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Sumir Sharma

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  1. Interesting question. I would have thought there must be some history teachers who have produced materials for their students whose students and parents came from India. I used to know a teacher called Frank Roberts from London who produced some good materials on India. Spartacus published three short books on Indian history written by British teachers. They are not currently online. However, when I get time, I will put the one that I did on the web. Hi John, It is really a long to time to respond to you and even more fascinating is to pick an old thread to do that. Anyhow, I am catching up with you people and I am here in response to the query raised by Andy Walker given above. I have also developed a website which I am going to use for my students. There will be lot of material in Hindi, which I am afraid will not be useful for people here. However, I am also be developing the contents in English for some of my students. I am working on a different paradigm but anyhow, I am mentioning it here because somewhere I was made to tread the path of ICT after reading about the activities of the teachers while exchanging their views. It was other thing, University Grant Commission, the main body in India, directing the quality of the education in India, had been talking about the ICT in 2004 when you invited me to this forum. India is having a dedicated satellite Edusat, and a television broadcasting channel like Gyandarshan Well, I may not be using some archival material but, let us see, what I am going to do during this session with this website. The site url is sumir.co.in One thing more, I will be basically catering to the requirements of the students of Punjab University Chandigarh at Undergraduate level and Post graduate. Here in India, the syllabus is decided by the university. In case of India, the syllabus remains same for years to together. Anyhow, that is a different issue.
  2. That is an idea that has long occurred to me when thinking about historical "conspiracies." How can we say they are plots cooked up by people over long periods of time when the players are constantly changing, some dying off while new ones come on the scene? I have tried, while researching a subject, to insert myself back in time amongst the known conspirators in order to "get into their minds." The only way I know how to do that is to follow the money in their lives. From my own experience I realize that people have as much freedom as their family station and ability to earn money allow them to have. Therefore, I find it essential to know the background and financial status of each person in a particular event; I do genealogical charts on them, trace their educational endeavors, friends, associations and then compare that with what they may have said in public or what has been written about them. It's a time-consuming way to evaluate their true role in history. Since I live in Texas, I have found Texans to be most intriguing, and that is where my research began almost 20 years ago. Why have Texans played such an inordinantly significant place in American history? Beginning with the innocuous Colonel House on down to two Bush presidents? That is the primary focus of my work, including of course the assassination of John Kennedy on Texas soil. What motivated these men (and women) and how can we analyze them in terms of how it happened and why? I recently posted one of my articles on my website, which I entitled "Tilting at Oil Wells." I liked the combined imagery of two overweight Texas oil men, Clint Murchison and Sid Richardson, riding broken-down steeds, attempting to destroy communism, financed by their own luck at striking oil in their East Texas backyards. I have long wanted to write a book, but after working as a researcher for another author, I realized the impossibility of tying myself down to one philosophy of a person. People are living human beings, who change from day to day. All we can do sometimes is just relate the facts as they happened--all the facts--in order to get some type of grasp over the why. Linda, The 'follow the money' is a major tool to get to core of the past activity around a person and group. I fully agree with you. I consider it as a tool to get back into the right flow of forces in order to understand the activities of man. It helped me to understand many topics in a better manner. I was able to recollect the war of succession among the princes of Shahjahan more when I read about the finances of Aurangzeb. Well, the same matrix can help to understand more about the role of East India company in India. I believe that this factor does not remain confine to a single person. It effects the nation. I believe and many South Asian historians also approve this interpretation that actual force to National Struggle for Freedom in India took birth when they developed the economic understanding of the British rule in India. It started with Poverty and Un-British Rule in India by Dada Bhai Naoroji. It was followed by India Today by R P Dutt. What I mean to say, this rule of 'follow the money' squeeze out the sense out of the insipid documents. Recently, I was studying the role of Indigo Revolt on the development of the Indian Nationalist thought among the young Bengalis like Surendra Nath Banerjea. Therein, the fact which emerged was that it was organized by the villagers around the revenue collection and actual output of the harvest. It is not clear how had they concluded that in order to pressurize the planters, they had to hold back the revenue first. It is shown by some scholars that this revolt helped to frame the ideology of young Bengalis. However, I am gradually developing shift in perspective. I am afraid that John may not like it but this money based evaluation or to be exact the Marxist economic determinism theory in explaining the development in history is bit restricted approach. A man is just not a struggling machine for 'food, shelter and cloth'. Well, I may be doomed in saying this but when I read Indian history, I feel like saying that India had not remained under subjugation for 200 hundred years only. She had suffered subjugation for 2000 years. See, Darius was followed by Alexander, Then came Sakas and the Parthians, Then came Kushans, and Huns. Then, after a brief gap, came the Arabs, then the Turks. The Turks continued for full eight hundred years. Now the question comes, If the money factor was bringing the invaders to India, then why was not India able to counter the invaders. Why did India not develop invaders mind set. I see it different way. The work of ruling and defending was the responsibility of Kashtriyas. Neminath, a distant cousin of Krishna, the master strategist, was a Prince, but he renowned the world and became a Nirgranthi. Then Parashavnath, followed the same course. Mahavira, left his throne to became Jain. Similarly, Sidhartha abandoned the royalty became Buddha. Then, Chandragupta, left the throne to became a Jain. Even Kautilya, the strategist who is considered by many scholars a step ahead than Mechieaveli, became an Aajivika along with Emperor Bindusara. Asoka adopted the invaders mind set but changed the course and became Buddhist follower. When the Grecian attack took place, there was no one in India to stop them, Then a continuous wave of invaders came and one of the reason was the fertility of the India soil or the Indian money and trade. Now, herein the story does not ends here. I am unable to understand that why the house of Ambar gave their daughter to the family of Akbar. (Recently many honour killings had taken place here in India and in many of them, Rajputs were involved.) Was it the money or some conspiracy? I doubt, that the revolt of Prince Kuarau was not a simple episode. Prince Khurram, the future Shahjahan, the younger brother of Kusrau, killed Kusrau and his nephew and Jahangir did not raise a voice. Was there a conspiracy? Now in above two paragraphs, the money factors can be traced. But there is some more set of factor of Human existence which have directed the course of history. I can bring out similar examples in American history also. I keep on reading about Civil War of 1860 and till this day I am not able to convince myself of actual process in history that caused 1860 December 'Declaration of Secession'. Read that event with the events of 1789. You will find the difference. Well, following the money device helps to understand some forces as they work out themselves to draw the canvas of Human History. But there are some more factors. It is the play of Three Factors: POWER, MONEY AND KNOWLEDGE' but there is Human factor over and above the genome mapping of this species and the supreme above them is the time. If you are a Hegelian, then Thought and Time have yet to reveal themselves. I really like history.
  3. I had started a blog titled Dictionary of History of India. It was started with an idea of providing the list of the short answers which forms the part of the question papers at different levels including schools, colleges as well as selection tests in India. No doubt, the contents are guided by the syllabus of College level History papers and Selection tests to various examinations in India. The blog is developing into a good form. I have made it a point to give links to the original sources which are being made available by online archives and library. That is adding some value to it. I believe that the contents can be used as ready material for the quiz programmes also.
  4. John, It seems that there is some dissatisfaction with the contents of the above post. Kindly ask some thing specific. I must substantiate that the India Year Book is published by Publication Division. It is a department of the Information and Broadcasting Ministry of India which is a Central government ministry. The book contains the details about the policy decisions of all the government of India departments. It also gives a detailed statistics of the previous years. No doubt, it is not an history book but it is definitely an authentic source of information about India. On the other hand it can be good source on social and economic developments in India. I had seen some teachers writing and discussing about the history of India. They had been discussing the ICT resources as well making some websites about the specific events. I understand that there are topics about the post colonial period also. For that purpose, I had suggested this source which is now available online free of cost. I take this opportunity to share that Year Book 2010 is also available. I must add that the book is in pdf and by clicking on the link you are asked to save the whole file on your computer. It is a reliable source and there are no cause of fear of any damage to the user's device on downloading. The site is maintained by NIC that is National Informatics Centre which can be accessed at www.indiaimage.nic.in. The url of Publication Division is http://www.publicationsdivision.nic.in/. I am looking forward to your comments.
  5. The latest version is also available now. It can be accessed at India 2009.
  6. I desire to introduce the forum to one of the important source of information on India from post colonial period. It can be accessed at the following link. India Year Book 2008, Publications Division of India. I am sure that it will satisfy the need of the members who may like to teach or prepare lessons about the India for the period after 1947. It is published by Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Boradcasting, Government of India. It is in pdf format and spread over 1186 pages. It is the most authentic source of reference on different aspects of Republic of India as it has developed after 1947. The book is available in India for Rs. 300 in paperback form, which roughly comes out to be three to four pounds if we take one Sterling Pound equalent to Rs 80. However, from the link, anyone can obtain the book. One download can be useful for next two to three years. Regards Sumir
  7. Dear Dan, First of all I regret the inordinate delay in replying back. I must accept that I have not learned about Mr. Hiro. Hence, I can not comment much in it. I will definitely try to get hold of a copy of his works as you have shown great interest in it. Further, As I have pointed out earlier and I have been making this point on my blog also, that in case of Indian cyber space, there seems to be lukewarm response to democratization of knowledge, using of internet for learning and teaching purpose and also for sharing purpose. I believe this observation is definitely true in case of social sciences. In case of technical sciences, as many IITs are associated with ERNET, you find them doing some good work but as they talk too much technical things that it is beyond the comprehension of users like us who do not have training in field of computers. In case of my sumir-history.blogspot.com blog, I have marked a category Classic Books and Primary sources, wherein I am collecting books. I also bring your attention to arvindguptatoys.com site, wherein you can find good books by D. D. Kosambi and some other books also which I had not studied and which were published in 1947. Now let me refer to the following two points. “I am just wondering what would be the reasons for the lack of any mention or citing of Hiro in the two websites? Would he be considered "too radical"? Would it have to do with expatriate status? etc, etc, etc....... I raise the question because of what is to me the really exceptional quality of Inside India Today as an historical account and source for people interested in India and South Asia” As I have already mentioned, that as I do not know much about Hiro, I can not comment much. But I would like to start a discussion when, as I believe, that secondary school student in Britain (Kindly refer to http://historyinnews.blogspot.com/2008/08/...llabus-uk.html) are going to learn about the British Indian Empire history, wherein the categorization like Radical Historians, Cambridge School Historians, Subaltern Historians, Marxist Historians (JNU, Jamia Milia Islamia, S. Gopal (s/o of S. Radhakrishana) and Tara Chand) Nationalist Historians like R. C. Majumdar, Ishwari Parsad, A. L. Srivastva are debated. The revisionist aspect as being suggested by Ramajanambhomi controversy can be taken up also. Similarly, such question which I and R. K. Khanna had raised, that can there be two histories about Indian subcontinent for a period between 1909 and 1947 that is from Communal Award in Morle Minto Reform to Mountbatten proposal, one which can be taught in Pakistan and other in India. There in one can answer the question "How was it that, by 1900, Britain controlled nearly a quarter of the world?" Believe, being a student of history, I am talking as a history student only.
  8. On link here, John Steven Kreis has given a list of more quotations which substantiate the above list.
  9. Thanks for these very interesting links. Are you aware of any teacher created web based activities on Indian history? First of all I provide an update on Digital Library of India. The new url is as here. The library has an ambitious plan of bringing one million books available in different languages of India online. Some of them are already uploaded. I have given some comments on the library in my blog. Secondly, Prof. R. K. Khanna, an alumni of Guru Nanak University Amritsar as well as HOD, DAV College Jalandhar is regularly bringing posts on Indian History especially Punjab History. I have learned about using blogging from you people. You may take pride in the fact that Prof Khanna learned blogging from me. The contents of the blog are their own introduction. I hope you may find his dissertations and write ups quite useful as they follow the rules of history writing by giving the references from where the fact is being borrowed. He may not write each post like that but even then all his posts are authentic in nature. That is other thing that he has written recently on League of Nations which I leave to you to evaluate. Thirdly I will like to direct you attention to Arvind Gupta Toys. The link will again take you to my blog from where you may visit his site. It is one of website dedicated to school students teaching aids. If you explore his site, you will learn about his profile. He is a regular feature on UGC programmes on Gyandarshan, a TV channel of government of India dedicated to spread of education in India. If you permit me to say it then I believe that my blogs, especially sumir-history is definitely turning up a good source on Indian history though I have intended to make a blog on Philosophy, methodology and digital history in subject of history. I have collected some blogs and websites which I believe are work of teachers in India. But I have not fully checked them. Whenever I get time, I comment upon them on my primary blog. I must add that learning from you people I had also developed some blogs for my students. I am not all that successful as some of the forum members are successful in using blog as a teaching tool. However, I am still pursuing it. Now, the present academic session in India is closing. In the next session I will adopt some different strategy to motivate my students. Only one of my student has launched his blog. Secondly gradually I am going to convert the contents into Hindi and PUnjabi. Actually the language is becoming a problem. Well that is a different story.
  10. Hi Andy Walker, Well, it is really two years by now that this question remains here. What was your answer anyhow? Kindly do not get amused. I believe being a teacher you might have given a responsible answer. But, let us take up this question as teachers first and then history teacher. Here, by history teacher, I must qualify that we have to check our biases and follow a definition as per which it is claimed that a historian does not have any nation. The whole world is his nation. I believe that the student somewhere desired to ask, "Is the history of British INDIAN Empire something British people today should be proud or ashamed of?" Now if the student had in his mind the American colonies then I believe that British historians look at it from different angle the movement they have raised the question that why did the American brother parted ways? In case of African regions, I am constrained to say less because I have not read much. Well in case of India, the answer can never be yes or no. It is not that I am shy of stating my version. I believe that in case of history any value judgement should be carried with great care. You may say Yes or No, but this would be a value judgement. Secondly, I believe the question comes under the category of generalization which I believe only an established historian should try to answer. I as a history teacher, may try to undertake a discussion on it only. But I will never pass a judgement in terms of yes or no. However, Here I would like to direct the attention of the interested readers to some of my posts on my blog which was actually written on BBC/History. The posts are available at "What would have happened, had british supported the war efforts CSA during the Civil War? (Note this question was asked by a british citizen on BBC site.) Then read the next post which was again a question asked by a British citizen on the BBC site. The question was "Can India be regained again?"
  11. The Digital Library of India provides some primary and original sources on India. One should also check ERNET. The above efforts are a part of on going ICT projects in India under Ministry of Communication and Information Technology and University Grant Commission. The different links on the above mentioned portals can also help as resources in learning about different educational and cultural aspects of India. They may be highly useful for the teachers taking up assignments on South Asian region.
  12. I am wondering that what are the views of the forum member on Google Print. As far I am concerned, it is nearly a week that I am checking different aspects of Google Print. I am really excited and happy. As a teacher, I find that it is a good source. Secondly, even MSN is also coming with similar work. The details about them can be accessed at following link www.bl.uk/news/2005/pressrelease20051104.html. (Borrowed from blog of Miland Brown.) Similarly, another source on orginal and primary sources for History students and teachers are available at Digital Library of India. One should also check ERNET. The Google people have referred to above links in order to present their case and counter the accusation against those who have objected to their activity under Google Print.
  13. Here is a blog in which the bloggist, who claims himself to a journalist from India, covered the watergate. He has traced the events, which it seems, he has collected from the media reports. The address of the blog is as follows: http://valhallaviking.blogspot.com/2005/04...te-scandal.html He has identified the effects of the scandal on the American legislation and judiciary also. Further on another posting at the following address http://valhallaviking.blogspot.com/2005/04...ious-gates.html he has written a write up. Well it is not directly related to Watergate, but it has something in it, which may help the commentators to explore different aspects of the influence of media over the general perception. I hope that effect of media, the activitism of journalists and its effect on the body politic will also come under scanner during this debate. As a teacher, I feel the role of media in contemporary history should be studied as a separate subject. It is just an opinion. I will appreciate if some comments and criticism also come up on this aspect as Watergate scandal, as I understand, was work of media and kept alive through media.
  14. Has any one checked http://www.technorati.com. It is dedicated to blogs only. What I have found that within in ten mintues, this tool crawl to your posting. Can other member check its ability the way they have done for search engines for google and yahoo. lately, even yahoo have also started giving targetted results. Well, it is the elder brother to googles. I was astonished to learn that google is work of young people who have different idea about business and economics of doing business. They are in their early thirties and they are coming up with new ideas every other day. I am prompted to comment that they are going to make internet some thing similar to what railways and stem engines did to business in their days.
  15. The observations made are quite significant. Some predictions are also made. When I started making blogs I was amused that why google was providing such a large space on cyberspace without charging any money. I think they have made this move with a business model which justify predictions made above. What I understand that online facilities are going to adjust into life more fast. Even in a country like India, where the government is fighting with the menace of black money and parallel economy, the card money and online payments are now being gradually accepted a more better option. These google people are smart. They know that the advertisement will gradually move towards online trading. With new means like browsing through your mobiles, it will soon become a regular feature. They need a space on the net where they can allow the advertisements of their clients. If they have to employ the web designers and provide different and varied contents, they had to employ a huge staff. But they have permitted all to create their own blogs. Then they encourage them to use their Adsense feature. They are getting varied contents and each content is bring is own audience and customer. Even this forum had gone for their Adsense feature. When Andy made a suggestion about these ad features, I was prompted to write a joking comment on that. I believe that these predictions will soon become true. It will definitely change economics of advertisement, marketing, and market research methods. I hope some member with understanding of media must give views on this aspect. The predictions
  16. Kamini, Welcome. I will be interested in your impressions about how the education and study activity are undertaken here on this forum. I will be interested how you compare it with study and education activity as it is India if you are from India. I will be interested in your views to how one can continue to improve his own skills from channels like this one. I do not believe in adding to qualifications mind it. sumir
  17. There is a comment placed by me on my blog on an article by Dr. V. N. Datta, Professor Emeritus, which has relevance to this topic. This topic was again a response to one article of John Simkin in History debate. I am giving a link HERE. I hope that those interested in it may find it relevant.
