous Huxley's Doors of Perception published

mid-1954 - Eli Lilly synthesizes LSD at the CIA's behest

1955 - Aldous Huxley's first LSD trip; the publication of Huxley's Heaven and Hell

1955- Army begins testing LSD at Edgewood arsenal

1956? - Dr. Humphry Osmond coins the word "psychedelic"

May 1957 - Life magazine published R. Gordon Wasson's account of his magic mushroom experience

1958 - Army begins BZ experiments

1959 - Josiah Macy Foundation sponsors major scientific congress on LSD

1959 - Allen Ginsberg tries LSD for the first time

1960 - American Indians granted sanctioned use of peyote as a religious matter

Summer 1960 - Timothy Leary turns on to magic mushrooms in Mexico

1961 - US Army initiates LSD interrogations under Operation Third Chance in Western Europe

1962 - U.S. Army launches Operation Derby Hat in Asia

1962 - The Gamblers, a California surfing band, release a song "LSD-25"; underground LSD appears on both coasts; FDA makes first LSD bust

1962 - Dr. Alexander Shulgin records the effects of MMDA ("ecstasy")

1962 - The superhallucinogen BZ becomes part of the US Army's standardized chemical warfare arsenal

1962 - The CIA withdraws support for above-ground LSD research studies

1962 - Congress passes new drug safety regulations and the FDA designates LSD an experimental drug and restricts research

1963 - Williams Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg publish The Yage Letters

May 1963 - Timothy Leary and Richard Alpert fired from Harvard

November 22, 1963 - Aldous Huxley dies shortly after JFK assassination

1964 - Army begins using BZ gas in Vietnam

Summer 1964 - Ken Kesey and the Merry Pranksters' cross-country bus trip

Fall 1964 - Berkeley Free Speech Movement

February 1965 - First big surge of street acid; the assassination of Malcolm X; US begins sustained bombing of North Vietnam

April 1965 - First big SDS march on Washington

1965 - Drug Abuse Control Amendment; LSD research further restricted

1965 - Bob Dylan's Bringing It All Back Home and Highway 61 Revisited

October 16, 1965 - First Family Dog acid rock dance in San Francisco

1965 - CIA phases out MK-ULTRA, begins MK-SEARCH

January 1966 - The Trips Festival in San Francisco

March 1966 - Life magazine publishes "LSD: The Mind Drug That Got Out of Control"

April 1966 - Sandoz stops supplying LSD to research scientists

April 1966 - G. Gordon Liddy raids the Millbrook estate

Spring 1966 - Senate Hearings about LSD

1966 - Black Panther Party formed

October 6, 1966 - California bans LSD, Love Pageant Rally in the Haight

January 14, 1967 - Human Be-In in Golden Gate Park

1967 - Joint FDA/NIMH Psychotomimetic Advisory Committee formed with strong input from CIA-linked doctors

June 1967 - Monterey Pop Festival

June 1967 - The Beatles' Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band

Summer 1967 - "Summer of Love"; STP appears on the blackmarket

October 21, 1967 - March on the Pentagon

1967 - Joint CIA-Army drug research program codenamed OFTEN/MK-CHICKWIT

January 1, 1968 - Yippie!

1968 - LSD possession declared a misdemeanor, sale a felony; the British Wootton Report declares marijuana to be relatively harmless

Spring 1968 - Student unrest at Columbia University

March 31, 1968 - LBJ announces he won't seek re-election

April 4, 1968 - Martin Luther King, Jr. assassinated

May 1968 - The Sorbonne uprising in Paris

June 5, 1968 - Senator Robert Kennedy assassinated

June 1969 - SDS unravels

Summer of 1969 - Orange sunshine debuts; Ronald Stark moves in on the illicit acid trade

August 1969 - Woodstock rock festival

Fall 1969 - Operation Intercept; huge antiwar demonstrations around the country

December 1969 - Altamont rock concert; the Manson killings

February 1970 - Leary convicted and jailed

September 12, 1970 - Leary escapes from prison

Spring 1970 - Jackson State and Kent State killings

1970 - LSD becomes a Schedule I drug

1971 - Windowpane acid first appears

August 1972 - Operation BEL

January 17, 1973 - Leary arrested in Afghanistan

November 1973 - Hitchcock turns state evidence to convict Tim Scully and Nick Sand

1973 - MK-SEARCH terminated; OFTEN/MK-CHICKWIT phased out

September 18, 1974 - PILL (People Investigating Leary's Lies) conference

1975 - Rockefeller Commission reports on CIA hallucinogenic drug experiments

February 1975 - Ronald Stark arrested in Bologna, Italy

1976 - Church Committee reports on CIA and Army drug experiments

1976 - Leary released from jail

Spring 1977 - Operation Julie bust in England

Fall 1977 - Senate hearings on MK-ULTRA

February 1979 - LSD reunion in Los Angeles

A Who's Who of Acid Dreams

Richard Alpert fired from Harvard in 1963 along with Tim Leary for giving LSD to an undergraduate student, later visited India, met a guru, and changed his name to Baba Ram Dass.

Harry Anslinger long-time head of the Federal Narcotics Bureau, campaigned publicly against marijuana as a killer weed, but privately participated in a secret US foreign intelligence project that selected marijuana as a truth serum and described it in playful, sexual terms.

Julian Beck and the Living Theater experimental performing troupe that traveled extensively in Europe in the 1960s. "We were willing to experiment with anything that would set the mind free," said Beck.

The Black Panthers young African-American activists and socialists based in Oakland, California. Collaborated with white radicals and counterculture advocates in the spirit of Malcolm X.

The Brotherhood of Eternal Love a southern California-based LSD commune that supplied the world with "orange sunshine," started out as dope-dealing idealists and ended up as a hippie mafia.

William Burroughs mentor of the beat generation and author of Naked Lunch, was looking for the "final fix" when he participated in a yage ritual in South America in the early 1950s. He warned that hallucinogenic drugs could be used to control rather than liberate the vision-starved masses. "Remember," said Burroughs, "anything that can be done chemically can be done in other ways."

John Starr Cooke a disciple of Aleister Crowley, was the Eminence gris behind the Psychedelic Rangers and the San Francisco Be-in.

Lt. General William Creasy chief officer of the US Army Chemical Corps during the 1950s, preached a new, LSD-influenced military gospel of "war without death." During Congressional testimony, Creasy called for the testing of hallucinogenic gases on subways in major American cities.

The Diggers guerrilla theater maestros and acid anarchists, lit up Haight-Ashbury with wild strokes of artistic genius and organized alternative social services for the flower children.

Bob Dylan the legendary folk singer, dropped acid and went electric in the mid-1960s, influencing a generation of rolling stones in search of a new America

Allen Ginsberg poet laureate of the grassroots acid subculture, charged that news media had exaggerated the dangers of LSD.

Dr. Sidney Gottlieb the CIA's chief sorcerer-scientist, ran the Agency's Technical Services Staff and oversaw the super-secret MK-ULTRA program, which sought to develop LSD into a mind control weapon and also experimented with numerous other drugs and behavior control techniques.

Grateful Dead led by Jerry Garcia, started out as a local acid rock band in San Francisco, before they claimed a loyal following of Deadheads.

Richard Helms CIA director from 1967 to 1973, was a strong advocate of secret behavior control experiments; he described LSD as "dynamite."

William Mellon Hitchcock the multimillionaire patron of the LSD commune at Millbrook, New York, later bankrolled a huge blackmarket acid manufacturing operation.

Dr. Paul Hoch financed by the US Army and the CIA to study the effects of drugs on human behavior, administered intraspinal injections of LSD to psychiatric patients and performed electroshock and lobotomies on patients while they were under the influence of LSD and other hallucinogens.

Abbie Hoffman, Jerry Rubin, and the Yippies political pranksters par excellence, dropped acid, burned money on Wall Street, and demonstrated against the Democratic Convention in Chicago in August 1968.

Dr. Albert Hofmann chemist working at Sandoz Pharmaceuticals in Switzerland, was the first person to synthesize LSD in 1938 and five years later he accidentally discovered the hallucinogenic effects of the drug.

Michael Hollingshead the British prankster and cultural affairs attache, gave Timothy Leary and his Harvard colleagues their first taste of LSD.

J. Edgar Hoover longtime FBI chief and closet queer, who oversaw extensive undercover operations designed to disrupt, neutralize, and counter the influence of the New Left, Black power proponents, and the sixties youth culture.

Captain Al Hubbard the American superspy and uranium entrepreneur, became the first Johnny Appleseed of LSD, turning on thousands of people, including scientists, politicians, intelligence officials, diplomats, church figures, and housewives. "If you don't think it's amazing," said Hubbard, "just go ahead and try it."

Aldous Huxley the eminent British novelist who lived in Hollywood, wrote The Doors of Perception, the seminal psychedelic manifesto. "It was without question the most extraordinary and significant experience this side of the Beautific Vision."

Laura Huxley administered LSD to her husband, Aldous, as he lay dying in November 1963.

Dr. Harris Isbell ran extensive drug experiments for the CIA at the Lexington Narcotics Hospital in Kentucky, where addicts were supplied with heroin in exchange for their participation in secret CIA LSD tests.

Dr. Oscar Janiger a Los Angeles-based psychiatrist, used LSD as a tool to study the creative attributes of the mind and gave the drug to many well-known painters, musicians, actors, comedians, and writers. Janiger was also the first person in the US to synthesize DMT, a short-acting super-hallucinogen.

Jack Kerouac the beat novelist, sampled the magic mushroom extract and reported: "It was a definite Satori. Full of psychic clairvoyance (but you must remember that this is not half as good as the peaceful ecstasy of simple Samadhi trance as I described it in Dharma Bums)."

Ken Kesey and the Merry Pranksters were introduced to LSD courtesy of the US Army. They drove a day-glo bus across the United States and hosted the first electric kool-aid acid tests and rock/art extravaganzas in California during the mid-1960s.

Arthur Kleps chief Boohoo of the Neo-American Boohoo Church, added epistemological spice to the Millbrook scene with his surrealistic antics.

Timothy Leary the pied piper of the acid generation, implored everyone to "turn on, tune in, and drop out.

John Lennon and the Beatles gave the blossoming psychedelic counterculture a stunning musical benediction with their release in June 1967 of Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band.

G. Gordon Liddy Dutchess County prosecutor who tried to bust Timothy Leary, went on to serve as one of President Nixon's Watergate burglars whose arsenal of dirty tricks included LSD and other hallucinogens to neutralize Tricky Dick's political enemies.

Charles Manson ex-convict and would-be rock musician, was a habitue of Haight-Ashbury before he formed a satanic LSD commune in Southern California, whose members engaged in depraved acts of violence and murder.

The Motherf**kers crazed LSD radicals, took up the cry of "acid armed consciousness" and prefigured the paramilitary fad that engulfed the New Left in the late 1960s.

Dr. Humphry Osmond a British research psychiatrist who coined the word "psychedelic," explored the therapeutic potential of LSD for curing alcoholism.

Owsley (Augustus Owsley Stanley III) the undisputed king of the illicit LSD trade in the mid-1960s, deluged Haight-Ashbury and points beyond with street acid. Subsidized the Grateful Dead's infamous Wall of Sound.

Maria Sabena a Mexican witch doctress, gave the divine mushroom to Harvard Psychologist Timothy Leary in 1960.

Ed Sanders and the Fugs turned-on peace activists and folk-rock band, provided musical edification for protesters at the Pentagon in October 1967.

Tim Scully young, idealistic genius, served time in prison after manufacturing orange sunshine and other forms of LSD.

Dr. Van Sim chief of the Clinical Research Division at Edgewood Arsenal (headquarters of the Army Chemical Corps), received the Decoration for Exceptional Civilian Service because he tried all new drugs, including LSD, on himself, before administering them to American soldiers.

John Sinclair and the White Panthers, Ann Arbor-based activists who allied themselves with the Yippies and the Black panthers. "Acid was amping everything up, driving everything into greater and greater frenzy," Sinclair recounted.

Ronald Stark CIA informant and counterculture con man, produced 50 million doses of LSD before he was busted in Italy in the mid-1970s.

R. Gordon Wasson banker for J.P. Morgan, traveled to the Mexican highlands in the mid-1950s and participated in a magic mushroom ritual under the guidance of a local shaman. "For the first time," he wrote in Life magazine, "the word ecstasy took on real meaning. For the first time it did not mean someone else's state of mind."

Weather Underground tripped-out, left-wing revolutionaries, helped Timothy Leary escape from prison and bombed symbolic targets in the late 1960s and early 1970s.

Dr. Louis Joylon West conducted tests for the CIA at the University of Oklahoma, was called upon to examine Jack Ruby while he was in prison for murdering Lee Harvey Oswald, the alleged assassin of President Kennedy. Concluding that Ruby suffered from delusions of a conspiracy in the JFK killing, West prescribed "happy pills" for Ruby during his incarceration.

George Hunter White a high-ranking US narcotics official who tested LSD on unwitting American citizens at the behest of the CIA. "It was fun, fun, fun," said White. "Where else could a red-blooded American lie, kill, cheat, and rape with the sanction of the all-highest?"

Key Locations in Acid Dreams

Basil, Switzerland Where Dr. Albert Hofmann, working at Sandoz Pharmaceuticals, first synthesized and discovered the hallucinogenic effects of LSD

Saskatchewan, Canada Where Dr. Humphry Osmond first successfully utilized LSD therapy to cure alcoholism

Vancouver, Canada The home base of Captain Alfred Hubbard, who set up an LSD clinic at Hollywood Hospital

Los Angeles, California Where LSD was first used as a social drug in the 1950s; a center of LSD research and therapeutic sessions

San Francisco Bay Area LSD tests on unwitting Americans at a CIA safehouse during the 1950s and early 1960s; Haight-Ashbury, the most famous psychedelic city-state took shape in the mid-1960s

Berkeley, California Home of the Free Speech Movement and focal point of student radicalism in the 1960s

Ann Arbor, Michigan Birthplace of the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) and the White Panther Party

Mexican highlands The place of pilgrimage for G. Gordon Wasson, who first wrote about the magic mushrooms for Life magazine

London Site of the first clinic specializing in LSD therapy in the earluy 1950s; a swinging psychedelic scene in the 1960s

Amsterdam Home of the Provos, the Dutch forerunners of the Yippies

Millbrook, New York Where Timothy Leary set up an LSD commune in the mid-1960s

Czechoslovakia The Communist government manufactured LSD during the 1950s and 1960s, some of which found its way to acidheads in the West

AlgiersTimothy Leary lived briefly in exile with leaders of the Black Panther party before he fled to Switzerland

La Honda, Palo Alto Home base of novelist Ken Kesey in the early 1960s when the Merry Pranksters emerged

Laguna Beach, Idylwild, California Stomping grounds of the Brotherhood of Eternal Love, major distributors of blackmarket acid in the late 1960s and early 1970s

Woodstock, New York The artists' community that provided the name for the legendary three-day music festival in August 1969

Bahamas Where William Mellon Hitchcock stashed some of the illegal proceeds of the underground LSD trade

Bologna, Italy Where the mysterious Ronald Stark was arrested and jailed for drug possession before he was fingered as a US intelligence operative by an Italian judge

Paris, France The site of a major illegal LSD laboratory run by Ronald Stark

Brussels, Belgium The site of one of Ronald Stark's pharmaceutical fronts

New York City, New York Army drug tests at the New York State Psychiatric Institute killed at least one human guinea pig; CIA-sponsored LSD research at Columbia University; drug subculture associated with the beat community and later the center of a thriving grassroots acid scene

Boston area Site of early CIA-sponsored LSD research; later the home base of Timothy Leary at Harvard

CIA sites

Washington, DC area CIA headquarters, where several hallucinogenic escapades and covert operations with LSD were plotted

Lexington, Kentucky CIA conducted extensive drug testing at the National Institutes of Mental Health Addiction Research Center

Read more about drug tests at Lexington, excerpted from the text. Montreal, Canada CIA contracted brainwashing and drug studies involving LSD and PCP at the Allain Memorial Hospital

Vacaville, California One of several prisons where the CIA tested drugs and behavior modification techniques

Manilla, Philippines Where the CIA stored LSD for covert warfare

Atsugi Air Base, Japan Where Lee Harvey Oswald's Marine unit was given LSD

West Germany Where the CIA conducted LSD interrogations during the Cold war

Army sites

New York City, New York Army drug tests at the New York State Psychiatric Institute killed at least one human guinea pig

Edgewood Arsenal, Maryland Headquarters of the US Army Chemical Corps, where thousands of soldiers were given LSD, the superhallucinogen BZ, and other mind-altering drugs

Read more about BZ at Edgewood, excerpted from the text of Acid Dreams.

