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Leverett Saltonstall

John Simkin

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While studying the Watergate case I have come across some interesting coincidences. One involves Senator Leverett Saltonstall. It is claimed that Saltonstall had close links to the US intelligence services. Ben Bradlee married Saltonstall's daughter in 1943. Later that year Bradlee joined naval intelligence.

After the war, Charles Colson, became Saltonstall’s assistant. It was Colson who recruited Howard Hunt as a member of the White House Special Investigations Unit. It was also Colson who ordered Hunt to break into Albert Bremer's apartment after he tried to assassinate George Wallace.

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  • 5 years later...
Guest Tom Scully

A good life: newspapering and other adventures - Google Books Result

Ben Bradlee - 1996 - Biography & Autobiography - 512 pages

Leverett Saltonstall was a second cousin of Jean's father, John L. Saltonstall, who was wonderfully handsome, and a great shot from a duck blind...


David Harold Byrd...Byrd's cousin was Harry F. Byrd, who was described by Alden Hatch (The Byrds of Virginia: An American Dynasty) as "the leader of conservative opinion in the United States.


Aug 1, 1948

Miss Emily Saltonstall, daughter of Sen. and Mrs. Leverett Saltonstall, was married today to Richard E. Byrd Jr., son of Adm. and Mrs. Richard E. Byrd...ushers were Leverett, Jr. and William L. Saltonstall, brothers of the bride, and Beverly and Harry Byrd, Jr. cousins of the bridegroom...


The Times-News - Jan 1, 1966

...For years, (Leverett) Saltonstall and Harry Flood Byrd of Virginia have made a bipartisan patricians' bloc of two...


Harry F. Byrd, Jr. - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Harry Flood Byrd, Jr. (born December 20, 1914) is a retired American politician. He represented Virginia in the United States Senate from 1965 to 1983. ..


This collection consists of letters written to Massachusetts Senator Leverett Saltonstall throughout his political career and into retirement from politicians, politicians' wives, journalists, and television personalities, discussing political opinions, friendship, pending legislation, and campaign support.

Leverett Saltonstall Autograph Collection

1930-1996; bulk: 1930-1979

Guide to the Collection

...Acquisition Information

Most of the letters were removed from the Leverett Saltonstall papers in 1992; some were added by William Saltonstall, 1992-2001...


William L. Saltonstall, at 81, former Massachusetts state senator ...

Jan 25, 2009 ... It was William Lawrence Saltonstall who introduced George Bush ... Republican presidential primary. Saltonstall, a former state senator ...


MANCHESTER-BY-THE-SEA — Bill "Salty" Saltonstall, born in Newton, May 14, 1927, passed away quietly at home on Friday, Jan. 23, 2008. He was the fifth of the six children of Senator and Mrs. Leverett Saltonstall. He joined the Navy at the end of World War II. He graduated from Harvard in 1949 and from Harvard Business School in 1951. He served as State Senator for the third Essex district for 13 years. He championed coastal and environmental causes.... Published in The Gloucester Times on 1/28/2009


The Bushes: Portrait of a Dynasty - Google Books Result

Peter Schweizer, Rochelle Schweizer - 2005 - Biography & Autobiography - 624 pages -Page 273

When George arrived, Saltonstall went up to the mike. “Ladies and gentlemen, you've come to hear George Bush, and here he is. ...


SWEEP IS SCORED BY HARVARD CREWS; All Three Finish First in...

- New York Times - May 8, 1949

JUNIOR VARSITY Harvard--Bow. Charles Rlmmer Jr.: -2. William Saltonstall; 3. George Hewltt: 4. Edwin Bohlen: 5. Robert Taggarl: 6. John Merrlck: 7. Aioert Carter Jr.: Stroke, Arthur Rouner; Coxswain. Alexander Aldrich. ...

It now seems that Devine was probably brought into "the fold" via his acquaintance with Alexander Aldrich, when they were classmates at M.I.T.


Page 4 of 1946 newspaper from Tom Devine's fraternity at M.I.T. Home address displayed matches 3550 Elmwood Ave. Rochester, NY address in image displayed in earlier post of Devine's father's obituary on this thread. Same lists also contains names, addresses, and military branch and rank of Devine's fraternity brothers.

