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Piedras Negras (black stones, from the coal once mined there)

"Jane McManus Storm Cazneau was a complex person who died at sea the way she lived--at the center of a storm of controversy. Whether as Aaron Burr's mistress, land speculating in Texas, behind enemy lines during the Mexican War, filibustering for Cuba or Nicaragua, promoting Mexican revolution from a dugout in Eagle Pass, or urging free blacks to emigrate to the Dominican Republic, Cazneau seldom took the easy path. As a journalist, an advisor to national political figures, and publicist, she helped shape United States domestic and foreign policy from the mid-1840s into the 1870s. Cazneau's most unique contribution was as a staff member for John L. O'Sullivan, editor of the United States Magazine and Democratic Review, where she described the mission of the United States as "Manifest Destiny," thereby coining one of the most significant and influential phrases in American political history. Cazneau was dedicated to the expansion of republican government."

"Upon returning to the states she championed the "All Mexico" movement. Between 1847 and her death she also promoted United States annexation of Cuba, United States commercial penetration of the Dominican Republic, American Filibuster William Walker's conquest of Nicaragua, United States control of transit routes across the Mexican and Nicaraguan isthmuses, and other variants of "Manifest Destiny." She resided for much of the 1850s in the Dominican Republic, where her husband was serving as United States secret agent and commissioner, diplomatic missions which she helped initiate. It is difficult to separate ideology from self-interest when it comes to her expansionist advocacy; she and her husband made substantial investments that promised profit if the United States government implemented her policies."

Lt. Zebulon Pike's Diary: New Mexico, Chihuahua & Texas

"He crossed into the current state of Texas on the Old Spanish Trail between current Eagle Pass and Laredo at Presidio Rio Grande (now Presidio Salto) near the falls of the Rio Grande, Las Isletas..."

"...his penetration and test of Spanish security was intentional which was in large part the official Spanish view at the time. Because he was well-treated by the Spanish authorities as a "guest" and entirely cooperative to provide them new information about his experiences, others suspect him of alliance with various conspiracies of the time including those of Gen. James Wilkinson and Aaron Burr, who had plans for an independent Republic comprised of Mexico and the western states east of the Mississippi River with New Orleans its capital."

Aaron Burr: Conspirator.

The Treason Trial of Aaron Burr

by Doug Linder (2001)

"Never has an American trial produced such an impressive set of key players:

the defendant-- Aaron Burr, founding father, Vice President, and slayer of Alexander Hamilton in their famous duel three years earlier;

the trial judge--John Marshall, Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court (and the most important justice in history);

the force behind the prosecution--Thomas Jefferson, author of the Declaration of Independence and president of the United States;

defense attorneys--Edmund Randolph and Luther Martin, both delegates to the Constitutional Convention and among the most prominent men of the day; prosecutors-- Charles Lee, former Attorney General, and William Wirt, future presidential candidate.

The high-stakes treason trial of Aaron Burr came at an unstable time, both in Europe and in America. The American and French revolutions worried traditional European powers, Great Britain and Spain, who were determined to keep the radical new doctrine from undermining the power of their royalty. Meanwhile, Napoleon's empire-building produced sustained military conflict on the Continent.

The United States seemed on the verge of a war with Spain, even as the Administration struggled to preserve neutrality. Americans west of the Alleghenies rejoiced in President Jefferson's acquisition of the Louisiana Territory, but boundary disputes and Spanish prohibitions on Louisiana residents' entry into Nueva Espana created resentment and threats of reprisal. The Viceroy of Mexico, allied generally with western Indians, sent troops to the Sabine River to protect the Spanish frontier from invasion by United States citizens. Most Westerners saw Spain as tyrannical and viewed Texas and Florida as a rightful part of the United States. Many of these same Westerners expressed a willingness to take Spanish territory by force. Meanwhile, Spain also worried about the designs of residents of its own dominion (especially Mexico), recognizing that the unprivileged masses had grown resentful of Spanish authority.

The Burr Conspiracy

In this troubled time, the end of President Jefferson's first term, Aaron Burr stepped down from the Vice Presidency, and began preparations for a military expedition that was either-- depending upon whose views one solicited--treasonous or patriotic. At its core, however, the Burr Conspiracy clearly was about conquest and adventure.

The Burr Conspiracy had its origins in a series of discussions over the winter of 1804-05 between Burr and his longstanding friend, General James Wilkinson. The two served together in the Quebec campaign of 1775-76. Over the years they often corresponded in a cipher invented by Wilkinson. Wilkinson was an intriguer of the first-order who had formerly been the head of a party in the West that favored a separation of the western states from the Atlantic states.

Burr left Washington for a tour of the West in March of 1805. His first stop was in Philadelphia, where he met with Anthony Merry, the British Minister to the United States. Merry reported details of his conversation in a letter to London:

"I am encouraged to report to your Lordship the substance of some secret communications which [burr] has sought to make to me since he has been out of office...Mr. Burr has mentioned to me that the inhabitants of Louisiana [the lands recently purchased from France] seem determined to render themselves independent of the United States and the execution of their design is only delayed by the difficulty of obtaining previously an assurance of protection and assistance from some foreign power....It is clear that Mr. Burr means to endeavor to be the instrument for effecting such a connection....He pointed out the great commercial advantage which his Majesty's dominions in general would derive from furnishing almost exclusively (as they might through Canada and New Orleans) the inhabitants of so extensive a territory....Mr. Burr observed it would be too dangerous and even premature to disclose to me at present the full extent and detail of the plan he had formed....In regard to military aid, he said, two or three frigates and the same number of smaller vessels to be stationed at the mouth of the Mississippi to prevent its being blockaded by such force as the United States could send, and to keep open the communications with the sea would be the whole that would be wanted; and in respect to money the loan of about one hundred thousand pounds would, he conceived, be sufficient for the immediate purposes of the enterprise."

