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Dr. Hans J. Eysenck - Draper, Cline, Oswald & Johnson


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Hans Jürgen Eysenck (March 4, 1916 in Berlin, Germany - September 4, 1997 in London, UK) was a psychologist best remembered for his work on intelligence and personality, though he worked in a wide range of areas. At the time of his death, Eysenck was the living psychologist most frequently cited in science journals. [1]

Hans Eysenck was born in Germany, but moved to England as a young man in the 1930s because of his (alleged) opposition to the Nazi party. Eysenck was the founding editor of the journal Personality and Individual Differences, and authored over 50 books and over 900 academic articles. He aroused intense debate with his controversial dealing with variation in IQ among racial groups (see race and intelligence).

Contents [hide]

1 Life and work

1.1 Eysenck's model of personality (P-E-N)

1.2 Comparison with other theories

1.2.1 Psychometric scales relevant to Eysenck's theory

1.2.2 Eysenck's later work

2 Selected works

3 References

4 External links

[edit] Life and work

Eysenck was Professor of Psychology at the Institute of Psychiatry (IoP) from 1955 to 1983. He was a major contributor to the modern scientific theory of personality and a brilliant teacher who also played a crucial role in the establishment of behavioural treatments for mental disorders.

However, Eysenck's work was often controversial. Publications in which Eysenck's views have roused controversy include (chronologically):

A paper in the 1950s [1] concluding that available data "fail to support the hypothesis that psychotherapy facilitates recovery from neurotic disorder".

A chapter in Uses and Abuses of Psychology (1953) entitled "What is wrong with psychoanalysis".

Race, Intelligence and Education (1971) (in the US: The IQ Argument)

Sex, Violence and the Media (1978).

Astrology - Science or Superstition? (1982)

Smoking, Personality and Stress (1991)

Eysenck also earned criticism for accepting funding from the Pioneer Fund, a eugenics organization that has been controversial.

By far the most acrimonious of the debates has been that over the role of genetics in IQ differences (See Genetics vs. environment), which led to Eysenck famously being punched on the nose during a talk at the London School of Economics.

Eysenck's attitude is summarised in his autobiography Rebel with a Cause (Transaction Publishers (1997), ISBN 1-56000-938-1): "I always felt that a scientist owes the world only one thing, and that is the truth as he sees it. If the truth contradicts deeply held beliefs, that is too bad. Tact and diplomacy are fine in international relations, in politics, perhaps even in business; in science only one thing matters, and that is the facts."

[edit] Eysenck's model of personality (P-E-N)

Eysenck was one of the first psychologists to study personality with the method of factor analysis, a statistical technique introduced by Charles Spearman. Eysenck's results suggested two main personality factors. The first factor was the tendency to experience negative emotions, and Eysenck referred to it as Neuroticism. The second factor was the tendency to enjoy positive events, especially social events, and Eysenck named it Extraversion. The two personality dimensions were described in his 1947 book Dimensions of Personality. It is common practice in personality psychology to refer to the dimensions by the first letters, E and N.

E and N provided a 2-dimensional space to describe individual differences in behaviour. An analogy can be made to how latitude and longitude describe a point on the face of the earth. Also, Eysenck noted how these two dimensions were similar to the four personality types first proposed by the Greek physician Hippocrates.

High N and High E = Choleric type

High N and Low E = Melancholic type

Low N and High E = Sanguine type

Low N and Low E = Phlegmatic type

The third dimension, psychoticism, was added to the model in the late 1970s, based upon collaborations between Eysenck and his wife, Sybil B. G. Eysenck[2], who is the current editor of Personality and Individual Differences.

The major strength of Eysenck's model was to provide detailed theory of the causes of personality. For example, Eysenck proposed that extraversion was caused by variability in cortical arousal: "introverts are characterized by higher levels of activity than extraverts and so are chronically more cortically aroused than extraverts"[3]. While it seems counterintuitive to suppose that introverts are more aroused than extraverts, the putative effect this has on behaviour is such that the introvert seeks lower levels of stimulation. Conversely, the extravert seeks to heighten his or her arousal to a more optimal level (as predicted by the Yerkes-Dodson Law) by increased activity, social engagement and other stimulation-seeking behaviours.

[edit] Comparison with other theories

The major alternative to Eysenck's three factor model of personality is a model that makes use of five broad traits, often called the Big Five model (see big five personality traits). The traits in the Big Five are as follows:

Openness to experience

Conscientiousness

Extraversion

Agreeableness

Neuroticism

Extraversion and Neuroticism in the Big Five are similar to Eysenck's traits of the same name. However, what Eysenck calls the trait of Psychoticism corresponds to two traits in the Big Five model: Conscientiousness and Agreeableness. Eysenck's personality system did not address Openness to experience. He argued that his approach was a better description of personality (Eysenck, 1992a; 1992b).