Left column on page 1, also at the link above, lists the name Thomas Devine and the names of the other fraternity initiates Devine pledged with.

I have seen no other record related to Devine's university attendance. I find no information as to whether he graduated from M.I.T., or that he made later donations as an alumni. It seems as if he does not want his activities of the late 1940's or of his education to be public knowledge...


Drugs, oil, and war: the United States in Afghanistan, Colombia, ... - Page 197

Peter Dale Scott - 2003 -

The war conspiracy: the secret road to the second Indochina war

Peter Dale Scott - 1972

"For it is a striking fact that the law firm of Tommy Corcoran, the Washington lawyer for CATCL and [China Lobbyist] T.V. Soong, had its own links to the interlocking worlds of the China Lobby and of organized crime. His partner W.S. Youngman joined the board of U.S. Life and other insurance companies, controlled by C.V. Starr (OSS China) with the help of Philippine and other Asian capital. Youngman's fellow-directors of Starr's companies have included John S. Woodbridge of Pan Am, Francis F. Randolph of J. and W. Seligman, W. Palmer Dixon of Loeb Rhoades, Charles Edison of the postwar China Lobby, and Alfred B. Jones of the Nationalist Chinese government's registered agency, the Universal Trading Corporation. The [senate] McClellan Committee heard that in 1950 U.S. Life [later part of AIG] (with Edison as a director) and a much smaller company (Union Casualty of New York) were allotted a major Teamsters insurance contract, after a lower bid from a larger and safer company had been rejected, [Jimmy] Hoffa was accused by a fellow trustee, testifying under oath before another committee, of intervening on behalf of US Life and Union Casualty, whose agents were Hoffa's close business associates Paul and Allen Dorfman

"We find the same network linking CIA proprietaries, war lobbies, and organized crime, when we turn our attention from CAT to the other identified supporter of opium activities, Sea Supply, Inc. Sea Supply, Inc. was organized in Miami, Florida, where its counsel, Paul E. Helliwell, doubled after 1951 as the counsel for C.V. Starr insurance interests, and also as the Thai consul in Miami..."

All of Beverly Pullman's and Albert Carter's ushers named below, except Thomas Devine, but including Alexander Aldrich, who had transferred from M.I.T., were members of the Harvard class of 1950, and most were members of the Crew team. Devine partner John Train was also Harvard, '50, as was the Rockefeller financed, former intelligence officer, Henry Kissinger, who studied under Arthur Norman Holcombe, who JFK also studied under. Arthur Holcombe and the CIA's Paul Linebarger were advisers to Chiang Kai-shek.

The obituaries of both Albert B. Carter, Jr. and of Andre Rheault state that they were CIA, and we know Thomas Devine was. Edwin Curtis "Buff" Bohlen was accused of being CIA and later worked for John Train's cousin, Russell. Another usher named below, Charles Hubbard, is Charles J. Hubbard, step-son of John McCloy's best man in 1930, Henry Brunie, Jack Crichton's boss at the Empire Trust. Newspaper misprint- Should be Beverly Pullman, not "Barbara":


Diplomats' Kin Usher at Barbara Pullman's Wedding Today

- Chicago Tribune - Oct 1, 1955

... broth ers of the bride Thomas Devine of Midland Tex Andre Rheault and Henry Cabot of Bos ton and Charles Hubbard. Palmer Dixon of New York City will be best man.


Pay-Per-View - Chicago Tribune - ProQuest Archiver - Oct 2, 1955

... Edwin Bohlen, whose uncle, Charles E. Bohlen, is am- bassador to Russia, ... Tex., Andre Rheault and Henry Cabot of Boston, and Charles Hubbard. ..



The rosepointe lace veil Miss Beverly Pullman wore as part of her bridal ensemble for her marriage to Albert B. Carter Jr. at 5 p. m. yesterday has special sentiment since it has been worn by three generations of brides in her family.