On April 29, 1805, Burr reached Pittsburgh, where he planned to meet with General Wilkinson, the new Governor of the just-organized Louisiana Territory. But Wilkinson had been delayed, so Burr left a letter for him and set off down the Ohio River in a specially-prepared boat (called by Burr his "ark").

In early May, Burr reached Blennerhassett's Island, a three-hundred acre piece of land in the river. The island belonged to an Irish gentleman named Harman Blennerhassett. Blennerhassett invited Burr to dinner. The conversation that ensued--lasting until eleven o'clock in the evening--would forever link Blennerhassett's Island with the Burr Conspiracy. The precise nature of the plans discussed over dinner is not known, but some inkling may be gleaned from a letter sent by Blennerhassett later that year to Burr:

"I should be honored in being associated with you, in any contemplated enterprise you would permit me to participate in....Viewing the probability of a rupture with Spain,...I am disposed, in the confidential spirit of this letter, to offer you and my friends' and my own services in any contemplated measures in which you may embark."

Continuing down the river, Burr met with others who would later be connected with his conspiracy. In Cincinnati, Burr visited with his friend, former Ohio Senator Jonathan Dayton, later indicted with Burr for treason. Burr left his "ark" in Louisville to travel overland to Nashville, where he received a very enthusiastic welcome of dinners and balls from the local population. In Nashville, Burr stayed as the guest of General Andrew Jackson. After resuming his river voyage, Burr finally met General Wilkinson at Fort Massac. (Wilkinson would later describe his conversations with Burr as perfectly legitimate, but there is strong suspicion that this opportunity was used to detail plans for Burr's western aggression.) Wilkinson provided Burr with "an elegant barge, sails, colors, ten oars, with a sergeant and ten able, faithful hands," as well as a letter of introduction to friends in New Orleans, Burr's ultimate destination.

Burr loved New Orleans enough to want to settle there, he said, "were it not for [his daughter] Theodosia and her boy." He used his time in New Orleans to gauge public opinion concerning Mexico and to discuss possible enterprises with persons sympathetic to a Mexican insurrection. Burr's principal contact in New Orleans, wealthy merchant and political leader Daniel Clark, promised $50,000 in support of Burr's projects and subsequently traveled to Mexico to gather information on the strength of Spanish fortresses and the attitudes of the people to Spanish control. Clark told at least one witness that he "might be a duke" in the new empire that would rise after the Burr expedition's conquest .

Burr left New Orleans in late July of 1805, beginning a four-month tour that included another meeting with General Wilkinson in St. Louis. It was at this time, according to Wilkinson's later and probably self-serving report, that he said he began to suspect Burr of treasonous intentions. He quoted Burr as denouncing "the imbecility of the Government" and that "the people of the western country were ready for revolt." Wilkinson claimed to have responded to Burr's interpretation of western sentiments, "Surely, no person was ever more mistaken! The western people disaffected to the Government? They are bigoted to Jefferson and democracy?"

Burr's long western sojourn finally ended with his arrival back in Washington in October. Over the winter of 1806-06, Burr met frequently with disaffected military leaders such as Commodore Truxton and General Eaton, urging that he join in his western adventure. He sent letters to supporters he had identified on his western trip and enlisted the full support of his beloved daughter Theodosia.

In mid-summer, Burr (and Theodosia and her young child) set off again for western lands. Burr continued to sound out potential backers for his military expedition. In western Pennsylvania, hoping to enlist the support of influential Colonel Morgan and his two sons, Burr made the fatal mistake of expressing plans which his host found shocking. Morgan wrote a letter to President Jefferson summarizing his conversation with Burr, setting in motion the Administration effort that would eventually put an end to Burr's dreams and lead to his arrest and trial. Morgan would later provide testimony of his conversation with Burr at his 1807 trial:

After dinner I spoke of our fine country. I observed that when I first went there, there was not a single family between the Allegheny mountains and the Ohio; and that by and by we should have congress sitting in this neighborhood or at Pittsburg. We were allowed to sport these things over a glass of wine: "No, never," said Colonel Burr, "for in less than five years you will be totally divided from the Atlantic states." The colonel entered into some arguments to prove why it would and must be so....He said that our taxes were very heavy, and demanded why we should pay them to the Atlantic parts of the country?....I began to think that all was not right. He said that with two hundred men he could drive congress, with the president at its head, into the river Potomac, or that it might be done; and he said with five hundred men he could take possession of New York....

By the end of August, Burr was back on Blennerhasset's Island making final preparations for his expedition. He contracted to purchase fifteen boats capable of carrying 500 men, and a large keel boat for transporting provisions. He made orders for huge quantities of pork, corn meal, flour, and whiskey. Later, in Nashville, in contracted for six more boats, giving $4,000 to Andrew Jackson to pay for them.

Burr also bought a 300,000-acre tract of land on the Waxxxxa River, an area known as the Bastrop land. In his efforts to recruit volunteers for the expedition, Burr promised them a share Waxxxxa tract.