Ft. Bragg, North Carolina US soldiers were given LSD and told to perform tank drills and other military manuevers in the late 1950s

Ft. Benning, Georgia US soldiers perfomed war games under the influence of LSD in the late 1950s

Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland Where BZ-type weapons were developed for domestic crowd control purposes

Pine Bluff, Arkansas Where large quantities of BZ were stored

Dugway Proving Ground, Utah Project Dork, a multiphase field test, was conducted with BZ in the early 1960s; a BZ accident later sent several soldiers to the hospital

Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas The site of additional Army LSD tests

Ft. McLellan, Alabama US Army instructors attempted to teach classes while under the inluence of LSD in the late 1950s

Ft. Dietrich, Maryland Headquarters of the US Army's Special Operations Division, which was devoted to biological warfare reasearch in the 1950s

Orleans, France Under the auspices of Operation "Third Chance," US officers used LSD to torture an African-American private who was falsely accused of stealing classified documents

Far East Army LSD interrogations performed under the auspice of Operation "Derby Hat"

Hawaiian Islands Open air BZ tests conducted by the Army in preparation for use in Vietnam combat situations

Vietnam BZ gas used to flush out enemy hideouts in South Vietnam during the war.

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Doug Valentine on Anslinger

Review by Carlo Parcelli

“Where else could a red-blooded American boy lie, kill, cheat, steal,

rape, and pillage with the sanction and the blessing of the All-Highest.”

-George White, Federal Bureau of Narcotics & Central Intelligence Agency

The Strength of the Wolf:

The Secret History of America’s War On Drugs

by Douglas Valentine

Verso Press, London/NY, 2004. 554pgs.

Back in the 1980's, during the era of William Casey’s CIA, there were reports circulating in the alternative press about an international drug smuggling operation involving the mujaheddin in Afghanistan fighting the Soviets, the Central Intelligence Agency, and the Pakistani military, including elements of its intelligence service, the Inter Service Intelligence or ISI. At one point the CIA, in an effort to ramp up this smuggling operation, sought to requisition 400 vehicles, including dozens of transport trucks from the Department of Defense. The Pentagon refused, but the CIA appealed to Reagan’s Vice President, career spook George H.W. Bush, through the National Security Council. The CIA got its trucks.

At that time there were 17 Drug Enforcement Agents stationed in Islamabad, the largest contingent in the world at the time outside of the United States, according to Alfred W. Mc Coy in his classic history The Politics of Heroin: CIA Complicity in the Global Drug Trade. (The number I remember reading at the time was 14 agents, still a formidable number for a single overseas station.) This contingent of DEA agents was “pushing paper” in Islamabad when “n marked contrast ...a single Norwegian detective, [Oyvind Olsen,] broke a heroin case that led directly to the leader of Pakistan, General Zia ul Haq’s private banker.”

The CIA’s close relationship to elements in the Zia regime, including the ISI, were well known. Also the agency's ties to heroin and raw opium smuggler and mujaheddin leader, Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, were becoming problematic as revelations of U.S. complicity in the drug trade bloomed. Hekmatyar has turned on his American allies and is currently battling the CIA-installed Hamid Karzai regime in Afghanistan. This is not surprising. He was a founder of the Islamic brotherhood and led student demonstrations in Kabul in the 1970's and remains a member of the Jamaat-i Islami (Party of Islam), “a fundamentalist and quasi-fascist Muslim group with many followers inside the Pakistani officer corps.” The U.S. State Department and the mainstream media never fail to mention in their public comments that Hekmatyar is a “narco-terrorist,” as though all those years he worked hand in hand with the CIA he was a choirboy. He was particularly close to another drug dealer, Jesse Helms, former Senator from North Carolina.

What was the Reagan administration’s response to this torrent of reports tying the CIA to mujaheddin/ISI drug smuggling? As the Islamabad branch of the DEA began to stir around the reports of convoys of arms going up to Afghanistan and bringing drugs back, the Reagan people reassigned all but two agents, lest they interfere with the CIA drug operation. Pakistan virtually overnight went from a country with a few thousand heroin abusers to 1.3 million addicts.

And this is where Doug Valentine’s study of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics, The Strength of the Wolf: The Secret History of America’s War on Drugs, proves itself essential. The FBN was a precursor of the DEA and the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, or BNDD; and as such, repeatedly, both worked with and ran afoul of the CIA and the national security apparatus in its pursuit of national and international drug cartels. Valentine draws much of his narrative from interviews with former FBN agents whose frustration with and anger at interference by the CIA and the national security apparatus interference is palpable.

The amount of information Valentine crams into his text is formidable and often takes on the texture of the dense web of law enforcement, felonious behavior, and intrigue he’s illuminating. Some sets of passages reveal corruption so deep and pervasive that it's “thrilling”, to borrow Dirty Lenny’s term. Any one of dozens of cases Valentine touches on could have become one of Mark Lombardi’s elegant and complex graphs of corruption.

For example, Valentine quotes from a memo from Ed Lansdale, the head of Operation Mongoose, part of JM/WAVE, which in part plotted to assassinate Castro as well as other Cubans and destroy Cuba’s infrastructure. Lansdale wrote: “Gangster elements might prove the best recruitment potential for actions [murders] against police G-2 (intelligence) officials. CW [Chemical Warfare] agents should be fully considered.” And recent documents have proven that CW were used as well as biological weapons against crops and the hog population of the island nation. Lansdale is ubiquitous in the annals of U.S. foreign policy. He can be found at the Huk rebellion, Vietnam/Laos, as well as Kennedy assassination. There is a hagiography on Lansdale which has its uses if you can read between the lines. But for biting insight into just how cultural chauvinists like Lansdale or Ted Shackley can xxxx things up, read Richard Drinnon’s chapters on the former in his Facing West: The Metaphysics of Indian-Hating and Empire Building.

As it turns out, the gangsters in Lansdale’s employ were the very gangsters the FBN was chasing--Carlos Marcello, Santos Trafficante, Meyer Lansky, and Lucky Luciano.

On the very next page, we get Bobby Kennedy et al. Not the indefatigably noble Bobby Kennedy of the current Emilio Estevez hagiography, but the historical Bobby Kennedy:

While Bobby Kennedy was using Mafia drug smugglers in murder plots against Castro [Robert Kennedy was intimately involved with Operation Mongoose], and thus neutralizing the FBN, the CIA was relocating its Havana station and anti-Castro terror activities to Miami. Known as JM/WAVE, the station was managed by Theodore Shackley, a prot&eacutee;g&eacutee; of Bill Harvey from Germany. It included Lansdale’s Mongoose unit, and some 400 CIA case officers. Already the preferred habitat of America’s mobsters, Miami was soon packed with dozens of CIA front companies. Thousands of CIA informers and assets, and several drug smuggling terror teams financed by wacky privateers like William Pawley, mentioned in Chapter 5 as having engineered the Pawley-Cooke Advisory Mission in Taiwan.

Reader’s Digest Press published career spook Ted Shackley’s book The Third Option in 1981. The book is such self-righteous bluster as to be laughable coming from a man who was stung by the Church and Pike committee reports and forced to fake his retirement from the Agency. “Shackley, having met drug lord General Vang Pao in Miami during his cooling off period, was reassigned as station chief to Laos.” He needed to chill in Vientiane because “he’d been caught selling 50 kilograms of morphine base to FBN agent Bowman Taylor.”

“How could the United States project power into distant lands, thus restoring some control over events which threaten our very survival?” Shackley asks. His answer: counter-insurgency and para-military operations like JM/WAVE, the Phoenix Program, and Operation Mongoose. Shackley is never clear how events in Nicaragua, the Congo, Bangladesh, Chile, Burkina Faso or Haiti etc. ad nauseum “threaten [the] very survival” of the U.S., a piece of political hyperbole obviously designed to disguise naked imperialism. But the global nature of American hegemony is clear in the statement.

So Ted Shackley in Florida! No wonder it was so easy for him to plug into the drugs and illegal arms side of the Iran-Contra affair, along with a bevy of Miami Cubans accused of drugs and arms smuggling, sabotage and murder, including Luis Posada Carriles and Orlando Bosch, who blew up a Cuban airliner, killing all aboard. Is that in your Bobby Kennedy legacy, Emilio? It's what you often find among American politicians; relatively benign domestic policy – fodder-friendly -- yet a foreign policy, the tool of empire, that is cruel, vindictive, even sadistic.

But wait, it gets better, Golden Triangle fans! “To cover a fraction of the costs of this massive enterprise, former spymaster Paul L. E. Helliwell established and directed a string of drug money laundering banks for the CIA. At the time, Helliwell was general counsel for the Thai consulate in Miami, an active leader in the Republican Party, and a friend of Nixon’s cohort, Bebe Rebozo. Among his drug smuggling credentials, Helliwell had worked with Chiang Kai-Shek’s intelligence chief, General Tai Li, and had set up the CIA’s drug smuggling air force, CAT [Civil Air Transport](later Air America), as well as the Bangkok trading company Sea Supply, which provided cover for CIA officers advising the drug-smuggling Thai border police.”

Against this new OSS/CIA backdrop of international criminality disguised as national security, the FBN was assigned the task of keeping America’s streets safe from drugs. As Valentine points out, the long and bitter dissolution of the FBN had begun.

The Federal Bureau of Narcotics, FBN, which was formed on June 30th, 1930, from the remnants of the Narcotics Division, the corrupt Prohibition Unit of the Internal Revenue Service, and the Treasury Department’s Foreign Control Board, antedates the Office of Strategic Services or OSS, the precursor to the CIA, by over two decades. The CIA’s role in the international drug trade and how it warped, thwarted, and finally made a mockery of U.S. drug policy cannot be stressed enough. Valentine himself begins his introduction with a discussion of how, after finishing work on his excellent study of the ‘Phoenix Program’, he turned to the FBN. The Phoenix Program was turned over to the CIA by the DoD midstream. This put the CIA in an ideal position to protect its Golden Triangle drug smuggling turf and infiltrate and subvert DEA efforts to stem the international drug trade after the end of the U.S. incursion into Vietnam and Southeast Asia (see mujaheddin story above).

Not that the FBN, anymore than the BNDD or DEA, was a sainted organization. From its inception in 1930 to just under a decade before its dissolution, it was headed by Harry Jacob Anslinger, who was recommended by then head of the Foreign Relations committee, Stephen G. Porter (R-PA), and that paragon of truth and beauty, yellow journalist, the Rupert Murdoch of his day, William Randolph Hearst. Anslinger was a bureaucratic brown-noser with little interest in real drug enforcement and little idea of how to proceed. His main concern was preserving his power and maneuvering his little fiefdom politically while in the shadow of J. Edgar Hoover’s far more powerful FBI. Lucky Luciano appropriately nicknamed Anslinger, Harry ‘Asslicker.’

Post-World War II American foreign policy is often grotesque, and as Valentine makes clear, the FBN managed to find itself entangled in more than its share of bizarre machinations. Sometimes FBN agents pursuing a case were suddenly told to back off, often without explanation, or removed altogether. Other times they were willing participants eager to take part in the Bureau’s sexy, Ed Wood-like cross-dressing fantasies or to abet felonies like drug dealing and murder.

Not that the FBN didn’t have its law enforcement moments. One of its best agents was Charles Siragusa, who nearly became Anslinger’s heir to head the bureau. Siragusa opened the FBN’s first overseas office in Rome and liaisoned there with the CIA.

Siragusa drew the line at facilitating drug trafficking, but helped the CIA in other ways. For example he helped black-bag CIA money to Italian politicians for James [Jesus] Angleton, the CIA’s aggressive counter-intelligence chief...

Siragusa was especially helpful to the CIA when it came to investigating diversions of Marshall Plan aid. In one case he learned through an informer that the commercial attach&eacutee; at the Romanian Embassy [the U.S.’s secret Communist ally] in Berne was diverting American-made ball-bearings to the Soviet Union, which the Soviets used to build tanks for North Korea. According to Siragusa, the attach&eacutee; traded the ball-bearings for heroin as part of a sinister scheme to steal strategic materials with one hand from the West, while the other poisoned it with smack.

As a result of the Berne case, a CIA team was sent to Rome under military cover to stop diversions, and with Siragusa’s help it intercepted all manner of strategic items, including uranium for the Soviet atomic energy program. James Jesus Angleton is loosely portrayed by Mat Damon in Robert DeNiro’s film ‘The Good Shepherd.’ But it's doubtful that Damon communicates the very non-photogenic, spidery creepiness of the alcohol-soaked real thing. One retired CIA officer told me about a dinner party he attended where Angleton was also a guest. Angleton turned to the young spook and began asking him questions about his family background, beliefs, aspirations, etc. As he posed his questions, he pulled a small notebook from his jacket pocket and began keeping notes on the answers. The paranoid Angleton continued taking notes the entire evening. So much for Emily Post meets Skull and Bones.

The FBN was involved in other notable cases, for example the famous French Connection and agent Frank Selvaggi’s Valachi investigation. Much of the FBN’s drug enforcement activity, however, was directed at street level dealers and users, especially among America’s blacks and disenfranchised. Much like today, street busts were easier and the numbers could be used to justify funding. And if you didn’t go too high up you wouldn’t run afoul of the powers that be like the CIA and get your ass fired or worse. When in the early 1950's the FBN was closing in on the Pahlavi family and the Shah of Iran through the Shah’s brother, Mahmoud Pahlavi, who along with other members of his family owned huge opium farms, they sat on the information because “the CIA was plotting to overthrow the government in Iran, and reinstall the Shah.” And indeed in 1953 the CIA overthrew the elected government of Mohammed Mossadegh and installed their favorite Persian drug dealers, the Pahlevis. Numerous other drug dealers from the Kuomintang to the Thai royal family and the Contras got a similar free pass flooding the streets of the world’s major cities with drugs.

Take a more recent analogy. Reporter Gary Webb, for his reporting on the CIA/Contra drug smuggling connection to the ‘Freeway’ Ricky Ross and the Los Angeles crack epidemic, was roundly vilified by the mainstream media protecting its masters. Webb was also hounded by various agencies of the U.S. government. The Los Angeles Times went so far as to contradict without explanation its own earlier reporting on ‘Freeway’ Ricky and his influence on the L.A. crack epidemic in order to protect the CIA in the name of national security. The whole hypocritical episode is laid out by Alexander Cockburn and Jeffrey St. Clair in Whiteout: The CIA, Drugs and The Press. As for Gary Webb: despondent over the outing of such a fine Ivy League crew as the CIA and their noble 'founding father'-like buddies, the Contras, he allegedly committed suicide à la Danny Casolaro in December of 2004.

Valentine’s book also expands on the FBN’s role in one of the seediest episodes involving the CIA, the creation of the American counter-culture or MKULTRA. As you might recall, MKULTRA was a program under the supervision of OSS/CIA scientist, Dr. Sidney Gottlieb. Gottlieb approached Harry Anslinger to enlist the services of FBN agent George White, in effect making White both an employee of the FBN and the OSS/CIA. All of this is nicely reprised in John Marks’ The Search for the Manchurian Candidate: The CIA and Mind Control The Story of the Agency’s Secret Efforts to the Control Human Behavior. For the perpetually naive I recommend the Church and Pike congressional committee reports or the books of CIA Inspector General Lyman B. Kirkpatrick. Kirkpatrick, for example, closed the case, ruling the mysterious death of Frank Olson a suicide. The CIA scientist, who specialized in airborne diseases like anthrax, was surreptitiously slipped LSD at a CIA social gathering. After a bad trip, Olson plunged to his death from a window of the Manhattan Statler Hilton several days later, in the presence of CIA psychiatrist Robert Lashbrook. Police initially called the crime scene a homicide until Kirkpatrick stepped in.

The ostensible reason for this CIA ‘research’ which embraced LSD and other hallucinogens was to create a ‘truth serum.’ Added to that project were various attempts to control behavior, in effect creating assassins chemically, the Manchurian Candidate. Better assassins through chemistry. But mostly it was used as a party drug by the Agency and a small group of elites who were creating the nascent vocabulary of mind expansion. The OSS project began under the supervision of Dr. Winfred Overholser of St. Elizabeth’s Hospital, who also oversaw Ezra Pound’s treatment there during the 1950's. Overholser used a dozen unsuspecting guinea pigs from the Manhattan Project, possibly searching for Soviet or German spies. A liquid concentrate of marijuana was used but with no discernible results other than to make the young scientists ill. Whether Overholser was tripping while treating Pound is lost to posterity.