Albert B. Carter Jr., 63 Retired SBA administrator

‎Pay-Per-View - Boston Globe - Jan 26, 1992

Mr Carter leaves his wife BeverlyPullman of Washington a son


Albert B. Carter Jr., 63 Retired SBA administrator

‎ - Boston Globe - Jan 26, 1992

Mr Carter was a former Soviet specialist for the Central Intelligence Agency working for the CIA in Munich Germany from 1950 to 1952 and in Washington from


MISS SHARP WED TO PALMER DIXON; Church of St. Thomas More...

- New York Times - May 17, 1957

Peter Thorpe Dixon was best man for his brother. The ushers were William T. Wetmore, his stepbrother; Albert B. Carter Jr., John AS Cushman and EI Parker ..


MISS SHARP WED TO PALMER DIXON; Church of St. Thomas More...

- New York Times - May 17, 1957

... of Wilton, Conn., became the bride of Palmer Dixon. is the son of W. Palmer Dixon of New York and Mrs. Charles Winn of Southampton, L. L, and London. ...

Paid Notice: Deaths DIXON, PALMER

Published: September 7, 1999

DIXON-Palmer. Died suddenly of a heart attack on the morning of September 3rd at his home in Wilton, CT. He was born July 1, 1928 in New York City, the son of W. Palmer Dixon and Theodora Thorpe Dixon. He attended St. Mark's School, and graduated from Harvard College, Class of 1950. He served as a 1st Lieutenant in the U.S. Army during the Korean Conflict, participating in the fighting as a forward observer for the artillery. After the Armistice, he returned to the United States in 1953, working at NBC before becoming a Partner at the Wall Street firm of Loeb, Rhoades & Co. He later worked as a Vice President at Moseley, Hallgarten & Estabrook, and then for a number of years at Standard & Poor's as Head of Programming. After retiring, he continued to work as a computer specialist and private consultant. He was a keen Court Tennis player, and was for many years an active member of the New York Racquet and Tennis club....



by Blake, Rich

Content provided by Institutional Investor Magazine

Published on May 1, 2000

....In May 1981, degree in hand, Marvin Bush went to work as an entry-level trainee at a regional, Boston-based brokerage firm, Moseley, Hallgarten, Estabrook & Weeden. "It was a great way for me to get my feet wet and learn about the industry," he says. .....

This thread is developed from my post, yesterday, in the "Louis Mortimer Bloomfield" thread; http://educationforum.ipbhost.com/index.ph...st&p=171209

In January 1982, NY Times reporter Raymond Bonner broke this story, simultaneous to it;s publication in the Washington Post:


Salvador Skeletons Confirm Reports of Massacre in 1981


Published: Thursday, October 22, 1992

In a small rectangular plot among the overgrown ruins of a village here, a team of forensic archeologists has opened a window on El Salvador's nightmarish past.

Two feet below the ground, a few tiny skeletons grin up almost intact from what was once the tile floor of the parish house. Other bones are crushed in places and caked with dirt, but they can be identified well enough to determine that they belong to at least 38 bodies.

It is also evident, the forensics experts say, that almost all of the remains are those of children. Nearby are other burial sites still to be unearthed. A Call for Justice

Nearly 11 years after American-trained soldiers were said to have torn through El Mozote and surrounding hamlets on a rampage in which at least 794 people were killed, the bones have emerged as stark evidence that the claims of peasant survivors and the reports of a couple of American journalists were true....


Abroad at Home; When Truth Is Buried


Published: Monday, November 23, 1992

The civil war in El Salvador is over now, a political settlement taking hold. Americans hardly remember when the Reagan Administration called the leftist rebels a critical threat to our national security.

But the American role in El Salvador did damage to our institutions and our honor that remains unrepaired. So we are reminded by a recent turn in an appalling piece of history.

On Jan. 27, 1982, correspondents of The New York Times and The Washington Post reported from the remote Salvadoran village of El Mozote that hundreds of civilians had been massacred there. Most were women, children and old men.

Raymond Bonner of The Times wrote that he had seen the skulls and bones of dozens of people buried under burned-out peasant houses. Alma Guillermopietro wrote a similar account for The Post.

A reporter just arrived on the scene could not know who killed them, Mr. Bonner said. But villagers nearby said an elite battalion of government forces had carried out the massacre the previous month. The villagers had a list of 733 victims. The Salvadoran Human Rights Commission put the number of dead at 926.