The Conspiracy Defeated

By this time, if not earlier, General Wilkinson had decided to abandon the Conspiracy. When, in early October, a ciphered letter sent by Burr and borne by his trusted aide Samuel Swarthout reached Wilkinson in New Orleans, Wilkinson determined to squash Burr's plans. He rushed troops the Mississippi Valley and ordered troops in New Orleans to be on alert for an attack. Burr's ciphered letter (decoded by Wilkinson), together with one from co-conspirator Senator Dayton, he sent to President Jefferson. The letter, which some consider to be the most important evidence of a Burr Conspiracy, read:

I have obtained funds, and have actually commenced the enterprise. Detachments from different points under different pretenses will rendezvous on the Ohio, 1st November-- everything internal and external favors views--protection of England is secured. T[ruxton] is gone to Jamaica to arrange with the admiral on that station, and will meet at the Mississippi-- England---Navy of the United States are ready to join, and final orders are given to my friends and followers--it will be a host of choice spirits. Wilkinson shall be second to Burr only--Wilkinson shall dictate the rank and promotion of his officers. Burr will proceed westward 1st August, never to return: with him go his daughter--the husband will follow in October with a corps of worthies. Send forthwith an intelligent and confidential friend with whom Burr may confer. He shall return immediately with further interesting details--this is essential to concert and harmony of the movement.... [T]he project is brought to the point so long desired: Burr guarantees the result with his life and honor--the lives, the honor and fortunes of hundreds, the best blood of our country. Burr's plan of operations is to move rapidly from the falls on the 15th of November, with the first five hundred or one thousand men, in light boats now constructing for that purpose--to be at Natchez between the 5th and 15th of December--then to meet Wilkinson--then to determine whether it will be expedient in the first instance to seize on or pass by Baton Rouge. On receipt of this send Burr an answer--draw on Burr for all expenses, &c. The people of the country to which we are going are prepared to receive us--their agents now with Burr say that if we will protect their religion, and will not subject them to a foreign power, that in three weeks all will be settled.

The gods invite to glory and fortune--it remains to be seen whether we deserve the boon.... --29th July."

"After four years in exile, Aaron Burr returned to America again. In mid-1812, the country was on the brink of war with Britain, and the Burr Conspiracy seemed ancient history. Aaron Burr put up his shingle in New York as an attorney and found ready business. He would live the rest of his life in relative obscurity, his dreams of empire forever undone."

or was it?

"A group of Federalists led by Massachusetts Senator Timothy Pickering went so far as to plan a separate northern confederacy, offering Vice President Aaron Burr the presidency of the proposed new country if he persuaded New York to join. Burr's relationship with Alexander Hamilton, who helped bring an end to the nascent northern secession movement, soured during this period. The animosity between the two men grew during the 1800 election and ended with Hamilton's death in a duel with Burr in 1804"

________________________

Do the following together mean anything to anyone, Burr, Rex Moody, The Village NYC?

A likely ancestor to Aaron Burr lived above a restaurant in The Village. The MSC asked Moody to investigate this place and particularly who, from there, placed a particular phone call.

July 20, 1811

With the help of daughter Theodosia and first lady Dolley Madison, Burr gets a passport from Napoleon's regime and departs Paris for Amsterdam, where he boards the Vigilant for travel to the United States. The ship is captured by the British, forcing Burr back to England.

May 4, 1812

Traveling as Adolphus Arnot, Burr arrives in Boston.

June 8, 1812

Burr returns to New York, where his close friend Samuel Swartwout on Stone Street takes him in.

June 30, 1812

Burr’s grandson, Aaron Burr Alston, dies of summer fever in South Carolina.

December 10, 1812

Joseph Alston, Burr’s son-in-law, is elected governor of South Carolina.

December 31, 1812

Theodosia Alston, in the company of Dr. Timothy Ruggles Greene, a friend of Burr from Boston who had traveled south to escort Theodosia, and one or two of her servants, left Georgetown, SC on the schooner Patriot for New York City. The ship and all those aboard vanished.

Burr goes to the docks each day awaiting his now deceased daughter who never arrives. Burr sinks into depression.

September 10, 1816

Joseph Alston dies at his father’s house on King Street in Charleston.

1830

Burr suffers a slight stroke, but he recovers.

July 1, 1833

Burr marries Madame Eliza Jumel, wealthy widow of French merchant Stephen Jumel, at the Jumel mansion in upper Manhattan, Harlem Heights.

1834

Burr, living in Jersey City, suffers a second stroke, which renders him immobile. He is borne to the old Jay Mansion on the Battery, now a boarding house, where he was cared for by Mrs. Hannah Newton, the housekeeper.

July 12, 1834

Madame Eliza Jumel Burr files for divorce.

"JUMEL, Eliza Bowen, heiress, born at sea between France and the West Indies in 1769; died in New York, 16 July, 1865. Her mother, whose name was Capet, died at her birth, and the daughter was adopted by a Mrs. Thompson, of Newport, Rhode Island At seventeen years of age Eliza eloped with and married Colonel Peter Croix, a British officer, and, removing to New York city, became, through her great beauty and talents, the friend and favorite of many distinguished men of the age. Her unbounded love of admiration caused her to commit many imprudences, from which her reputation suffered. After the death of Colonel Croix, she married, about 1801, Stephen Jumel, a French wine merchant of great wealth. She then removed to Paris, and became a leader of fashion under the patronage of the Marquis de Lafayette. In a few years she spent a large portion of Jumel's fortune by her extravagance, but, returning to the United States, devoted herself to its restoration with such success that she soon regained all she had dissipated. After Jumel's death she sought legal advice from Aaron Burr, with whom she had been acquainted in her youth. He was at that time seventy-eight years of age, but the pair were married in 1830. On Burr's losing, in Texas speculations, a large sum of money that she had put in his hands a few days after the wedding, she filed a complaint against him, and a separation ensued, although a divorce was not granted. The remainder of her life was spent in retirement in New York city."

September 14, 1836

Burr dies at the Continental Hotel, Port Richmond, Staten Island. On the same day, Madame Jumel’s petition for divorce was granted.