  18. Look into an article titled “A Briton Once Asked: Can India be regained again?” on my blog http://www.sumir-history.blogspot.com in February 2005 archive. The contents in it are related to your query. There are some detailed references to the history events but in different course and pattern. Though it can be termed as ‘a funny activity’ in writing such a piece yet I have tried to say few things which carries stuff. Secondly, the nature of the activity in writing as carried out there can be a useful activity for the students for discussion if they are carried out in classes. “My kids ask if there is a connection between Kashmir and a Led Zeppelin song, and Kashmir and some of their sweaters. Tho rarely do both questions come from the same student.” I do not have any knowledge about Led Zeppelin Song. It is new to me. I will like to learn about it. It is a new query for me. As far as Kashmir and Sweaters are concerned, Well, Angora wool and Pashmina wool shawls and sweaters are the most cozy and warm wears. I understand that they are known for their quality over whole of the world. But the Animal protection groups have discouraged Pashmina shawls because it causes loss of an animal breed. It is acquired from a type of a goat if I am right in my information. However Angora wool is acquired from a rabbit but it is a difficult to raise that breed. Both the items are quite costly and it become costlier when it reach European and American Markets. Kashmiries are known artisans and embroiders. They are famous for carpet weaving with intricate patterns adopting different styles. If you ever visit Srinagar, or J&K government emporiums, you may get classic pieces of work of art on garments by Kashmiris. I once wrote an article on Ludhiana. I had even started a research work on Growth of Ludhiana as an Industrial Town. During that activity, I had collected good material on Ludhiana. I had observed in some sources that the cause of rise of Ludhiana was attributed to migration of Kashimiries to Ludhiana in 1830s. This was the period, when British East India Government was playing tough with Ranjit Singh. They had raised a fortification on the banks of Satluj opposite to a fort of Ranjit Singh on the other side at Phillaur (my place of residence). As they had placed a garrison at Ludhiana, they needed stores for their army. The enterprising traders tried to procure it for the British forces. They were asked to produce some hosiery work for which the Ludhiana traders took the help of those migrants which by coincidence were camping in Ludhiana. It was an offshoot of this enterprise that emboozened signs used by armed forces all over the world on their uniforms are obtained from Malerkotla. At that time, Ludhiana was under the control of Kalhas of Raikot and they had relations in Muslim royal families of the region and some of them had converted to Sikhism. It is an open secret that you find Dhillons, Dhaliwals, Tiwanas etc among the Sikhs, Rajput Jats, Rajput Gujaratis and Muslims. Kashmir had been manufacturing center of woolen garments since the ancient time. There is reference to it in Arthasashtra by Kautilya of Maurya Period. Similarly, a list of garments being exported from Kashmir had been included in Rajtrangani of Kalhana written in 12 c. A. D. Zain-ul-Abadin, the Akbar of Kashmir, was known to have promoted the garment industry in Kashmir. Even before that, during the rules of Varman dynasty, (Hindu dynasty since the ancient time contrary to what JKLF leaders claim about the history of Kashmir), Kashmir was mainly popular for its art works in garments especially woolen garments. The information which I have gathered above is done only to say that as an Indian national and also as a student of history, one feels amused and perturbed when one reads in foreign news media or intellectual works that other feels and understand that there Kashmir is totally a Muslim area, it does not wholly belong to India, there was Islamic and Muslims background since antiquity and India has acquired it by doubtful means. It really pains. The fact before 12th century was totally different. The Plight of Pannua Pandits of Kashmir is a Human Right problem. Pannua Pandits are born Kashmir and real owners of Kashmir. They are also the facts. The Kashmir Sufism is something totally a Kashmiri thing and in accord and in origin with Kashmiri heritage. Both these aspects, Pandits and Kashmiri Sufism are the historic facts. The arguments of Hurriyat Conference can be declared as misinformation for political gains. I can continue to write this by bring more and more references. I stop it here.
  19. I have also done similar thing. It was executed on Feburary 22, 2005. It has been reported as Blog on History in Ask Expert, History of India section. My effort does not have the sophistication and background like yours. I thought about it when I read a post of member wherein he had talked about his blog. So I may say that I had started in the Forum. I do not have participants and associates the way you have. I thought on my own. I just hope that I am able to do something effective and fruitful. My own view is that all these technological toys we've got at our disposal are totally without value as tools for learning - until a teacher or a learner puts some there. This is how we've tried to put some learning value into the use of a blog - we'll know how we got on in May. I fully agree with you on this account. I say it in different manner. I say that Technology in itself is nothing. It is how you put it to your use that is more important. Internet in itself is not a big thing. But How you put it to your use, then it is really a wonderful thing. I think the students should also understand it and this feeling should be conveyed to them. In India, there are ICT projects but there is no awareness among the teachers and student. It can be learnt from the web site of UGC. On the other hand, there is regular reporting that how students are addicted to internet merely for chatting and watching prono site. The new scandal of MMS and its selling through internet site has raised a negative voice in India. I just wish that similar attitudes and bent of mind develops in India.
  20. Your list is fine. Just few points even if you are done with your lecture on them. In India, Amritsar (Right spellings) is generally popular as Jalianwala Bagh Tragedy. The Salt March is more popular as Dandi March, Dandi refering to the place where Gandhi broke the Salt law. Rest is OK. Personally I am against commenting about the lecturer's contents and methods but I am just wondering that it would have been good, had you included Mizo Accord with Rajiv Gandhi. I am interested in knowing that what are your views on Kashmir and how you presented it in your lectuer.
  21. Firt of all: I thanks to the Forum. I am encouraged by the posts on the forum and also different postings. I am able to learn some more use of internet. I have developed my own blogs. I knew about it but never thought about it. It is only from the one posting of a member, I felt that I can also make use of it. I struggled for some days but finally I was able to decide few things and the result were these three blogs. http://civilservices-prelims.blogspot.com/ http://ugc-net-history.blogspot.com/ http://www.sumir-history.blogspot.com/ The contents of all such blogs are related to Indian History and India. No doubt, they are formed with some motives also. They are related to examination of national level where history is one of the subject. But I am here after some days. All my blogs are motivated by a comment of a young poster who had commented about the use of ICT and E-help. Before writing this, I tried to find his name but being in hurry, I am just writing this. I wanted to acknowledge him because some of his comments had impressed me a lot. They have encouraged and motivated me. In the beginning of my carrier I had similar thoughts. Somewhere, I had lost that feeling. He has revived it. He has a particular style of writing and he is young (1980 Born). Secondly, though it is meant for posting at some other place, the appearence has changed. It is effecting. I think we have become accustomed to earlier appearence.
  22. Black Hole of Calcutta – A Case in British Indian Empire When Alivardi Khan died on 9th April, 1756, there were three parties that could lay claim over the throne of Bengal, a province which was part of Mughal Empire. They were heirs of the three daughters of Alivardi Khan. Alivardi Khan had picked Siraj-ud-Daulah, the son of his youngest daughter, as his successor. Shaukat Jang, son of second aunt of Siraj-ud-Daulah and daughter of Alivardi Khan, also had ambition of sitting on the throne. The third party was identified with Ghasiti Begam. During the later part of the life of Alivardi Khan, Siraj-ud-Daulah was looking after the affairs of the province. The relation of Bengal with English company had deteriorated at that time on the issue of fortification of Calcutta. The French company had also undertaken the fortification of their establishments but when the Bengal government had ordered them to discontinue, they had complied with the order but the British company did not care to oblige. At that time, British company was engaged in bitter conflict with the French company during the Carnatic Wars which was caused by the War of Austrian Succession and then later by Seven Years War. They had dared to continue with the fortification because as per their estimate the succession would go in favour of Ghasiti Begum and they were obliging Rajaballabh, a courtier of Ghasiti Begum. It is proved by the version of Orme, a contemporary historian who wrote, “There remained no hopes of Alivardy’s recovery; upon which the widow of Nawajis (ie. Ghasiti Begam) had quitted Muxadabad (the capital city of Mrushidababd) and encamped with 10000 men at Moota Ghill (Moti Jhil), a garden two miles south of the city, and many now began to think and to say that she would prevail in her opposition against Surajo Dowla (Siraj-ud-Daulah). Mr. Watts therefore was easily induced to oblige her minister and advised the Presidency (of Calcutta) to comply with his request.”1 (An Advanced History of India by R. C. Majumdar and others, Macmillan Publication, 1990) Another incidence is quoted by Dr. R. C. Majumdar. According to it, Dr. Forth, attached to the factory of Cassimbazar, visited Alivardi Khan about fortnight before his death. While he was talking with the Nawab, Siraj-ud-Daulah came in and reported that he had information to the effect that the English had agreed to help Ghasiti Begam. The dying Nawab immediately questioned Forth about this. Forth not only denied the charge but disavowed on behalf of his nation any intention to interfere in Indian politics. All such non-diplomatic activities were being undertaken with full knowledge of Mr. Drake, the Governor of Fort William where the fortification was continuing. When Siraj-ud-Daulah took over as the next Nawab of Bengal, they did not pay their respect to the local authority which was due to him. It further increased the enmity between both the parties. Against the estimate of British, Siraj-ud-Daulah, the new ruler was able to pacify Ghasiti Begum in his favour. He then warned the English company to comply with his orders against the fortification of the Fort William. He also adopted the next logical approach of confronting Shaukat Jang who was ruling over Purnea under the throne of Bengal. It was when he was proceeding against Shaukat Jang that Governor of Fort William sent his message in response to the order of Siraj-ud-Daulah. The letter was not to the liking of the new Nawab and he turned around and marched on Calcutta. By 16th of June of 1856, he was in Calcutta. Drake and other leading officer had left before his arrival to safety of their ships. They had left Holwell behind for the protection of the fort. On June 20, 1856, Siraj-ud-Daulah occupied the Fort William and left after handing over the charge to his commander Manikchand. Under the command of Manikchand, the English officers who were arrested were put in the cells of the Fort William. It was an incidence which however, is more popular in history of British Empire for Black Hole Tragedy. The arrest of Englishmen in Fort William was made popular by the account of J. Z. Holwell which reported that 123 were killed by the Bengal administration in most horrifying manner. According to the version of J. Z. Holwell, 146 English prisoners were confined during the night in a small room, made popular by him as Black Hole, which was 18 feet long and 14 feet 10 inches wide. One hundred and twenty three died of suffocation, and 23 miserable survivors alone remained to tell the tale that tragic summer night. In year 1902, Lord Curzon had raised a monument in memory of those killed in that incidence. In an inscription on the monument, Lord Curzon had given the list of names of the victim. Even Holwell was claimed to have written a book (presently publicized at www.lostbooks.net/cgi-bin/lbn455/26413.html and the going rate is 200 pounds) in which he had given the names of all the 149 persons imprisoned on the night of June 20, 1756. Picture available at http://www.greatmirror.com/index.cfm?chapt...id=563&picid=18. The list of the names who perished there and the people who perished after the June 20 incidence is available at http://archiver.rootsweb.com/th/read/INDIA...4-05/1083754311 and in “Echoes from Old Calcutta” by H. E. Busteed, Thacker Spink & Co. 1888. Appendix A, p. 340. (Reference: http://www.jihadwatch.org/dhimmiwatch/archives/004196.php In 1960s, new researches on British Indian Empire raised doubts about the authenticity of the account as given by Holwell and motives behind such accounts. According to Dr. R. C. Majumdar, “The truth of this story has been doubted on good grounds. That some prisoner were put into the black hole a number of them, including those wounded in the course of fight, died there, may be accepted as true. But the tragic details, designed to suit a magnified number of prisoners, must almost certainly be ascribed to the fertile imagination of Holwel, on whose authority the story primarily rests. In any case, it is agreed on all hands that Siraj-ud-Daulah was not in any way personally responsible for the incident.” It is claimed that the details of the episode is the product of imagination of Holwell intently exaggerated in order to win laurels and project himself as hero of the moment. It is alleged that the British Rulers of the day also used this episode to justify their conquests in India. The text of the account is available under the title, “John Zephaniah Holwell: A Genuine Narrative of the Deplorable Deaths of the English Gentlemen and others who were suffocated in the Black Hole: London, 1758. The research papers presented in IHC of 1962 claims that total number of people dumped in the cell of the Fort William constructed by the British East India Company was not higher than 69. They had stressed that the total dimension of the room was 18 feet by 14 feet and 10 inches. Such a room could never contain people more than that number. Therefore, it is wrong to accept that there were 149 people in that room on the night of 20 June, 1756. However, the new researchers had also claimed that it was really doubtful that this incidence had actually taken place. It was corroborated by some other researchers also. The photograph of the monument could be accessed at www.obelisken.com/calcutta.htm. Another scholar, Steve Clark, whose findings were broadcast on Education Broadcast at University of Richmond had based his finding on following resources: De, Amalendu. "A Note on the Black Hole Tragedy," Quarterly Review of Historical Studies, x, 3 and 4 (1970-1971), 141-153, 187-192. Hill, S.C. Bengal in 1756-1757. London, 1905. Holwell, J.Z. India Tracts. London, 1774. Especially Book IV. Little, J.H. "The Black Hole - The Question of Holwell's Veracity," Bengal: Past and Present, xii (1916), Part I, Serial 23, 32-42, 136-171. According to his finding that it was a version of Holwell that 146 European men, women and children fought for survival during one of the hottest nights of the year. Some were already wounded, and many who fell were trampled to death. The air was foul and they began to vomit all over each other. Discipline was lost and panic moved in waves across the crowd. From his vantage near one of the two small windows, Holwell tried but failed to restore order. Water appeared at the window but spilled before it could reach the back of the room. Only twenty-three people survived. From 1757, by the time Clive had defeated Siraj-ud-Daulah in April 1757 in Battle of Plassey, Holwell began to project his version vigorously. From his writings, it was carried by other authorities and every new reference projected this episode with more horrifying versions. It was used to project the native Indians as most uncivilized creatures on the earth and also a justification for building a British Empire. “Remember the Black Hole of Calcutta” became the main mantra of every new conquest in India. J. H. Little had called this whole episode as a “hoax designed by Holwell to make himself look like a hero.” He had also pointed out that no contemporary Muslim historians of Bengal had given any reference to such an important event. The conclusion of Steve Clark is that the British authorities had a vested interest in letting Holwell's exaggerations stand. What a story! What better way to justify the enormous sacrifices needed to maintain the largest empire the world had ever seen? Thus, the Black Hole of Calcutta became one of the great imperial myths, designed to horrify later and perhaps more squeamish generations. His version is available at www.amomentintime.com Another Scholar, Rajneesh Khanna, presently head of the department, D. A. V. College, Hoshiarpur, had visited and lived in Calcutta for two years. He had been visiting the site in different seasons. He claims that if we assume that climatic situation in 1756 would have been similar to present climate, then it is really doubtful that 146 people would have been pushed and dumped into such a small room. If that had really taken, then it is doubtful that any one of them have survived because the humidity and heat is so high in the month of June, that it would have been not suitable for such a gathering of people to have survived at all. Secondly, he had been checking the documents relating to this incidence. He claims that he had not found any reference to this event for the period of fifteen years after 1756. It had found mention only after 1771 in the government records and some journals of that time. It is a claim of Armenian scholars, who had been writing of about India since the ancient period and had extensively provide sources since the days of Akbar, that no specific figures about the dead British prisoners in the Black Hole could be given. In one of the contemporary record of a Armenian scholar, it is stated that the exact number of imprisoned and dead could not given. It is further recorded that as per the information provided at that time, that the “the prisoners numbered 146 and only 15 survived.” As per this source, there is difference of eight people as compared to what J. Z. Holwell, who claimed to have written a book in 1560 in which he claimed to have given the name of all the people who died in the incidence, had given. In another Armenian source, which was History of India of Thomas Khojamall, it is recorded that more than 15 soldiers died in one night. It can also be learned from that book that Thomas Khojamall was not having good impression of Siraj-ud-Daulah. From there, it can be concluded that the report of Holwell had recorded inflated number of people imprisoned and actual number of people who died there. The next important source of Armenian origin is a letter of an Armenian merchant to his son. Emin, an Armenian merchant in India wrote to his son Joseph Emin in London, “The wicked Suraj-du-Dowlah came with a vast army, destroyed almost 40 innocent English gentlemen in one night in the Black Hole. For my share, I have lost 16000 rupees.” Emin had business association with the East India Company and he had lost 16000 rupees because Siraj-ud-Daulah had taken over Calcutta. He had reported that there were 131 soldiers who were imprisoned at that time. He had not mentioned that there were children also which was claimed by Holwell in his report. (Reference: www.menq.am/history/chap4_part02.htm). It is important to note that the East India Company made huge profit for shipping their merchandise and they kept the Armenians always happy. The Armenians did not possess ships. So they hired European vessels for this purpose and paid enormous transportation tax. On the other hand, they did not have comfortable relations with the Bengal administration. J. Z. Holwell was M. D. and F. R. S. and member of College of Physicians in London. He died in 1798 at Pinner, where a commemoration declares him as the Governor of Bengal as per the "The National Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland" (1868) Transcribed by Colin Hinson. While giving an address at a meeting he had given a detalied account of the inoculation as carried by Brahmins to check the small pox. The whole text of the account reveal a type of admiration of a qualified doctor for the expertise of the Brahmins. However, it was on the report of Dr. J. Z. Holwell that the British East India Company was claimed to have avenged the death of the victims of Black Hole. This was so claimed on the monument raised by Lord Curzon. There is an accusation that Holwell had intentionally reported in that manner in order to claim the governor’s post for him at that time. He was reported to have be appointed as Officiating governor in 1760 for some time. There is need to evaluate this incidence from different angle. It is to be studied that how in those days, the commercial enterprises were being centers of political maneuvers by the officials serving at a distant post and how their activities influenced the decisions of the owners of a company to make their appointments. Such an angle had been aggressively debated and commented upon on political grounds only and the appointment of important governors had been the only subject of their studies. However, this incidence, the role of Holwell and then that Clive demands a new angle to this study. It is to be considered that in 1756, it was not mere an East India Company. It was “The United Company of Merchants of England Trading to the East Indies” formed under 1708 Parliamentary act having merchant and sovereign rights. The appointments to this company was aggressively pursued, desired, and sought in the upper circle of the English society. This incidence had remained submerged as a mere an incidence which was presented by different historians from their respective ideological orientations. Now, when the corporate history is well established field in itself, this incidence qualify for revision with a new perception. It should be study under the research carried in field of corporate politics in the field of business and multinational companies as it is being done now. Therefore, it can be studied as a case in which the distant business leaders were manipulated to make appointments which were being sought for their high monetary benefits. It was done not only from London, but also by the officers who were on the ground and at the most happening places. It can be studied as actual role of officers in the running the company.