Another important model of personality is that of Jeffrey Alan Gray, a former student of his.

Eysenck always insisted that his use of the term "extraversion" does not correspond to the usage adopted by Carl Jung, and has also challenged the popular belief that Jung coined the term.

[edit] Psychometric scales relevant to Eysenck's theory

Eysenck's theory of personality is closely linked with the scales that he and his co-workers developed. These include the Maudsley Medical Questionnaire, Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) and Sensation Seeking Scale (developed in conjunction with Marvin Zuckerman). The Eysenck Personality Profiler (EPP) breaks down different facets of each trait considered in the model. There has been some debate about whether these facets should include impulsivity as a facet of extraversion as Eysenck declared in his early work; or psychoticism. Eysenck declared for the latter, in later work.

[edit] Eysenck's later work

In 1994 he was one of 52 signatories on "Mainstream Science on Intelligence," an editorial written by Linda Gottfredson and published in the Wall Street Journal, which defended the findings on race and intelligence in The Bell Curve. [4]

Eysenck made early contributions to fields such as personality by express and explicit commitment to a very rigorous adherence to scientific methodology, as Eysenck believed that scientific methodology was required for progress in personality psychology. He used, for example, factor analysis, a rigorous statistical method, to support his personality model. His early work showed Eysenck to be an especially strong critic of psychoanalysis as a form of therapy, preferring behaviour therapy. Despite this strongly scientific interest, Eysenck was not shy, in later work, of giving attention to parapsychology and astrology. Indeed, he believed that empirical evidence supported the existence of paranormal abilities.

[edit] Selected works

Dimensions of Personality (1947)

The Scientific Study of Personality (1952)

The Structure of Human Personality (1952) and later editions

Uses and Abuses of Psychology (1953)

The Psychology of Politics (1954)

Psychology and the Foundations of Psychiatry (1955)

Sense and Nonsense in Psychology (1956)

The Dynamics of Anxiety and Hysteria (1957)

Perceptual Processes and Mental Illnesses (1957) with G. Granger and J. C. Brengelmann

Manual of the Maudsley Personality Inventory (1959)

Handbook of Abnormal Psychology (1960) editor, later editions

Experiments in Personality (1960) two volumes, editor

Behaviour Therapy and Neuroses (1960) editor

Know Your Own I.Q. (1962)

Experiments with Drugs (1963) editor

Experiments in Motivation (1964) editor

Crime and Personality (1964) and later editions

Manual of the Eysenck Personality Inventory (1964) with S. B. G. Eysenck

The Causes and Cures of Neuroses (1965) with S. Rachman

Fact and Fiction in Psychology (1965)

Smoking, Health and Personality (1965)

Check Your Own I.Q. (1966)

The Effects of Psychotherapy (1966)

The Biological Basis of Personality (1967)

Eysenck, H.J. & Eysenck, S.B.G. (1969). Personality Structure and Measurement. London: Routledge.

Readings in Extraversion/Introversion (1971) three volumes

Race, Intelligence and Education (1971) in US as The IQ Argument

Psychology is about People (1972)

Lexicon de Psychologie (1972) three volumes, with W. Arnold and R. Meili

The Inequality of Man (1973)

Eysenck on Extraversion (1973) editor

The Measurement of Intelligence (1973) editor

The Experimental Study of Freudian theories (1973) with G. D. Wilson

Case Histories in Behaviour Therapy (1974) editor

Know Your Own Personality (1975) with G. D. Wilson

Manual of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (1975) with S. B. G. Eysenck

A Textbook of Human Psychology (1976) with G. D. Wilson

Sex and Personality (1976)

The Measurement of Personality (1976) editor

Eysenck, H.J. & Eysenck, S.B.G. (1976). Psychoticism as a Dimension of Personality. London: Hodder and Stoughton.

Reminiscence, Motivation and Personality (1977) with C. D. Frith

You and Neurosis (1977)

Die Zukunft der Psychologie (1977)

The Psychological Basis of Ideology (1978) editor, with G. D. Wilson

Sex Violence and the Media (1978) with D. Nias

The Structure and Measurement of Intelligence (1979)

The Psychology of Sex (1979) with G. D. Wilson

The Causes and Effects of Smoking (1980)

A Model for Personality (1981) editor

Mindwatching (1981) with M. W. Eysenck, and later editions

The Battle for the Mind (1981) with L. J. Kamin, in US as The Intelligence Controversy

Personality, Genetics and Behaviour (1982)

Explaining the Unexplained (1982) with Carl Sargent

H.J. Eysenck & D.K.B. Nias, Astrology: Science or Superstition? Penguin Books (1982) ISBN 0-14-022397-5