- Burr founded the Bank of the Manhattan Company in 1799, which in later years evolved into the Chase Manhattan Bank and later JPMorgan Chase.

1803

30 April

"Conclusion of an agreement concerning the cession of Louisiana to the United States, accompanied by two financial agreements; because of delays in the translation of the documents, the official signature of the Louisiana Purchase took place on 8 May. France handing over Louisiana for the sum of 80 millions francs (of which 20 million was to be used to cover French debts to American arms producers who had suffered during the Franco-British war). In terms of land mass, the United had almost doubled in size.

In January 1804, an event of enormous importance shook the world of the enslaved and their owners. The black revolutionaries, who had been fighting for a dozen years, crushed Napoleon's 60,000 men-army - which counted mercenaries from all over Europe - and proclaimed the nation of Haiti (the original Indian name of the island), the second independent nation in the Western Hemisphere and the world's first black-led republic. The impact of this victory of unarmed slaves against their oppressors was felt throughout the slave societies. In Louisiana, it sparked a confrontation at Bayou La Fourche. According to white residents, twelve Haitians from a passing vessel threatened them "with many insulting and menacing expressions" and "spoke of eating human flesh and in general demonstrated great Savageness of character, boasting of what they had seen and done in the horrors of St. Domingo [saint Domingue] (Haiti)

Louisiana and her Caribbean parent colony developed intimate links during the eighteenth century, centered on maritime trade, the exchange of capital and information, and the migration of colonists. From such beginnings, Haitians exerted a profound influence on Louisiana's politics, people, religion, and culture. The colony's officials, responding to anti-slavery plots and uprisings on the island, banned the entry of enslaved Saint Domingans in 1763. Their rebellious actions would continue to impact upon Louisiana's slave trade and immigration policies throughout the age of the American and French revolutions.

These two democratic struggles struck fear in the hearts of the Spaniards, who governed Louisiana from 1763 to 1800. They suppressed what they saw as seditious activities and banned subversive materials in a futile attempt to isolate their colony from the spread of democratic revolution. In May 1790 a royal decree prohibited the entry of blacks - enslaved and free - from the French West Indies. A year later, the Haitian Revolution started.

The revolution in Saint Domingue unleashed a massive multiracial exodus: the French fled with the bondspeople they managed to keep; so did numerous free people of color, some of whom were slaveholders themselves. In addition, in 1793, a catastrophic fire destroyed two-thirds of the principal city, Cap Français (present-day Cap Haïtien), and nearly ten thousand people left the island for good. In the ensuing decades of revolution, foreign invasion, and civil war, thousands more fled the turmoil. Many moved eastward to Santo Domingo (present-day Dominican Republic) or to nearby Caribbean islands. Large numbers of immigrants, black and white, found shelter in North America, notably in New York, Baltimore (fifty-three ships landed there in July 1793), Philadelphia, Norfolk, Charleston, and Savannah, as well as in Spanish Florida. Nowhere on the continent, however, did the refugee movement exert as profound an influence as in southern Louisiana."

Civil War and Haiti:

"Federal forces occupied New Orleans in 1862, and black Creoles volunteered their services to the Union army. The newspaper L'Union - whose chief founders, Dr. Louis Charles Roudanez and his brother, Jean-Baptiste, were of Haitian ancestry - announced its agenda in the premier issue. The editors condemned slavery, blasted the Confederacy, and expressed solidarity with Haiti's revolutionary republicans.

An 1862 editorial written by a newly enlisted Union officer, Afro-Creole Romantic writer Henry Louis Rey, urged free men of color to join the U.S. Army and take up "the cause of the rights of man." Rey invoked the names of Jean-Baptiste Chavannes and Vincent Ogé. Their ill-fated 1790 revolt had paved the way for the Haitian Revolution"

Edited by John Dolva
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http://odur.let.rug.nl/~usa/E/uswhig/whigs02.htm

"Henry Clay and others had called themselves National Republicans -based on their vision of the United States as nation while others saw it as a confederation of states - taking strong national measures like building inter-state roads. When a number of southern Democrats like John C. Calhoun, threw their lot in with the National Republicans, they were united only by their opposition to the growing "kinglike" strength of the president. Thus they came to be called Whigs, implying that the Jacksonians were Tories, in favor of "King" Andrew.

The Whig party ran, for some years, mostly in strong second place to the Democrats. They elected William Henry Harrison, in the famous "Tippecanoe and Tyler Too" campaign of nonsense, copied from the Jackson Democrats, but Harrison (the hero of Tippecanoe) died just days into his presidency, and was succeded by Tyler, one of the anti-Jackson democrats, who showed himself to be basically a firm Democrat, and was "read out of the Whig party". They also elected Zachary Taylor (another war hero and no politician) who was died fairly early in the term, making Millard Filmore president.

After the Jackson era, the Whig party drifted towards its strongest elements, the national improvements men. That tendency was strongest by far in the North; the South being in those days almost purely agrarian.

In the 1850s when the nation became increasingly divided over slavery, a new Republican party formed, primarily to keep slavery quarantined off in the South, while Southern sentiment was for their right to move, with their way of life, into any new territory. Their methods of agriculture and their best cash crops tended to deplete the soil, so that Southerners were among the most aggressive Western expansionists.

The Republican Party, while it also attracted many anti-slavery Democrats, drew off so many Whigs that they effectively killed the Whig party. The Whigs were also badly hurt by the short-lived Native American or Know-Nothing party, which was primarily anti-immigrant and anti-Catholic. This party was strong in urban areas, which had also been a Whig stronghold. The last year the Whigs had a presidential candidate was in 1856."

1854

Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854

"President Franklin Pierce, a Democrat elected in 1852, supported the act; Southerners supported it while many northerners did not.