When George White came on board, he had bigger plans. White used FBN ‘safe houses’ and apartments around the country, including the birthplace of the counter-culture, San Francisco, for illicit trysts and parties among FBN, CIA, and other law enforcement and intelligence people. The ‘program’ expanded to include unwitting victims, acquaintances, prostitutes, musicians, etc. White would spike the punch with a cocktail of hallucinogens and their variants, often triggering hallucinations & even psychosis in his unsuspecting victims. Many suffered permanent psychological damage. For many more no record exists of what effect this clandestine drugging might have had on them. Years later in a personal letter to Sid Gottlieb, George White wrote an epitaph for his role in the CIA:

"I was a very minor missionary, actually a heretic, but I toiled wholeheartedly in the vineyards because it was fun, fun, fun. Where else could a red-blooded American boy lie, kill, cheat, steal, rape, and pillage with the sanction and the blessing of the All-Highest?

The breadth of drug-related events in the post-World War II world the FBN had a stake in is extraordinary. Though corruption flourished within the bureau throughout its history, it’s the FBN’s connection with broad historical events from a relatively unique perspective, often in the agents' own words, that makes Valentine’s reprise fresh and informative.

Valentine makes clear that three of the forces most prominent in defining the underlying international drug trade are the Mafia, the anti-Castro Cubans, and the CIA, with the CIA shielding the other two entities at every turn. Of the three, the Mafia is the most pervasive. Its underworld figures, like Arnold Rothstein who, besides running drugs, fixed the 1919 World Series, helped establish a need for a law enforcement agency that focused specifically on drugs. The anti-Castro Cubans were often Mafia figures unhappy about the Commies cleaning up their little island whore house. No more could a U.S. Congressman be lured to Havana with promises of unlimited sex with eight-year old boys in exchange for political favors.

The CIA’s connection, of course, began with ‘Wild Bill’ Donovan’s old OSS and its recruitment of Lucky Luciano and the Corsican mafiosi to beat and murder Communist union dockworkers in Marseilles and elsewhere along the Mediterranean Coast, and to seize Sicily from the Communists. With CIA blessing, and using drug running as a way of financing activities, the Mafia set up drug supply routes back to the U.S. Many an FBN operation would trace the drugs back to Mafia sources, in turn supplied through Lebanon, Turkey, Afghanistan, and elsewhere in the Middle East, only to be thwarted by the far more powerful CIA stepping in and terminating the investigation on national security grounds.

But nowhere has CIA drug smuggling been more pervasive, longstanding, and crucial to the financing of black ops and low intensity conflict than in the Golden Triangle region of Southeast Asia. This raw opium and heroin preserve straddles northern Burma/Myanmar, southern Yunnan province in China, and northern Thailand stretching to Vientiane in southern Laos. The CIA officially took over drug smuggling operations from the French after Dien Bien Phu and along with the Corsicans, and especially the darlings of Washington political establishment, Reader’s Digest, and Claire Chennault, Chiang Kai-Shek’s Kuomintang.

The Kuomintang were involved in the drug trade in southern China well before there was an American presence in the region. But corrupt allies like Meo tribal leader Vang Pao who now resides in Orange County, California, were actually enlisted by the Agency. Vang Pao, a persistent critic of the godless and comparatively drugless Vietminh and Pathet Lao, helped organize the recent anti-Vietnam protests, in advance of George Bush’s visit to Hanoi, with the help of the California Republican Party, as the two have done on many occasions.

Competition for the drug trade remains fierce in the Golden Triangle to this day. As Valentine points out, the CIA then as now remains in the thick of it, even as the FBN proved ineffectual or too corrupt or bureaucratically incompetent to be effective. Drawing from Alfred McCoy’s earlier classic The Politics of Heroin in Southeast Asia, Valentine reprises a popular story of the CIA’s heroic defense of its opium trade and life-and-death free market competition of the Golden Triangle:

As world attention focused ever more closely on America’s conduct in the Vietnam War, the CIA’s need to conceal its major role in the regional drug trade became a top priority. The climactic point came in June 1967, when Burmese War Lord Khun Sa decided to sell 16 tons of opium in Houei Sai. Construing this as a challenge to their precious monopoly over supply, the Kuomintang generals mobilized their forces in Burma and marched across the border into Laos. Apprised of the situation, CIA station chief Ted Shackley in Vientiane informed Pat Landry, chief of the CIA’s major base in Udorn, Thailand. Landry ordered Air Force Major Richard Secord to send a squadron of T-28s to the rescue. Within hours, the battle had ended with both Khun Sa and the Kuomintang in full retreat, and the Laotians in total control.

Most readers probably first heard of Richard Secord during Iran-Contra when he and his partner, Albert Hakim, supplied the U.S. proxy army fighting against the Sandinistas and flooding U.S. drug markets with Contra cocaine. Especially hard hit was South Central Los Angeles, which Contra and Agency asset Danilo Blandon and ‘Freeway’ Ricky Ross flooded with Colombian cocaine with the enthusiastic support of the CIA and Reagan administration officials. This is the story Gary Webb broke. And the spread of coke, especially crack, is why you ended up with Crips dealing in Mineola and Duluth and Scranton as well as the AIDS epidemic and the hundreds of millions of dollars made from the mandatory sentencing craze and the penal housing boom it fuels. (The sad saga is also reprised in Cockburn and St. Clair’s White Out, cited above.)

CIA agent Ted Shackley, called the Blond Ghost, the consummate ‘spook,’ shows up in the index of practically every book ever written on the illegal drug trade, political assassination, and sabotage from the earliest days of the U.S. takeover from the French in Vietnam to Operation Mongoose and the Phoenix Program, right through Iran-Contra. He famously said: “I fought the communists for twenty-eight years. I did a lot of bad things for my country. But I loved my country and did what I thought best.”

Of course, the case is easily made that Shackley also did a lot of bad things TO his country. Jonathan Kwitny, in his book The Crimes of Patriots: A True Tale of Dope, Dirty Money, and the CIA, sums up Shackley’s career thus: “Looking at the list of disasters Shackley has presided over during his career, one might even conclude that on the day the CIA hired Shackley it might have done better hiring a KGB agent; a Soviet mole probably could not have done as much damage to the national security of the United States with all his wiles as Shackley did with the most patriotic of intentions.”(p.291)

Valentine points out, and as ‘Freeway’ Ricky Ross and Contra cocaine confirm, [that the FBN as well as the CIA, DEA, FBI, the Los Angeles Times, The Washington Post et al.] racism and class warfare play an enormous role in who is the enemy in the so-called ‘war on drugs.’ It was the Danilo Blandon Contra drug connection with ‘Freeway’ Ricky Ross in Los Angeles than led to the pandemic of crack use in the U.S., and the seeming anomaly of finding Crips establishing drug markets all across the heartland. During the 1980's Ted Shackley and his friends Thomas Clines and Felix Rodriguez were part of the drug smuggling operation out of Ilopango Air Base in El Salvador that fueled that pandemic. CIA asset John Hull served the same function forming what was known as the 'Southern Front' from his ranch in Costa Rica along the Nicaraguan border.

Apropos of the customary targets of the FBN, and the FBN’s history of cutting law enforcement corners and corruption, agent Jim Attie summarized his experience as an agent as follows: “I’m not proud of what I did. It was dirty job. It was a form of amorality, and to this day I feel tremendous guilt and have unending nightmares as a result of what I did as a narcotic agent.” Attie himself exited the FBN after his fellow agents in the New York office, where he had recently been reassigned, slipped LSD into his coffee. Attie merited the reassignment because he had called his boss Anslinger “a manipulator and a cheapskate” who knew nothing about real narcotics work.

The FBN was involved in myriad aspects of the investigation of the infamous French Connection. The French Connection had its origins in French intelligence, the SDECE, operating in French Indo-China. This drug smuggling operation provided essential funding to the French military and enhanced its ability to wage war against insurgencies in that region. This is the operation the CIA would inherit working with the traditional drug lords in the Golden Triangle and the French Corsican mob. Further, “In 1963 Laos would withdraw from the UN’s 1961 Single Convention and, under the guidance of the CIA, start mass-producing narcotics to support the CIA’s own secret army of Laotion hill tribesmen, some 450 more of whom just surrendered to Laotian authorities in December of 2006.”

The FBN also made the initial bust on Joe Valachi, laboriously working their way up through his contacts. They also elicited some of his notorious revelations about the mob. A rookie agent in late 1958, Frank Selvaggi, along with his senior partner Art Mendelsohn and veteran NYPD narcotic detective Harold Kunin, arrested Helen Streat, a heroin addict and a prostitute in Harlem. Eventually through a series of busts, payoffs and ‘vigorous’ interrogations, a Selvaggi informant, Robert Wagner, ‘gave’ the FBN Valachi and he was arrested. Facing sentencing in court, Valachi began to set up and talk about members of the Genovese crime family.

And because the FBN was mandated to pursue illicit drugs, and because illicit drugs were a core business of the Mafia, the anti-Castro Cuban community, and the CIA, the FBN found itself smack dab in the middle of the Holy Grail of all conspiracies, the assassination of John F. Kennedy. But as Valentine points out, you’d be hard pressed to find relevant FBN activity in any official investigation of Kennedy’s assassination. For example, in 1958 the FBN was aware that Joseph Civello was Carlos Marcello’s “deputy in Dallas” and that Jack Ruby was part of Civello’s organization. FBN agent John Cusack linked Civello with Marcello, Santos Trafficante, and Jimmy Hoffa - the House Select Committee on Assassinations' three prime suspects in the Kennedy assassination. But the FBN was never called to testify, nor were their files requested.

Valentine lays out other FBN connections that went unexplored by the Warren Commission and other official investigations, none ‘eerier’ than the connection with the main figures in the aforementioned MKULTRA project which had for one of its main goals the creation of a Manchurian Candidate, a ‘patsy,’ to borrow Lee Harvey Oswald’s term.

"The three main suspects in the assassination [of JFK] - Marcello, Trafficante, and Hoffa - were million dollar men” e.g individuals who for services rendered and classified information were privy to were shielded from prosecution by the CIA. “And the CIA prevented the FBN from going after these drug traffickers, or investigating CIA agents like Irving Brown - and perhaps even Michael Mertz - in Angleton’s French connection."

There’s Oswald’s claim of being a mere ‘patsy’ in the assassination of Kennedy. Then there’s the connection that FBN files and interviews with former agents reveal between Ruby and the Marcello crime family and a number of other connections that Valentine lays out. In this light, not only Oswald but Ruby himself and Sirhan Sirhan, Robert Kennedy’s assassin, could have been patsies.

On 29 November 1963, a week after the president was murdered, Marshall Carter, the deputy director of the CIA, met with Richard Helms, John Earman, James Angleton, Sid Gottlieb, and Lyman Kirkpatrick. What a group! At this meeting the CIA chiefs agreed to continue testing unwitting subjects through MKULTRA using the FBN and its safehouses. To this end they launched MKULTRA Subproject 149 in New York in January 1964, specifically to provide a replacement for [FBN agent] Charlie Siragusa.

Siragusa had gotten tangled up in MKULTRA, Operation Mongoose plots to murder Castro, and other CIA intrigues when his boss Bill Anslinger sent Siragusa to solicit the help of Cuba’s new leader Fidel Castro in the apprehension of 50 major drug traffickers that had formerly called Batista’s Cuba their second home. Castro, who was in the Sierra Maestra when Batista was pimping for the mob and the CIA, couldn’t be of much help, and Siragusa began to suspect what was eventually to become the obvious, that Trafficante was protected by the CIA and that a recent murder charge in the Albert Anastasia assassination case was dismissed at the Agency's behest.

This review can't do Valentine's book justice. The rich detail of the CIA's effectiveness in blocking FBN efforts to pursue international drug traffickers is worth the price of admission alone.

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The Search for the Manchurian Candidate - by John Marks

Chapter 6. Them Unwitting: The Safehouses

Frank Olson's death could have been a major setback for the Agency's LSD testing, but the program, like Sid Gottlieb's career, emerged essentially unscathed. High CIA officials did call a temporary halt to all experiments while they investigated the Olson case and re-examined the general policy. They cabled the two field stations that had supplies of the drug (Manila and Atsugi, Japan) not to use it for the time being, and they even took away Sid Gottlieb's own private supply and had it locked up in his boss' safe, to which no one else had the combination. In the end, however, Allen Dulles accepted the view Richard Helms put forth that the only "operationally realistic" way to test drugs was to try them on unwitting people. Helms noted that experiments which gave advance warning would be "pro forma at best and result in a false sense of accomplishment and readiness." For Allen Dulles and his top aides, the possible importance of LSD clearly outweighed the risks and ethical problem of slipping the drug to involuntary subjects. They gave Gottlieb back his LSD.

Once the CIA's top echelon had made its decision to continue unwitting testing, there remained, in Richard Helms' words, "only then the question of how best to do it." The Agency's role in the Olson affair had come too perilously close to leaking out for the comfort of the security-minded, so TSS officials simply had to work out a testing system with better cover. That meant finding subjects who could not be so easily traced back to the Agency.

Well before Olson's death, Gottlieb and the MKULTRA crew had started pondering how best to do unwitting testing. They considered using an American police force to test drugs on prisoners, informants, and suspects, but they knew that some local politicians would inevitably find out. In the Agency view, such people could not be trusted to keep sensitive secrets. TSS officials thought about trying Federal prisons or hospitals, but, when sounded out, the Bureau of Prisons refused to go along with true unwitting testing (as opposed to the voluntary, if coercive, form practiced on drug addicts in Kentucky). They contemplated moving the program overseas, where they and the ARTICHOKE teams were already performing operational experiments, but they decided if they tested on the scale they thought was necessary, so many foreigners would have to know that it would pose an unacceptable security risk.

Sid Gottlieb is remembered as the brainstorming genius of the MKULTRA group—and the one with a real talent for showing others, without hurting their feelings, why their schemes would not work. States an ex-colleague who admires him greatly, "In the final analysis, Sid was like a good soldier—if the job had to be done, he did it. Once the decision was made, he found the most effective way."

In this case, Gottlieb came up with the solution after reading through old OSS files on Stanley Lovell's search for a truth drug. Gottlieb noted that Lovell had used George White, a prewar employee of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics, to test concentrated marijuana. Besides trying the drug out on Manhattan Project volunteers and unknowing suspected Communists, White had slipped some to August Del Gracio, the Lucky Luciano lieutenant. White had called the experiment a great success. If it had not been—if Del Gracio had somehow caught on to the drugging—Gottlieb realized that the gangster would never have gone to the police or the press. His survival as a criminal required he remain quiet about even the worst indignities heaped upon him by government agents.

To Gottlieb, underworld types looked like ideal test subjects. Nevertheless, according to one TSS source, "We were not about to fool around with the Mafia." Instead, this source says they chose "the borderline underworld"—prostitutes, drug addicts, and other small-timers who would be powerless to seek any sort of revenge if they ever found out what the CIA had done to them. In addition to their being unlikely whistle-blowers, such people lived in a world where an unwitting dose of some drug—usually knockout drops—was an occupational hazard anyway. They would therefore be better equipped to deal with—and recover from—a surprise LSD trip than the population as a whole. Or so TSS officials rationalized. "They could at least say to themselves, 'Here I go again. I've been slipped a mickey,"' says a TSS veteran. Furthermore, this veteran remembers, his former colleagues reasoned that if they had to violate the civil rights of anyone, they might as well choose a group of marginal people.

George White himself had left OSS after the war and returned to the Narcotics Bureau. In 1952 he was working in the New York office. As a high-ranking narcotics agent, White had a perfect excuse to be around drugs and people who used them. He had proved during the war that he had a talent for clandestine work, and he certainly had no qualms when it came to unwitting testing. With his job, he had access to all the possible subjects the Agency would need, and if he could use LSD or any other drug to find out more about drug trafficking, so much the better. From a security viewpoint, CIA officials could easily deny any connection to anything White did, and he clearly was not the crybaby type. For Sid Gottlieb, George White was clearly the one. The MKULTRA chief decided to contact White directly to see if he might be interested in picking up with the CIA where he had left off with OSS.