One woman in El Mozote, Rufina Amaya, said she had survived by hiding in some trees when the soldiers came. They killed her husband, who was blind, and her four children, aged 9, 5, 3 and 8 months.

Those newspaper reports evoked angry denials and denunciations. A Salvadoran military spokesman said the account of a massacre had been fabricated by "subversives."

The Reagan Administration, already embarrassed by Salvadoran death squads, was just as bristling. A week later Thomas Enders, Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs, told Congress:

"There is no evidence to confirm that [ Salvadoran ] Government forces systematically massacred civilians . . . or that the number of civilians killed even remotely approached the 733 or 926 victims cited in the press."

Mr. Enders supposedly based his statement on an investigation by two U.S. Embassy officials in El Salvador. But he did not make their report public, and he misrepresented what they said. They had never reached El Mozote, and they did not reject the report of a massacre.

The Reagan Administration did not rest with disingenuous denials. It did its best to smear the reporters.

Sad to say, this effort at smearing found a voice in the press itself. The editorial page of The Wall Street Journal, ideologically committed to the Reagan Administration and its view of what to do in El Salvador, ran an editorial 36 inches long headed "The Media's War."

The correspondents who reported the El Mozote massacre had been "overly credulous," the editorial suggested, and were taken in by a rebel "propaganda exercise."

"Much of the American media [ in El Salvador ] , it would seem," The Journal said, "was dominated by a style of reporting that grew out of Vietnam -- in which Communist sources were given greater credence than either the U.S. Government or the government it was supporting."

The Journal editorial had a significant effect. Other newspapers worried about looking soft on Communism and toned down their reporting from El Salvador.

The new turn in this story came last month, when a team of forensic archeologists digging in the ruins of El Mozote found dozens of skeletons. Most of them were of children. The archeologists said shell casings and other evidence supported the charge of a massacre by government troops.

The archeologists had to overcome strenuous resistance from the Salvadoran Government to do their investigation. It was only insistence by a three-member Truth Commission set up under the peace agreement that opened the way.

The Truth Commission has also had an extremely hard time getting cooperation from the United States Government. Many U.S. documents on the El Mozote massacre are still being withheld from the commission -- and from us.

Surely the time has come for Americans, like Salvadorans, to know the truth of what was done in our name. Perhaps even Tom Enders and the other officials who covered up horrors could face the truth. And the press could learn again how essential it is to be skeptical of convenient official denials.



Seeing the conflict as critical for a right-wing Central America, the Reagan administration was determined to give the Salvadoran government military assistance in defeating the FMLN. This was seriously complicated by the reports from El Mozote which appeared just as a new round of debate over the huge flow of money and arms being sent to El Salvador's armed forces was getting underway. Correspondingly, the reports drew immediate fire from Reagan administration officials and others on the US political right.

Salvadoran army and government leaders said no such massacre had taken place and officials of the Reagan's administration dismissed the reports as "gross exaggerations." The Associated Press reported that "the U.S. Embassy disputed the reports, saying its own investigation had found ... that no more than 300 people had lived in El Mozote."[5]

The conservative press-watch organization Accuracy in Media charged the newspapers and the reporters with conspiring to hold their stories until late January, just before President Reagan was required to certify that El Salvador's military forces were making progress in human rights in order to continue the subsidies. The reporters denied the charge.

Thomas Enders, then Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs, attacked Bonner and Guillermoprieto before a congressional committee, saying that although there had been a firefight between the army and the guerrillas in the area, "no evidence could be found to confirm that government forces systematically massacred civilians."

On February 8, Elliott Abrams, Assistant Secretary of State for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs, told a Senate committee that the reports of hundreds of deaths at El Mozote "were not credible", and that "it appears to be an incident that is at least being significantly misused, at the very best, by the guerrillas". Abrams implied that reports of a massacre were simply FMLN propaganda.