A Model for Intelligence (1982) editor

Know Your Own Psi-Q (1983) with Carl Sargent

…'I Do'. Your Happy Guide to Marriage (1983) with B. N. Kelly

Personality and Individual Differences: A Natural Science Approach (1985) with M. W. Eysenck

Decline and Fall of the Freudian Empire (1985)

Rauchen und Gesundheit (1987)

Personality Dimensions and Arousal (1987) editor, with J. Strelau

Theoretical Foundations of Behaviour Therapy (1988) editor, with I. Martin

The Causes and Cures of Criminality (1989) with G. H. Gudjonsson

Genes, Culture and Personality: An Empirical Approach (1989) with L. Eaves and N. Martin

Suggestion and Suggestibility (1989) editor, with V. A. Gheorghiu, P. Netter, and R. Rosenthal

Eysenck, H.J. (1992). A reply to Costa and McCrae. P or A and C - the role of theory. Personality and Individual Differences, 13, 867-868.

Eysenck, H.J. (1992). Four ways five factors are not basic. Personality and Individual Differences, 13, 667-673.

[edit] References

^ Haggbloom, S.J. (2002). The 100 most eminent psychologists of the 20th century. Review of General Psychology, 6, 139-152.

^ e.g., Eysenck & Eysenck, 1969; 1976

^ (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1985)

^ Gottfredson, Linda (December 13, 1994). Mainstream Science on Intelligence. Wall Street Journal, p A18.

[edit] External links

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Obit by Chris Brand

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Hmmm... Wickliffe Draper and The American Mercury headquarters were both located on West and East 57th Streets at around that time.

Verrry interesting.

By 1961 the CIA staff had tired of Queens and moved the Society back into Manhattan to 201 East 57th Street. In 1965 as the Agency was closing down the front, it switched its headquarters to 183i Connecticut Avenue N.W. in Washington, the same building owned by Dr. Charles Geschickter that housed another MKULTRA conduit, the Geschickter Fund for Medical Research

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Eysenck progeny still in London

New York Times, September 10, 1997

Hans J. Eysenck, 81, a Heretic In the Field of Psychotherapy

By WILLIAM H. HONAN

Hans J. Eysenck, one of the most distinguished, prolific and maddeningly perverse psychologists of his generation, died on Sept. 4 at a hospice in London. He was 81.

Dr. Eysenck had been suffering from a malignant brain tumor for about a year, said Shirley Chumbley, his longtime secretary.

In the course of a career at the department of psychology of the Institute of Psychiatry at London University, Dr. Eysenck published some 80 books and 1,600 journal articles, and managed to offend a great many people. Among other things, he argued that psychotherapy was virtually worthless, that blacks scored lower on I.Q. tests than whites at least partly because of their genetic makeup, and that there is no demonstrable correlation between smoking and lung cancer.

At the height of the controversy over race and I.Q. tests in 1971, Dr. Eysenck and Arthur R. Jensen, a professor at the University of California at Berkeley who held similar views, were escorted by bodyguards for their safety.

"He was always willing to stick his neck out," Professor Jensen said on Monday. "I don't think he would agree with my saying this now, but I think he enjoyed controversy. He was always polite yet intellectually aggressive."

Dr. Eysenck's daughter, Connie, took exception to this view. "He never tried to be controversial for its own sake," she said on Monday. "He wanted to tell the scientific truth."

Professor Eysenck's professional reputation was worldwide, not because of his sometimes provocative opinions but because of his pioneering empirical approach to the problems of psychology. His analysis of the layers of personality led to his coining the terms extroversion and introversion, and attracted students and collaborators from around the world.

Frank Farley, a professor of psychology at Temple University in Philadelphia and former president of the American Psychological Association, said that in terms of influence, Dr. Eysenck was the British equivalent of B. F. Skinner. Professor Farley said Dr. Eysenck "led the way in defining the structure of human personality."

Critics who denounced Dr. Eysenck as racist because of his views on the results of I.Q. testing were often baffled to learn that he had fled Nazi Germany in the early 1930's because of his opposition to Nazi racist ideology.

"He was violently opposed to Nazism," said his daughter. "It came to the point where he would have had to join the Nazi Party in order to hold a post at the University of Berlin, and so that left him no choice but to leave the country."

Dr. Jensen said Dr. Eysenck's first brush with controversy came in the early 1950's when he published an article declaring that psychotherapy had no beneficial effect on individuals. Predictably, there was a storm of protest. Over the years, Dr. Jensen said, Dr. Eysenck modified his views and eventually came to the conclusion that some forms of psychotherapy could have limited beneficial effects.

Dr. Eysenck aroused the most heated controversy of his career when he supported Dr. Jensen's article in The Harvard Education Review in 1969. It argued that the 15-point average difference between the scores of blacks and whites on I.Q. tests could be explained by genetic as well as environmental factors.