Always careful to observe bureaucratic protocol, Gottlieb first approached Harry Anslinger, the longtime head of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics, and got permission to use White on a part-time basis. Then Gottlieb traveled to New York and made his pitch to the narcotics agent, who stood 5'7", weighed over 200 pounds, shaved his head, and looked something like an extremely menacing bowling ball. After an early-morning meeting, White scrawled in his sweat-stained, leather-bound diary for that day, June 9, 1952: "Gottlieb proposed I be a CIA consultant—I agree." By writing down such a thing and using Gottlieb's true name,[1] White had broken CIA security regulations even before he started work. But then, White was never known as a man who followed rules.

Despite the high priority that TSS put on drug testing, White's security approval did not come through until almost a year later. "It was only last month that I got cleared," the outspoken narcotics agent wrote to a friend in 1953. "I then learned that a couple of crew-cut, pipe-smoking punks had either known me—or heard of me—during OSS days and had decided I was 'too rough' for their league and promptly blackballed me. It was only when my sponsors discovered the root of the trouble they were able to bypass the blockade. After all, fellas, I didn't go to Princeton."

People either loved or hated George White, and he had made some powerful enemies, including New York Governor Thomas Dewey and J. Edgar Hoover. Dewey would later help block White from becoming the head of the Narcotics Bureau in New York City, a job White sorely wanted. For some forgotten reason, Hoover had managed to stop White from being hired by the CIA in the Agency's early days, at a time when he would have preferred to leave narcotics work altogether. These were two of the biggest disappointments of his life. White's previous exclusion from the CIA may explain why he jumped so eagerly at Gottlieb's offer and why at the same time he privately heaped contempt on those who worked for the Agency. A remarkably heavy drinker, who would sometimes finish off a bottle of gin in one sitting, White often mocked the CIA crowd over cocktails. "He thought they were a joke," recalls one longtime crony. "They were too complicated, and they had other people do their heavy stuff."

Unlike his CIA counterparts, White loved the glare of publicity. A man who gloried in talking about himself and cultivating a hard-nosed image, White knew how to milk a drug bust for all it was worth—a skill that grew out of early years spent as a newspaper reporter in San Francisco and Los Angeles. In search of a more financially secure profession, he had joined the Narcotics Bureau in 1934, but he continued to pal around with journalists, particularly those who wrote favorably about him. Not only did he come across in the press as a cop hero, but he helped to shape the picture of future Kojaks by serving as a consultant to one of the early-television detective series. To start a raid, he would dramatically tip his hat to signal his agents—and to let the photographers know that the time had come to snap his picture. "He was sort of vainglorious," says another good friend, "the kind of guy who if he did something, didn't mind having the world know about it."[2]

The scientists from TSS, with their Ph.D.s and lack of street experience, could not help admiring White for his swashbuckling image. Unlike the men from MKULTRA, who, for all their pretensions, had never worked as real-live spies, White had put his life on the line for OSS overseas and had supposedly killed a Japanese agent with his bare hands. The face of one ex-TSS man lit up, like a little boy's on Christmas morning, as he told of racing around New York in George White's car and parking illegally with no fear of the law. "We were Ivy League, white, middle-class," notes another former TSSer. "We were naive, totally naive about this, and he felt pretty expert. He knew the whores, the pimps, the people who brought in the drugs. He'd purportedly been in a number of shootouts where he'd captured millions of dollars worth of heroin.... He was a pretty wild man. I know I was afraid of him. You couldn't control this guy . . . I had a little trouble telling who was controlling who in those days."

White lived with extreme personal contradictions. As could be expected of a narcotics agent, he violently opposed drugs. Yet he died largely because his beloved alcohol had destroyed his liver. He had tried everything else, from marijuana to LSD, and wrote an acquaintance, "I did feel at times I was having a 'mind-expanding' experience but this vanished like a dream immediately after the session." He was a law-enforcement official who regularly violated the law. Indeed, the CIA turned to him because of his willingness to use the power of his office to ride roughshod over the rights of others—in the name of "national security," when he tested LSD for the Agency, in the name of stamping out drug abuse, for the Narcotics Bureau. As yet another close associate summed up White's attitude toward his job, "He really believed the ends justified the means."

George White's "pragmatic" approach meshed perfectly with Sid Gottlieb's needs for drug testing. In May 1953 the two men, who wound up going folk dancing together several times, formally joined forces. In CIA jargon, White became MKULTRA subproject #3. Under this arrangement, White rented two adjacent Greenwich Village apartments, posing as the sometime artist and seaman "Morgan Hall." White agreed to lure guinea pigs to the "safehouse"—as the Agency men called the apartments—slip them drugs, and report the results to Gottlieb and the others in TSS. For its part, the CIA let the Narcotics Bureau use the place for undercover activities (and often for personal pleasure) whenever no Agency work was scheduled, and the CIA paid all the bills, including the cost of keeping a well-stocked liquor cabinet—a substantial bonus for White. Gottlieb personally handed over the first $4,000 in cash, to cover the initial costs of furnishing the safehouse in the lavish style that White felt befitted him.

Gottlieb did not limit his interest to drugs. He and other TSS officials wanted to try out surveillance equipment. CIA technicians quickly installed see-through mirrors and microphones through which eavesdroppers could film, photograph, and record the action. "Things go wrong with listening devices and two-way mirrors, so you build these things to find out what works and what doesn't," says a TSS source. "If you are going to entrap, you've got to give the guy pictures [flagrante delicto] and voice recordings. Once you learn how to do it so that the whole thing looks comfortable, cozy, and safe, then you can transport the technology overseas and use it." This TSS man notes that the Agency put to work in the bedrooms of Europe some of the techniques developed in the George White safehouse operation.

In the safehouse's first months, White tested LSD, several kinds of knockout drops, and that old OSS standby, essence of marijuana. He served up the drugs in food, drink, and cigarettes and then tried to worm information—usually on narcotics matters—from his "guests." Sometimes MKULTRA men came up from Washington to watch the action. A September 1953 entry in White's diary noted: "Lashbrook at 81 Bedford Street—Owen Winkle and LSD surprise—can wash." Sid Gottlieb's deputy, Robert Lashbrook, served as "project monitor" for the New York safehouse.[3]

White had only been running the safehouse six months when Olson died (in Lashbrook's company), and Agency officials suspended the operation for re-evaluation. They soon allowed him to restart it, and then Gottlieb had to order White to slow down again. A New York State commissioner had summoned the narcotics agent to explain his role in the deal that wound up with Governor Dewey pardoning Lucky Luciano after the war. The commissioner was asking questions that touched on White's use of marijuana on Del Gracio, and Gottlieb feared that word of the CIA's current testing might somehow leak out. This storm also soon passed, but then, in early 1955, the Narcotics Bureau transferred White to San Francisco to become chief agent there. Happy with White's performance, Gottlieb decided to let him take the entire safehouse operation with him to the Coast. White closed up the Greenwich Village apartments, leaving behind unreceipted "tips" for the landlord "to clear up any difficulties about the alterations and damages," as a CIA document put it.[4]

White soon rented a suitable "pad" (as he always called it) on Telegraph Hill, with a stunning view of San Francisco Bay, the Golden Gate Bridge, and Alcatraz. To supplement the furniture he brought from the New York safehouse, he went out and bought items that gave the place the air of the brothel it was to become: Toulouse-Lautrec posters, a picture of a French cancan dancer, and photos of manacled women in black stockings. "It was supposed to look rich," recalls a narcotics agent who regularly visited, "but it was furnished like crap."

White hired a friend's company to install bugging equipment, and William Hawkins, a 25-year-old electronics whiz then studying at Berkley put in four DD-4 microphones disguised as electrical wall outlets and hooked them up to two F-301 tape recorders, which agents monitored in an adjacent "listening post." Hawkins remembers that White "kept a pitcher of martinis in the refrigerator, and he'd watch me for a while as I installed a microphone and then slip off." For his own personal "observation post," White had a portable toilet set up behind a two-way mirror, where he could watch the proceedings, usually with drink in hand.

The San Francisco safehouse specialized in prostitutes. "But this was before The Hite Report and before any hooker had written a book," recalls a TSS man, "so first we had to go out and learn about their world. In the beginning, we didn't know what a john was or what a pimp did." Sid Gottlieb decided to send his top staff psychologist, John Gittinger, to San Francisco to probe the demimonde.

George White supplied the prostitutes for the study, although White, in turn, delegated much of the pimping function to one of his assistants, Ira "Ike" Feldman. A muscular but very short man, whom even the 5'7" White towered over, Feldman tried even harder than his boss to act tough. Dressed in suede shoes, a suit with flared trousers, a hat with a turned-up brim, and a huge zircon ring that was supposed to look like a diamond, Feldman first came to San Francisco on an undercover assignment posing as an East Coast mobster looking to make a big heroin buy. Using a drug-addicted prostitute name Janet Jones, whose common-law husband states that Feldman paid her off with heroin, the undercover man lured a number of suspected drug dealers to the "pad" and helped White make arrests.

As the chief Federal narcotics agent in San Francisco, White was in a position to reward or punish a prostitute. He set up a system whereby he and Feldman provided Gittinger with all the hookers the psychologist wanted. White paid off the women with a fixed number of "chits." For each chit, White owed one favor. "So the next time the girl was arrested with a john," says an MKULTRA veteran, "she would give the cop George White's phone number. The police all knew White and cooperated with him without asking questions. They would release the girl if he said so. White would keep good records of how many chits each person had and how many she used. No money was exchanged, but five chits were worth $500 to $1,000." Prostitutes were not the only beneficiaries of White's largess. The narcotics agent worked out a similar system to forgive the transgressions of small time drug pushers when the MKULTRA men wanted to talk to them about "the rules of their game," according to the source.

TSS officials wanted to find out everything they could about how to apply sex to spying, and the prostitute project became a general learning and then training ground for CIA carnal operations. After all, states one TSS official, "We did quite a study of prostitutes and their behavior.... At first nobody really knew how to use them. How do you train them? How do you work them? How do you take a woman who is willing to use her body to get money out of a guy to get things which are much more important, like state secrets. I don't care how beautiful she is—educating the ordinary prostitute up to that level is not a simple task."

The TSS men continually tried to refine their knowledge. They realized that prostitutes often wheedled extra money out of a customer by suggesting some additional service as male orgasm neared. They wondered if this might not also be a good time to seek sensitive information. "But no," says the source, "we found the guy was focused solely on hormonal needs. He was not thinking of his career or anything else at that point." The TSS experts discovered that the postsexual, light-up-a-cigarette period was much better suited to their ulterior motives. Says the source:

Most men who go to prostitutes are prepared for the fact that [after the act] she's beginning to work to get herself out of there, so she can get back on the street to make some more money. . . . To find a prostitute who is willing to stay is a hell of a shock to anyone used to prostitutes. It has a tremendous effect on the guy. It's a boost to his ego if she's telling him he was really neat, and she wants to stay for a few more hours.... Most of the time, he gets pretty vulnerable. What the hell's he going to talk about? Not the sex, so he starts talking about his business. It's at this time she can lead him gently. But you have to train prostitutes to do that. Their natural inclination is to do exactly the opposite.

The men from MKULTRA learned a great deal about varying sexual preferences. One of them says:

We didn't know in those days about hidden sadism and all that sort of stuff. We learned a lot about human nature in the bedroom. We began to understand that when people wanted sex, it wasn't just what we had thought of—you know, the missionary position.... We started to pick up knowledge that could be used in operations, but with a lot of it we never figured out any way to use it operationally. We just learned.... All these ideas did not come to us at once. But evolving over three or four years in which these studies were going on, things emerged which we tried. Our knowledge of prostitutes' behavior became pretty damn good. . . . This comes across now that somehow we were just playing around and we just found all these exotic ways to waste the taxpayers' money on satisfying our hidden urges. I'm not saying that watching prostitutes was not exciting or something like that. But what I am saying was there was a purpose to the whole business.[5]

In the best tradition of Mata Hari, the CIA did use sex as a clandestine weapon, although apparently not so frequently as the Russians. While many in the Agency believed that it simply did not work very well, others like CIA operators in Berlin during the mid-1960s felt prostitutes could be a prime source of intelligence. Agency men in that city used a network of hookers to good advantage—or so they told visitors from headquarters. Yet, with its high proportion of Catholics and Mormons—not to mention the Protestant ethic of many of its top leaders—the Agency definitely had limits beyond which prudery took over. For instance, a TSS veteran says that a good number of case officers wanted no part of homosexual entrapment operations. And to go a step further, he recalls one senior KGB man who told too many sexual jokes about young boys. "It didn't take too long to recognize that he was more than a little fascinated by youths," says the source. "I took the trouble to point out he was probably too good, too well-trained, to be either entrapped or to give away secrets. But he would have been tempted toward a compromising position by a preteen. I mentioned this, and they said, 'As a psychological observer, you're probably quite right. But what the hell are we going to do about it? Where are we going to get a twelve-year-old boy?' " The source believes that if the Russian had had a taste for older men, U.S. intelligence might have mounted an operation, "but the idea of a twelve-year-old boy was just more than anybody could stomach."

As the TSS men learned more about the San Francisco hustlers, they ventured outside the safehouse to try out various clandestine-delivery gimmicks in public places like restaurants, bars, and beaches. They practiced ways to slip LSD to citizens of the demimonde while buying them a drink or lighting up a cigarette, and they then tried to observe the effects when the drug took hold. Because the MKULTRA scientists did not move smoothly among the very kinds of people they were testing, they occasionally lost an unwitting victim in a crowd—thereby sending a stranger off alone with a head full of LSD.

In a larger sense, all the test victims would become lost. As a matter of policy, Sid Gottlieb ordered that virtually no records be kept of the testing. In 1973, when Gottlieb retired from the Agency, he and Richard Helms agreed to destroy what they thought were the few existing documents on the program. Neither Gottlieb nor any other MKULTRA man has owned up to having given LSD to an unknowing subject, or even to observing such an experiment—except of course in the case of Frank Olson. Olson's death left behind a paper trail outside of Gottlieb's control and that hence could not be denied. Otherwise, Gottlieb and his colleagues have put all the blame for actual testing on George White, who is not alive to defend himself. One reason the MKULTRA veterans have gone to such lengths to conceal their role is obvious: fear of lawsuits from victims claiming damaged health.

At the time of the experiments, the subjects' health did not cause undue concern. At the safehouse, where most of the testing took place, doctors were seldom present. Dr. James Hamilton, a Stanford Medical School psychiatrist and White's OSS colleague, visited the place from time to time, apparently for studies connected to unwitting drug experiments and deviant sexual practices. Yet neither Hamilton nor any other doctor provided much medical supervision. From his perch atop the toilet seat, George White could do no more than make surface observations of his drugged victims. Even an experienced doctor would have had difficulty handling White's role. In addition to LSD, which they knew could cause serious, if not fatal problems, TSS officials gave White even more exotic experimental drugs to test, drugs that other Agency contractors may or may not have already used on human subjects. "If we were scared enough of a drug not to try it out on ourselves, we sent it to San Francisco," recalls a TSS source. According to a 1963 report by CIA Inspector General John Earman, "In a number of instances, however, the test subject has become ill for hours or days, including hospitalization in at least one case, and [White] could only follow up by guarded inquiry after the test subject's return to normal life. Possible sickness and attendant economic loss are inherent contingent effects of the testing."

The Inspector General noted that the whole program could be compromised if an outside doctor made a "correct diagnosis of an illness." Thus, the MKULTRA team not only made some people sick but had a vested interest in keeping doctors from finding out what was really wrong. If that bothered the Inspector General, he did not report his qualms, but he did say he feared "serious damage to the Agency" in the event of public exposure. The Inspector General was only somewhat reassured by the fact that George White "maintain[ed] close working relations with local police authorities which could be utilized to protect the activity in critical situations."

If TSS officials had been willing to stick with their original target group of marginal underworld types, they would have had little to fear from the police. After all, George White was the police. But increasingly they used the safehouse to test drugs, in the Inspector General's words, "on individuals of all social levels, high and low, native American and foreign." After all, they were looking for an operational payoff, and they knew people reacted differently to LSD according to everything from health and mood to personality structure. If TSS officials wanted to slip LSD to foreign leaders, as they contemplated doing to Fidel Castro, they would try to spring an unwitting dose on somebody as similar as possible. They used the safehouse for "dry runs" in the intermediate stage between the laboratory and actual operations.