The result was a flood of settlers into these two territories, determined to win their side of the issue.

Two separate governments are established, one pro-slavery at LeCompton (supported by "border ruffians from Missouri) and another at Topeka (supported by emigrant societies opposed to slavery).

Violence breaks out between the two sides, "bleeding Kansas," pro-slavery settlers raid an anti-slavery town, Lawrence, in the "sack of Lawrence".

John Brown, a radical abolitionist, angered at the events in Lawrence, seeks revenge by killing five pro-slavery settlers at Pottawatomie Creek.

Kansas becomes a battleground as hundreds of people, on both sides, are murdered.

Violence breaks out in the US Senate; Senator Charles Sumner of Mass. verbally attacked Sen. Andrew Butler of South Carolina, and Butler's nephew, a House member, Preston Brooks, would assault Sumner with a cane in the senator's office and nearly kill him.

Many southerners regard Brooks as a hero and send him canes (inscribed with "hit him again") and encouragement while most northerners are outraged.

The Birth of the Republican Party

By the mid-1850s the Whig Party had split over slavery and lost influence in both the North and South.

Northern Whigs ("conscience whigs") vs. Southern Whigs ("cotton whigs")

Whigs nominated Gen. Winfield Scott gave only lukewarm support to the Compromise of 1850, angering Southern Whigs--only receiving 35% of the southern vote and losing to Franklin Pierce.

Meanwhile anti-immigrant feelings were escalating in a movement known as nativism, with organizations such as the Order of the Star Spangled Banner, formed in 1849.

White Native born Americans, mostly Protestant, were opposed and alarmed to the large numbers of the rising numbers of mostly Catholic, European immigrants.

The Pope was seen as a threat to American Democracy, "anti-papal" feelings.

Nativists formed the American Party in 1854, also known as the Know-Nothing Party; like the Whigs it contained pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions.

In the 1840s two anti-slavery parties, the Liberty Party and the Free Soil Party, helped determine election results between the Democrats and Whigs.

Free-Soilers were not necessarily abolitionists, some objected to the lowering of wages in areas where slavery was allowed.

In 1854 the Republican Party was formed, opposed to the expansion of slavery in the territories; it also contained temperance supporters, small farmers who hoped for western land grants, commercial farmers, manufacturers who sought more internal improvements, and some nativists.

By 1856, with the violence in Kansas, the Republicans were ready to challenge the Democrats and nominated John C. Fremont ("the Pathfinder" and a war hero) for president.

The Democrats nominated James Buchanan who had been out of the country during the bitterness resulting from the Kansas-Nebraska Act.

Buchanan carried the entire south, except for Maryland, but won only 45% of the national vote while winning a majority of the electoral vote; Fremont won 11 of 16 free states with 33% of the national vote; and former Whig President Fillmore won 22% of the popular vote"

Slavery and Secession

"Early in Buchanan's term the Dred Scott case would draw attention to the question of slavery.

Scott, a slave, was taken from Missouri by his owner to Wisconsin and then Illinois; he sued that living in these areas made him a free man; the Missouri Supreme Court ruled in favor of Scott's new owner, John F. A. Sanford.

The case was appealed to the US Supreme Court and it was faced with two questions: Was Scott a citizen, with the rights of citizenship and did his status change when he was a resident on free soil?.

Chief Justice Roger B. Taney and the Supreme Court (with a majority of southerners on the court) ruled, in one of the most infamous decisions ever by the Court, that Scott lacked any legal standing to sue in court and that as a slave he was not, and never could be a US citizen."

Edited by John Dolva
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Edited by John Dolva
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BUFFALO SOLDIERS

http://www.buffalosoldier.net/

http://www.ncbuffalosoldiers.org/history.a...lay&u_log=3

http://www.buffalosoldiermuseum.com/index.html

"At the outbreak of the Civil War, the government was fighting the Indians in the west. It withdrew most of its men and resources from the Indian wars, to concentrate on ending the rebellion."

"At the end of the Civil War, 186,000 black soldiers had participated in the war, with 38,000 killed in action."

"Southerners and eastern populations did not want to see armed Negro soldiers near or in their communities." (Tulsa Massacre)

"They were also afraid of the labor market being flooded with a new source of labor." (This is a very important consideration with regards to the Civil Rights struggles of the pre-during-post Kennedy years)

"General employment opportunities in these communities was not available to blacks, so many African-Americans took a long hard look at military service which offered shelter, education, steady pay, medical attention and a pension."

"Some decided it was much better than frequent civilian unemployment. Of course in some quarters, it was thought this is a good way of getting rid of two problems at the same time."

"When Congress reorganized the peacetime regular army in the summer of 1866, it had taken the above situation into account. It also recognized the military merits of black soldiers by authorizing two segregated regiments of black cavalry..All of the black regiments were commanded by white officers at that time."

"Slaves and the black soldiers, who couldn't read or write, had no idea of the historical deprivations and the frequent genocidal intent of the U.S. government toward Native Americans."

"Free blacks, whether they could read and write, generally had no access to first hand or second-hand unbiased information on this relationship. Most whites who had access often didn't really care about the situation. It was business as usual in the name of "Manifest Destiny"."

"Over a period of time, since whites could get good jobs in peacetime and even highly educated blacks usually could not, recruiters increasingly, began to enlist blacks who were more intelligent and capable than the average white soldier."