  23. Kindly note: The ten step towards freedom in previous chapter, chapter 14 is my version. It is not subscribed by anyone as far as I know and it is part of a published work under HolyFaith International, New Delhi. I never knew that it would take so much of time. Anyhow, Here is the last chapter: Chapter 15 India after Independence 1. Three main problems of the independent India: (March 99) - The newly independent India faced three main problems in the very beginning. They were as follows: i. The preparation of a constitution of independent India. ii. The problem of the rehabilitation of the refugees. iii. The problem of merging of Princely States in the Indian Federation. 2. Constitution of India: - The constitution of India was framed by the Constituent Assembly. - The Constituent Assembly was established as per the Cabinet Mission Plan. - As per the Cabinet Mission Plan, elections were held in July 1946, Indian representatives were elected and they formed the Constituent Assembly which wrote the Constitution of India. It succeeded in writing the constitution by November 1949 and that constitution came into force on January 26, 1950. 3. Constituent Assembly: a: Formation of Constituent Assembly: - The Constituent Assembly was formed as per the Cabinet Mission Plan. - The elections were held in July 1946 to elect the Indian representatives for the Constituent assembly. - After the elections, the 296 elected member formed the Constitution Assembly. - The prominent leaders of the Constitution Assembly were Jwahar Lal Nehru, Vallabhbhai Patel, Govind Vallabh Pant, Mulana Azad, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar, Barrister Jaykar and Kanhaiyalal Munshi. - The prominent women members of the Assembly were Rajkumari Amrit Kaur, Hansaben Mehta, Sarojini Naidu and others. - The seventy three members of Muslim League headed by Barrister Jinnah did not participate in the proceedings of the Constitution Assembly. - The Constitution Assembly had the representatives of Sikh and Muslim communities. b: Structure of Constituent Assembly: - There were 296 members of Constituent Assembly. - There were representatives of Muslim and Sikh communities in the assembly. - There were seven women representatives. - The Muslim League did not participate in the proceedings of the Assembly. - Dr. Rajindra Parsad was the elected President of the Constitution Assembly. - There were eleven committees to work on different aspects of writing the constitution. - Dr. Ambedkar headed the Draft Committee. c: Completion of the Work: - The Constitution Assembly completed its work on November 26, 1949 when it formed and accepted the constitution of India. - The Assembly worked for 1082 days to write the Constitution of India. - The Constitution of India came in force on January 26, 1950. 4. The Nature of the Constitution: (March 96) a: Main Objectives achieved by the Indian Constitution: - A democratic state based on the rule of law was established in India by the constitution for the first time in the history of India. - The constitution gave a balanced consideration to the diversity of India. b: Impact of Indian History on the Constitution: The Borrowed features of India: (March 96) - Many provisions of the Government of India Act 1935 had been incorporated in the writing of the Indian constitution. - The features of Federal structure, bicameral Legislature, state legislature, the Supreme Court and the list of the fundamental rights were influenced by the recommendations given in the Nehru Report of 1928. - The values observed during the Indian national movement had been absorbed in the spirit of Indian Constitution. c: A Lengthy Constitution: Lay out of the Contents: (March 96) (Oct. 96) - The Indian Constitution is one of the longest constitutions of the world. - It has 22 parts called chapters. - It has 395 articles spread over 22 parts. - It has presently 12 schedules regarding different matters. 5. The Special Features of the Indian Constitution: (Oct. 97; 99; 01) a: The Preamble: - The preamble to the Indian Constitution is one of its special feature. - It is in the preamble that the declaration has been made that the people of India will secure in the Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic Republic of India, Justice, Liberty, Equality etc. b: Secularism: What is it? (Oct. 96) (March 96) - The Indian Constitution has ensured to the people of Republic of India the freedom to follow their respective religious beliefs. - The Indian Constitution has ensured that the aims and objectives of the Centre as well as the states will not be influenced by any religious ideology. It will not be a theocratic state. c: Fundamental Rights: - The Constitution of India has given a specific and detailed list of the Fundamental Rights which the India people will enjoy. - The Constitution has empowered the Supreme Court and the High Courts of the states to safeguard the fundamental rights of the Indian citizens. d: Directive Principles: - The Directive Principles for the Central and State governments has been incorporated in the constitution with an objective to make the Indian State a Welfare State. - The Central and State governments are expected to follow them though they are not legally bound to follow them. e: Federal form of Government: - The Republic of India is a federation of 28 states and 7 Union Territories. - For the administrative purpose the legislative subjects have been divided into the Union List, the State List and the Concurrent List. 6. The Rehabilitation of the Refugees: a: Coming of Refugees after the Independence: - The partition of India was preceded by a horrifying communal riots. - The riots continued even after the partition. - Due to the riots after the partition nearly one and half crore refugees belonging to Hindu and Sikh community migrated to India. b: The hardships of Refugees and the problem faced the government in their rehabilitation: - The Hindu and Sikhs refugees who had arrived in India had suffered great hardships and massacre of their relatives and loss of their properties and livelihood during the riots. - The Indian government was morally bound to provide them food, clothing, shelter, education, health services, employment and business. - The Indian government was facing the resource crunch already and the added responsibility of the rehabilitation of the refugees pressurized the India trade, communication and industrial organisation. c: The Programmes of Rehabilitation of the Refugees: - The Central and State governments shared the responsibility of the refugees collectively. - The refugees were settled in different parts of the country and gradually they were absorbed in local social life. - The government provided them food and shelter immediately. 7. Assassination of Gandhiji: a: Role of Mahatma Gandhi: - The riots continued in India even after the partition. - Gandhiji was great supporter of Hindu Muslim unity. - He visited Bengal to stop the riots. - Lord Mountbatten had called him “one man armies” because he tried to stop the riots without the help of any one as the rest of the leaders were jostling with the problem of establishing the power after the partition. - He was assassinated on January 30, 1948 because he wanted to establish the Hindu Muslim unity in the riot areas and over whole of the country. b: Contribution of Mahatma Gandhi: - Gandhiji died while trying to establish the Hindu-Muslim unity. - He had united all Indians through his ideology of non-violence and truth. - He successfully fought the British imperialism. - He had played the most significant role in the independence of India. 8. Integration of Princely States: (March 2001) a: Danger of Independent Princely States after the independence of India. - When India got independence on August 15, 1947, there existed the Princely States within the territories of India. - The Princely states had also became independent along with India when the British ended their treaties with them. - The existence of large number of Princely states became another danger for the newly independent India. b: Role of Vallabhbhai Patel: Steps taken by the Indian Government. (March 2001) - Vallabhbhai Patel was the first Home Minister and Deputy Prime Minister of the newly independent India. - He was quick to recognise the grave danger of the existence of Princely states within the territorial limits of India. - The Indian government drafted an agreement of integration which was to be signed with those Princely states. - Vallabhbhai Patel persuaded most of the Kings, Nawabs and rulers of Princely states to sign the agreement of integration and managed to merge their territories within the Federation of India. - He was helped by the support of the subjects of the Princely states themselves who desired to integrate with the Federation of India. - However, three states namely, Hyderabad, Junagarh and Jammu and Kashmir presented a problem as their ruler resisted the integration with the Federation of India. 8A. Junagarh: - Junagarh was a state in Saurashtra region of Gujarat. - The people of the Junagarh state desired to join with India. - The Nawab of Junagarh however started secret negotiation with Pakistan and kept his people and the Government of India in dark about his real objectives. - Pakistan announced to the India that Junagarh was going to join with Pakistan. - When the people of the state learned about it, they arose in strong opposition to the decision of their rulers. - The neighbouring states also denounced the decision of the ruler of Junagarh. - When Nawab and his Diwan found that they were being opposed from all the quarters, they fled India and took shelter with Pakistan. - A referendum was held in Junagarh state and as per the result of the referendum, Junagarh state was integrated with India. 8B. Hyderabad: (Oct. 96; 98) a: Nizam of Hyderabad adopted Anti-India stand: - Nizam adopted anti-India stand on the independence of India. - He decided to declare Hyderabad an independent state. - He did not send the representatives of his state to the Constitution Assembly. - In July 1947, he presented before Lord Mountbatten the demand to annex Madhya Prant and part of Berar which Lord Mountbatten refused to accept. - In August 1947, he tried to make a deal with India on conditions but Vallabhbhai Patel refused to listen him before the integration of Hyderabad with India. - Nizam did not accept the proposal of Lord Mountbatten to ascertain the view of public of Hyderabad State on the issue of integration with India under the supervision of English officers. - He tried to dupe India and the Governor General Mountbatten by simultaneously undertaking secret negotiations with Pakistan when he was negotiating with Indian government. b: Encouragement of Razakar to Nizam: - Kasim Razvi, the leader of fundamentalist group Razakar encouraged Nizam to oppose India. - Kasim Razvi suggested Nizam to continue his anti-Indian activities by advising him that India which was engaged in her own problems could not take any action against him. - Nizam extended the loan of 20 crore to Pakistan under the encouragement of Kasim Razvi. - Nizam also banned the Indian currency in his state. - Kasim Razvi stepped up his anti-Indian propaganda. - Kasim Razvi along with Nizam started oppressing people. - Nizam organised attacks on the India trains. c: Police Action of September 1948 by India against Hyderabad: - India government was compelled to use force against due to the anti-India activities of Nizam of Hyderabad. (Oct. 01) - On September 13, 1948, Indian government undertook a police action against the State of Hyderabad. - On September 17, 1948, the forces of Nizam of Hyderabad surrendered to the Indian forces. - After that Hyderabad was integrated with the Republic of India. e: Andhra Pardesh and Reorganization of Sates Act of 1956: - In 1956, the Indian Parliament passed the Reorganization of States Act and Andhra Pardesh was created out of the State of Hyderabad. - The Telegu speaking regions were merged with Andhra Pardesh, the Kannada speaking regions were merged with Karnatak and Marathi speaking Marathwada was merged with Maharashtra. 8C. Jammu Kashmir: a: King Hari Sigh of Kashmir decided to remain independent: - The State of Kashmir was located at a very strategic place between India and Pakistan. - It was a state with majority of Muslim population. - The king of State of Kashmir was Hari Singh Dogra. - Lord Mountbatten had suggested to Hari Singh to join either of the two countries for the peace of the region. - However, King Hari Singh decided to remain independent. b: Pakistan pressurized Kashmir: - Pakistan pressurized Kashmir to join with Pakistan. - Pakistan confiscated the trade material of Kashmir. - Pakistan discontinued the supply of oil to Kashmir. - Pakistan stopped the train between Siyalkot and Jammu. - Pakistan sent infiltrators in Poonch and Baramullah section of Kashmir. - Pakistan threatened to follow with an armed raid. c: Hari Singh signed a treaty of merger with India: - King Hari Singh of Kashmir was threatened and pressurized by Pakistan to merge with it. - When Hari Singh faced with problem of tribal intruders sent by Pakistan, he signed treaty of integration of Kashmir with India. - The people of Kashmir also wanted to integrate with India. - Sheikh Abdullah of National Conference also worked for the integration of Kashmir with India. d: Indian army saved Kashmir from Pakistan Attack: - Kashmir signed treaty of integration with India. - On October 27, 1947, the Indian army entered Kashmir to flush out the intruders from Kashmir. - Nearly one hundred planes were pressed into service to bring troops and arms in Leh and Ladakh. - The Indian soldiers fought the war at the height of 23900 feet. - The armed forces officers like Major General Kalwant Singh, Major General Thimayya, Major General Atma Singh, Air Commander Meher Singh, Major Somnath Sharma, Brigadier Osman etc earned name and respect for their country and saved Kashmir. - India also brought the matter before the United Nations. - Under the supervision of the United Nations, the cease-fire was implemented on January 1, 1949. - India was able to save 2/3 of the territory of Kashmir and integrated it with India. - The rest of the territory of Kashmir is still under the illegal possession of Pakistan. 9. Merger of French and Portuguese Colonies: 9a: French Colonies in India: - At the time of independence of India on August 15, 1947, France had in her possession some territories of India. - Chandranagar, Pondicherry, Carical, Mahe and Yenam were under the control of France. - France had observed the Indian National Movement and recognised the spirit of nationalism of Indians. - France started negotiations with India for peaceful settlement of the Indian territories. - It was decided to hold plebiscite in the French occupied Indian territories. - In the Plebiscite the people of French occupied Indian territories decided in favour of merger with India. The result of the plebiscite was implemented and they were integrated with India. 9b. The Liberation of Goa: bi: History of Portuguese colonies in India: - Goa came in contact with Portugal in 15th century. - It was in 1498, that Vasco de Gama came to India. bii: The National Movement in Goa: T. N. Cunha and Goa Congress: - The national movement in Goa for independence from the Portuguese rule started in 1928. - T. B. Cunha founded Goa Congress Committee in 1928. - In 1929, the Indian National Congress gave it recognition to Goa Congress as its own branch. - The freedom movement in Goa got momentum in 1945 after the end of the Second World War. biii: Oppression of Portuguese Rulers: - In 1930, Portuguese passed the Colonies Act as per which the important rights of citizens were denied to the Goans. - Dr. T. N. Cunha formed the Goa Youth League in Mumbai in 1945 and apprised the whole Indian nations about the oppression of Goans by the Portuguese rulers. - Dr. Cunha gave held a meeting in Goa inspite of the ban and he was imprisoned for 8 years. biv: Role of Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia in Goa Liberation: - Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia made a speech in Madgaon inspite of the ban. bv: Role of Mohan Ranade: - Mohan Ranade tried to organised an armed revolt against the Portuguese rule in 1948 after bringing unity among the Goans. - The Portuguese rulers arrested Mohan Ranade and imprisoned him for 12 years. c: Satyagraha and Armed Revolt for the Liberation of Goa: - The Goans adopted the means of Satyagraha and Armed revolt to liberate Goa. - They were helped by the Nationalist leaders of Maharashtra also. ci: Liberation of Dadra and Nagarhaveli: - The young members of Azad Gomantak Dal launched the armed attacked on Dadra and Nagarhaveli. - Vishvanath Lavande, Rajabhau Vakankar, Sudhir Phadke, Kajrekar also took part in the armed revolt. - Azad Gomantak Dal liberated Dadra and Nagarhaveli by an armed revolt in 1954. cii: Satyagraha of 1954: - In 1954, Satyagraha was launched in Goa. - Nanasaheb Gore, Senapti Bapat, Peter Alvaris, Sudhatai Joshi and others presented Satyagraha in Goa. - Nanasaheb and Senapti Bapat were beaten badly by the Portuguese police and thrown behind the bars. ciii: Satyagraha of 1955 and Goa Liberation Movement: - The different political parties sent more Satyagrahis to Goa. - The Satyagrahis from Maharashtra and other different states of Goa also joined in Goa. - Some of the known Satyagrahis were Hirve Guruji, Karnal Singh, Manda Yalgi, Kamila Upasani, Prabha Sathe, Shanta Rao became martyrs. - With the martyrdom of Satyagrahis at the hands of oppressive Portuguese police the Goa Liberation Movement became more intense and more stained with blood. cvi: Cautious Policy of the Government of India: - The Goa Liberation movement had become very intense and stained with blood because of the atrocities of the Portuguese repressive policy. - It seems that Portugal would not leave India unless some strong action was taken against them. - There was danger that in case of using hard option like military, the problem of Goa could become internationalized. - The Government of India did not want that the Goa problem should attract the international interference which would not have in the good interest of the newly born Republic of India. cv: India finally used force and liberated Goa: - The Government of India took every precaution to save the situation from becoming an international issue. - All the peaceful efforts to dislodge the adamant Portugal from the Indian territory failed. - Finally the Government of India used the military option. - In December 1961, the Indian army entered Goa and recaptured Goa from the Portugal. cvi: Goa became the integral part of India on December 19, 1961: - The Indian army recaptured Goa in December 1961. - On December 19, 1961, Goa became the integral part of India. Facts and Figures to Remember 1. Three main problems of the Independent India: Preparation of Constitution, Rehabilitation of Refugees and merging of the Princely States in the Indian Federation were the three main problems of the newly independent India. 2. Constitution of India: Framed by a Constituent Assembly elected by an election in July 1946. It was completed in November 1949 and came into force on January 26, 1950. 3. Constituent Assembly: It was formed by 296 members elected by an election in July 1946. Dr. Rajinder Prasad was its President and Dr. Ambedkar was chairman of the drafting committee of the Assembly. It completed its work of writing the constitution for India in 1082 days by November 26, 1949. 4. The Nature of the Constitution: It established a democratic India, with a federal structure, bicameral legislature, state legislatures, Supreme Court and gave fundamental rights to the Indians. 5. The Special Features of the Indian Constitution: It has a Preamble, ensures a secular state and Fundamental Rights and other liberal features of a civilized society. 6. The Rehabilitation of the Refugees: Centre and State governments shared the responsibilities of the refugees who had suffered due to communal rights. They were provided food, clothing, shelter, education, health services and opportunities for employment and business. 7. Assassination of Gandhiji: Gandhiji was assassinated while trying to establish the Hindu- Muslim Unity on January 30, 1948. 8. Integration of Princely States: Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, the Home Minister and Deputy Prime Minister integrated most of the Princely States in the Federation of India. Junagarh state was integrated with India after a referendum. Hyderabad was integrated after a police action in September 1948. Jammu and Kashmir was integrated with India after the King Hari Singh signed a merger with India in 1948. 