For these dress rehearsals, George White and his staff procurer, Ike Feldman, enticed men to the apartment with prostitutes. An unsuspecting john would think he had bought a night of pleasure, go back to a strange apartment, and wind up zonked. A CIA document that survived Sid Gottlieb's shredding recorded this process. Its author, Gottlieb himself, could not break a lifelong habit of using nondescriptive language. For the MKULTRA chief, the whores were "certain individuals who covertly administer this material to other people in accordance with [White's] instructions." White normally paid the women $100 in Agency funds for their night's work, and Gottlieb's prose reached new bureaucratic heights as he explained why the prostitutes did not sign for the money: "Due to the highly unorthodox nature of these activities and the considerable risk incurred by these individuals, it is impossible to require that they provide a receipt for these payments or that they indicate the precise manner in which the funds were spent." The CIA's auditors had to settle for canceled checks which White cashed himself and marked either "Stormy" or, just as appropriately, "Undercover Agent." The program was also referred to as "Operation Midnight Climax."

TSS officials found the San Francisco safehouse so successful that they opened a branch office, also under George White's auspices, across the Golden Gate on the beach in Marin County.[6] Unlike the downtown apartment, where an MKULTRA man says "you could bring people in for quickies after lunch," the suburban Marin County outlet proved useful for experiments that required relative isolation. There, TSS scientists tested such MKULTRA specialties as stink bombs, itching and sneezing powders, and diarrhea inducers. TSS's Ray Treichler, the Stanford chemist, sent these "harassment substances" out to California for testing by White, along with such delivery systems as a mechanical launcher that could throw a foul-smelling object 100 yards, glass ampules that could be stepped on in a crowd to release any of Treichler's powders, a fine hypodermic needle to inject drugs through the cork in a wine bottle, and a drug-coated swizzle stick.

TSS men also planned to use the Marin County safehouse for an ill-fated experiment that began when staff psychologists David Rhodes and Walter Pasternak spent a week circulating in bars, inviting strangers to a party. They wanted to spray LSD from an aerosol can on their guests, but according to Rhodes' Senate testimony, "the weather defeated us." In the heat of the summer, they could not close the doors and windows long enough for the LSD to hang in the air and be inhaled. Sensing a botched operation, their MKULTRA colleague, John Gittinger (who brought the drug out from Washington) shut himself in the bathroom and let go with the spray. Still, Rhodes testified, Gittinger did not get high, and the CIA men apparently scrubbed the party.[7]

The MKULTRA crew continued unwitting testing until the summer of 1963 when the Agency's Inspector General stumbled across the safehouses during a regular inspection of TSS activities. This happened not long after Director John McCone had appointed John Earman to the Inspector General position.[8] Much to the displeasure of Sid Gottlieb and Richard Helms, Earman questioned the propriety of the safehouses, and he insisted that Director McCone be given a full briefing. Although President Kennedy had put McCone in charge of the Agency the year before, Helms—the professional's professional—had not bothered to tell his outsider boss about some of the CIA's most sensitive activities, including the safehouses and the CIA-Mafia assassination plots.[9] Faced with Earman's demands, Helms—surely one of history's most clever bureaucrats—volunteered to tell McCone himself about the safehouses (rather than have Earman present a negative view of the program). Sure enough, Helms told Earman afterward, McCone raised no objections to unwitting testing (as Helms described it). A determined man and a rather brave one, Earman countered with a full written report to McCone recommending that the safehouses be closed. The Inspector General cited the risks of exposure and pointed out that many people both inside and outside the Agency found "the concepts involved in manipulating human behavior . . . to be distasteful and unethical." McCone reacted by putting off a final decision but suspending unwitting testing in the meantime. Over the next year, Helms, who then headed the Clandestine Services, wrote at least three memos urging resumption. He cited "indications . . . of an apparent Soviet aggressiveness in the field of covertly administered chemicals which are, to say the least, inexplicable and disturbing," and he claimed the CIA's "positive operational capacity to use drugs is diminishing owing to a lack of realistic testing."[10] To Richard Helms, the importance of the program exceeded the risks and the ethical questions, although he did admit, "We have no answer to the moral issue." McCone simply did nothing for two years. The director's indecision had the effect of killing the program, nevertheless. TSS officials closed the San Francisco safehouse in 1965 and the New York one in 1966.

Years later in a personal letter to Sid Gottlieb, George White wrote an epitaph for his role with the CIA: "I was a very minor missionary, actually a heretic, but I toiled wholeheartedly in the vineyards because it was fun, fun, fun. Where else could a red-blooded American boy lie, kill, cheat, steak rape, and pillage with the sanction and blessing of the All-Highest?"

After 10 years of unwitting testing, the men from MKULTRA apparently scored no major breakthroughs with LSD or other drugs. They found no effective truth drug, recruitment pill, or aphrodisiac. LSD had not opened up the mind to CIA control. "We had thought at first that this was the secret that was going to unlock the universe," says a TSS veteran. "We found that human beings had resources far greater than imagined."

Yet despite the lack of precision and uncertainty, the CIA still made field use of LSD and other drugs that had worked their way through the MKULTRA testing progression. A 1957 report showed that TSS had already moved 6 drugs out of the experimental stage and into active use. Up to that time, CIA operators had utilized LSD and other psychochemicals against 33 targets in 6 different operations. Agency officials hoped in these cases either to discredit the subject by making him seem insane or to "create within the individual a mental and emotional situation which will release him from the restraint of self-control and induce him to reveal information willingly under adroit manipulation." The Agency has consistently refused to release details of these operations, and TSS sources who talk rather freely about other matters seem to develop amnesia when the subject of field use comes up. Nevertheless, it can be said that the CIA did establish a relationship with an unnamed foreign secret service to interrogate prisoners with LSD-like drugs. CIA operators participated directly in these interrogations, which continued at least until 1966. Often the Agency showed more concern for the safety of its operational targets abroad than it did for its unwitting victims in San Francisco, since some of the foreign subjects were given medical examinations before being slipped the drug.[11]

In these operations, CIA men sometimes brought in local doctors for reasons that had nothing to do with the welfare of the patient. Instead, the doctor's role was to certify the apparent insanity of a victim who had been unwittingly dosed with LSD or an even more durable psychochemical like BZ (which causes trips lasting a week or more and which tends to induce violent behavior). If a doctor were to prescribe hospitalization or other severe treatment, the effect on the subject could be devastating. He would suffer not only the experience itself, including possible confinement in a mental institution, but also social stigma. In most countries, even the suggestion of mental problems severely damages an individual's professional and personal standing (as Thomas Eagleton, the recipient of some shock therapy, can testify). "It's an old technique," says an MKULTRA veteran. "You neutralize someone by having their constituency doubt them." The Church committee confirms that the Agency used this technique at least several times to assassinate a target's character.[12]

Still, the Clandestine Services did not frequently call on TSS for LSD or other drugs. Many operators had practical and ethical objections. In part to overcome such objections and also to find better ways to use chemical and biological substances in covert operations, Sid Gottlieb moved up in 1959 to become Assistant for Scientific Matters to the Clandestine Services chief. Gottlieb found that TSS had kept the MKULTRA programs so secret that many field people did not even know what techniques were available. He wrote that tight controls over field use in MKDELTA operations "may have generated a general defeatism among case officers," who feared they would not receive permission or that the procedure was not worth the effort. Gottlieb tried to correct these shortcomings by providing more information on the drug arsenal to senior operators and by streamlining the approval process. He had less luck in overcoming views that drugs do not work or are not reliable, and that their operational use leads to laziness and poor tradecraft.

If the MKULTRA program had ever found that LSD or any other drug really did turn a man into a puppet, Sid Gottlieb would have had no trouble surmounting all those biases. Instead, Gottlieb and his fellow searchers came frustratingly close but always fell short of finding a reliable control mechanism. LSD certainly penetrated to the innermost regions of the mind. It could spring loose a whole gamut of feelings, from terror to insight. But in the end, the human psyche proved so complex that even the most skilled manipulator could not anticipate all the variables. He could use LSD and other drugs to chip away at free will. He could score temporary victories, and he could alter moods, perception—sometimes even beliefs. He had the power to cause great harm, but ultimately he could not conquer the human spirit.

Notes

The CIA's reaction to Frank Olson's death is described in numerous memos released by the Agency to the Olson family, which can be found at pp.1005-1132 of the Kennedy Subcommittee 1975 hearings on Biomedical and Behavioral Research. See particularly at p. 1077, 18 December 1953, Subject: The Suicide of Frank Olson and at p. 1027, 1 December 1953, Subject: Use of LSD.

Richard Helms' views on unwitting testing are found in Document #448, 17 December 1963, Subject: Testing of Psychochemicals and Related Materials and in a memorandum to the CIA Director, June 9, 1964, quoted from on page 402 of the Church Committee Report, Book I.

George White's diary and letters were donated by his widow to Foothills Junior College, Los Altos, California and are the source of a treasure chest of material on him, including his letter to a friend explaining his almost being "blackballed" from the CIA, the various diary entries cited, including references to folk-dancing with Gottlieb, the interview with Hal Lipset where he explains his philosophy on chasing criminals, and his letter to Sid Gottlieb dated November 21, (probably) 1972.

The New York and San Francisco safehouses run by George White are the subjects of MKULTRA subprojects 3,14,16,42, and 149. White's tips to the landlord are described in 42-156, his liquor bills in 42-157, "dry-runs" in 42-91. The New York safehouse run by Charles Siragusa is subproject 132. The "intermediate" tests are described in document 132-59.

Paul Avery, a San Francisco freelance writer associated with the Center for Investigative Reporting in Oakland, California interviewed William Hawkins and provided assistance on the details of the San Francisco safehouse and George White's background. Additional information on White came from interviews with his widow,

several former colleagues in the Narcotics Bureau, and other knowledgeable sources in various San Francisco law-enforcement agencies. An ex-Narcotics Bureau official told of Dr. James Hamilton's study of unusual sexual practices and the description of his unwitting drug testing comes from MKULTRA subproject 2, which is his subproject.

Ray Treichler discussed some of his work with harassment substances in testimony before the Kennedy subcommittee on September 20, 1977, pp. 105-8. He delivered his testimony under the pseudonym "Philip Goldman."

"The Gang that Couldn't Spray Straight" article appeared in the September 20, 1977 Washington Post.

Richard Helms' decision not to tell John McCone about the CIA's connection to the Mafia in assassination attempts against Castro is described in the Church Committee's Assassination report, pp. 102-3.

The 1957 Inspector General's Report on TSS, Document #417 and the 1963 inspection of MKULTRA, 14 August 1963, Document #59 provided considerable detail throughout the entire chapter. The Church Committee Report on MKULTRA in Book I, pp. 385-422 also provided considerable information.

Sid Gottlieb's job as Assistant to the Clandestine Services chief for Scientific Matters is described in Document #74 (operational series) 20 October 1959, Subject: Application of Imaginative Research on the Behavioral and Physical Sciences to [deleted] Problems" and in the 1963 Inspector General's report.

Interviews with ex-CIA Inspector General Lyman Kirkpatrick, another former Inspector General's staff employee, and several ex-TSS staffers contributed significantly to this chapter.

Helms' letter to the Warren Commission on "Soviet Brainwashing Techniques," dated 19 June 1964, was obtained from the National Archives.

The material on the CIA's operational use of LSD came from the Church Committee Report, Book I, pp. 399-403 and from an affidavit filed in the Federal Court case of John D. Marks v. Central Intelligence Agency, et. al., Civil Action No. 76-2073 by Eloise R. Page, Chief, Policy and Coordination Staff of the CIA's Directorate of Operations. In listing all the reasons why the Agency should not provide the operational documents, Ms. Page gave some information on what was in the documents. The passages on TSS's and the Medical Office's positions on the use of LSD came from a memo written by James Angleton, Chief, Counterintelligence Staff on December 12, 1957 quoted in part at p. 401 of the Church Committee Report, Book I.

Footnotes

1. CIA operators and agents all had cover names by which they were supposed to be called—even in classified documents. Gottlieb was "Sherman R. Grifford." George White became "Morgan Hall." (back)

2. One case which put White in every newspaper in the country was his 1949 arrest of blues singer Billie Holliday on an opium charge. To prove she had been set up and was not then using drugs, the singer checked into a California sanitarium that had been recommended by a friend of a friend, Dr. James Hamilton. The jury then acquitted her. Hamilton's involvement is bizarre because he had worked with George White testing truth drugs for OSS, and the two men were good friends. White may have put his own role in perspective when he told a 1970 interviewer he "enjoyed" chasing criminals. "It was a game for me," he said. "I felt quite a bit of compassion for a number of the people that I found it necessary to put in jail, particularly when you'd see the things that would happen to their families. I'd give them a chance to stay out of jail and take care of their families by giving me information, perhaps, and they would stubbornly refuse to do so. They wouldn't be a rat, as they would put it." (back)

3. Despite this indication from White's diary that Lashbrook came to the New York safehouse for an "LSD surprise" and despite his signature on papers authorizing the subproject, Lashbrook flatly denied all firsthand knowledge of George White's testing in 1977 Senate testimony. Subcommittee chairman Edward Kennedy did not press Lashbrook, nor did he refer the matter to the Justice Department for possible perjury charges. (back)

4. This was just one of many expenditures that would drive CIA auditors wild while going over George White's accounts. Others included $44.04 for a telescope, liquor bills over $1,000 "with no record as to the necessity of its use," and $31.75 to make an on-the-spot payment to a neighborhood lady whose car he hit. The reason stated for using government funds for the last expense: "It was important to maintain security and forestall an insurance investigation." (back)

5. In 1984, George Orwell wrote about government-encouraged prostitution: "Mere debauchery did not matter very much, so long as it was furtive and joyless, and only involved the women of a submerged and despised class." (back)

6. In 1961 MKULTRA officials started a third safehouse in New York, also under the Narcotics Bureau's supervision. This one was handled by Charles Siragusa who, like White, was a senior agent and OSS veteran. (back)

7. Rhodes' testimony about this incident, which had been set up in advance with Senator Edward Kennedy's staff, brought on the inevitable "Gang That Couldn't Spray Straight" headline in the Washington Post. This approach turned the public perception of a deadly serious program into a kind of practical joke carried out badly by a bunch of bumblers. (back)

8. Lyman Kirkpatrick, the longtime Inspector General who had then recently left the job to take a higher Agency post, had personally known of the safehouse operation since right after Olson's death and had never raised any noticeable objection. He now states he was "shocked" by the unwitting testing, but that he "didn't have the authority to follow up . . . I was trying to determine what the tolerable limits were of what I could do and still keep my job." (back)

9. Trying to explain why he had specifically decided not to inform the CIA Director about the Agency's relationship with the mob, Helms stated to the Church committee, "Mr. McCone was relatively new to this organization, and I guess I must have thought to myself, well this is going to look peculiar to him . . . This was, you know not a very savory effort." Presumably, Helms had similar reasons for not telling McCone about the unwitting drug-testing in the safehouses. (back)

10. Helms was a master of telling different people different stories to suit his purposes. At the precise time he was raising the Soviet menace to push McCone into letting the unwitting testing continue, he wrote the Warren Commission that not only did Soviet behavioral research lag five years behind the West's but that "there is no present evidence that the Soviets have any singular, new potent, drugs . . . to force a course of action on an individual." (back)

11. TSS officials led by Sid Gottlieb, who were responsible for the operational use of LSD abroad, took the position that there was "no danger medically" in unwitting doses and that neither giving a medical exam or having a doctor present was necessary. The Agency's Medical Office disagreed, saying the drug was "medically dangerous." In 1957 Inspector General Lyman Kirkpatrick noted it would be "unrealistic" to give the Medical Office what amounted to veto power over covert operations by letting Agency doctors rule on the health hazard to subjects in the field. (back)

12. While I was doing the research for this book, many people approached me claiming to be victims of CIA drugging plots. Although I listened carefully to all and realized that some might be authentic victims, I had no way of distinguishing between someone acting strangely and someone made to act strangely. Perhaps the most insidious aspect of this whole technique is that anyone blaming his aberrant behavior on a drug or on the CIA gets labeled a hopeless paranoid and his case is thrown into the crank file. There is no better cover than operating on the edge of madness.