"This helped the eventual success and acceptance of the first African-American graduate from West Point Military Academy who was also the first African-American officer, posted to the Tenth U.S. Cavalry, Henry O. Flipper. Colonel Allen Allensworth was the first African-American chaplain posted to the Twenty-fourth Infantry. He is also founder of the first black established town just outside Bakersfield,"

"Black soldiers who fought in the Indian Wars, fought their opponents as they have done throughout this country's military history. They fought to win and to give their lives if necessary, for their personal beliefs. They wanted to gain the respect and equality they never saw as slaves and rarely received as freedmen. So, they continued on as soldiers. They were sadly mistaken in thinking they would gain these components of freedom, in a country built in-part by their enslavement and which still held deep racial and cultural prejudices."

"As soon as these soldiers were relocated into their hostile environments, they were engaged in life and death struggles. They were under fire. Friends were killed and their oath to keep the peace, put to the test by Indians, settlers and those outside the law."

"Though they guarded railroads and telegraph lines, stagecoaches, arms shipments, towns, homesteads, whites and Indians, they never knew when they would be ambushed by foes or the very townspeople they were protecting!"

"Not infrequently, just by entering a town or saloon, shoot-outs occurred. There was also the occasional sniper, waiting for a kill. Those that murdered troopers were never punished for their crimes, even when there were witnesses. The troopers always responded with a deadly intent of their own. When investigated by the military, those troopers found guilty were punished accordingly, but not always justly."

"After arriving at their posts the alternatives to soldiering were: desert to all white communities, where they were regarded with hateful scorn and risk imprisonment. Death and torture at the hands of the Indians or possible death by exposure to the killing heat and freezing cold. Though the Buffalo Soldiers did their duty in carrying out the government's version of law and order on the frontier west, many influential blacks such as Senator Blanche Kelso Bruce, continually spoke out for the Indians and against the United States treaty making and treaty breaking policies."

Segregation in the Military

"The army supported segregation. It maintained separate facilities where possible. The Buffalo Soldiers built many forts whose facilities at times they couldn't use. At Fort Concho for example, there were separate rooms for educational purposes, etc. The necessities of military life forced white and black troops together, breaking down long standing prejudices."

Custer was a murderer of Women and Children.

Custer was a bigot who actively campaigned to stop African-Americans from getting the vote.

"The name of "Buffalo Soldiers" was given to the Black cavalrymen by the Indians of the Plains because ... when a buffalo was cornered or wounded, they fought ferociously, showing unusual courage and stamina, a quality the Indians also saw in the fighting spirit of the Black cavalrymen. The buffalo was sacred to the American Indians which they held in high regard; therefore, the Buffalo Soldiers were found worthy of the tribute."

"... the 10th [cavalry] acquired the name 'Buffalo Soldiers; during the 1871 campaign against the Comanches in the Indian Territory. Grierson said that the Comanches respected the soldiers' tireless marching and dogged trail skills. They had earned the name of the rugged and revered buffalo. The 10th made the Buffalo its regimental coat of arms years later, but the term Buffalo Soldiers, became synonymous with both the 9th and 10th units."

"Lieutenant-Colonel George Armstrong Custer's first encounter with Indians results in the killing of Chief Black Kettle and his wife. Close to 100 more women, children and elders were also killed.

"Custer actively campaigned to stop African-Americans from getting the vote."

"When he was given a commission with the Buffalo Soldiers of the Ninth U.S. Cavalry, he refused to accept it. (To their good fortune).... Ironically, these very same Buffalo Soldiers ended up rescuing Custer and his command when he and his men were pinned down during an engagement."

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Edited by John Dolva
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From KKK topic:

http://educationforum.ipbhost.com/index.php?showtopic=6553

John S: "At the end of the American Civil War radical members of Congress attempted to destroy the white power structure of the Rebel states. The Freeman's Bureau was established by Congress on 3rd March, 1865. The bureau was designed to protect the interests of former slaves. This included helping them to find new employment and to improve educational and health facilities. In the year that followed the bureau spent $17,000,000 establishing 4,000 schools, 100 hospitals and providing homes and food for former slaves.

Attempts by Congress to extend the powers of the Freemen's Bureau was vetoed by President Andrew Johnson in February, 1866. In April 1866, Johnson also vetoed the Civil Rights Bill that was designed to protect freed slaves from Southern Black Codes (laws that placed severe restrictions on freed slaves such as prohibiting their right to vote, forbidding them to sit on juries, limiting their right to testify against white men, carrying weapons in public places and working in certain occupations).

The election of 1866 increased the number of Radical Republicans in Congress. The following year Congress passed the first Reconstruction Act. The South was now divided into five military districts, each under a major general. New elections were to be held in each state with freed male slaves being allowed to vote. The act also included an amendment that offered readmission to the Southern states after they had ratified the Fourteenth Amendment and guaranteed adult male suffrage. Johnson immediately vetoed the bill but Congress re-passed the bill the same day.

The first branch of the Ku Klux Klan was established in Pulaski, Tennessee, in May, 1866. A year later a general organization of local Klans was established in Nashville in April, 1867. Most of the leaders were former members of the Confederate Army and the first Grand Wizard was Nathan Forrest, an outstanding general during the American Civil War. During the next two years Klansmen wearing masks, white cardboard hats and draped in white sheets, tortured and killed black Americans and sympathetic whites. Immigrants, who they blamed for the election of Radical Republicans, were also targets of their hatred. Between 1868 and 1870 the Ku Klux Klan played an important role in restoring white rule in North Carolina, Tennessee and Georgia.

At first the main objective of white supremacy organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan, the White Brotherhood, the Men of Justice, the Constitutional Union Guards and the Knights of the White Camelia was to stop black people from voting. After white governments had been established in the South the Ku Klux Klan continued to undermine the power of blacks. Successful black businessmen were attacked and any attempt to form black protection groups such as trade unions was quickly dealt with.