9. Merger of French and Portuguese Colonies (Pondicherry and Liberation of Goa) : Pondicherry was allowed by France to merge in India after a plebiscite. The people of Goa fought a war of liberation against the Portuguese government with the support of India and finally, in December 1961, India captured Goa with the support of people of Goa. Exercise Text Book and Question Bank Questions 1A. Fill in the blanks i. The Chairman of the Draft Committee of the Constituent Assembly was _____. (Dr. Ambedkar, Jawahar Lal Nehru, Dr. Rajinder Parsad. ii. Elected President of the Constituent Assembly, was _____. (Dr. Rajinder Parsad, Dr. Ambedkar, K. Munshi) iii. One of the famous women members of the Constituent Assembly was ______. (Smt. Sucheta Kriplani, Smt. Hansaben Mehta, Smt. Dasgupta) 1B. Writing the following events in chronological order. i. The U. N. ceasefire was implemented in Jammu and Kashmir. ii. The Princely state of Junagarh was integrate with India. iii. The amalgamation of Hyderabad with India. iv. The Constituent Assembly came into existence. v. The Assembly adopted the Constitution. 2. Write the answer of the following in 2-3 sentences. i. What is the contribution of Dr. T. B. Cunha in the Liberation of Goa? ii. What do you understand from secularism? (Oct. 96) (March 97) iii. What steps did the Indian Government take to solve the problem of refugees? iv. How had the spirit of Indian National Movement influenced the Indian Constitution? (March 96) 3. Give Reasons in two-three sentences. i. August 16, 1946 was observed as Direct Action Day by Muslim League. ii. In 1947, there were many big and small princely states in India. iii. The Indian government decided to treat Nizam of Hyderabad with force. iv. The Indian Constitution is one of the lengthy ones in the world. (March 96) (Oct. 96) v. The Indian National Congress accepted the Partition of India. vi. There was tremendous strain on Indian economy after Independence. vii. Rehabilitation of refugees was the main problem before the Indian Government. viii. The Indian Government had to handle the problem of merger of Goa cautiously. ix. The princely state of Junagarh was integrated with India. x. On February 20, 1948, the Junagarh State was integrated with India. xi. A liberation movement started against the Portuguese in Goa. xii. The Indian constitution is one of the lengthy one in the world. xiii. The Indian Government took action against the Nizam. xiv. It became obligatory for Indian Government to take Police Action against Nizam. (Oct. 01) 4. Write answer of the following in 5-6 sentences. i. State the main phases of the integration of Jammu-Kashmir State. ii. State the special feature of the Indian Constitution. (Oct. 01) iii. What steps did the Indian government take to solve the problem of the integration of princely state? iv. Give an account of the integration of Hyderabad into India with the help of the following points. 1. Nizam and the movement for integration. 2. Atrocities of the Razakars. 3. Police Action. v. How did the Indian Army avert Pakistan’s invasion on Kashmir? vi. Describe the work done by the India Army in liberating Goa. vii. How was the Princely State of Junagarh integrated in India? viii. How was integration of Jammu and Kashmir brought about? ix. Why did the Indian Government decide to conduct police action in Hyderabad State? x. How did the French colonies merge into Indian Union? xi. Give the special features of Indian Constitution with the help of the following points. (Oct. 97, 99, 01) 1. The Preamble. (Oct. 97, 99, 01) 2. The Fundamental Rights. (Oct. 97, 99, 01) 3. Directive Principles. (Oct. 97, 99,01) 4. Secularism (Oct. 97, 99) 5. Federal Form of government. (Oct. 97, 99) Question : 5 Write the answer of following in 20 lines i. Explain the main features of the Indian constitution, with the help of the followings points. 1) The Preamble. 2) The Fundamental Rights. 3) The Directive Principles. ii. Describe the making of the Indian Constitution with the help of the following points. 1) Foundation of Constituent Assembly. 2) Draft Committee. 3) Preamble. iii. Describe the Goa liberation movement with the help of the following points. 1) Foundation of Goa Congress Committee in 1928. 2) Goa Youth League and Azad Gomantak Dal. 3) Satyagrahis from Maharashtra. iv. Give a detailed account of the liberation of Goa. Other Important Examination Question 1A. Fill in the blanks i. The election to the constituent assembly was held in July ___. (1946, 1950, 1952) ii. There were ______ elected members formed the Constituent Assembly. (296, 540, 280) iii. Gandhiji died while trying to establish the Hindu-Muslim _____. (state, assembly, unity) 2. Write the answer of the following in 2-3 sentences. i. What were the three main problems of the Independent India. ii. Which three main states were joined after 1947 as the problem of merging of remaining part of Indian territories? iii. Which political body had written the constitution of India and when? 3. Give Reasons in two-three sentences. i. Referendum was held in Junagarh state. ii. Police action was initiated against Hyderabad. iii. King Hari Singh singed a treaty of merger with India. vi. India used force against Portugal government in Goa. Question : 4 Write the answer of following in 20 lines 1. Write how Hyderabad was integrated into India. (Oct. 96; 98) 2. Write how Kashmir was integrated into India. 3. Write how Junagarh was integrated into India. 4. Write how Goa was integrated into India.
  24. Chapter 13 Quit India (Imp.) 1. The Passing of Government of India Act 1935: - The Government of India Act 1935 was the result of Round Table Conference. - It allowed Indians to participate in the political processes. - It introduced principle of election on a wider scale. - It allowed the elected Indian representatives to run the administration at province level. - It laid the foundation of democracy. - It was a step towards improvement after 1919 Act. 2. The provision of the Government of India Act 1935: a: Federalism: a1: - The Indian provinces under the British rule and Princely states under the Indian rulers would form a federation. - The Princely states were allowed the option to remain outside proposed Indian Federation. a2: The powers of administration were divided into two lists at Center. One list was called Reserved List and the other was called Transferred List. - The Indian representatives in administration at provincial level could make laws only on the items included in the Transferred List. - The reserved list items were completely under the jurisdiction of the Governor-General. b: Province: b1: - The Provincial autonomy was established by the act. It was achieved by scrapping the Dyarchy feature of 1919 Act and all the subjects of administration were transferred to the elected representatives at provincial level. - The Governor-General had the veto powers over the functions of the representatives of the people. - Two new provinces – Sindh and Orissa were created. Myanmar (Burma) was separated from India. 3. Provincial Elections and the Congress Ministry: a: Congress attitude towards 1935 Act: - The Indian National Congress rejected the Act of 1935. b: Why did Congress participate in 1936 elections: - The Congress was not satisfied with the 1935 Act. It had rejected it. - The Congress wanted to demonstrate to the British government that the Congress had the popular support. - The Congress also wanted to use the opportunity to spread the awareness about its national programmes. Thus, the Congress which had rejected 1935 Act, participated in the election process held under the act. c: Success of the Congress: - The Congress fought elections which took place as per the 1935 Act. - The Congress won and formed ministries in eight provinces out of eleven provinces. - The Congress formed ministries in Bombay Presidency, Madras Province, Orissa, Central Province, Bihar, Uttar Pardesh, North-West Frontier Province and Assam. d: The Achievement of Congress Ministries: (Oct. 98) (March 2001) - The Tenancy Act and similar beneficial acts were past during the tenure of Congress rule. - The Congress ministries introduced many welfare programmes in the field of water supply, public health, village development, welfare of Dalits and primary education. - The Congress ministries promoted Khadi and village industries. - The Congress ministries removed restrictions on the newspapers. - The Congress ministries introduced civil reforms. - The Congress ministries released many political prisoners. The Congress ministries did commendable work during their first and a small tenure in government. They earned the appreciation for doing great deal of work inspite of all the shortcomings of the 1935 Act. e. The Congress ministries resigned: (Oct. 97, March 00) - The Second World War started in 1939. - The British Crown declared that the British India government was participating in the war against Germany without taking into confidence the elected representatives of India. - As a protest against the arbitrary declaration of war, the Congress ministries resigned by the end of 1939. 4. The Faizpur Session of the Indian National Congress: a: Significance and Importance of Faizpur Session of the Congress: - Faizpur was a rural area in Jalgaon district of Maharashtra. - It was for the first time that Indian National Congress held its session at Faizpur in December 1936. - A large number of peasants participated in the session. - The Faizpur Session was important for the Congress which had been raising demands for the welfare of the peasants and struggled for them. b: Main resolutions of the Faizpur Session: - The Session passed a large number of resolutions for the welfare of the peasants. - A 50% reduction in land revenue assessment and in rent was demanded. - The Session demanded the deferment of the recovery of loans from farmers. - The Session demanded the fixing of adequate minimum wages to the agricultural labourers. - It demanded no extra taxes should be imposed on the farmers. - The President of the Session, Jwahar Lal Nehru asked the workers and the peasants to participate in the activities of the Congress. 5. The Second World War and the Indian National Congress: - The Second World War started in September 1939. a: The Policy of the Congress towards the World War: - The working committee of the Congress declared its policy on the Second World War in September 1939. a1: Main features of the Policy of Congress on the World War II: - The working committee declared that the Congress was against Nazism and Fascism. - It declared that the Congress was against the Imperialism and Colonialism. - It declared that India would not take part in the war from the side of England - It emphasized that England had denied freedom to her Indian possession in contradiction to her claim that it was fighting for the freedom of the democratic nations. Therefore, the Congress announced that it would not fight for England. - The Congress further declared that England should clearly state that her aim in the war was to end colonialism and imparting of independence to India. - The Congress emphasized that if England did not assure that she was fighting for the end of colonialism in India and elsewhere then, India would not participate in the war. - The Congress also clarified that if England wanted to end colonialism, then an independent India would fully support her efforts to protect the democracy. - The Congress also expressed its opposition to the war and supported democracy, independence and fraternity. In short, the Congress declared a policy of opposing imperialism, Nazism and Fascism which it had declared in its earliest sessions also. a2: Attitude of the British towards the policy of the Congress towards the World War II: - British did not care about the policy of the Congress and the demands of the Congress. - British announced that India was a party to her war efforts. - As the British had not responded to the demands of the Congress, The Congress ministries in various provinces resigned in October-November 1939. b: Ramgarh Session of the Congress-March 1940: - In the Ramgarh Session of the Congress in March 1940, Jawahar Lal Nehru demanded independence of all the British colonies along with the independence of India. - In July, the working committee in another meeting demanded that the British should setup an interim National government at the Centre as a step towards the independence of India. - It was also decided that during the period of crises, no mass movement would be started. c. Individual Satyagraha: - It had been adopted as a policy decision by the working committee of the Congress that in hour of crises due to the World War, no mass movement would be started. - Mahatma Gandhi declared that they would definitely propagate against the war but it would be done through peaceful means of non-violence. - Gandhiji was not in favour of any mass movement but suggest an alternative in form of Individual Satyagraha. - On August 17, 1940, the Individual Satyagraha was launched. - Acharya Vinoba Bhave was chosen as the first Satyagrahi by Mahatma Gandhi. - Other important Satyagrahis were Jawahar Lal Nehru, Vallabhbhai Patel, and Maulana Abul Kalam Azad. - By May 1941, twenty five thousands Congress workers had offered Individual Satyagraha. Most of the Satyagrahis were put behind the bars when they offered the Satyagraha. 6. Cripps Mission: a: Reasons for sending Cripps Mission: - By the end of 1941, the World War had extended to the East. - Japan had reached upto the eastern borders of India after conquering Singapore, and Mayanmar by the end of March 1942. - England was highly worried about the loss of the Indian colony where she was not getting the support of the Indians. - President of America, Franklin D. Roosvelt pressurized England to enlist the support of Indians for the war efforts. - The pressure of President of America and looming danger of Japan forced England to solicit the support of the Indians in her war efforts. - In order to get the support of the Indians, the Prime Minister of England sent Sir Strafford Cripps, minister in his cabinet to negotiate with the Indian leaders. b: Main Features of the Cripps Mission Plan: i. Britain would grant a dominion status to India as soon as possible and would establish a Federal government in the dominion of India. ii. As soon as possible after the war, Britain would establish a Constituent Assembly for India to frame a constitution for India. iii. All the provinces would have the right to self-determination and permitted to decide that whether they would like to join the government framed under the new constitution whenever that would be formed. iv. The Princely states were allowed the right to self-determination. If they did not wish to join the proposed federation, a separate treaty with British government would singed with the Princely states. The princely states would then sign it as independent states. v. As long as the war continued, all the departments except the War department would be transferred to the Indian representatives. b. Strong resentment of the Congress and straightway rejection of the Cripps Plan  the proposal - A Post Dated Cheque: (March 97) (Oct. 97) (Imp.) - The Congress straightaway rejected the Cripps proposal because of the following reasons. i. The proposal intended to give a dominion status to India only after the end of the war. The Congress had already demanded complete independence for India. ii. All the proposed powers were to be implemented after the end of the war. No body knew at that time that when and with what results would the war end. iii. The proposal desired to extend the right of self-determination to the provinces and the princely states. In other words, it had in its design to divide India. Had the Congress accepted it then it would have laid the ground for the future partition of India. iv. Mahatma Gandhi had rightly commented on its nature by a pithy statement that the proposal was a “post dated cheque on a crumbling bank”. As every proposed feature was to be implemented on some undecided future date, it was compared to post dated cheque. v. Jinnah of Muslim League had also rejected it because it had not clearly mentioned creation of Pakistan. vi. The talks failed and Sir Cripps returned to England without achieving anything. 7. Quit India Movement: (V. Imp.) (March 97) (Oct. 98; 01) a: Resolution of CWC on July 14, 1942: - After the failure of the Cripps Mission, the Indian National Congress decided to launch a non-violent mass movement. - On July 14, 1942, the Congress Working Committee passed a resolution to end the British rule in India. - The working committee demanded the complete independence for India. - The working committee resolved that if the British government did not accept the demand of the Congress then it would launch non-violent movement for the independence of India. b: Gowalia Tank Announcement of Gandhiji – August 7, 1942: - In continuation of the resolutions of July 14, 1942, the working committee meeting was held on August 7, 1942 at Gowalia Tank in Mumbai. - In his speech during at Gowalia Tank Gandhji asked the people to join the non-violent struggle for independence. c: Launch of Quit India Movement – Do or Die – August 8, 1942: - On August 8, 1942, the Quit India Resolution was passed and the movement was launched. - In the resolution the Congress asked the British government to leave India. - Gandhiji was entrusted with the leadership of the non-violent movement to end the British rule in India. - While launching the Quit India Movement Gandhiji asked the people to consider themselves free from that day onwards. - Gandhiji also asked the people to prepare for the great sacrifice with the motive of ‘Do or Die’ in order to achieve the independence. d: British Oppression from August 9, 1942: - British government reacted to Quit India resolution in an oppressive manner. - On August 9, 1942, Gandhiji was arrested. - Later the members of the Congress Working Committee which included Jwahar Lal Nehru, Mulana Abul Kalam Azad etc were also arrested. - The British government banned the Congress. - The government used its force to suppress the movement with cruelty. - The government banned the press. - The government fired upon the demonstrators. - The government even used machine guns from the aeroplanes at places in Bihar and even dropped bombs at certain places. - The government inflicted severe torture to the imprisoned demonstrators. - The demonstrators were even publicly flogged. - The government imposed collective fines in villages as punishment for participating in the demonstrations. - The government used army along with police to fire upon the people and many people were killed in firing. e: People became their own masters: - People became very angry when they found that all their leaders were thrown behind the bars. - People however, continued the Quit India Movement in absence of their leaders in their own ways. f: Quit India Movement in the hands of People: - People showed their anger in their own ways when they found that government had arrested all their leaders on the launch of the Quit India Movement. - People organised hartals and demonstrations all over India. - The students boycotted their schools and colleges. - The workers stopped their works in the factories. - People attacked and burned the government properties which were the symbol of the British Imperialism. - People also burned police stations, railways stations, post offices etc. - People also looted the government treasuries which had been filled by oppressing them. - People disrupted the transport and communication system by removing railway lines and cutting the electric and telegram wires. g: Establishment of parallel governments: - At many places, people had taken government in their hands for many days. - People gave a big challenge to the sovereignty of the British government by running parallel governments for number of weeks before the British government could demolish their system. - The parallel governments were established in Midnapur in Bengal, Balia in Uttar Pardesh, Satara in Maharashtra, Satara in Orissa etc. - The Parallel governments by the Indians tried to overthrow the illegal and oppressive British government. - The Parallel governments tried to deliver justice to the worker and peasants. - The Parallel governments started collective revenue, maintained law and order and performed other functions of a government. - The Parallel governments also raised