One leftist professor in a Latin American university who had opposed the CIA says that he was working alone in his office one day in 1974 when a strange woman entered and jabbed his wrist with a pin stuck in a small round object. Almost immediately, he become irrational, broke glasses, and threw water in colleagues' faces. He says his students spotted an ambulance waiting for him out front. They spirited him out the back door and took him home, where he tripped (or had psychotic episodes) for more than a week. He calls the experience a mix of "heaven and hell," and he shudders at the thought that he might have spent the time in a hospital "with nurses and straitjackets." Although he eventually returned to his post at the university, he states that it took him several years to recover the credibility he lost the day he "went crazy at the office." If the CIA was involved, it had neutralized a foe. (back)

Chapter 7

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From Eugenics to Assassination Anton Chaitkin

From owner-imap@chumbly.math.missouri.edu Wed Jul 31 13:30:07 2002

Date: Tue, 30 Jul 2002 10:46:04 -0500 (CDT)

From: ulrich stuart <smilicoyoti@yahoo.com>

Subject: [psy-op] British psychiatry: from eugenics to assassination

Article: 142974

To: undisclosed-recipients:;

copied from http://www.heliophobe.com/mkultra.htm

Subject: British Psychiatry & Eugenics/Assassination

From: dsale@users.southeast.net (Dan Sale)

Date: 1996/12/28

Message-Id: <5a3cug$acq@ns2.southeast.net>

Organization: Uknown Newsgroups: alt.conspiracy,alt.illuminati

British psychiatry: from eugenics to assassination

By Anton Chaitkin, Executive Intelligence Review, V21 #40, [30 July 2002]

A behavior control research project was begun in the 1950s, coordinated by the British psychological warfare unit called the Tavistock Institute, with the Scottish Rite Masons, the Central Intelligence Agency, and other British, U.S., Canadian, and United Nations agencies. The project became famous in the 1970s under a CIA code name, “MK-Ultra.” Its notoriety for brainwashing by drugs, hypnosis, electroshock, and other tortures caused many books to be written about the project, and the U.S. Senate conducted hearings which exposed many of its abusive features. President Gerald Ford appointed a commission headed by Vice President Nelson Rockefeller, to correct the CIA's misconduct. There was a widespread anti-establishment view at the time, that here was the fox appointed to guard the hen house. The intelligence agencies offered a public rationale for the project: the need to counteract and compete with the mind-control capabilities of the communists. This was largely based on the fact that U.S. personnel held prisoner by the enemy in the Korean War had signed false confessions of crimes, and some had defected to North Korea, the apparent result of brainwashing. {The Manchurian Candidate,} a 1959 book which was made into a popular movie in 1962, reflected this rationale. It told the story of a communist plot to use a U.S. soldier brainwashed in Manchuria as a zombie-assassin, to kill the leading U.S. presidential candidate. A central theme of MK-Ultra was to attempt to control the human mind in a similar way. Threatened and accomplished assassination of political leaders has become increasingly frequent in public life since the 1960s. Just since the 1992 election campaign, for example, President Bill Clinton has been the target of at least 15 assassination threats. Many of these would-be killers, and many of the assassins of past years, had been in destructive psychiatric programs, or were members of psychiatrically manipulated cults. The present threats are the more meaningful, in the context of the British-led Whitewater scandal directed against the presidency. It is long past time for a thorough public inquiry into the assassination epidemic, whereby its relationship to the official project to {create assassins} would be fully explored. A great obstacle to clear thinking in this area has been the assumption that the U.S. government would not sponsor programs for the murder of American leaders. This logical assumption misses the point, that the overall project, including “MK-Ultra,” has been foreign-sponsored and anti-American in its purposes. We shall outline here the British background of this deeply criminal enterprise, with its roots in the political and psychiatric movement called eugenics.

- 1909-13: the buildup to World War I -

John D. Rockefeller created the family-run {{Rockefeller Foundation,}} in parallel with the birth of the British-inspired Federal Reserve, the Internal Revenue Service, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. In 1909-13 and subsequent years, Rockefeller transferred blocs of the family-owned Standard Oil Co. worth more than $300 million to the account of the foundation under its trustees who were family members, and their employees. Thus was established a global instrument for radical social change, using American money and British strategy. John D. Rockefeller had begun his oil business in the 1860s with British capital. The family's relationship to the British Empire a half-century later was centered in the person of John D. ‘s brother {{William Rockefeller,}} the president of Standard Oil of New York (later Mobil) and the founder of National City Bank (later Citibank). In 1911, brother William employed, in a private capacity through his elite social club, a high-ranking British secret intelligence service officer named Claude Dansey. As the United States prepared to ally itself in World War I with its old enemy Britain, Dansey personally reorganized the U.S. Army intelligence service into an adjunct of the British secret service. Dansey's loyal U.S. follower, {{Gen. Marlborough Churchill}} (a distant relative of Britain's Winston Churchill) soon became director of U.S. military intelligence. After World War I, General Churchill headed up the “Black Chamber,” a New York-based espionage group serving the State Department, the U.S. Army, and private New York financiers loyal to Great Britain. This same General Churchill would soon launch a medical research organization, the Macy Foundation, for the Rockefellers and British intelligence.

- 1920s: the pre-Hitler era in Germany -

The Rockefeller Foundation poured money into the occupied German republic for a medical specialty known as {psychiatric genetics.} This field applied to psychiatry the concepts of eugenics (otherwise known as race purification, race hygiene, or race betterment) developed in London's Galton Laboratory and its offshoot Eugenics Societies in England and America. The Rockefeller Foundation created, and foundation executives thenceforth continuously directed, the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Psychiatry in Munich (before Rockefeller sponsorship it was known as the Kraepelin Institute), and the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Eugenics, and Human Heredity. The Rockefellers' chief in both these institutions was the fascist Swiss psychiatrist {{Ernst Ru@audin,}} assisted by his prote@aage@aas, Rockefeller functionaries {{Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer}} and {{Franz J. Kallmann.}} A British medical historian friendly to the Rockefellers recently explained how the family was introduced into this field in Germany@s1: The foundation's “German centers combined the search for organic signs of mental illness with eugenic projects…. The [Kraepelin] institute had initially been endowed with 11 million marks, contributed by Gustav Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach [head of the Krupp steel and arms family] and James Loeb [Paul Warburg's brother-in-law], an expatriate American of the Kuhn- Loeb banking family. Loeb mobilized his American-Jewish friends to support the institute,” and they invited the foundation to reorganize and expand the Munich enterprise. Loeb also continued financing the institute. Loeb's relatives, the Warburgs, owners of Kuhn Loeb bank, were the intimate banking partners of William Rockefeller. Together with him they had set up the Harriman family in big business, using capital supplied by the British royal family's personal banker, Sir Ernst Cassell. The three families, Rockefeller, Warburg, and Harriman, together with British Crown agencies, jointly sponsored much of the social engineering enterprise w e shall describe here. The Rockefeller Foundation made an initial grant of $2.5 million in 1925 to the Psychiatric Institute in Munich, gave it $325,000 for a new building in 1928, and continuously sponsored the institute and its Nazi chief Ru@audin through the Hitler era. The foundation paid for a 1930-35 anthropological survey of the “eugenically worthwhile population” by Nazi eugenicists Ru@audin, Verschuer, Eugen Fischer, and others.

- 1930: a New Age in psychiatry -

Rockefeller family psychologists and race purification experts created a medical research financing conduit, the {{ Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation,}} directed by former Black Chamber and military intelligence chief Gen. Marlborough Churchill. The Macy group would manage London's most advanced experiments in mind-control and social engineering.

- 1932: Ru@audin heads Eugenics Federation -

The British-led eugenics movement met at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City, and designated the Rockefellers' Dr. Ernst Ru@audin as the president of the worldwide Eugenics Federation. The eugenics movement at the time called for the killing or sterilization of people whose heredity made them a public burden or a national scapegoat.

- Mid-1930s: Nazi eugenics in practice -

Adolf Hitler was given Germany's chancellorship in 1933, and was soon absolute dictator. {{Montagu Norman,}} the occultist governor of the Bank of England, propped up Hitler's credit, arranged the armament of Nazi Germany, and guided the strategies of Hitler's powerful supporters—the Rockefellers, Warburgs, and Harrimans. Only a few months after the meeting at the American Museum of Natural History, the Rockefeller-Ru@audin apparatus became a section of the Nazi state. The regime appointed Ru@audin head of the Racial Hygiene Society. Ru@audin and his staff, as part of the Task Force of Heredity Experts chaired by SS chief Heinrich Himmler, drew up the sterilization law. Described as an American model law, it was adopted in July 1933 and proudly printed in the September 1933 {Eugenical News} (U.S.A.), with Hitler's signature. The Rockefeller group drew up other race laws, based, as was the sterilization law, on existing statutes from the Commonwealth of Virginia. Otmar Verschuer and his assistant Dr. Josef Mengele together wrote reports for special courts which enforced Ru@audin's racial purity law against the illegal cohabitation of Aryans and non-Aryans. The “T4” unit of the Hitler Chancery, based on psychiatrists led by Ru@audin and his staff, cooperated in creating propaganda films to sell mercy-killing (euthanasia) to German citizens. The public reacted antagonistically: Hitler had to withdraw a tear-jerker right-to-die film from the movie theaters. The proper groundwork had not yet been laid.

- 1934: The Freemasons study madness -

The {{Scottish Rite of Freemasonry}} joined the Rockefellers in sponsoring psychiatric genetics beginning in 1934, under the rubric of research into dementia praecox (schizophrenia). The highest level of U.S. masonry, the Scottish Rite was the instrument through which the British Crown had reestablished the loyalty of American masons after the American Revolution. The northern section of the Rite had rallied the Copperheads against Abraham Lincoln's Civil War efforts, aiding the Rite's southern chief Albert Pike in secession and in other British white supremacy projects, such as the Ku Klux Klan. For eugenics, the British royal family itself was the Rite's point of reference. The {{Duke of Connaught,}} son of Queen Victoria and brother of King Edward VII, had been grand master of the United Grand Lodge of England since 1901. American masonic leaders referred to the duke as “grand master of the Mother Grand Lodge of Masons of the World.” The son of a German father (Victoria's husband, the Coburg Prince Albert), the Duke of Connaught was deeply involved in German affairs and was a patron of Britain's “New Dark Ages” ultra-racialist elite group based in South Africa. Late in 1932, negotiations for Hitler's takeover of Germany took place at the home of Joachim von Ribbentrop, who, as a traveling teenager, had been adopted into the household of the Duke of Connaught. Ribbentrop then became the head of Hitler's foreign intelligence service. As Hitler's ambassador to England, Ribbentrop worked in tandem with the leadership of the clique which employed Hitler as a British surrogate to smash up Europe: the masonic grand master duke and his nephew, the openly Nazi Edward VIII; Bank of England Governor Montagu Norman; and Lord Halifax, Neville Chamberlain's foreign minister.

- 1936-38: Columbia University's chamber of horrors -

In 1936, the Scottish Rite's Field Representative of Research on Dementia Praecox, Dr. Nolan D.C. Lewis, director of the {{New York State Psychiatric Institute,}} reported to the Scottish Rite Northern Supreme Council “on the progress of the fourteen research projects being financed by the Supreme Council.” Scottish Rite strategist {{Winfred Overholser,}} the superintendent of St. Elizabeth's Hospital, a federal mental hospital in Washington D.C., provided overall leadership for the Rite's psychiatric research. Though these projects are shrouded in mystery, one of them with particularly gruesome results has come to light. The study of hereditary degeneracy was proceeding in the Rockefeller Foundation's German enclaves when it hit a snag. Psychiatrist Franz J. Kallmann, prote@aage@aa of Nazi race science chief Ernst Ru@audin, was forced to leave his job— Kallmann was “half-Jewish.” This was a big blow for Kallmann, who had proved his Nazi credentials at the International Congress for Population Science in Berlin in 1935. At that British-led meeting hosted by Hitler's Interior Ministry, Kallmann had argued for the sterilization of {even the apparently healthy relatives} of schizophrenics, along with the schizophrenics themselves, to securely eliminate all the defective germ plasm. Without missing a step, Kallmann emigrated to America and became director of research in the New York State Psychiatric Institute, attached to Columbia University in Manhattan. The Scottish Rite's Dr. Lewis was the director of the institute. Kallmann simply continued in New York the Nazi propaganda work he had been doing for Rockefeller in Germany. The Scottish Rite of Freemasonry paid Kallmann to conduct a study of over 1, 000 cases of schizophrenia, in order to assert the claim that the mental disorder was inherited. Kallmann's study was published simultaneously in the United States and Nazi Germany in 1938. In the preface, Kallmann thanked the Scottish Rite and his mentor Ru@audin. He called schizophrenics a “source of maladjust ed crooks … and the lowest types of criminal offenders. Even the faithful believer in liberty … would be happier without those.” He declared sarcastically, “I am reluctant to admit the necessity of different eugenic programs for democratic and fascistic communities…. There are neither biological nor sociological differences between a democratic and a totalitarian schizophrenic.” Kallmann's scholarly American study was used by the Nazi government's T4 unit as a part of its pretext to begin in 1939 the murder of mental patients and various other “defective” people, many or most of them children. Lethal gas and lethal injections were used to kill 200-250,000 under this program, in which the staffs for a broader program of mass murder were desensitized and trained.

- 1939-40: the deal for Auschwitz -

The German chemical company IG Farben and Rockefeller's Standard Oil of New Jersey were effectively a single firm, merged in hundreds of cartel arrangements. IG Farben was led, up until 1937 by the Warburg family, Rockefeller's partners in banking and in the design of Nazi German eugenics. Following the Nazi invasion of Poland in September 1939, Britain and Germany declared war on each other and World War II began. But later that month, Standard Oil executives flew to the Netherlands on a British Royal Air Force bomber and met with IG Farben executives. Standard Oil pledged to keep the merger with IG Farben going even if the United States entered the war. This was exposed in 1942 by Sen. Harry Truman's investigating committee, and President Franklin Roosevelt took hundreds of legal measures during the war to counter the Standard Oil-IG Farben cartel's supply operation for the enemy war machine. In 1940-41, IG Farben built a gigantic factory at Auschwitz in Poland, to utilize the Standard Oil-IG Farben patents with concentration camp slave labor to make gasoline from coal. The SS guarded the Jewish and other inmates and selected for killing those who were unfit for IG Farben slave labor. Standard-Germany President Emil Helfferich testified after the war that Standard Oil funds helped pay for the SS guards at Auschwitz. On March 26, 1940, six months after the Standard Oil-IG Farben meeting, European Rockefeller Foundation official Daniel O’Brian wrote to the foundation's chief medical officer Alan Gregg that “it would be unfortunate if it was chosen to stop research which has no relation to war issues.” The “non-war- related” research continued. {The Rockefeller Foundation defends its record by claiming that its funding of Nazi German programs during World War II was limited to psychiatric research.}

- 1943: research in Nazi-occupied Poland -

In 1943, Otmar Verschuer's assistant Josef Mengele was made medical commandant of Auschwitz. As wartime director of Rockefeller's Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Eugenics, and Human Heredity in Berlin, Verschuer secured funds for Mengele's experiments at Auschwitz from the German Research council. Verschuer wrote a progress report to the Council: “My co-researcher in this research is my assistant, the anthropologist and physician Mengele. He is serving as Hauptstu@aurmfu@auhrer and camp doctor in the concentration camp Auschwitz…. With the permission of the Reichsfu@auhrer SS Himmler, anthropological research is being undertaken on the various racial groups in the concentration camps and blood samples will be sent to my laboratory for investigation.” Mengele prowled the railroad cars coming into Auschwitz, looking for twin children—a favorite research subject of Frankenstein-type psychiatric geneticists. On arrival at Mengele's experimental station, twins filled out “a detailed questionnaire from the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute.” There were daily drawings of blood for Verschuer's “specific protein” research. Needles were injected into eyes for work on eye color. There were experimental blood transfusions and experimental infections. Organs and limbs were removed, sometimes without anesthetics. Sex changes were attempted. Females were sterilized, males were castrated. Thousands were murdered, and their organs, eyeballs, heads, and limbs were sent to Verschuer and the Rockefeller group at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute. After the war, Mengele was a famous target of Nazi-hunters pursuing him to South America. But his boss, Verschuer, was regarded in a different light: He was a high-level Rockefeller operative. In 1946, Verschuer wrote to the Bureau of Human Heredity in London, asking for help in continuing his “scientific research. “ In 1947, the Bureau of Human Heredity moved from London to Copenhagen, and Verschuer moved to Denmark to join the British group there. The new Danish building for this group was erected with Rockefeller money. The first International Congress in Human Genetics following World War II was held at this Danish institute in 1956. Dr. Kallmann helped save Verschuer by testifying at his denazification proceedings. Kallmann, a director of the American Eugenics Society, became an icon at the New York State Psychiatric Institute, which remains to this day a nest of the Eugenics Society. With Verschuer and other Nazi notables, Dr. Kallmann also created the American Society of Human Genetics, which organized the “Human Genome Project”—a current $3 billion physical multiculturalism effort.