In February, in a lengthy editorial titled "The Media's War", the Wall Street Journal critiqued US press coverage of El Salvador, singling out Bonner as being "overly credulous", and accusing the Times of closing ranks "behind a reporter out on a limb". The Journal warned that the debate in Congress was being distorted from reality by Bonner's and Guillermoprieto's "overly credulous" reports of the massacre. It cited Enders' denial and charged that because the two reporters had visited El Mozote under the protection of guerrilla guides, "this was a propaganda exercise".

In Time Magazine, William A. Henry III wrote a month later: "An even more crucial if common oversight is the fact that women and children, generally presumed to be civilians, can be active participants in guerrilla war. New York Times correspondent Raymond Bonner underplayed that possibility, for example, in a much-protested January 27 report of a massacre by the army in and around the village of Mozote."'

Although attacked less vigorously than Bonner, Alma Guillermoprieto was also a target of criticism. A Reagan official wrote a letter to the Post claiming that she had once worked for a communist newspaper in Mexico. Guillermoprieto denied ever having working for any newspaper in Mexico and told that to editor Ben Bradlee when he questioned her in the newsroom.[citation needed]

In June 1982, after the Senate Foreign Relations Committee proposed cutting $100 million in military aid to El Salvador, US Ambassador Deane Hinton traveled to Washington to try to prevent the cutback. While he was there, he went out of his way to attack Bonner, particularly over the reporter's stories about the failure of El Salvador's land-reform program. Hinton denounced Bonner as an "advocate journalist".[6]

In late July, Accuracy in Media devoted an entire edition of its AIM Report to Bonner. Its editor Reed Irvine declared that "Mr. Bonner had been worth a division to the communists in Central America". Irvine made insinuations about Bonner's political sympathies, noting that he had once worked for Ralph Nader, omitting that he had been a Marine Corps officer in Vietnam, and all but calling him a communist agent.[7]

That August, Bonner was ordered to return to New York; he subsequently took a leave of office and left the newspaper shortly thereafter. The Post also recalled Guillermoprieto, promoting her to a staff position, and assigning her to cover suburban Washington. Guillermoprieto left the paper two years later.

In the course of the year, a number of Salvadoran human rights organizations denounced the massacre. The Salvadoran authorities continued to categorically deny that a massacre had taken place. No judicial investigation was launched and there was no word of any investigation by the government or the armed forces. Bonner later published a book on his experiences, Weakness and Deceit: U.S. Policy and El Salvador (1984), but in the intervening years the El Mozote story was slowly buried.

The Atlacatl Battalion went on to commit many more atrocities, including, nine years later, the murder of six Jesuits, their cook and her daughter in November 1989. Among the victims were the scholars Ignacio Ellacuría, Ignacio Martín-Baró and Segundo Montes. Although the perpetrators tried to disguise the murders as the work of left-wing rebels, it soon became obvious that Atlacatl had been behind it, to universal condemnation. [8] After the El Mozote massacre, the Salvadoran army as a whole moved towards less brutal "hearts and minds" strategies in its attempts to undermine support for the FMLN.

[edit] Vindication

On 26 October 1990, a criminal complaint against the Atlacatl Battalion was filed by Pedro Chicas Romero of La Joya who had hidden in a cave above the hamlet as the soldiers killed his family and neighbors, and judicial proceedings were instituted. One of the first witnesses called to give testimony was Rufina Amaya, and the judge ordered remains to be exhumed.

In 1992, as part of the peace settlement established by the Chapultepec Peace Accords signed in Mexico City on January 16 of that year, a United Nations-sanctioned Commission on the Truth for El Salvador investigating human rights abuses committed during the war supervised the exhumations of the El Mozote remains by an Argentinian team of forensic specialists between November 17 and 17, 1992.....

The question I ask now is whether news reporter, Raymond Bonner, set the stage for more than vindication against the sabotage of his career by the extreme right, in it's temporarily successful efforts to sabotage his career and to silence him?

I'm asking because I took notice of the names described in this 1955 wedding party, and of the names in this recent book:


Diplomats' Kin Usher at Barbara Pullman's Wedding Today

Pay-Per-View - Chicago Tribune - ProQuest Archiver - Oct 1, 1955

Others are Edwin Bohlln, whose uncle, Charles E. Bohlen, js- ambassador to ... broth- ers of the bride; Thomas Devine of Midland, Tex., Andre Rhe- ault and ...