armed units of the peasants. h: Underground Activities of the Congress leaders: - Many Congress leaders went underground to escape the arrest by the British government. - They continued the movement from their hideouts. - The socialist group performed the main role in such activities. h1: Activities of the Socialist group of the Congress: - The leaders of the socialist group of the Congress directed the underground activities during the Quit India Movement. - Jayaprakash Narayan was the leading leader who directed the secret underground activities. - Some of the important leaders who undertook the underground activities were Achyutrao Patwardhan, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia, N. G. Gore, S. M. Joshi, Aruna Asaf Ali, Usha Mehta and many others. - The main activities of the underground leaders were as follows. i. They operated secret radio stations. ii. They disrupted the transport and communication systems. iii. They printed and distributed propaganda literature. h2: The Quit India Movement and Maharashtra: - The people of Maharashtra had taken a very active part in the Quit India Movement. - The people of Chimur, Ashti, Yawali, Mahad, Ahmadnagar, Pathardi, Gargoti and Nandurbar made a significant contribution in the movement. - The people of Maharashtra had virtually crippled the British administration for some time. - Krantisinha Nana Patil managed to run a Parallel government in Satara for quite a long time. 8. Netaji Subash Chandra Bose: a: Founder of Forward Block: - Among the young leaders of the Indian National Congress, Netaji Subash Chandra Bose was one of the most important leaders. - He was chosen President of Congress Session of Haripura in 1938 and even the next year in 1939 again, the President of Congress Session of Tripura. - He was a strong votary of the policy of undertaking a revolutionary programme to overthrow the British rule during the World War period. - He however, had conflict of opinion with the senior leaders of the Congress because of his more aggressive programmes. - He resigned from the Congress and founded his own party called Forward Block in May 1939. b: Views of Subash Chandra Bose on the programmes to attain Independence: - Subash Chandra Bose was of the view that the Congress should not support any of the groups which were fighting the World War as all of them were imperialists. - In March 1940, during the session of Forward Block Subash Chandra Bose asked the people not to help the British government either with their money or by any other means. - He was of the opinion that along with the non-violent movement against the British government, the Indians should also undertake armed revolution and even take the help of the enemies of England to end the British rule in India. c: Action of British government against Subash Chandra Bose: - The British government arrested Subash Chandra Bose for his activities against the war efforts of Britain. - He was placed under house arrest when he went on fast unto death in the prison. d: Free India Centre was founded: - Subash Chandra Bose had developed a strong view that an armed revolution should also be carried out along with the non-violent movement to end the British rule in India. - He was also of the view that the Indians should take the help of the enemies of Britain to end their rule in India. - Subash Chandra Bose escaped to Germany from his house arrest in India. - In Germany, he founded Free India Centre. e: Subash Chandra Bose in Germany: (Oct. 96) - In Germany, Subash Chandra Bose founded Free India Centre. - He called upon the Indians from the Berlin radio to launch an armed struggle against the British rule for the independence of India. - In Germany, he received invitation of Rasbihari Bose from Japan and he left for Japan in a German submarine. f: Activities of Rasbihari Bose and Indian National Army: - Rasbihari Bose was an Indian revolutionary who had actively participated in the revolutionary activities in India. - After the failure of Gadar Party Movement, he had shifted to Japan in 1915. - In Japan he found that many Indians well established in trade and commerce had sympathy for the independence movement of India. - He established Indian Independence League in 1924 with the help of Indians living in Japan. - Japan had arrested many Indian soldiers of British Indian army when she defeated Britain. - Rasbihari Bose with the help of Captain Mohan Singh organised the Indian National Army out of the Indian soldiers imprisoned by Japan. - He invited Subash Chandra Bose to take over the organisation of Indian National Army. g: Netaji Subash Chandra Bose in Japan: (Oct. 96) - When Subash Chandra Bose was in Germany he received an invitation from Rasbihari Bose to come to Japan. - Subash Chandra Bose came to Japan and took over the leadership of Indian National Army. - Subash Chandra Bose came to known as Netaji Subash Chandra Bose after he had taken over the charge of Indian National Army. - On October 21, 1943, Netaji established the Azad Hind Government in Singapore after negotiations with Japan. - Netaji and his followers took pledge to fight till India got independence. h: Azad Hind Government: (March 99) - Netaji Subash Chandra Bose established the Azad Hind Government in Singapore on October 21, 1943. - The Azad Hind Government was extended recognition by Japan, Germany and Italy. - The flag of Indian National Army (Azad Hind Fauj) under the Azad Hind Government was tricolor. - The way of greeting in Indian National Army was Jai Hind. - The war cry of Indian National Army was Chalo Delhi. - The independent women unit of Indian National Army was called Rani Jhansi Regiment. - The Rani Jhansi Regiment of Indian National Army was Dr. Lakshmi Swaminathan who was also a minister in Azad Hind Government. - The Indian National Army constituted soldiers of different Indian communities which included Sikhs, Muslims, Hindus and members of different castes. - Netaji as the head of the Azad Hind government an Indian National Army declared war against USA and England. - Netaji gave a call to the Indians in the following way, “Give me blood and I shall give you independence.” i: Achievements of Indian National Army under Azad Hind Government: (March 2001) - In November 1943, Azad Hind Government got Indian islands of Andaman and Nicobar. - Netaji named the islands as Shahid and Swaraj respectively. - Netaji then envisaged a role for Indian National Army in the independence of India. - Netaji raised the economic resources for the expenses of his army, government and the plan to fight for the independence of India from Indians and East Asia. - The INA (Indian National Army) mainly fought on the support of people. - The INA fought in the Arakan province of Myanmar in 1944. - In May 1944, the INA stepped on the soil of India for the first time at Mowdoc in Assam. - The flag of the Azad Hind Government was unfurled for the first time on the soil of India at Mowdoc in Assam (older Assam). - After Mowdoc, the INA captured Kohima. - After Kohima, the INA attacked Imphal. j: INA activities came to an end: Netaji died on August 18, 1945 in a plane crash: - By August 1945, the activities of INA came to an end without achieving the final goal of the independence of India. - British forces had grown powerful when USA joined her forces. - The combined forces of USA and Britain forced Japan to withdraw his attention from India and concentrate on Pacific Ocean where she fought against USA. - By 1944, Britain and USA had emerged as a winning party. - In absence of Japan support, the INA had to face the situation on its own but it did not have enough resources. - The INA withdrew but kept its dream of freeing India from the tutelage of England alive. - However, the activities of INA came to an end when Netaji died. - Netaji died on August 18, 1945 in a plane crash near Formosa near Taiwan while flying to Tokyo. - Japan had also surrendered when America bombed it with two atom bombs. 9. The INA Trial: Dhillon Sehgal Shahnawaz: A great inspiration to the Indians in the British armed forces: - The British government had arrested many INA soldiers. - They were tried in the military court. - Lawyers like Jawahar Lal Nehru, Bhulbhai Desai and Tej Bhadur Sapru defended the officers and soldiers. - Three officers, namely Dhillon, Sehgal and Shahnawaz were found guilty of treason and sentenced them to life imprisonment along with other soldiers. - It sent a great consternation in India and people collectively raised a strong voice against the government. - The government was forced to suspend the punishment. - The INA trials and their results became a great source of inspiration for the Indian people and the Indians in the British armed forces to work for the independence of India. 10. The Naval Mutiny and the Royal Air Force Mutiny: February 1946: a: Causes of revolt of Indian soldiers: - The Indians in the British forces were not satisfied with their British employer. - They were discriminated against. - The spirit of national movement for independence also swayed the Indian soldiers. - The discontentment of the Indian soldiers erupted in form of a revolt against their British employer in 1946. b: Warships Talwar and Hindustan and Arrest of B. C. Dutta: - The revolt of the Indian soldiers started from the Indian Navy. - It was started by the officers and sailors of the warship Talwar which docked in Mumbai. - It started on February 18, 1946. - It was started when a sailor B. C. Dutta was arrested. - B. C. Dutta was arrested because he had painted anti British slogans like Jai Hind and Quit India. - The naval personnel came on to the roads against the arrest of B. C. Dutta. - The people of India showed solidarity with the sailors. - The revolt took place on the warship Hindustan which was docked at Karachi. c: British learned a lesson while trying to stop the Revolt: - The British government brought out army to quell the revolt. - The Indian soldiers in the Indian army refused to fire upon their Indian brother. - The British administration was forced to deploy the English soldiers. - The People of Mumbai also joined in to fight with the English soldiers. - However, Vallabhbhai Patel asked the Indian sailors and soldiers to return to their barracks. The Indian soldiers accepted his command. - The British government learnt a lesson that the Indian armed forces listen more to the Indian National Congress than their immediate British employers. - The British government learnt that it was not possible for them to continue their rule in India. Facts and Figures to Remember 1. The Passing of the Government of India Act 1935: The contents of Government of India Act 1935 was result of Round Table Conferences. It laid the foundation of democracy in India. 2. The Provision of the Government of India Act 1935: Federalism and Provincial autonomy were the core of the various provision of the Government of India Act 1935. The powers between Federation and Provinces were categorised in three lists. The Princely States were allowed to remain out of its provisions. 3. Provincial Elections and the Congress Ministry: Congress declined it but participated in elections under the Act to spread the awareness about its national programmes. The Congress formed governments in nine provinces. The Congress governments achieved success in the field of village industries, making of newspapers independent, introduced civil reforms etc. The Congress ministries resigned when the British announced the participation of India in the World War II. 4. The Faizpur Session of the Indian National Congress: It was the first Congress Session to be held in rural area and held in December 1936. It adopted the welfare programmes for the peasant 5. The Second World War and the Indian National Congress: The Congress declared that it was against Nazism and Fascism. However, it refused to participate in war efforts of Britain because Britain had not granted freedom to India. it asked the government to end the colonialism. In Ramgarh Session of 1940, Congress demanded the freedom of all the British colonies. In its effort to protest against the attitude of Britain during the World War, Congress adopted the programme of Individual Satyagraha and Vinoba Bhave was the first Satyagrahi. 6. Cripps Mission: Under the pressure from President Roosevelt of America, Britain sent Cripps mission to enlist the support of Indians for the war efforts. Cripps Mission offered dominion status for the Indian provinces and right of self-determination to the Princely states. Congress and Muslim League rejected the Cripps Mission proposals and Gandhi ji called it a post dated cheque. 7. Quit India Movement: In its July 14, 1942, Congress Working Committee resolved to end the British rule in India. On August 7, 1942, at Gowalia Tank in Mumbai, Gandhji decided to launch a non-violent struggle to implement the July resolution. On August 8, 1942, he gave the slogan of Do and Die for complete Independence and Quit India Movement was thus launched. British government responded with oppression of Indians with all possible means. Indian public adopted various means of protest like establishing parallel governments, burning British government symbols like railways, police stations etc. Congress and socialist leaders adopted the means of underground activities like operating secret radio, distribution of propaganda material etc. People of Maharashtra participated in this movement in large numbers from all the areas. 8. Netaji Subash Chandra Bose: Subash Chandra Bose established Forward Block after disassociating from Congress in 1939. He gave the plan of revolutionary movement against the British administration in place of non-violent movement. Subashji first went to Germany and then reached Japan. In Japan with Rasbihari Bose, he established Azad Hind Government in Singapore. Then he established Indian National Army. He gave the slogans of Jai Hind and Chalo Delhi. INA was able to conquer Andaman and Nicobar and called them Shahid and Swaraj. His army also entered Kohima and Assam. Netaji died in a plane crash on August 18, 1945. 9. The INA Trial: The British government tried INA officer, Shahnawaz, Dhillon and Sehgal for sedition. Nehru, Desai and Sapru fought their case. Under the Indian public pressure, INA officers were acquitted. 10. The Naval Mutiny and the Royal Air Force Mutiny: The British Indian revolted on the warships Talwar and Hindustan in 1946. B. C. Dutta was first to start this revolt by writing pro India slogans. However, the rebels returned to their barracks only on the suggestion of Indian leader Sardar Patel. It gave message to the British government that their army was not with them. Exercise Text Book and Question Bank Questions 1A. Fill in the blanks i. _________ provided the leadership to the underground movement in Quit India Movement. (Jay Parkash Narayan, Acharya Narendra Dev, Dr. Lohia) ii. _______ raised the Indian National Army. (Subash Chandra Bose, Rasbihari Bose, Lala Hardayal) (Oct. 97; Oct. 99) iii. The Act of 1935 granted _____. (Dominion Status, Complete Independence, Provincial autonomy) iv. ________ was chosen as the first Satyagrahi for the Individual Satyagraha. (Acharya Vinoba Bhave, Jawahar Lal Nehru, Vallabhbhai Patel) v. Azad Hind government was established by ______. (Subash Chandra Bose, Rasbihari Bose, Lala Hardayal) (March 00) 1B. Match the followings a. i. Jawahar Lal Nehru Faizpur Session of Indian National Congress ii. Netaji Subash Chandra Bose ‘Rani of Jhansi’ Regiment iii. Dr. Lakshmi Swaminathan The Naval Mutiny in Mumbai iv. B. C. Dutt The Naval Mutiny in Karachi Azad Hind Government. b. (March 97) i. Midnapur Maharashtra ii. Balia Orissa iii. Talcher Uttar Pardesh iv. Satara Madhya Pardesh Bengal 1C Writing the following events in chronological order. (Oct. 98) i. Cripps Mission ii. Individual Satyagraha iii. The provincial Congress ministries resigned iv. Establishment of Azad Hind Government. 2. Write the answer of the following in 2-3 sentences. i. Why did Indian National Congress decide to take part in the elections held under the 1935 Act? ii. What was Jawahar Lal Nehru’s demand at the Ramgarh session of the Indian National Congress in 1940? iii. Why did Subash Chandra Bose decide to go to Japan from Germany? (Oct. 96; 99; 01) iv. What was Subash Chandra Bose’s view regarding the British policy at the out break of the World War II? v. Give details about the implementation of programmes of public welfare done by the provincial Congress Ministries. (Oct. 98) (March 2001) 3. Give Reasons in two-three sentences. i. The Indian officers and ratings on the British warship ‘Talwar’ in Mumbai mutinied. ii. The ‘Indian National Congress rejected the Cripps’ proposal. (March 96) (Oct. 97) iii. The British Government kept Subhash Babu under house arrest. iv. Indian National Army failed in the freedom struggle. v. Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose decided to go to Japan from Germany. (March 2001) vi. The British Government cancelled the sentence of the INA officers. vii. The Indian Congress at Faizpur was significant. viii. The Congress Ministries in the provinces resigned at the end of 1939. (Oct. 97) ix. Congress Ministries resigned on November 1, 1939. (March 00) x. The British Prime Minister sent Sir Strafford Cripps to India in 1942. xi. The Congress and the Muslim League rejected the Cripps Proposals. (March 96) (Oct. 97) 4. Write answer of the following in 5-6 sentences. i. What were the changes brought about in Indian administration in accordance with 1935 Act? ii. What measures were taken by the British government to suppress the ‘Quit India’ Movement? iii. What demands did the peasants put before the Faizpur Congress Session? iv. State the main features of the Faizpur Congress Session. v. Mention the work of the underground leaders during the ‘Quit India’ Movement? vi. What was the “The Cripps Mission Plan?” vii. State the provisions of the Act of 1935. Question : 5 Write the answer of following in 20 lines i. Give an account of the Salt Satyagraha with the help of the following points. 1) Reasons for launching of Salt Satyagraha. 2) Places where Salt Satyagraha was launched. 3) Women’s participation. ii. Mention the contribution of Azad Hind Sena (Indian National Army) with the help of the following points. (March 2001) 1) Background of the foundation of the Azad Hind Sena. 2) Struggle of Azad Hind Sena. 3) The retreat of Azad Hind Sena. iii. Describe the movement of 1942 with the help of the given points. 1) The resolution of the Congress Working Committee. 2) Quit India Resolution. 3) People’s participation. iv. Write a note on the Indian National Army with the help of the given points. 1) Foundation of the Indian National Army. 2) Work of Indian National Army. 3) Imprisonment of the Indian National Army’s officers. 4) The Trial of Indian National Army officer. v. Give a detailed account of the 1942 Quit India Movement with the help of the following points. (March. 97) 1) Background of the Movement. 2) Quit India Resolutions. 3) The work of the underground leaders. vi. State the contribution of Netaji Subash Chandra Bose to the Indian Freedom struggle. 1) Establishment of Forward Block. 2) Establishment of the Azad Hind Government. 3) Contribution to the Freedom Struggle. vii. Give an account of “Indian National Army” with the help of the following points. (March 99) 1) Foundation of the Indian National Army. 2) Contribution of Indian National Army. 3) Participation of people 4) Failure of Indian National Army. 5) Trial of INA officers and soldiers. viii. Mention the contribution of Subash Chandra Bose in India’s Freedom Movement with the help of the following points. 1) Role of Netaji in World War II. 2) His Organisational work. 3) Contribution of Azad Hind Sena. ix. Give an account of the “Quit India” movement of 1942 with the help of following points. (March 97; Oct. 01) 1) The objectives of the Movement. (Oct. 98) 2) “Quit India’ resolution. 3) Main events of the Movement. x. Mention the contribution of Subash Chandra Bose in India’s freedom movement with the help of the following points. 1) Foundation of Azad Hind Sena. 2) Slogans and work. 3) Participation of the masses. xi. Write about the clauses of Government of India Act 1935. Chapter 14 Towards Independence (1945-1947) 1. Lesson Learnt By Britain: - The Quit India Movement gave a lesson to British administration that it had to take the demand of complete independence of India seriously. - The British Parliament transferred the power to India on August 15, 1947. - The British Parliament passed through following phases and steps before transferring the power to the Indians. 