- 1943: research in North America -

With the war on, the Rockefeller Foundation and the Canadian military joined their psychiatric forces. Canadian Army medical director Dr. George Brock Chisholm had been trained as a psychiatrist at the {{Tavistock Psychiatric Clinic}} in London, and Tavistock—the British Crown's central mind-bending agency— was a major Rockefeller Foundation beneficiary. In 1943, the Rockefeller Foundation created the Allen Memorial Institute at McGill University in Montreal. Eugenics- oriented psychiatrist {{Donald Ewen Cameron,}} a Scottish immigrant to the United States, was placed in charge of the institute's psychiatry. Experiments in coercive interrogation and brainwashing would be conducted at Allen Institute under the auspices of the Canadian military, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Dr. Cameron's “terminal” use of electric shock as a brain-burning torture, psychosurgery, and brainwashing with drugs and hypnosis would make the Canadian program the most famous apsect of the CIA's MK- Ultra. Meanwhile, in Washington, D.C., a new odor, that of marijuana, could be detected inside St. Elizabeth's Hospital in Washington, D.C. (St. Elizabeth's is the mental hospital where presidential assailants or other federal cases are kept.) The superintendent, Scottish Rite chief psychiatrist Winfred Overholser, was in 1943 the chairman of the misnamed “truth drug” committee for the Office of Strategic Services (OSS). The criminal underworld was systematically being brought into official but secret joint activities with the government, under the pretext of fighting fascism. Overholser's crew administered the hallucinogen mescaline to various test subjects. Then in the spring of 1943, they perfected the right mix of marijuana and tobacco to produce a “state of irresponsibility” in the subject. The official OSS story is that New York mafia hitman August Del Gracio began smoking Overholser's “joints” on May 27, 1943, in order to loosen his tongue. Federal agents were thus supposedly to learn the inside secrets of drug trafficking—but not to stop it. This was part of an ongoing federal program, which organized crime czar Meyer Lansky boasts (in his authorized biography) that he personally arranged. Mafia thugs were brought in to work in Naval Intelligence offices, and jointly with U.S. agents in U.S. ports and shipping, to more effectively intimidate our national enemies. Former CIA staff member John Marks writes in {The Search for the Manchurian Candidate} that Overholser's working group included counterintelligence agents inside the Manhattan Project atomic bomb project, and the FBI, which was under the direction of Dr. Overholser's Scottish Rite comrade, FBI director J. Edgar Hoover. The Overholser group gave marijuana to U.S. soldiers at Army bases throughout the country, supposedly to aid in the search for subversives. Later, during the 1950s and 1960s, the strategists of the MK- Ultra project would utilize the same channels of influence with U.S. security agencies to let them transform a generation of youth into dope users.

1944-48: after Nazism, the International Congress on Mental Health

In 1944, with the concentration camps in full swing and Europe burning, Montagu Norman resigned from the Bank of England. He immediately began a new project, ironically related to his own repeated mental breakdowns and hospitalizations. Norman organized the British {{National Association for Mental Health.}} In its formative stages the group was based at Thorpe Lodge, Norman's London home, where he had met with Nazi Economics Minister Hjalmar Schacht to plan the Hitler regime's 1930s budgets. Montagu Norman's Bank of England assistant Otto Niemeyer was made treasurer of the National Association of Mental Health. Niemeyer's niece, Mary Appleby, became general secretary of the association. She previously worked in the German Section of the British Foreign Office. The president of Norman's association was to be Richard Austen (“RAB”) Butler. He had been deputy foreign minister to Lord Halifax and the spokesman in the British Parliament for the pro-Nazi policy. The chairman of the association was to be be Lord Halifax's son-in-law, the Earl of Feversham. The vice chairman was Lord Montagu Norman's wife, eugenics activist Priscilla Reyntiens Worsthorne Norman. Norman's British group would soon expand and to take over management of the world psychiatric profession. When the war ended, the exposure and punishment of those responsible for the Nazi barbarities was a rather delicate matter. Dr. Donald Ewen Cameron interrupted his Canadian brain butchery to go help the British Crown's Tavistock psychological warfare unit evaluate the sanity of Nazi official Rudolph Hess. Cameron's unique insights into the Nazi mentality had made him a valued part of a secret wartime psychiatric committee in Washington to assess the trends in the Nazi leadership's thinking. Cameron now testified as an expert at the Nuremberg war crimes trials. His old OSS colleague {{Allen Dulles,}} later the CIA director, was reportedly pleased by Cameron's suggestion that each surviving German over the age of 12 should be given electroshock treatment to burn out remaining vestiges of Nazism. That part of the Nuremberg Code dealing with scientific research was drafted by Boston psychiatrist Leo Alexander; he soon afterward joined with Auschwitz experimental mastermind Otmar Verschuer in Franz Kallmann's American Society of Human Genetics. In 1948, Montagu Norman's National Association for Mental Health gathered the world psychiatric and psychological leaders together at an {{International Congress on Mental Health}} at the United Kingdom's Ministry of Health in London. At this congress, a {{World Federation for Mental Health}} was formed, to run the planet's psychological services. Lady Norman, the hostess of the congress, was named to the executive board. Norman picked as president of the World Federation the chief of the British military's psychological warfare department, Tavistock Institute chief {{Brig. Gen. Dr. John Rawlings Rees.}} In connection with the founding of the World Federation for Mental Health, a New York agent of Montagu Norman named Clarence G. Michalis was made chairman of the board of the Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation. That foundation, in turn, would pay for much of what the World Federation and Tavistock were to do to the United States—supplying dope and otherwise subverting western ideals. The Macy Foundation's chief medical officer, Dr. Frank Fremont- Smith, would be the permanent co-director of the World Federation with J.R. Rees. The technical coordinator of the U.S. delegation to the 1948 congress, Nina Ridenour, later wrote in {Mental Health in the United States: A Fifty Year History,} that “the World Federation for Mental Health … had been created upon the recommendation of the United Nations' {{World Health Organization}} and {{Unesco}}, because they needed a non-governmental [i.e., not accountable to any check of law or constitution—ed.] mental health organization with which they could cooperate.” Ridenour alluded to the fact that the British psychological warfare executive had itself created the heart of the U.N. apparatus:

“Having official consultive status with the United Nations and several of its specialized agencies, the World Federation for Mental Health is in a position to influence some of the U.N.'s decisions and some aspects of its program. The two U.N. agencies with which the World Federation works most closely are the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organzation (Unesco). “The first director of WHO, and indeed quite literally its ‘creator,’ was a prominent Canadian psychiatrist, Brock Chisholm, M.D., formerly director general of the Canadian Army Medical Services. Since its inception, WHO has made significant contributions to world mental health through the reports of its various Expert Committees; through some of its other special reports, such as the notable monograph {Mental Health and Maternal Care} by [Tavistock's] John Bowlby, M.D.; and through the widespread activities of its Mental Health Division, of which the British psychiatrist Ronald C. Hargreaves was the first director.” Unesco's partnership with Rees was guided by Unesco's founding secretary general, eugenics strategist {{Sir Julian Huxley,}} and by Unesco social sciences chief Dr. Otto Klineberg, a Tavistock-affiliated psychologist specializing in the supposedly racial characteristics of the American Negro. The congress, which in effect founded the modern “mental health” profession, brought together one of the most exotic collection of enemies of humanity in recent centuries. Its vice presidents included: {{Prof. Cyril Burt:}} Tavistock psychiatrist, eugenics activist, a leader of the “psychical research” movement (seances, ESP, ghosts), who was notorious for fraudulent “twins” research; {{Dr. Hugh Chrichton-Miller:}} founder of the Tavistock Clinic; vice president of the C.G. Jung Institute in Zurich; vice president, National Association for Mental Health; {{Dame Evelyn Fox:}} a longtime leader of the British eugenics movement (Lady Norman was a disciple of Dame Evelyn); {{Sir David Hen derson:}} psychiatrist in London, Munich, and New York; author of {Psychiatry and Race Betterment}; {{Lord Thomas Jeeves Horder:}} president of the Eugenics Society of Great Britain; president of the Family Planning Association; president of the Anglo-Soviet Public Relations Association; former physician to King Edward VIII; {{Carl G. Jung:}} occultist; psychiatrist to Montagu Norman, Paul Mellon, and the Dulles family; representative of German psychiatry under the Nazis, co-editor of the Nazis' {Journal for Psychotherapy}; {{Dr. Winfred Overholser:}} representative of the Scottish Rite Masons; chairman of the American delegation to the International Congress on Mental Health; {{Alan Ker Stout:}} University of Sydney, Australia, philosophy professor, president of the New South Wales Film Society, officer of Unesco for films; {{Dr. Alfred Frank Tredgold:}} member of Britain's Ministry of Health Committee on Sterilization and a leading expert on mental defectives. The congress was run by the host British “National Association,” whose patron was the Duchess of Kent, widow of the Grand Master of Masons (1939-42) and mother of the Grand Master of Masons (1967 to the present), and whose vice presidents were eugenics and masonic officials. The general conference at the congress was on the subject of {guilt,} including the crucial plenary session on alleged German collective guilt for the crimes of Nazism. The first speaker was {{Margaret Mead,}} anthropologist, occultist, who would be president of the World Federation for Mental Health in 1956 and 1957, during the MK-Ultra crimes. The “Chairman for Discussion” of this plenary was Scottish Rite strategist Winfred Overholser. In his opening remarks, Overholser said: “I understand that a vocal minority in the press does not agree with the wisdom of having such a meeting, but we feel there is great hope for the future if the principles of mental hygiene can be translated into terms of international action.”

NOTES

1 “The Rockefeller Foundation and German Biomedical Sciences, 1920-1940: Educational Philanthropy to International Science Policy” by Paul Weindling in the book {Science, Politics and the Public Good: Essays in Honour of Margaret Gowing,} London, Macmillan Press, 1988.

1950s: MK-Ultra

The outrages perpetrated by Ewen Cameron became the most notorious aspect of the postwar Anglo-American mind-control program. Cameron had trained at the Royal Mental Hospital in Glasgow, under eugenicist Sir David Henderson, and founded the Canadian branch of his friend John R. Rees's World Federation for Mental Health. In the various member countries and subdivisions, these channels of British intelligence operations are known as the national, provincial, or state {{Mental Health Associations.} } Cameron was also elected president of the Canadian, American, and world psychiatric associations. He became famous after the CIA was sued by some survivors of his work—because the CIA had financed the tortures. Cameron would drug his victims to sleep for weeks on end, waking them daily only to administer violent electric shocks to the brain. He used the British Page-Russell electroconvulsive method, an initial one-second shock, then five to nine additional shocks, administered while the patient was in seizure. But he increased the normal voltage and the number of sequences from one to two or three times per day. Patients lost all or part of their memories, and some lost the ability to control their bodily functions and to speak. At least one patient was reduced almost to a vegetable; then Cameron had the coginitve centers of her brain surgically cut apart, while keeping her alive. Some subjects were deposited permanently in institutions for the hopelessly insane. For the CIA, Cameron tested the South American poison called curare, which kills a victim while simulating natural heart failure. But Cameron claims to have used it only in non-lethal doses to further immobilize his subjects while they were kept in sensory deprivation tortures for as long as 65 days. Then they would be given lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) for “programmable” hallucinations. When the subject was sufficiently devastated, Cameron and his assistant, a veteran of the British Royal Signals Corps, would begin “Psychic Driving”: Through a loudsp eaker hidden under the pillow, or through unremovable earphones, they would play a tape over and over again to burn certain phrases into what was left of the victim's memory. The CIA was found to have financed these horrors, as well as ghastly experiments in other locations, using a front called the Society for the Study of Human Ecology. (The society gave a grant for a study of the effects of circumcision on young Turkish boys, the grantees to be in Istanbul, studying five to seven year olds and their problems with their genitals. It is claimed that this was intended to give a cover to the CIA front as a real academic organization.)

- The question of sponsorship -

But the authorship of this enterprise cannot reasonably be assigned to the CIA, per se. Even before we review other agencies' direct involvement, we must understand that the CIA chief during MK-Ultra, Allen Dulles, was thoroughly attached to British Empire geopolitical aims. Introduced to British spies by his uncle Robert Lansing, Woodrow Wilson's secretary of state, Dulles had had a strong personal identification since childhood with the British Secret Intelligence Service. The Dulles family's upper class-status in America began when ancestor William Dulles arrived in South Carolina from India. With a fortune made in India by providing financial and security services for the British East India Company army, he bought a slave plantation which the family held through the American Civil War. The family's mental life was always that of the British Empire and its American colonial subordinates. Allen Dulles's main corporate activity was as a director of the J. Henry Schroder banking company in London, a prime instrument in Montagu Norman's nazification of Germany. As partners in the Sullivan and Cromwell firm, Allen Dulles and his brother John Foster Dulles represented the Rockefeller-Harriman- Warburg combination, I.G. Farben, and virtully every other Nazi corporate organization that danced on London's marionette strings. It was disclosed that for MK-Ultra, particularly for the experimental use and distribution of LSD, the CIA operated through another front, the Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation. But the geometry of the “front” really worked the other way around. The Macy Foundation represented the British psychological warfare executive, as extended into U.S. and related institutions. In the midst of launching MK-Ultra, during 1954-55, the Macy Foundation's medical director Frank Fremont-Smith was president of British General Rees's World Federation of Mental Health. Under Rees as the director, the two together “made a journey to a number of countries in Asia and Africa to establish contacts and seek ways in which th e organziation may extend its activities in those regions.” Through official military and intelligence conferences over which it presided, and through various informal and secret operations, the Macy Foundation directed the spread of LSD by U. S. agencies during the 1950s. The Macy Foundation's chief LSD executive, {{Harold Abramson, }} was a psychiatric researcher at Columbia University and at the eugenics center in Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, New York. It was Abramson who first “turned on” Frank Fremont-Smith. Abramson also gave LSD for the first time to British anthropologist Gregory Bateson, sometime husband of Margaret Mead. Then in 1959, Bateson gave LSD to Beat poet Alan Ginsburg at Stanford University, under controlled experimental conditions. Following this, Dr. Leo Hollister at Stanford gave LSD to mental patient turned author Ken Kesey and others, and thus it was said to have spread “out of the CIA's realm.”