Diplomats' Kin Usher at Barbara Pullman's Wedding Today

Pay-Per-View - Chicago Tribune - ProQuest Archiver - Oct 1, 1955

One of the young men is Alexander Aldrich, whose. father, Winthrop Aldrich, Is United States ambassador to Britain. Others are Edwin Bohlln, whose uncle, ...


Published: November 2, 1986

THE WISE MEN Six Friends and the World They Made: Acheson, Bohlen, Harriman, Kennan, Lovett,

. By Walter Isaacson and Evan Thomas....

.....THERE are two things America is not supposed to have: an empire and a ruling class. ''The Wise Men'' takes the former for granted as a simple fact of international life, and explains through the lives of six privileged and powerful men how the latter works. The way these lives intertwined - through private schools, corporate board rooms and social clubs - and the way the United States became the inheritor of the postwar world provide the material of a fascinating, informative and ultimately disquieting study....


.....''The one thing about this group that is important is that they were a group,'' observed Evan Thomas, interviewed by phone from Washington, where he is now Newsweek bureau chief. ''They were friends, they reacted against each other, they shared a common bond of service. The group was greater than the sum of its parts.''

''It's certainly not good to have an elite that is dictating what America's role in the world should be,'' Mr. Isaacson said. ,,,,,,

The groom in the 1955 wedding was Albert B. Carter Jr., employed by the CIA. We know that the ushers described above, Thomas Devine, and Andre Rheault were also CIA. Carter, Edwin Bohlen, and Rheault had all been Harvard classmates and fellow crew team members.

What I only suspected, but had no way of documenting, was this information about Edwin Upton Curtis "Buff" Bohlen, nephew of one of the "Six Wise Men," provided by Raymond Bonner in his 1993 book, "The Hand of Man", introduced for us in this description :


Cloak of green‎ - Page 336

by Elaine Dewar - Political Science - 1995 - 497 pages

From 1981 until 1990, for example, WWF US had on its staff one EU Curtis Bohlen.

Bonner said that many years earlier Bohlen had been listed as an employee ...

....and excerpted from Raymond Bonner's - 1993 book, "The Hand of Man":




(starting from page 115....)

...... At WWF-US, the con

servationists and scientists were still prevailing in their fights with the

fund-raisers and Bohlen, and this pleased the International, where the

sentiment was strongly against a ban. The African Wildlife Foundation's

position was still that people should voluntarily refrain from buying ivory,

but the organization was not calling for a total ban.

The denouement, the shifts of positions, came fast, amidst heavy lob

bying and behind-the-scenes maneuvering. In the West, the outcome

might be viewed as the result of democracy at work, with governments

responding to public pressure. Many of the Mricans involved had never

seen anything quite like the way in which the pro-ban advocates got their

news into the press and lobbied, and they felt powerless to counter it.

They did not have the money or the political experience to engage in

public relations campaigns. To them it also looked like colonialism, the

will of the West being imposed.....

(page 124)

....It is almost certain that AWF

didn't realize what it was admitting-that in the history of conservation,

Mricans had been ignored-and even now it wasn't really prepared to

listen to Africans. At the time AWF called for a ban, no African govern

ment had done so, and never would there be a "will of the continent,"

which remained split over the issue; moreover, when Olindo expressed

views at odds with AWF, the organization would ignore him as well.

Across town, WWF also wanted to convey the image that it wasn't

acting like some latter-day colonial power, but it was not easy to make

the image conform to the reality. "A lot of behind-the-scenes work went

into making sure that Mricans got out front," Curtis Bohlen, the vice

president ofWWF-US, told me. He was unwilling to be more specific.

A massive behind-the-scenes effort was necessary not only to make it

look as if the Africans were out front, however.

It was also needed in order to get WWF-US and then the International to endorse a ban. And

E. U. Curtis Bohlen, whom just about everybody calls "Buff," was behind

it all, playing a role for which he was well suited.