2. Step one: The Wavell Plan: Failed due to adamant stand of Jinnah of Muslim League: (March 98) - Lord Wavell was the Viceroy of India in 1945. - He framed a plan for the constitutional reforms for India as per the new policy. - He called the meeting of all parties of India to discuss the plan at Shimla. It is also called the Shimla Conference. a: Main features of the Wavell Plan: (Oct. 01) - The main features of the Wavell Plan were as follows: i. It proposed to reconstitute the Executive Council of the Viceroy. All the members of the Council except the Viceroy and the Commander-in-Chief were to be Indians. ii. It proposed that there would be equal numbers of Muslims and Hindus in the proposed new Executive Council of Viceroy. iii. All the departments except the Home department would be looked after by the Indians. b: Wavell Plan failed due to adamant stand of Barrister Jinnah of Muslim League: - The Indian National Congress suggested the name of Mulana Abul Kalam Azad as one of the representative for the Executive Council. - Barrister Jinnah of Muslim declared that only Muslim League had the right to suggest the names of Muslim members to the Council. - The Congress being a secular party did not accept the proposal. - Even Lord Wavell did not accept the claim of Barrister Jinnah. - The Shimla Conference was not able to reach any solution because Jinnah was adamant on issue of Muslim members. - The Shimla Conference failed and the Wavell Plan was abandoned. 3. Step two: Independence to India declared by Attlee: a: Labour Party under Attlee came into power in Britain: - After the Second World War, the Labour Party came into power in Britain and Attlee became the Prime Minister of Britain. - The Labour Party changed the policy of Britain towards India. b: New Policy of Attlee on March 15, 1946: - On March 15, 1946, the Prime Minister of Britain announced the new policy of Britain towards India. - He declared that Britain would try to transfer power to India as early as possible and thereby give independence to India. - He also declared that the issue of minority rights would not permitted to become hindrance in the way of independence to India. c: Importance Attlee’s declaration of March 15, 1946: - It was for the first time that the word ‘independence of India’ was used while declaring the policy of Britain in the British Parliament. - In the declaration it was also accepted that the Indians had the right to write their own constitution. 4. Step three: The Cabinet Mission Plan: Lord Pethic Lawrence, Sir Strafford Cripps and A. V. Alexander: a: The Commission or the Cabinet Mission: - In line with the new policy Attlee sent a commission to India to discuss the issue of the writing the constitution by the Indians. - The members of the members of the Commission were the ministers in the British Cabinet of Attlee. - The plan which the commission brought for Indians was called Cabinet Mission Plan. - The members of the commission were Lord Pethic Lawrence, Sir Stafford Cripps and A. V. Alexander. b: The Cabinet Mission Plan: (Oct. 98) - The main features of the Cabinet Mission Plan were as follows: i. A Federation of India would be established. All the British India Provinces and the Indian Princely States could be the member of the Federation of India. ii. The departments(ministries) of Home, Foreign affairs and Communication would be with the Federal government of India and rest of the departments would be with the provinces. iii. A Constituent Assembly would be formed to write the constitution of India. iv. The proposed Constituent Assembly would consist of elected members on the basis of the population of provinces. v. The Indian Federation would be divided into three divisions (or the three lists) for the administrative purposes. The three divisions as suggested by the Cabinet plan were as follows: A: It would consist Madras, Bombay, the United Province (U.P.), Bihar, Central Provinces and Orissa. They were identified as the provinces having Hindu majority. B: It would consist Punjab, North-West Province, Sindh and Baluchistan. They were identified as Muslim majority areas. C: It would consist Bengal and Assam. vi. The representatives of the each division would prepare a separate constitution for the regions of their division. They would also prepare the constitution for the Federation of India. vii. A newly organised and restructured Executive Council of Viceroy would be formed in which the representatives of the leading and important political parties would be included. viii. The newly restructured Executive Council consisting of Indian representative of political parties of India would work as the Interim government. The Interim government would rule till the new constitution was prepared. c: Criticism of Cabinet Mission Plan and attitude of Indian Political parties: (March 2001) - The division of India into three lists were arbitrary and given by Cabinet Mission as per their own ideas. - The Interim Government at Center did not have any power and was weak. - There was not mention of Independence of India. It only referred to writing of the constitution and Interim Government. - The Indian political parties like Indian National Congress found it full of shortcomings. - However, the India National Congress accepted to participate in constitution writing because it declared that it was the first opportunity for the Indians to write their own constitution. - The Muslim League accepted the Cabinet Mission Plan showed desire to participate in the constitution writing. d: Election of the Constituent Assembly and Success of Congress: (March 99, 2001) - The election to the Constituent Assembly was held in July 1946. - The Congress had not approved the Cabinet Mission Plan but participated in it because the party declared that it was the first opportunity for the Indians to write their own constitution. (March 99) - The Muslim League, which was quite satisfied with the Cabinet Mission Plan participated in the election. e: The Results of the Election to the Constitution Assembly and the Role of Muslim League: - The election to the Constitution Assembly was held in July 1946. - The Indian National Congress got a thumping majority in the election. - The Muslim League, which had showed great enthusiasm for the fighting election, discarded the Cabinet Mission Plan after the result of election was declared. It was a shock to the Muslim League that the Indian National Congress had majority in the Constitution Assembly. 5. Step four: Direct Action Day of the Muslim League: a: Changed Attitude of the Muslims League towards the Cabinet Mission Plan: - When the Cabinet Mission Plan was announced, the Muslim League had approved it. - However, latter the Muslim League rejected the plan on the complaint that the plan had not accepted the demand of Pakistan in clear terms. b: Direct Action day call by Barrister Jinnah – August 16, 1946: - When Muslim League found that the Cabinet Mission had not accepted their demand for Pakistan, it decided to adopt the path of violence to attain the goal of Pakistan. - Barrister Jinnah gave the call of Direct Action. He declared August 16, 1946, as the day of Direct Action. - On August 16, 1946, the workers of Muslim League started violence, arson and looting. - It started in Bengal and soon spread over whole of India. - It continued till the day of the partition of India. - It was able to convey the message to the country that what would happen if the demand of Muslim League for a separate Pakistan was not accepted. c: Role of Mahatma Gandhi during the riots of Direct Action: - Mahatma Gandhi tried to the violence. - He did not care for his life and visited the places of rioting and asked the people to maintain peace. - However, the violence continued till the day of partition of India. 6. Step five: Provisional government: - The violence after the announcement of Direct Action day was continuing when Viceroy of India, Lord Wavell announced the installing of the Provisional Government as per the results of the July 1946 election. - Lord Wavell installed Provisional Government headed by Pandit Jwahar Lal Nehru on September 2, 1946. (March 2001) - Pandit Jwahar Lal Nehru included Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Dr. Rajendra Parsad, C. Rajgopalachari, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, John Mathai and others in his government. - The representatives of the Muslim League were also invited but they refused to join. - However, in October 1946, Muslim League joined the Provisional government headed by Pandit Nehru. - On joining the government, Muslim League started hindering the working of the government because it did not want that the government should work smoothly. 7. Step Six: Declaration of Attlee of February 28, 1947: - On February 28, 1947, after the Constitution Assembly had started its work in November 1946 and the Provisional government had taken over with riots still going on, Attlee made the following declaration on February 28, 1947: i. England would leave India before June 1948. ii. In case the Indians were not able to decide on their constitution, then British would either hand over the government to Central government or to the provincial governments. iii. The Princely states would become independent again when the British would leave India after relinquishing the power. iv. Lord Mountbatten was made the Viceroy of India in place of Lord Wavell. Lord Mountbatten was sent only to execute the transfer of the power to the Indians before leaving India. 8. Step seven: The Mountbatten Plan: - Lord Mountbatten was made Viceroy of India in place of Lord Wavell by the February 28 declaration of the Prime Minister Attlee of Labour Party. - He reached India in March 1947. - He held discussions with the chief political leaders of India after reaching India. - He drafted a proposal of transfer of power after meeting the Indian leaders. - He obtained approval for his proposal from the British government. - On June 3, 1947, he declared his proposal for the transfer of power which is known as Mountbatten Plan. The main items of the proposal were as follows: i. It was declared that the partition of India was must as there was no unanimity among the Indians on their constitution. ii. India would be divided in two states – India and Pakistan. iii. The Muslims and Non-Muslims of members of legislatures of Punjab and Bengal would decide the partition of their respective provinces. iv. A plebiscite would be held in North West Frontier, British Baluchistan and Silhet district of Assam to decide with which new country they would be joined. v. The Sindh Assembly would be authorised to decide its amalgamation either with India or Pakistan. vi. The British administration would leave India in August 1947 after handing over the power to India and Pakistan which would be then independent sovereign countries. vii. A boarder commission would be decided to mark the borders between India and Pakistan. viii. The Princely States were made free to decide either to join one of the two countries or they wanted to remain independent. 9. Step eight: Acceptance of Partition: (March 97) (Oct. 96; 01) - The Indian National Congress was not in favour of partition. - The Muslim League was bent upon having a separate country. - When the Indian National Congress accepted to settle the problem by accepting the partition, the partition took place. - The Muslim League formed Pakistan on the basis of religion. - The Indian National Congress formed India on the basis of its secular policy. 10. Step Nine: The Indian Independence Act: - On the basis of the Mountbatten Plan, the British Parliament passed the Indian Independence Act on July 18, 1947. - The main features of the Indian Independence Act of July 18, 1947, which came into force in India on August 15, 1947 were as follows: (March 96; 97; 00, 01) (Oct. 01) i. On August 15, 1947, two independent and sovereign countries – India and Pakistan will come into existence. ii. From August 15, 1947, the King of England will not call himself as the Emperor of India. iii. The Constituent Assemblies of India and Pakistan will prepare their respective constitutions. iv. Both India and Pakistan will have their separate Governor-Generals who will rule the respective states till their own constitution come into force. v. The British rule also end its control over the Indian Princely States from August 15, 1947 onwards. vi. After August 15, 1947, the Princely states will be independent. They will have the right to decide in favour of amalgamation with either of the two countries. They have the right to remain independent if they decide so. vii. The British Parliament will cease to have the right to make laws for India after August 15, 1947. 11. Step Ten: The Arrival of Independence: a: August 15, 1947: - At the midnight of August 14, 1947, that is August 15, India became Independent. - The celebration of independence of India was made in Delhi. - The Indian Tricolour was unfurled after dismantling the Union Jack, the flag of British nation. - Pandit Jwahar Lal Nehru became the first Prime Minister of India. - The independence was the result of the collective efforts of the Indians which had continued for 150 years. - 1947 was the culmination of the independence war which had started in 1857. b: “Tryst with Destiny” the first speech of first Prime Minister of independent Republic of India: - The following lines were the opening part of the speech of the first Prime Minister Jwahar Lal Nehru of the independent Republic of India. It was delivered at the midnight of August 14, 1947 in the Parliament House of independent India. - “Long years ago we made a tryst with destiny, and now the time comes when we shall redeem our pledge, not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially. At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to the new, when an age ends, and when the soul of a nation, long suppressed, finds utterance. It is fitting that at this solemn moment we take the pledge of dedication to the service of India and her people and to the still larger cause of humanity.” Facts and Figures to Remember 1. Step One – Wavell Plan: Wavell, the Viceroy of India in 1945, suggested a plan of constitutional reforms in India. Congress and League were not able to compromise and it failed. 2. Step Two – Independence to India declared by Attlee: Attlee, Prime Minister of Britain and leader of Labour Party of England declared independence to India in his March 15 1946 statement. 3. Step Three – Cabinet Mission Plan: The Cabinet Mission Plan offered a Federation of India, Constituent Assembly to frame constitution for India etc. The Cabinet Mission gave three lists in which the Indian provinces were divided which were not acceptable to Indians. The elections for the Constitution Assembly was held in which Congress participated and succeeded. League refused to participate in the interim government. 4. Step Four – Direct Action Day of the League: League announced August 16, 1946 as a direct Action day when riots started on communal basis in different states. 5. Step Five – Establishment of Provisional Government: Lord Wavell installed Provisional Government headed by Pandit Jwahar Lal Nehru on September 2, 1946. It was headed by Jwahar Lal Nehru. In October 1946, Muslim League also joined it. 6. Step Six – Declaration of Attlee of February 1947: On February 28, 1947, Prime Minster Attlee that England would leave India after June 1948. 7. Step Seven – Mountbatten Plan: Mountbatten became Viceroy of India in March 1947. He gave a plan of partition of India and independence of India by August 1947. 8. Step Eight – Acceptance of Partition: The partition of India was accepted under which Pakistan was to be formed on basis of religion and India on the basis of secular model. 9. Step Nine: The Indian Independence Act: The Indian Independence Act was passed in the British Parliament on July 18, 1947 allowing India and Pakistan to write their own constitution. 10. Step Ten: Arrival of Independence: India became independent on August 15, 1947. On the midnight of August 14, 1947 Prime Minister Jwahar Lal Nehru gave his famous speech known as Tryst with Destiny speech as the first Prime Minister of Independent India. Exercise Text Book and Question Bank Questions 1A. Fill in the blanks i. In June 1945, an All Party Conference was organised in Shimla to consider the ____ plan. (Wavell, Cripps, Cabinet Mission) ii. The British administrators had used the word ‘Independence’ for the first time in _____. (Attlee’s announcement, Cabinet Mission Plan, Mountbatten Plan) iii. The provisional government of India was led by ______ . ( Jawahar Lal Nehru, Rajgopalachari, Vallabhbhai Patel) 2. Write the answer of the following in 2-3 sentences. i. State the provisions of the Wavell Plan. (Oct. 99; 01) ii. What were the important points of Attlee’s announcement? iii. State any two features of the Mountbatten Plan? (Oct. 98) iv. What were the shortcomings of Cabinet Mission Plan? (March 2001) v. Who had appointed the Provisional Government? Why did the Muslim League create a number of problems in its operations? (Oct. 96) (March 97) 3. Give Reasons in two-three sentences. i. Muslim League rejected the Cabinet Mission Plan. ii. The National Congress approved the Cabinet Mission Plan. (March 99) iii. The Wavell Plan was abandoned. (March 98) iv. The provisional government was established on September 2, 1946. v. On July 18, 1947, the British Parliament passed the Indian Independence Act. vi. The All Party Conference at Simla failed. vii. Indian National Congress found shortcomings in the Cabinet Mission Plan. viii. Muslim League created problems in the operations of Provisional government. ix. The Indian National Congress accepted the partition of India. (Oct. 01) 4. Write answer of the following in 5-6 sentences. i. Sate the provisions of the Mountbatten Plan. ii. State the features of the Indian Independence Act. (March 00) iii. Why did Muslim League plan to take “Direct Action”? iv. Sate the provisions of the Indian Independence Act. (March 2001) v. State the nature of Cabinet Mission Plan. vi. State the provisions of Wavell Plan. Why did it fail? Question : 5 Write the answer of following in 20 lines i. Give information about the Mountbatten Plan with the help of the points given below. 1) Transfer of power. 2) Division of the states. 3) Administration of the state. ii. Give an account of the Indian Independence Act with the help of the following points. 1) Background. 2) Provisions. (March 96; 97) 3) Celebrations of Independence. Other Important Examination Question 1A. Fill in the blanks i. Lord Wavell was Viceroy of India in ______. (1935, 1945, 1926) ii. _____ became the Prime Minister of Britain after Second World War. (Attlee, Churchill, Macdonald) iii. The Cabinet Mission included Lawrence, Alexander and ______. (Cripps, Wavell, Mountbatten) 1B. Match the followings i. Cripps Mission 1928 ii. Wavell Plan 1945 iii. Cabinet Mission 1946 1C Writing the following events in the ascending order sequence. i. Cripps Mission ii. Round Table Conference iii. Government of India Act 1935 iv. Quit India Movement v. Wavell Plan vi. Cabinet Mission Plan vii. Election of Constituent Assembly. (March 2001) viii. Mountbatten Plan. ix. Independence of India. 2. Write the answer of the following in 2-3 sentences. i. Why did Mahatma Gandhi launch Quit India Movement? ii. Why did the Wavell Plan fail? iii. What was Direct Action Day of Muslim League? 3. Give Reasons in two-three sentences. i. Wavell Plan was abandoned. ii. Congress participated in the elections to the Constituent Assembly. iii. Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru gave his speech popular as “Tryst with Destiny”. Question : 5 Write the answer of following in 20 lines 1. Write about ten important steps towards the independence of India. 2. State the features of Mountbatten Plan. (March 99) (Oct. 99) 3. What was the nature of Cabinet Mission Plan? (Oct. 98) 4. Describe the provisions of the Indian Independence Act. (March 00, Oct. 01)