- Masonic ‘charity’ -

Other parts of the U.S. government participated in the project exposed as MK-Ultra. The Army Chemical Center paid for LSD and related drug brainwashing experiments by {{Dr. Paul Hoch.}} Along with Nazi eugenics leader Franz Kallmann, Hoch co-directed the research at Columbia University's New York State Psychiatric Institute. Dr. Hoch was a member of the American Eugenics Society, in Kallmann's eugenics cell at the institute. Hoch was simultaneously appointed State Mental Hygiene Commissioner by New York Gov. Averell Harriman, and was reappointed by the next governor, Nelson Rockefeller. Dr. Hoch's forced injections of a mescaline derivative brought about the 1953 death of New York tennis player Harold Blauer. Hoch's colleague Dr. James Cattell later told investigators, “We didn’t know whether it was dog piss or what it was we were giving him.” When Hoch died, British brain butcher Ewen Cameron directed his funeral. Dr. Hoch, a Scottish Rite masonic strategist, worked with Dr. Kallman under the direction of Scottish Rite Freemasonry's Field Representative of Research on Dementia Praecox, Dr. Nolan D.C. Lewis, the superintendent of the New York State Psychiatric Institute. As the Ku Klux Klan has been the defining project for the Scottish Rite's Southern Jurisdiction, the Rite's Northern Jurisdiction left its official mark on the world through MK- Ultra—its most important “charity.” Much of the psychiatric dirty work, though, has been done inside the Rite's KKK-spawning Southern Jurisdiction, which includes all southern states and everything west of the Mississippi River. {{Robert Hanna Felix,}} 33rd degree mason, was a director of the Scottish Rite's psychiatric research. He ran a spectacularly lawless brainwashing establishment. The exposure of the MK-Ultra scandal revealed that the CIA had funded one Dr. Harris Isbell to carry out barbarous experiments using slave subjects, nearly all of them black drug addicts, at the {{Addiction Research Center}} in Lexington, Kentucky. Isbell was the director of the cen ter from the 1940s until 1963. His boss was masonic master psychiatrist Felix, who founded the {{National Institute of Mental Health}} and was NIMH director from 1949 to 1964. The Lexington facility had been Dr. Felix's personal project since he had been its clinical director in the 1930s, and he put it under the jurisdiction of the NIMH. The Felix-Isbell slave experiments involved LSD and a wide variety of other hallucinogens and exotic poisons. In one case, seven prisoners were kept hallucinating on LSD for 77 consecutive days. The torture at Lexington followed the pattern developed by Cameron in Montreal: Drug-induced sleep was interrupted by electroconvulsive shock. Cooperative subjects were rewarded with shots of heroin or any other drug of their choice. And for mental health, the masonic administration encouraged the prisoners to participate in synthetic religious and political cults. Felix's program was not simply to make humans into controllable beasts, but to decentralize the zombie- manufacturing. A 1993 report to the Scottish Rite Supreme Council by its current psychiatric research director, Steven Matthysse, explains: “Thirty years ago, a massive program began, which has continued unabated to this day: the deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill…. My predecessor as research director of the Schizophrenia Research Program, Dr. Robert H. Felix, 33 Degree, Gourgas medalist and the founding director of the National Institute of Mental Health, was one of the chief architects of this program. ‘We are entering a new era,’ he wrote, ‘of community-centered, comprehensive psychiatric care.’… Dr. Felix predicted that, in 25 years, ‘State mental hospitals as we know them would no longer exist.’ He was right…. During the years from 1955 to 1992, the state mental hospital census went down by 82%.” The strategists of MK-Ultra succeeded in moving the mentally ill out of costly mental hospitals, onto the streets, where they now consitute a large proportion of America's homeless. We shall now see what kind o f “community-centered psychiatric care” these strategists did in fact implement, as Britain's MK-Ultra poured drugs into the country and worked to fabricate the drug- sex youth culture. {{Seymour Solomon Kety}} was both an executive of the Scottish Rite's psychiatry experiments, and a Scottish Rite- funded clinical experimenter. He was chief of NIMH clinical sciences from 1957 through 1967, and continued as the NIMH “senior scientist” into the 1990s. A close associate of the Kallmann Nazi-eugenics cell at Columbia, Kety was a national director of the American Eugenics Society, under its 1980s name, the Society for the Study of Social Biology. Kety helped lead the masons' U.S. agency, the NIMH, beyond the Kentucky experiments, to the brink of Hell.

- Manchuria in California? -

As Carol Greene has demonstrated in her 1992 book {Mo@aurder aus der Retorte: Der Fall Charles Manson,} ({Test-Tube Murder: The Case of Charles Manson}) {{Charles Manson,}} before he committed mass murder, was himself an NIMH “research subject.” Manson was released from a California prison in March 1967. He was required by law to report regularly to a parole officer named Roger Smith, who was based at the Haight-Ashbury Medical Clinic in San Francisco. This was an NIMH project designed to observe and in effect supervise the first large-scale drug addiction of white teenagers, thousands of whom were the clinic's clients. Clinic director David E. Smith was also the publisher of the {Journal of Psychedelic Drugs,} and a leading national advocate for the legalized use of narcotics. Within the clinic arrangement, Charles Manson's parole officer was officially commissioned to scientifically investigate the effects that various kinds drugs had on addicts served by the NIMH clinic. David Smith also collaborated with another NIMH project: a behavioral study of children in communes. He was an expert on the breeding of violent anti-social characters in the mind-crushing environment of the hippie or cult commune. Parole officer Roger Smith remained on Manson's case after he was no longer his parole officer, as an adviser and observer of the increasingly insane man. Charles Manson took up with a British-origin satanic killer cult called {{The Process—Church of the Final Judgment,}} a spin-off from Scientology. When he started with The Process is not clear, but there are some reports that it was in that summer of 1967. Its British founders had put the U.S. headquarters of the cult into the Haight-Ashbury section, two blocks from where Manson was living, and they recruited from among the “flower children” for the jobs of drug-running, assassination, and race riots. {{David Berkowitz,}} convicted in the New York “Son of Sam” serial murders, was an initiate of The Process. Manson is most widely known for his communal Family, which carried out the satanic Tate-LaBianca murders. But here we note that Lynette “Squeaky” Fromme, who became the head of the Family after Manson was arrested in October 1969, was herself imprisoned for the 1975 attempted assassination of U.S. President Gerald Ford. Another associate of the Manson Family, Sarah Jane Moore, was also imprisoned for a failed assassination attempt on President Ford. Had either been successful, Nelson Rockefeller would have become President. There is a certain psychiatric agency, the {{American Family Foundation,}} which exists officially to guard the public from injurious cults. AFF is the mother organization for the so-called {{Cult Awareness Network}} (CAN). {{Dr. Louis Jolyon West}} is a director of AFF. An expert in brainwashing for the Air Force and the CIA, West first achieved fame from his MK-Ultra feat—he injected LSD-25 into an elephant and killed it. West researched “the psychology of dissociated states” for the CIA, using LSD and hypnosis. His friend {{Aldous Huxley}} suggested to Dr. West during an MK-Ultra experiment that West hypnotize his subjects prior to administering LSD, in order to give them “post-hypnotic suggestions aimed at orienting the drug-induced experience in some desired direction.” Dr. West was called upon by the government to examine Jack Ruby, who had killed Lee Harvey Oswald before Oswald could stand trial for his alleged role in the assassination of President John Kennedy. West declared Ruby to be in a “paranoid state manifested by delusions, visual and auditory hallucinations, and suicidal impulses.” Ruby was convicted in 1964, but conveniently died in 1967 while awaiting what could have been a revealing re- trial. Dr. West lived in Haight-Ashbury during the summer of 1967, to study the hippies. In the 1970s, West became famous again for his plans to create a Center for the Study and Reduction of Violence. Its staff was to investigate the genetics and biochemistry of their prisoners, including “hyperkinetic children,” whose every m otion would be electronically monitored by Orwellian guards. Though backed by Gov. Ronald Reagan, the plan was defeated. {{Rabbi Maurice Davis}} is another “expert” guarding America from cults as a director of the American Family Foundation. Davis worked at the NIMH Lexington Addiction Research Center as a chaplain, serving the slave victims of the MK-Ultra drug experiments as they were brought into cult participation. Rabbi Davis then moved to Indianapolis and sponsored the career of {{Rev. Jim Jones,}} whose followers were murdered with poisoned Kool-Aid in Guyana. The bulk of the start-up financing for the American Family Foundation was channelled through a New York law firm running two funding satellites of the Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation. The same law firm was the legal representative of The Process—Church of the Final Judgment. The Process Church employs neo-Nazi themes, as do other British-origin movements such as the Satanists associated with California's Anton Lavey and Col. Michael Aquino. Charles Manson's swastika tatoo attests to this. Many of the psychotic potential presidential assassins have been “neo-Nazis.” These include Ronald Reagan's deeply brainwashed assailant John Hinckley, and some of those who have threatened President Clinton. To help turn up the possible source for this curious zombie pattern, we review the case of NIMH leader Seymour Kety—as of recent report the chairman of the Professional Advisory Section of the Scottish Rite Masons' Schizophrenia Research program. This is the Dr. Kety who, with his NIMH predecessor Dr. Felix, helped shape the programs that made Charles Manson a satanic beast. A Scottish Rite brochure reports on the meetings of the Rite's Grand Commander and Supreme Council with their psychiatrists to plan for the future. The brochure explains that Dr. Kety “can trace his interest in the genetics of schizophrenia to a report by Dr. Franz Kallmann at one of these meetings years ago. Dr. Kety's own genetic studies have become landmarks in the field, as the firs t convincing demonstration of an inherited factor.” Not the first, perhaps, because Kallmann provided Adolf Hitler with “convincing” pretexts to exterminate mental patients.

- The official assassination program -

The ambiguous rationale for the MK-Ultra program was the search for the Manchurian Candidate: to study, emulate, and counterbalance communist programs which brainwash people who could be dangerous to our national security. These programs were secret, and masses of MK-Ultra records were destroyed. But some aspects of the program's direct testing have been divulged. CIA executive Morse Allen worked at creating killers under hypnosis on and around Feb. 19, 1954. The CIA planned early in 1954 to hypnotize a man they considered disposable, to get him to make an assassination attempt, be arrested for attempted murder, and be “thereby disposed of.” A CIA hypnosis study was done by Alden Sears at the University of Minnesota and was moved by Sears to the University of Denver, Colorado. Sears worked to answer the question, “Could a hypnotist induce a totally separate personality? CIA counterintelligence chief {{James Jesus Angleton,}} a leader of the British intelligence faction in the American intelligence community, established three goals for the hypnosis program: 1) to induce hypnosis very rapidly in unwitting subjects; 2) to create durable amnesia; and 3) to implant durable and operationally useful post-hypnotic suggestion. A test of rapid hypnosis took place in July 1963. The counterintelligence staff in Washington, D.C. asked the CIA station in Mexico City to find a suitable candidate for a rapid induction experiment. The station proposed a low-level agent, whom the Soviets had apparently doubled. A counterintelligence man flew in from Washington and a hypnotic consultant arrived from California. The experiment was said to have misfired. According to CIA hypnosis expert Milton Klein, creating a hypnotized “patsy” is easier than making a totally controlled Manchurian Candidate. The patsy can be induced by hypnosis to do things which later show up as circumstantial evidence that will get him falsely blamed for a crime. Klein has claimed he can create a patsy in three months; a full-scale Manchurian Candidate tak es six months.

- Strange deaths: Frank Olson and Philip Graham -

An important part of the MK-Ultra story was the violent death of Dr. Frank Olson. In November 1953, the project's CIA personnel gave LSD to Olson, an executive of the Army Chemical Corps' Special Operations Division, without warning him. Olson became psychotic and paranoid, so the agency took Olson to New York to see Harold Abramson, the British Crown's LSD pusher, who had “top secret” CIA clearance. When Abramson was no help, Olson agreed to enter { {Chestnut Lodge,}} a Rockville, Maryland sanitarium whose psychiatrists were in Abramson's category for the security of the MK-Ultra project—“top secret” cleared. But the night before he was to enter Chestnut Lodge, Olson allegedly jumped to his death from a hotel window. Olson's death eventually became a scandal which helped break open of the entire MK-Ultra scandal. A decade later, President John F. Kennedy was pressing ahead with the Apollo space program, which he promised would put a man on the Moon within a decade. Philip Graham, the owner/publisher of the {Washington Post} and {Newsweek,} met as an adviser and friend every week with the President and his brother, Attorney General Bobby Kennedy. Graham was an ardent champion and strategist of the space program, and of the President's policy of achieving peace by developing overwhelming technological superiority. Graham wrote a {Newsweek} column defending French President Charles de Gaulle and attacking Britain and elements in the U.S. government who took the British line. Graham's wife Katharine and her Anglophile family despised and mocked Kennedy's emphasis on progress, and demanded U.S. disarmament. Graham separated from his wife and sued for divorce. In January 1963, Graham delivered a speech to a national publishers' meeting in Arizona, attacking the news media as toadies and sycophants. Leslie Farber, a New Age psychiatrist from MK-Ultra's Chestnut Lodge, flew out on a military jet. Graham was wrestled to the ground, drugged into a stupor, and flown back to Maryland, where his wife had obtained a cou rt order for his commitment to Chestnut Lodge. He was apparently released after 10 days or so. In June 1963, Graham was somehow put back into Chestnut Lodge. On Aug. 3, he was released into the custody of his estranged wife. That afternoon, he was found shot to death. His will was declared void on the grounds of insanity, and his widow, Katharine Graham, gained control of the {Washington Post} and {Newsweek.} Three months later, President Kennedy was assassinated. The { Washington Post,} the main newspaper in the national capital, did not pursue the question of who had murdered the U.S. President, but left it to the Warren Commission to decide.

- The assassins' goals -

Back in 1961, at the height of MK-Ultra, the NIMH, led by masonic high priest Robert Felix, had created an elite group of biologists, behavioral psychologists, chemists, pharmacologists, neuropsychologists, and psychiatrists. This 150-member {{American College of Neuropsychopharmacology}} comprised many of most important MK-Ultra participants. An inner group of the college, the Study Group for the Effects of Psychotropic Drugs on Normal Humans, held a conference in 1967 to outline the desired course for the United States to the year 2000. This conference was reported on by two MK-Ultra leaders: {{ Dr. Wayne O. Evans,}} director of the U.S. Army Military Stress Laboratory in Natick, Massachusetts; and {{Nathan Kline,}} a eugenics fanatic and research psychiatrist for Columbia University, who had set up voodoo-oriented psychological clinics in Haiti in conjunction with “Papa Doc” Duvalier. The preface to the Evans-Kline report said the group “concluded that the present breadth of drug use may be almost trivial when we compare it to the possible numbers of chemical substances that will be available for the control of selective aspects of man's life in the year 2000…. “The American culture … [is] moving toward a ‘sensate society.’… A greater emphasis is being placed on sensory experience and less upon rational or work-oriented philosophies. Such a philosophical view, coupled with the means to separate sexual behavior from reproduction or disease, will undoubtedly enhance sexual freedom…. “It seems … obvious that the youth of today are no longer afraid of either drugs or sex. Again, the philosophers and spokesmen for the avant-garde advocate the personal sensory experience as the {raison d’e@aftre} of the coming generation. Finally, we are moving into an age in which meaningful work will be possible only for a minority: In such an age, chemical aphrodisiacs may be accepted as a commonplace means to occupy one's time. It will be interesting to see if the public morality of the next 30 years will change as much as it has in the last 30. “If we accept the position that human mood, motivation, and emotion are reflections of a neurochemical state of the brain, then drugs can provide a simple, rapid, expedient means to produce any desired neurochemical state that we wish. “The sooner that we cease to confuse scientific and moral statements about drug use, the sooner we can rationally consider the types of neurochemical states that we wish to be able to provide for people.” This is the historical thinking of the British strategists who want to destroy the U.S. presidency and the American republic. And this is the criminal apparatus with which they have equipped themselves to do it.

For further reading

Samuel Harrison Baynard, Jr., {History of the Supreme Council, 33 Degree, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, Northern Jurisdiction of the United States of America,} Vol. II, Boston, 1938, published by the Supreme Council. {The Campaigner,} April 1974: L. Marcus, “The Real CIA—The Rockefellers' Fascist Establishment,” and M. Minnicino, “Low Intensity Operations: The Reesian Theory of War.” May 1974: Peter Cuskie, “The Shaping of the Anglo-American SS by War,” and Richard Freeman, “Rockefeller's Fascist Labor Policies.” Photocopies available from Ben Franklin Booksellers, Inc., 1-800- 453-4108. Anton Chaitkin, “Franklin Witnesses Implicate FBI and U.S. Elites in Torture and Murder of Children,” {The New Federalist,} Dec. 13, 1993. Anton Chaitkin, “Cairo Population Conference Repeats 1932 Nazi Planning Meeting,” {EIR,} April 29, 1994. Franz J. Kallmann, {The Genetics of Schizophrenia: A Study of Heredity and Reproduction in the Families of 1087 Schizophrenics, } New York: 1938. Stefan Kuhl, {The Nazi Connection: Eugenics, American Racism and German National Socialism,} New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. Lyndon H. LaRouche, Jr. and Anton Chaitkin, {Bring Down the Pike Statue Now: Why the KKK National Monument Must Fall,} 1993, published by {The New Federalist,} P.O. Box 889, Leesburg, Va. 22075. Bernhard Schreiber, {The Men Behind Hitler: A German Warning to the World,} France: La Hay-Mureaux, ca. 1975), English edition supplied by H. and P. Tadeusz, 369 Edgewere Road, London W2. A copy of this book is held by Union College Library, Syracuse, N. Y. Jeffrey Steinberg, “30 Years of Menticide,” {EIR,} Oct. 6, Oct. 20, and Nov. 3, 1989. Webster Tarpley and Anton Chaitkin, {George Bush: The Unauthorized Biography,} Washington, D.C.: EIR, 1992, consult expecially chapters 1-4. Carol White and Brian Lantz, “Satan's Helpers: Nazi Doctors in America,” {EIR,} Oct. 6, 1989.

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