Bohlen was born to a family in which commitment to public service

was ingrained. His own career has been overshadowed by that of his

uncle Charles E. "Chip" Bohlen, one of the "Wise Men" of the American

foreign policy establishment, who was probably best known for his stint

as ambassador to the Soviet Union. After graduating from Harvard and

fulfilling his military obligation in the army during the Korean War,

"Buff" Bohlen also went to work for the State Department. At least his

official biography says he worked for the State Department, from 1955

to 1969. But in fact he was working for the CIA, with the State Depart

ment as his cover; from 1955 to 1958 he was in Kabul, and after a time

back in Washington, he was sent to Cairo in 1960, where he remained

until 1963, according to the Biographic Register, the State Department's

annual publication listing its employees. (The department ceased making

the Register public in the mid-seventies, after journalists and others

discovered how easy it was to use it in order to determine who was

working for CIA.) What Bohlen did for the Agency between 1963 and

1969 is an even deeper, more highly classified secret, for his name

disappears from the Register after 1963; nor does it appear in the State

Department directories for those years, even though his public resume

says he remained at the department until 1969. Bohlen's conservation

career began in 1969, when Russell Train, the AWF founder who had

become Nixon's Under Secretary of the Interior, asked Bohlen to join

him. (Whether or not he had left the Agency is not known.) While at

Interior, Bohlen assisted in drafting the Convention on International

Trade in Endangered Species.

Bohlen joined WWF-US in 1981, as the director ofgovernment affairs,

a newly created position, which reflected the organization's transition

from one that did research and public education to one that thought it

was also necessary to lobby the government for environmental causes.

Some of the WWF staffobjected to Bohlen's being hired, because of his

CIA background. Many in the Third World have long been convinced

that WWF, both the International and the U.S. chapter, has links to the

CIA and Britain's MI-6.

It would be reasonable for the intelligence

agencies to try to use the conservation organization-after all, their

people get out into remote rural areas-and at least one WWF staff

officer was approached by the agency in the 1980s to provide regular

briefings. He declined. (In the major books about the Agency, nothing

has surfaced linking it to WWF, nor in my own research did I find any

connections other than the overture just noted.)

Bohlen was hired at WWF by Russell Train, who was its preSident.

The men were friends and "class" mates, good Republicans who had their

vacation homes on Maryland's Eastern Shore (along with other wealthy

and powerful folks from Washington, D.C.). At WWF, Bohlen operated

as the consummate inside politician; his door was closed most ofthe time,

and colleagues say he did everything by phone, careful to put almost

nothing in writing. He was a somewhat mysterious figure around WWF,

where colleagues would jokingly ask, "Has anyone seen Buff?" or

"Where's Buff?" He was a diplomat of sorts, steeped in intrigue, but he

knew virtually nothing about animals and less about Africa. "He's like

most of our members, I suppose," a WWF-US conservation officer ob

served ruefully.

If Bohlen had not decided that a ban was an appropriate response to

the poaching, WWF-US would almost certainly not have endorsed it.

And if the U.S. chapter had not, then the International would not have.

As critical as his role was, why Bohlen came to support a ban is not clear.

He is a cordial and gracious man, easy to like, but he is not an individual

who by personality or training is going to reveal the true reasons for his

thinking, particularly if they are likely to be controversial. He says he

supported a ban because of the weight of the scientific evidence-that

is, that without a ban, poaching would continue until the elephants

disappeared. But that is hard to accept, given that the overwhelming

majority of scientists and professional conservationists, including those

in his own organization, didn't reach that conclusion. Bohlen wasn't an

animal rights zealot; in fact, he believed in hunting and in sustainable

utilization, and while at the Interior Department he had opposed a

moratorium on commercial whaling and supported sport hunting ofMon

tana's grizzly bears, for which he was denounced by animal rights mili

tants. Nor did he always side with the fund-raisers at WWF, as, for

example, when he supported the right of Eskimos to continue hunting

fur seals. Even Bohlen's colleagues at WWF say they could not fathom

what was behind his position on the ivory ban. "Did he want to destabilize

Africa?" one asks, then quickly rejects the idea as "farfetched." "Was it

a favor to Janet?" the same colleague goes on. Bohlen's wife, Janet, is

the former public relations director at WWF-US who referred to the

elephant poaching as "genocide." .....

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