Radical Republicans in Congress such as Benjamin Butler urged President Ulysses S. Grant to take action against the Ku Klux Klan. In 1870 he instigated an investigation into the organization and the following year a Grand Jury reported that: "There has existed since 1868, in many counties of the state, an organization known as the Ku Klux Klan, or Invisible Empire of the South, which embraces in its membership a large proportion of the white population of every profession and class. The Klan has a constitution and bylaws, which provides, among other things, that each member shall furnish himself with a pistol, a Ku Klux gown and a signal instrument. The operations of the Klan are executed in the night and are invariably directed against members of the Republican Party. The Klan is inflicting summary vengeance on the colored citizens of these citizens by breaking into their houses at the dead of night, dragging them from their beds, torturing them in the most inhuman manner, and in many instances murdering."

Congress passed the Ku Klux Act and it became law on 20th April, 1871. This gave the president the power to intervene in troubled states with the authority to suspend the writ of habeas corpus in countries where disturbances occurred. However, because its objective of white supremacy in the South had been achieved, the organization practically disappeared.

The Ku Klux Klan was reformed in 1915 by William J. Simmons, a preacher influenced by Thomas Dixon's book, The Ku Klux Klan (1905) and the film of the book, Birth of a Nation, directed by D.W. Griffith.

The National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People (NAACP) became the main opponent of the Ku Klux Klan. To show that the members of the organization would not be intimidated, it held its 1920 annual conference in Atlanta, considered at the time to be one of the most active Ku Klux Klan areas in America.

After the First World War the Ku Klux Klan also became extremely hostile to Jews, Roman Catholics, socialists, communists and anybody they identified as foreigners.

In November 1922 Hiram W. Evans became the Klan's Imperial Wizard. Under his leadership the organization grew rapidly and in the 1920s Klansmen were elected to positions of political power. This included state officials in Texas, Oklahoma, Indiana, Oregon and Maine. By 1925 membership reached 4,000,000. Even on the rare occasions they were arrested for serious crimes, Klansmen were unlikely to be convicted by local Southern juries."

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAkkk.htm

John D: "There was an element of 'prankishness' in the formation of the KKK. However, they were and proved themselves to be quite serious.

The trigger for the second coming of the KKK in 1915 was the screening of 'Birth of a Nation' held by the President in the White House.

The fall of that era, (after which of course they did not disband, but merely does what it does in the 'off period') was a 'second degree' murder committed by the KKK leader.

The Klan which rode high on righteousness in supperessing the 'inferior races' was led by this murderer who was convicted of a crime which included the rape, torture, and murder of a young woman during a trainride."

A start of a list of links of varying degrees of significance to KKK researchers

http://www.press.uillinois.edu/epub/books/tucker/ch4.html

http://www.nationalist.org/docs/law/action.html

http://www.skinheadz.com/news/articles/2002/sep/88.html

Edited by John Dolva
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Guest Mark Valenti

John, as some have suggested, the racial component of the Civil War never ended and was alive and well in Dallas and New Orleans in '63. It was no small cultural tiff. It was the most vicious fight that ever took place on US soil - and its effect was devastating. With the research that you and Tom Purvis are contributing to this topic, I believe we will soon see light bulbs going on all over this investigation.

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  • 4 weeks later...

Out on a limb:

It's interesting to consider that The Eagles Nest escaped damage.

In the last days of the Battle for Berlin, many Nazis headed west. The Americans/Allies stalled outside Berlin while 300 000 odd Soviet soldiers died taking the City. As a frontline City, Operation Clauswitz was activated, and huge amounts of documents were destroyed and removed.

Hitler was asked to go to The Eagles Nest, but (as 'prescient' US psychologists predicted in 1943), appaently choose suicide and immolation as his end.

It makes one wonder: why was The Eagles Nest was spared?

The primary aim at the end of WWII Europe was a process of erasion of traces of atrocities, documents, and the going deep under cover of a multitude of Nazis. Very few choose to stay in or head east, except as sleepers in the coming Ghelen org., almost all exclusively heading west. West Germany, South America and the USofA. The Ratlines, Odessa.

_________________

During the end of Kennedy's life a large number of ex-Nazis, now in significant positions in West German society, were exposed, particularly by East German researchers. Not least being Chancellor Adenauer and Chancellor Erhards head of security, Ewald Peters, (amongst the entourage that visited LBJ at his Ranch in Dec '63, then to hang himself in a German prison cell within a few weeks)

Ewald had been a Commander of the Einsatzgruppen Kommando units that followed the Wermacht into the east to systematically exterminate 'the impure', 'the undesirables'.

Johnson particularly pressured, even 'ordered' (according to one account) Erhard to take a more active role in South American affairs.

(Has there ever been a detailed statistical study of the jewellery and gold trade in the US in the decade following WWII?)

___________________

There seem to have been multiple conflicts in US intel, with at least three distinct camps in Europe.

Those who saw winning the war against the Fascists a primary aim with impartial retention of ties and support to partisans, irrespective of whether they were communists or not. Those who saw the annihilation of communist partisans as part of overall plans, and those who saw the war not ending until the total destruction of the USSR, ultimately by the use of the Atom Bomb. These groupings produced friction and led to various assassinations and other ways of shifting personnell, by reassignments, being kept in the dark, etc.

In the Pacific there were apparently also separate Intel groupings seeking dominance.

- Was Donovans period of incommunicado during which war was declared a deliberate operation? He was also kept out of the Pacific arena. Many questions. One answer?

- How principal was British intel in the overall sequence of events? The years 1943-1944 seemed particularly replete with suspect air crashes.