  25. Chapter 12 Civil Disobedience Movement (V. Imp) 1. Background of Civil Disobedience Movement: - In 1928 session the Congress had given an ultimatum of one year to the government to accept the demand of the Congress for constitutional reforms. - In 1929, the British government had showed no respect to the demand of the Congress. - The Congress decided to intensify the mass movement. - The Congress entrusted all the powers to Mahatma Gandhi to decide the nature and time of the mass of movement. - Mahatma Gandhi decided to start a Civil Disobedience movement as the mass movement. 2. Civil Disobedience Movement: (Oct. 96; March 98; Oct. 98) a. Salt Satyagraha: - The British government had monopoly over the production of Salt and collected tax on salt. - Mahatma Gandhi decided to break the Salt law and launched the Salt Satyagraha. b. Why Salt? - The Salt was available in nature in abundance. - The British government had monopoly over the Salt and collected tax over its sale. - Salt was vital element used by every human being. - The consumption of salt does not vary with the increase in the prices because it is an essential item of food any person. - In case of increase of tax on salt, it badly effects the pocket of the poor people. - The breaking of salt law would have carried message to every section of the society. c. Events during the Dandi March: - Dandi was a sea beach of Gujarat. - Mahatma Gandhi started his Civil disobedience by a march with his followers from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi on March 12, 1930. - The motive of his march was to break salt law at Dandi. - On his way, he addressed people of numerous villages. - He asked the people to join the civil disobedience movement fearlessly. - His addresses spread far and wide and carried his message. - His call was well received by the people and they joined the civil disobedience in their own regions in different manners. - On April 5, 1930, Mahatma Gandhi reached Dandi after covering a distance of 385 kilometers. - On April 6, 1930, Mahatma Gandhi broke the salt law at Dandi. d. Salt Satyagraha at Other Places: - The Salt Satyagraha was launched on the beaches of Maharashtra, Bengal, Orissa, Gujarat and Madras. - In non-coastal regions, other laws were broken to launch Civil disobedience movement in those regions. e. Jungle Satyagraha: - In many regions, especially tribal population areas, the Jungle laws were broken to launch the Civil disobedience movement. - The Jungle laws were unjust acts which interfered in the traditional forest rights of many people and effected them economically. f. ‘No rent’ movement: - In Uttar Pardesh, Karnataka and Gujarat, people started no rent movement to launch the Civil disobedience movement. - Under no rent movement they refused to pay land revenue. g. British Oppression: - The police of British administration Lathi charged the Satygrahis at many places. - The police even opened fired on peaceful demonstrators. - Many Satyagrahis were arrested and prosecuted. h. Women Participants in the Satyagraha: - Women participated in Satyagraha and Civil disobedience movement in large numbers. - The leading names among the major participants were Sarojini Naidu, Kamaladevi Chatopaddhyaya, Kamala Nehru, Hemprabha Das and Sucheta Kripalani. i. Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan – Khuda-i-Khidmatgar: - Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan belonged to North West Frontier Province. - He organised a group called Khuda-I-Khidamtgar. - The members of Khuda-i-Khidamtgar wore red shirts. - Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan launched civil disobedience movement in North West Frontier Province. - Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan was also called Frontier Gandhi. - When British government asked its Gadhwal regiment to fire upon the followers of Gaffar Khan, they refused to fire saying that they would not fire upon their brothers. j. Evaluation of Civil Disobedience Movement: - Louis Fischer, an American journalist who had covered the Satyagraha had given his evaluation that if the Indian people stood up with the same fearlessness and self-respect, they would throw off the British colonial rule. - More than ninety thousand Satyagrahis went to jail during the civil disobedience movement. - Mahatma Gandhi was arrested on May 4, 1930. - The participation of the workers in national movement was remarkable. k. Protests of Mill Workers of Solapur and Mumbai: - On May 6, 1930, the mill workers of Solapur observed hartal in protest against the arrest of Mahatma Gandhi. - The mill workers also condemned the arrest of Mahatma Gandhi. - The mill workers of Mumbai also protested against the arrest of Mahatma Gandhi. - The collector of Solapur had even ordered fire on the protesting people. (March 2001) - The martial law was also imposed at many places. (March 2001) - The leaders like Malappa Dhanshetty, Srikrishna Sarada, Jagannath Shinde and Kurban Hussain were executed by the government. - In Mumbai, Babu Genu sacrificed his life by throwing himself under a truck carrying imported clothes during the boycott movement against the foreign clothes in Mumbai as a protest under civil disobedience movement. - The participation of workers was astounding. 3. A Step Forward: - The Civil Disobedience Movement was a step forward in the struggle against the British rule. a: Larger participation by rural and urban population: - The urban youth had participated in large numbers in the movement. - The peasants and urban workers had also participated in large numbers. - The employees and businessmen had also participated in large numbers. b: Larger participation by the women population of India. - The women from rural and urban centers had participated in large numbers. - It was biggest participation of women population of India in the freedom struggle of India. c: Bigger setback to economic interests of Britain in India: - The Civil disobedience movement gave bigger economical setback to British interests in India. - The import of clothes from Britain declined by 50%. - The collection of excise on liquor declines steeply. d: A decisive Movement: - The Civil disobedience Movement had decided one thing that the freedom of India was the foregone conclusion. It was now only the question that when would that Independence be achieved. - It was decisive because people from all the strata of the society participated in the movement. - Mahatma Gandhi achieved a remarkable milestone by spreading the consciousness for national freedom to the peasants, tribes and women which had made the movement a true national movement. 4. The First Round Table Conference 1930: - Ramsay Macdonald, the Prime Minister of England convened the First Round Table Congress to discuss the new political reforms in 1930. - At the time, when the first Round Table Conference was convened, the Civil disobedience was active and most of the Congress leaders were behind the bars. - The Muslim League, leaders of various parties and the representatives of Princely states attended the First Round Table Conference. - Only the Congress did not participate in the Conference. - The Conference failed to reach a consensus because of the absence of Congress. - Governor-General realised that nothing fruitful would come out without the participation of Congress. Therefore, he started a dialogue with Mahatma Gandhi. 5. Gandhi-Irwin Pact: (Oct. 99)(Imp.) - Mahatma Gandhi and Irwin, the Governor-General of India reached a settlement in 1931 which is famous as Gandhi-Irwin Pact. - As per the terms of the pact, the Congress accepted to suspend the Civil Disobedience Movement. - The Congress also accepted to participate in the second Round Table Conference as per the pact. - The government also released all the Satyagrahis to make the atmosphere conducive for the dialogues in the Conference. - The government also allowed the people of coasts to manufacture the salt. 5a. Karachi Session of March 1931: - Karachi Session of Congress was held on March 29, 1931. - In the session, Gandhi-Irwin pat was accepted. - The session empowered Mahatma Gandhi to participated in the Second Round Table Conference as the single representative of the Congress. - The Congress all declared by a resolution that the complete independence was the sole objective of their movement. - Karachi Session is also historic because during this session the Fundamental Rights and national economic programme were adopted for the future India. 6. The Second Round Table Conference: - Mahatma Gandhi left India on August 15, 1931 for England to participate in the Second Round Table Conference. - Mahatma Gandhi clearly put forward the only demand of complete independence of India in the conference. - He demanded immediate grant of dominion status to India as a surety for the complete Independence to India in near future. a: Hurdles during the Second Round Table Conference: - There was no consensus on the issue of minority representation in the Conference. - Each group was demanding separate electorate and special rights. - The British government showed inclination to accept the demands like separate electorate which was actually aimed at dividing the Indian nation. - The British government straightway refused to accept the demand of the Congress for the complete independence. - Mahatma Gandhi was highly disappointed with the attitude of the British government and left for India without getting any fruitful results. - Mahatma Gandhi returned to India empty handed in December 1931. b: Repression Under Lord Wellington: - During the course of the Second Round Table Conference, Lord Wellington took over as the Viceroy of India. - He unleashed a policy of repression in India. - He banned Congress and its affiliates. - When Mahatma Gandhi reached India he was arrested in January 1932. - The workers of Congress party were also put behind the bars. 7. The Communal Award 1932 – Third Round Table Conference: (Oct. 97)(Imp.) - The Indian National Congress did not participate in the Third Round Table Conference. - There was again no consensus on the issue of representation to the communities. - Prime Minister of England, Ramsay Macdonald tried to resolve the issue by imposing his own plan which is called the Communal Award. a: Communal Award – A plan of Ramsay Macdonald at the Third Round Table Conference: - Communal Award was a plan of Ramsay Macdonald proposed in the Third Round Table Conference on the issue of separate representations to the communities. - According to this plan, Muslims, Christians and Sikhs were given separate electorates. - The seats were reserved for the minority communities in the Legislature. - Dalits were recognised as a separate community and for the first time seats were reserved for them in the Legislature. b: Poona Pact 1932: (Oct. 96; Oct. 99; March 99)(Imp.) b1: Causes of Poona Pact: - Mahatma Gandhi was in Yerawada Jail when the Communal Award was given in the Third Round Table Conference. - Mahatma Gandhi went on a fast on September 20, 1932 as a protest against the granting of separate electorates for the Dalits. - Babasaheb Ambedkar had represented the Dalits to the Third Round Table Conference. - The leaders of the Congress approached Babasaheb Ambedkar to reconsider the demand for separate electorates. - Babasaheb Ambedkar considered it in the national interest to decline the offer of the British and made compromise with the Congress on the issue of separate electorate. - On September 25, 1932, Poona Pact was signed between Gandhiji and Dr. Ambedkar. b2: Terms of Poona Pact: - The separate electorate for Dalits was cancelled. - 148 seats were reserved for the Dalits in the quota of general seats. - British government recognised to the terms of Poona Pact. b3: End of Civil Disobedience Movement: - Mahatma Gandhi was released after the Poona Pact on the health grounds. - The Civil Disobedience Movement was withdrawn. 8. Indian National Congress, Other Socialist groups and the Socialist Ideology: a: Causes of the rise of Social Ideology: - The Indian youth was influenced by the philosophical currents of Europe. - India was an industrially a backward country but made to suffer all the adverse effects of European industrial advance. - Apart from the social and economic adverse effects due to European industrial advance, India also suffered social inequality because of its own traditional social structure. - It was further suffering economic inequality and exploitation due to British economic policies. - The social and economic inequality coupled with the attractiveness of the social philosophies of Europe, the Indian youth was attracted towards the socialist ideology. b: Indian Youth and Socialism: - Most of the young leaders of India wanted to give a socialist direction to the Indian independence movement. - The leading young leaders in favour of socialist ideology were Jwahar Lal Nehru, Subhash Chandra Bose, Acharya Narendra Dev and Jay Prakash Narayan. - They influenced the Congress to work for the improvement of the conditions of the working class and to get requited acts passed. - The inclusion of the Fundamental Rights and Economic policies in the manifesto of the Congress during Karachi Session of 1932 was mainly a work of Jwahar Lal Nehru. - Other important leaders with the socialist inclination were Achyutrao Patwardhan, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia, Yusuf Meheralli, N. G. Gore and S. M. Joshi. c: Congress Socialist Party: - In 1934, the Congress Socialist Party was formed within the Indian National Congress. - The Congress Socialist Party was formed due to the efforts of Acharya Narendra Dev, Jay Parkash Narayan and Dr. Lohia. - This party mainly worked for the peasants. d: Other Parties dominated by Socialist Ideology: - Communist Party under the leadership of Comrade Dange also favoured a socialist direction to the independence movement of India. - Radical Humanist Party of Manvendra Nath Roy also favoured a socialist agenda for the future independent India. - The Leftist Parties played a major role in leaving a great influence of socialist ideology on the mind of the Indian youth of earlier 20th century. - As a result of Congress Socialist Party and the Leftist parties, the national independence movement was influenced by the socialist thought. e: Contribution of the Socialist Ideology to the National Movement: - The issues like the agricultural labourers, socialist economy, equitable distribution of wealth, communization of means of production etc became important issue even before the independence of India. - The issues raised by the socialist ideology became the inseparable part of the manifesto of the Indian National Congress and played a major role in deciding the policies of the Independent India. 9. Dalit Movement: - The main objective of the Dalit Movement was a establish a society in India based on social equality. - Mahatma Phule was the first Dalit leader who started the Dalit Movement. a: Role of Mahatma Phule:(Imp.) (Oct. 97) - Mahatma Phule wanted to create a society based on equality. - He worked for the improvement of the conditions of Dalits and the weaker sections of the society. - He criticized the Brahmin class and elite classes for exploiting and oppressing the Dalits and other weaker sections of the society. - He strongly condemned the caste system. - He preached in his book, ‘Sarvajanik Satyadharma’ that every individual should stand against the social evils of ritualism, casteism, superstitions and all the social inequalities. - He gave more stress on education as a factor in improving the conditions of individual. - He was the first reformer to open schools for the Dalit girls and boys. - He also convinced the government to open schools for the Dalits. - He established his organization ‘Satyashodhak Samaj’ in 1873. Through his organisation he brought social reforms and social consciousness. - Through his organisation and life time works he gave direction to the Dalit Movement in India. - Dr. Ambedkar respected him as his guru. b: Dalit Reformers of different provinces: - In Tamil Nadu, Nadar Mahajan Sangh was established in 1910. - A political organisation for the Dalit section of Tamil Nadu was established in 1915-16 in Tamil Nadu. - C. N. Mudaliar, T. N. Nair, and Tyagaraja Reddy were chief founders of the Dalit movement in Tamil Nadu and Justice Party. - Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar gave a revolutionary character to Dalit movement in Maharashtra. 10. Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar and the Dalit Movement: a: Ambedkar’s view on Dalit upliftment and main contribution: - Dr. Ambedkar believed that the day the oppressed classes decided to overthrow their slavery, for them the slavery would end. - He had given a revolutionary character to the Dalit Movement to obtain from them the same social rights that were enjoyed by the other sections of the society. - He was able to bring before the people the social problems of Dalits. - He prepared the Dalits to launch agitation for securing their social, religious and political rights. - He believed that the Untouchability was perpetuating because the Dalits were helping it to continue by tolerating it. - He strongly condemned the Dharmashastras and traditions which perpetuated Untouchability. b. Main Activities of Dr. Ambedkar for Dalit Movement: b1: Mahad Satyagraha: - Mahad Satyagraha was launched in Raigad district of Maharashtra. - It was launched to establish the right of Dalits to obtain water from Chavdar Lake in Mahad on the right of equality of humans. - It was launched on March 20, 1927. - During the Satyagraha, Dr. Ambedkar brought before the world the inhuman injustice done to the Dalits. - He advised the British government that it was the duty of the government to protect the rights granted to Dalits by law. b2: Burning of Manusmriti: - On December 25, 1927, Dr. Ambedkar burnt Manusamriti. - Dr. Ambedkar considered Manusamriti responsible for the social inequality and the downtrodden conditions of the Dalits. b3: Issue of Temple Entry: - The restriction of the Dalits to enter the temples was another method of perpetuating the social inequality. - Dr. Ambedkar used Satyagraha against the restriction on the entry of Dalits in the temples to establish their right to equality in the society. - On March 2, 1930, Dr. Ambedkar and his followers offered Satyagraha for entry into Kala Ram Temple at Nashik. - They used Temple Satyagraha to launch a wider agitation to raise awareness among the Dalits about their rights and inspire them to achieve their right to equality in the society. - The temple Satyagraha was withdrawn after achieving success in getting entry in the temple. b4: Issue of Political Rights: - Dr. Ambedkar also gave significant important to political rights of the Dalits. - He sought the right to franchise, representation in the legislature, participation the administration etc for the Dalits. - He achieved a considerable success in securing the political rights for the Dalits by Poona Pact of 1932. b5: Associations founded by Dr. Ambedkar: - Dr. Ambedkar founded the Independent Labour Party in August 1936. - The aim of the Independent Labour Party was to solve the problems of the workers and peasants. - Dr. Ambedkar founded Bharatiya Bahishkrit Shikshan Prasarak Mandal. - The aim of Bharatiya Bahishkrit Shikshan Prasarak Mandal was spread education among the Dalits. - He established the Scheduled Caste Federation to work in the social and political field. b6: Importance of Education as per Dr. Ambedkar: - Dr. Ambedkar founded Bharatiya Bahishkrit Shikshan Prasarak Mandal for spreading education among the Dalits. - Dr. Ambedkar considered education important for developing self confidence among the Dalits and for promoting their welfare. - He himself founded educational institutions in Mumbai, Aurangabad and other places. - The main message to Dalits on education was ‘Learn, organise and agitate’. - He gave maximum importance to three principles of self respect, self reliance and self upliftment which for him could be achieved through education along with political rights. b7: Journals of Dr. Ambedkar: - Dr. Ambedkar founded journals like Mook Nayak, Bahiskrut Bharat and Janata. - He used the journals to spread the social awakening and spread his message. b8: Inclinations of Dr. Ambedkar: - Dr. Ambedkar denounced Hinduism because it discriminatory attitude towards the lower classes. - On October 14, 1956, he adopted Buddhism. b9: Achievements of Dr. Ambedkar: - Dr. Ambedkar obtained political and social rights for the Dalits. - The major achievement of Dr. Ambedkar was that he succeeded in getting an identity and self respect for the Dalits. - He adopted the means of constitutional movements and self reliance among the weaker section. - Through his movement for Dalits, he made the upper classes to introspect and think about the social inequality. - He even allowed the upper caste people to join him who were against untouchibility and who had sympathy for the Dalits. - The main achievement was that he established harmony in the demands of the Dalits and the society. 