The cracking of Enigma is presented as a coup that the Germans never were aware of. However, the downing of a plane load of Intel personnell as a result of Churchill ordering his body guard to disable his own plane, the shuffling of passengers to make room for Churchill and his body guards doubles into the plane that was observed to take off and consequently shot down as German observers had seen the doubles board it, and then : 'presto' Churchill is still alive. The cover story that the surreptitious disabling of Churchills plane being designed to protect the breaking of Enigma, and that the consequent events were mere happenstance doesn't bear scrutiny.

- In fact were the Germans fully cognizant, prior to this event, or after it through simple deduction, that Enigma was cracked. Or, could one go so far as to say that Enigma always was, to Hitler and Churchill, a shared code, the apparent cracking of it being merely a cover?

Generaloberst E. Dietl wanted to withdraw from the northern Finnish-Russian front. He was sympathetic to elements who were sympathetic to the survival of the USSR. He was assassinated. (bomb in plane)

Hess sought peace with Britain. He was isolated, and apparently a series of assassinations followed, perhaps including that of the Duke of Kent.

- Could it all have been a series of covers for covert ops, that served a deeper covert grouping, to destroy the USSR and necessarily in the process, manipulate, including assassinate, those on 'both' sides? (in fact there were probably at least four 'sides', the USSR, those who believed that they were allies with the USSR, the Axis forces, and the 'hidden allies' made up of Axis and (non USSR) Allied forces.)

- Was there an overseeing grouping that guided things behind the scene, behind that of the known Intel groupings? Is this, scorched earth, scorched history even, grouping that which Kennedy was confronted with?

In this context, Kennedy was merely another victim of a grand strategy, and not an isolated event. In fact, seeing it as an isolated event, with the obvious tragedy of it and the consequent, and understandable, focus on that, serves the purposes of the 'Grand Conspirators'.

_____________

Part of the answer may lie in the Industrial Revolution, the Slave trade, French-English-Spanish-USofA conflicting, and coinciding interests, the Cotton Trade, the Boston assimilationists, the steering of Jews into isolated educational institutions in the US, ie Black segregated schools, the KKK as the visible component of the 'Hidden Empire', and control of the 'Great Southern Empire'.

All of these provide micro-elements for focus in the assassination of a 'n-loving', Irish Catholic, 'Coexistance with Communist regimes', and extremely powerful through his popularity and scholarly approach, killed by a communist pretender, who was himself killed by a 'kike'.

Applying Scotts negative template, contemplating Angletons orchids, and his room full of smoke and mirrors, one can say the focus has for 44 years been almost exclusively where the conspiratiors would wish it to be, anywhere but at theirselves.

In fact is it more like the blind men and the Elephant, each one sure of, and correct as far as it goes, in identifying the nature of the Elephant, and all of them completely wrong for not seeing the whole structure?

Edited by John Dolva
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John, as some have suggested, the racial component of the Civil War never ended and was alive and well in Dallas and New Orleans in '63. It was no small cultural tiff. It was the most vicious fight that ever took place on US soil - and its effect was devastating. With the research that you and Tom Purvis are contributing to this topic, I believe we will soon see light bulbs going on all over this investigation.

I believe we will soon see light bulbs going on all over this investigation

Just perhaps!

If one could only link something like "Big Money" to this, they just may have some answers.

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First, one must go back in time to the "roots".

http://jewishwebindex.com/genealogy.htm

Hyam Salomon - General Washington's financial advisor and assistant was a Jewish man by the name of Hyam Salomon. During the cold winter months at Valley Forge when American soldiers were freezing and running out of food, it was Hyam who marshaled all the Jews in America and Europe to provide money in relief aid to these stranded American troops and turned the course of history.

Without this help, Washington's Continental Army and the fate of the American Colonies would have perished before they could have defeated the British.

If you take a one dollar bill out of your pocket and look at the back at the Eagle, the stars above the Eagle's head are in the six point Star of David to honor Jews. And, if you turn the Eagle upside down, you will see a configuration in the likeness of a Menorah -- both at the insistence of George Washington who said we should never forget the Jewish people and what they have done in the interest of America.

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Forward in time:

Just perhaps!

If one could only link something like "Big Money" to this, they just may have some answers.

http://educationforum.ipbhost.com/index.php?showtopic=10453

Post #4

http://www.bestofneworleans.com/dispatch/2...1-16/blake.html

"It was in 1872 that New Orleans had its first King of Carnival. The first Rex was a Jewish banker and cotton factor named Lewis Salomon,"

http://www.geocities.com/mardichild/history1.html

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Forward in time:

Just perhaps!

If one could only link something like "Big Money" to this, they just may have some answers.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salomon_Brothers

"Salomon Brothers was a Wall Street investment bank. Founded in 1910, it remained a partnership until the early 1980s",

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http://www.fundinguniverse.com/company-his...ny-History.html

In 1962 Salomon pulled a major coup by underwriting an AT&T offering worth $218 million, even though the financial markets were paralyzed at the time by the Cuban Missile Crisis. Also in the autumn of that year, the firm formed, with Blyth, Merrill Lynch, and Lehman Brothers, a group that became known as "the fearsome foursome.

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http://www.leearchive.info/shelf/fenner/index.html

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http://www.tulanelink.com/tulanelink/fenner_box.htm

Darwin Schriever Fenner (1908-1979), financier, was a member of the old-line social establishment in New Orleans and a managing partner of the brokerage firm of Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Beane (now Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith). His father, Charles E. Fenner (1876-1963), was a founding partner of the New Orleans firm of Fenner & Beane, which merged in 1941 with Merrill Lynch, E. A. Pierce & Cassatt to become the world's largest securities house.

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Anybody wanna take a guess as to exactly where the Treasury of the Confederacy actually is?

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