11. Movements in the Princely States and the Freedom Struggle: a: Princely States: - The British had established full control over whole of India by 1848. - There were some territories which were under the Indian rulers and not under the British rule. - Such rulers within India were forced to accept the British rule. - The British divided the territories under their direct control into provinces. - The territories which were under the control of Indian rulers but they were under the dominance of the British rule were called the princely states. b: Pitiable conditions of people of Princely states: - The people under the British provinces were given some political rights and participation in the administration after the Acts of 1919 and 1935. - The people under the Princely States did not have the rights equal to the rights enjoyed by the British provinces. - The rulers of princely states had imposed a number of restrictions on the rights of their subjects. c: The National Movement in Princely States: - The national movement in princely states started after 1920 after the non-cooperation movement which had taken place in the British provinces only. - Under the national movement, the subjects of the princely states established people’s organisation. - The people’s organisation started by the people of princely states for the national movement were called ‘Praja Mandals’ or ‘Praja Parishads’. The national movement in the princely states are also called Praja Mandal movements. d: Nature of the Praja Mandal Movements: - The people of Praja Mandal fought against the Feudalism and colonialism. - The people of Praja Mandal movement fought against their feudal princes and the British administration simultaneously for their rights. - The main demand of the Praja Mandal movements was the democratic rights. e: Activities of Praja Mandal Movements: - The people of the Praja Mandal Movements implemented the constructive programmes of the Indian National Movement in their princely states. - They established schools, used khadi, encouraged cottage industries and started agitation against the Untouchability. f: The National Movement Associations in Princely States: f1: The Hitvardhak Sabha - The Hitvardhak Sabha was founded in Poona in May 1921. - The aim of this association was to solve the problems of the people of southern princely states. f2: Akhil Bhor Sansthan Praja Sabha: - Wamanrao Patwardhan founded Akhil Bhor Sansthan Praja Sabha in Bhor region in November 1921. - The aim of this Sabha was to fight for the problems related to people of Bhor region. f3: All India Association of the People’s Council: - In the Bombay session of All India Association of the People’s Council in 1927, the princely states national movement was made a national level movement. - The Bombay session of the Council demanded the responsible government and rights of citizenship for the people of Princely States. - The Madras Session of Congress also adopted the demands of Bombay session of All India Association of People’s Council. - In the Karachi Session of the Council in 1936, the Council rejected the clause of the 1935 Act wherein the nomination of Princes of the Princely states to the Imperial Legislature was allowed. - The Karachi Session of the Council demanded that the right of election of representative should rest with the subjects of the princely states. - The Council and other people’s movement also struggled for the farmers loans, taxes etc in the princely states. g: The Liberal Prince of Aundh: - Balasaheb Pant Pratinidhi, the ruler of Aundh was a liberal ruler. - He formed a Representatives’ Council. - He allowed 50% representation to the people of his state to the Council. - In 1926, he allowed the power to legislate and to pass resolutions to the Council. - In 1929, he declared the subjects of his states would get the right of self rule within next five years. - He also formed a committee to frame a constitution of the modern political principles. - His work was highly appreciated by the All India Association of People’s Council. h: Merging of State’s Movement with the National Movement. - The Indian National Congress joined hands with the People’s Council and made it a part of national movement. - They worked with the aim of ending the British rule in India and integrating the princely states with India. - As a result of the merging of the People’s movement with the national movement, the princely states integrated with the independent India after 1947. - The important People’s movement were launched in Manipur, Travancore, Mysore and Rajkot. - The movement for integration with India in Hyderabad was the most aggressive movement. 12. Freedom Struggle in the State of Hyderabad: a: The State of Hyderabad: - The State of Hyderabad was the largest princely states of India in terms of population and territory. - The ruler of the State of Hyderabad was called the Nizam of Hyderabad. - The State of Hyderabad included the Marathwada, parts of Andhra Pardesh and Karnatak. - The Nizam of Hyderabad was highly supported and helped by the British administration. b: Non-cooperation Movement and the State of Hyderabad: - The Non-cooperation Movement also influenced the State of Hyderabad. - The Nizam of Hyderabad crushed the non-cooperation movement and Khilafat movement in Hyderabad. c: People’s Councils in the State of Hyderabad: - In 1921, Andhara Sabha in Andhra Pradesh and Karnatak Council in Karnatak were founded. - In 1937, Maharashtra Council in Marathwada was founded. - The aim of such councils was to work in the social and the cultural spheres. - These councils demanded responsible political system, expansion of private schools and vernacular education. - These councils placed before the country the problems of the people inspite of the restrictions in the State of Hyderabad. d: Role of Marathi Press: - The Marathi press played an important role in spreading the political consciousness among the people of the State of Hyderabad. - A. K. Waghmare played a major role in activities of the Marathi press inspite of the all the restrictions imposed by the State of Hyderabad. e: The Rise of Hyderabad State Congress: - The Hyderabad State Congress was founded in the State of Hyderabad in September 1938. - The arrival of the State Congress started the first phase of the political struggle in the State of Hyderabad. - The leaders of the State Congress declared the party as a secular, national and open to all the castes and tribes. - The party declared the aim of communal harmony and unity as its objective. f: Reaction of Nizam of Hyderabad towards the State Congress: (March 00) - The Nizam of Hyderabad felt a threat from the Hyderabad State Congress. - He banned the State Congress. - In October 1938, Swami Ramanand Tirath launched a Satyagraha against the ban on the State Congress. - Arya Samaj and Hindu Maha Sabha also launched a Satyagraha at the same time for their own demands in the state of Hyderabad. - Nizam of Hyderabad was thus forced to introduce some reforms but he did not raise the ban. - Finally in 1940, the State Congress launched the individual Satyagraha against the ban. g: Repressive Policies of the State of Hyderabad and the Freedom Struggle: (March 00) - The State of Hyderabad had imposed ban on the National Song ‘Vande Mataram’. - However, the students took lead to make it a song of national freedom movement inspite of the ban. Nizam was not able to stop them. - The students of the Government College of Aruangabad were main activists in spreading the song of Vande Mataram. - Later the student movement was merged with the national movement and freedom struggle in the State of Hyderabad became strong. - Govindbhai Shroff played an important role in making the freedom movement strong in Hyderabad after it had acquired momentum due to the activities of the student. h: Hyderabad Sate Congress and Quit India Movement of 1942: (March 96) - When the Quit India Movement of 1942 started by the Indian National Congress, the Hyderabad State Congress itself as a part of the movement. - In August 1942 it placed following demands before the Nizam of Hyderabad: i. Responsible government under the Nizam. ii. Integration of the State of Hyderabad with Independent India. iii. Grant of Civil Rights to the people of the State of Hyderabad iv. Removal of ban on the Hyderabad State Congress in Hyderabad. - The State Congress organised a massive Satyagraha in the State of Hyderabad. - Many arrests were made. - In 1946, All India Association of People’s Council also demanded from the Nizam to revoke the ban on the Hyderabad State Congress. - By the end of the Second World War, the conditions that emerged, made the situation of the Nizam of Hyderabad very difficult. - Finally n July 1946, the Nizam raised the ban from the Hyderabad State Congress. 13. The Movement for Integration of Hyderabad with Independent India: a. India Became Independent: - In 1947, India was declared independent. - The Princely States were allowed the option to remain independent or to join with India. - The Nizam decided to remain independent. b: State Congress decided to merge with India: - The Hyderabad State Congress did not accept the decision of the Nizam of Hyderabad. - The people of Hyderabad also wanted to join the Indian federation. - The Congress decided to observe August 7, 1947, as the day of merger. - The people and the State Congress faced the attack of Razakar. c: Terrorism of Razakar: (March 00) - The decision of the Nizam to remain independent was supported by a communal organisation called ‘Ittehadul Musalmina’. - The leader of Ittehadul Musalmina was Kasim Razavi. - Kasim Razavi was known as Razakar. - Razakar raised a fundamentalist armed organisation when the State Congress raised the demand of merger with India. - The army of Razakar started terrorizing the people in the villages. - Nizam supported the activities of Razakar and his organisations. - Govindrao Pansare of Nanded district was killed in the attacks of Razakar. - Shoebulla Khan a journalist was also killed by Razakar. d: People of Hyderabad celebrated August 15, 1947: - Inspite of the terrorism of Razakar and oppression of Nizam, the people of Hyderabad continued the agitation for merger with India. - They established armed camps to encounter the attacks of Razakar. - Digambarrao Bindu and Dr. Melkote headed the movement of merger. - Swami Ramanand Tirtha was in prison. - The people celebrated the independence of India on August 15, 1947, without caring for the repression by the Nizam of Hyderabad. Facts and Figures to Remember 1. Background of Civil Disobedience Movement: Ultimatum of one year for constitutional reforms in Congress Session of 1928; Mahatma Gandhi was given the leadership to lead a mass movement. 2. Civil Disobedience Movement: Started in form of Salt Satyagraha, Dandi March – March 12, 1930 to April 5, 1930 and breaking of Salt law on April 6, 1930 at Dandi by Mahatma Gandhi, Satyagraha in Maharashtra, Bengal, Orissa, Gujarat and Chennai by breaking Salt laws, Satyagraha by breaking Jungle laws, Satyagraha by ‘no- rent’ movement in Uttar Pardesh, Karnataka and Gujarat, Participation of Women, Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan and his Khuda-i-Khidmatgar, Satyagraha protest of Mill workers of Solapur and Mumbai and British started oppression by arresting peaceful Satyagrahis. 3. A Step Forward: Whole of India in Urban and rural area participated, youth, mill workers and peasants participated, women participated, British economic interests were substantially harmed by the movement, and finally it was decided finally by the movement that the struggle was for the complete independence and all the section of Indian society had one view on it. 4. The First Round Table Conference 1930: Ramsay Macdonald, the Prime Minster of England called in London in 1930. All other political parties except Congress participated. Congress was running the Civil Disobedience movement at that time. 5. Gandhi-Irwin Pact: The pact was signed in 1931 to bring Congress to the Second Round Table Conference. Congress suspended the Civil Disobedience Movement and the British Government released the Satyagrahis. 5a. Karachi Session of March 1931: It approved the Gandhi-Irwin Pact and allowed Mahatma Gandhi to participate in the Conference with sole demand of complete independence. The session also accepted the Fundamental Rights and national Economic programme. 6. The Second Round Table Conference: Mahatma Gandhi left India on August 15, 1931 for the Conference. Mahatma Gandhi demanded full independence for India but British did not want to accept this demand. Mahatma Gandhi returned empty handed. Viceroy Wellington unleashed a policy of repression in India. 7. The Communal Award 1932 – Third Round Table Conference: Prime Minister of England, Ramsay Macdonald issued Communal Award to settle issue of representation of the communities. It was his plan to divide the country on the bases of religious communities of India. 7b. Poona Pact: Babasaheb Ambedkar declined the Communal Award in the national interest and made compromise with the Congress on the issue of separate electorate. On September 25, 1932, Poona Pact was signed between Gandhiji and Dr. Ambedkar. After this Civil Disobedience movement was withdrawn. 8. Indian national Congress, Other Socialist Groups and the Socialist Ideology: Social philosophy of Europe influenced the thought of Indian youth. Jwahar Lal Nehru, Subhash Chandra Bose, Acharya Narendra Dev and Jay Prakash Narayan were among them. They brought Fundamental Rights and Economic policies on the manifesto of the Congress (Karachi Session 1932). Congress Socialist party was formed in 1934. Dange lead Communist Party of India, Manvendra Nath Roy (M. N. Roy) headed Radical Humanist Party. Socialist thoughts planned a socialist India of future and brought the problems of agricultural labourers, socialist economy etc on the national level even during the freedom struggle. 9. Dalit Movement: This movement wanted to establish an Indian society based on social equality. Mahatma Phule was its first leader. Nadar Mahajan Sangh formed by Mudaliar, T. N. Nair and T. Reddy lead this movement in Tamil Nadu. Babasaheb Ambedkar gave this movement a revolutionary character. 10. Dr. Ambedkar and Dalit Movement: Organised Dalits for securing social, religious and political rights. By Mahad Satyagraha, he obtained the right to obtain water from Chavdar Lake (March 20, 1927) December 25, 1927, burnt Manusamriti. On March 2, 1930 secured entury to Kala Ram Temple at Nashik through Satyagraha. Sought right to franchise, representation in the legislature, participation the administration etc for the Dalits. Independent Labour Party (1936), Bhartatiya Bahiskrit Shikshan Prasarak Mandal and Scheduled Caste Federation were major organisation started by Babasaheb Ambedkar for uplift of Dalits. Learn, organise and agitate for self respect, self reliance and self upliftment (The three principles) were shown as means to be acquired from education. Mook Nayak, Bahiskrut Bharat and Janata were the main journals of Dr. Ambedkar. Adopted Buddhism in 1956. 11. Movements in the Princely States and the Freedom Struggle: The Indian territories under the Indian rulers but indirectly under the control of the British administration were called Princely states. The National movement in such states started in 1920. The subjects of Princely state organised Praja Mandals and Praja Parishads for organising the national movement. By the establishement of All Indian Association of the people’s Council in 1927, Praja Mandal movement became a national level movement. Congress gave recognition to Princely states movement at Madras Session. They fully joined with Congress activity to achieve the independence for India. 12. Freedom Struggle in the State of Hyderabad: State of Hyderabad was the largest Princely state and strongly supported the British administration. Non-cooperation Movement and Khilafat movement were organised in Hyderabad also. People’s councils were organised for the upliftment of the people of the Hyderabad. In 1938, Hyderabad State Congress was founded and given recognition by the Indian National Congress. People of Hyderabad participated in Quit India movement of 1942. All through their nationalist activities, the people of Hyderabad faced the repression of Nizam of Hyderabad. 13. The Movement for Integration of Hyderabad with Independent India: When India got independence in 1947, the Hyderabad State Congress decided to merge with India but Nizam wanted to remain independent. They faced the repression at the hands of Nizam and his supporters called Razakar. Exercise Text Book and Question Bank Questions 1A. Fill in the blanks i. Acharay Narendra Dev, Jayprakash Narayan and Dr. Lohia within the Congress formed the Congress _____ Party in 1934. (Socialist, Communist, Humanist) ii. The Congress Session held at ___ in 1931, accepted the Gandhi-Irwin Pact in 1931. (Karachi, Allahabad, Mumbai) iii. In Maharashtra at _______ Martial Law was invoked by the collector. (Solapur, Satara, Pune). (Oct. 96; Oct. 98; March 97; March 99; 00) iv. Gandhiji broke the Salt Act at _______ on April 6, 1930. (Dandi, Dharasana Salt factory, Sabarmati) (Oct. 01) 1B. Match the followings a. i. Mahatma Jotiba Phule Satyashodhak Samaj. ii. Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Independent Labour Party iii. The Frontier Mahatma Gandhi Khuda-i-Khidmatgar iv. Babu Genu Justice Party The boycott movement against imported cloth. 1C Writing the following events in chronological order. i. Pune Pact ii. Formation of the Congress Socialist Party iii. The establishment of Hyderabad State Congress iv. Mahad Satyagraha. 2. Write the answer of the following in 2-3 sentences. i. Why was the issue of Salt was made the centre of civil disobedience movement by Gandhiji? ii. Why was Gandhi-Irwin Pact signed? (Oct. 99) iii. How did Dr. Ambedkar establish the right of Dalits to use water from public water sources? iv. What were the principal demands of the Hyderabad State Congress in 1942? (March 96) v. Who declared the Communal Award? What was its main purpose? (Oct. 97) 3. Give Reasons in two-three sentences. i. The Nizam was forced to merge the Hyderabad State in the Indian union. ii. Completely disillusioned, Gandhiji returned to India from the Second Round Table Conference. (March 97) iii. Mahatma Phule is known as the champion of the Dalit movement. (Oct. 97) iv. Dr. Ambedkar paid special attention to the education for the Dalits. v. Martial Law was imposed in Solapur on May 6, 1930. vi. The Salt Satyagraha received the overwhelming support of the masses. vii. Mahatma Phule opened schools for Dalit girls and boys. viii. The first Round Table conference failed. ix. Gandhiji decided to break the Salt Act. x. Mahatma Phule founded the ‘Satyashodhak Samaj’. xi. Gandhiji was disappointed after the Second Round Table Conference. xii. In 1934, within the Congress, the Congress Socialist Party was formed. xiii. The Nizam imposed a ban on the State Congress. xiv. In 1946, the Nizam revoke the ban on the Hyderabad State Congress. xv. Dr. Ambedkar established the Bhartiya Bahishkrit Shikshan Prasarak Mandal. xvi. Gandhiji started fast at Yerawada Jail. xvii. Gandhiji chose salt for the Civil Disobedience Movement. xviii. The Pune Pact was signed between Gandhiji and Dr. Ambedkar. (Oct. 96; 97; March 99, 00) xix. Pune Pact was signed in 1932. xx. Dr. Ambedkar struggled hard to get social rights for the Dalits. xxi. The leaders of the national Congress requested Dr. Ambedkar to reconsider the reservation issue. xxii. What were the steps taken by the Indian Government to solve the problem of the integration of Princely States? (March 2001) xxiii. Martial Law was imposed in Solapur. (March 2001) 4. Write answer of the following in 5-6 sentences. i. What demands were put forward by Hyderabad State Congress to the Nizam in 1942? Question : 5 Write the answer of following in 20 lines i. Give an account of Civil Disobedience Movement with the help of the following points. Oct. 96; 98; March 98) 1) Salt Satyagraha. 2) Movement in the North-West Frontier Province. 3) Importance of the Movement. ii. Give an account of Civil Disobedience Movement with the help of the following points. 1) Nature of the Movement. 2) Effects of the Movement. 3) Leadership. iii. Give an account of the Communal Award with the help of the following points. 1) Declaration of the Communal Award. 2) The provisions of the Award. 3) Gandhiji’s reaction to the Award. iv. Explain the merger of Hyderabad with India with the help of the following points: 1) The Role of Nizam 2) The Role of Razakar 3) Police Action
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