"I came under a lot of fire from the Progressive Labor Party, the Students for a Democratic Society and other student protester groups which are now defunct," Dr. Jensen recalled. "But Eysenck published a book called ' Race, Intelligence and Education' (1971), which explained my article and defended it. That was when we both had to have bodyguards. He never changed his view on that."

Daniel Schacter, chairman of the department of psychology at Harvard University, said on Monday that Dr. Eysenck's argument "still comes up from time to time and is a controversial issue although the majority opinion is probably unfavorable to it."

The third and final dispute that occupied Dr. Eysenck came when he argued that smoking did not cause lung cancer.

"He surveyed all the literature on the subject," said Dr. Jensen, "and came to the conclusion that certain personality types were drawn to smoking and that they had a weakness to its ill effects. As far as I'm concerned, the evidence against his position is overwhelming. The only ones who accept it today are the tobacco industry."

Dr. Eysenck also raised eyebrows by writing about such subjects as astrology and the paranormal. He retired from London University in 1983.

Born in Berlin, Hans Jurgen Eysenck was the son of successful actors. Since his parents traveled frequently, he was brought up chiefly by his grandmother.

He left Germany in 1934 to continue his education in Britain, and later said that he came to concentrate on psychology by taking a required course in the subject at the University of London.

In addition to his daughter, Connie, who lives in Washington, Dr. Eysenck is survived by his second wife, Dr. Sybil Eysenck of London, and four sons: Gary and Kevin, of Surrey, England; Darrin, of London, and Michael, also of London, from his first marriage.

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Hans J. Eysenck, 81, a popular, pioneering and controversial German-born British behavioral psychologist best known as a champion of the

statistical analysis method and his opposition to the discipline of psychoanalysis, died Sept. 4 at a hospice in London. He had cancer.

Life history

Since the 1950s, Dr. Eysenck had vocally propounded the view that the

experimental methods used in the physical sciences, particularly

statistical tests, should be applied in psychology, psychotherapy and

especially psychoanalysis.

Dr. Eysenck, who spent decades as head of the Psychology Department of the

University of London's Institute of Psychiatry, was a pioneer in the

development of "behavior therapy." That is a method of treating patients

by addressing their immediate problems, a process he said could be done in

a limited number of sessions rather than the seemingly unending, indirect

method of psychoanalysis.

He also developed radical and immensely controversial theories on subjects

ranging from tobacco and cancer to crime and the occult to IQ testing and

genetics. He spread his views in more than 75 books and a thousand

technical articles.

His writing gained him a worldwide audience of general readers as well as

scientists. He once explained that his books ranged from "Uses and Abuses

of Psychology," which he wrote in two weeks and which sold millions of

copies, to the scholarly, scientific and academic "Reminiscence,

Motivation, and Personality: A Case Study in Experimental Psychology,"

which he said took him 15 years of research and writing and sold "several

hundred" copies.

In the words of a true scholar, he announced that he had deduced a "strong

negative correlation between sales and the time taken to write a book."

His more popular books included works published by Penguin Books, such as

"Sense and Nonsense in Psychology" and "Check Your Own IQ."

In 1971, he published "The IQ Argument: Race, Intelligence and Education,"

in which he suggested that it was possible that genetics might explain

differences in IQ scores between blacks and whites. This resulted in his

becoming a target of student protesters in Great Britain and the United

States.

Although many scientists attacked this finding on scientific or

philosophical grounds, few accused Dr. Eysenck, who had left his native

Germany rather than join the Nazi Party, of any kind of racism.

Other controversial works included his 1965 book "Smoking, Health and

Personality," which propounded that smoking does not cause cancer but is a

symptom, along with cancer, of mysterious hereditary and emotional

illnesses.

In addition to his books and articles, he edited the standard "Handbook of

Abnormal Psychology" and the three-volume "Readings in Extroversion and

Introversion." He also contributed articles to the "Encyclopedia of the

Social Sciences." In 1962, he founded and began a long stint as editor of

the journal Behavior Research and Therapy.

His 1952 book "The Structure of Human Personality," in which he posited

that human personality can be defined in terms of intelligence,

neuroticism, introversion-extroversion and psychoticism, led to the

development of the Maudsley Personality Inventory. Also known as the

Eysenck Personality Inventory, the psychological battery became widely

used in Britain.

Hans Jurgen Eysenck was born in Berlin. Both his parents acted, and the

future psychologist himself appeared in a film at age 3. Refusing to join

the Nazi Party to attend college, he went to France and studied French

literature and history at the University of Dijon and then to England,

where he studied British history and literature at Exeter University.

He then decided he wanted to become a physicist, so he enrolled in the

University of London. While registering, he was informed that German

science credits were not acceptable for London but that he would be

admitted to study psychology. Although, he later claimed, he did not even

know what psychology was, he heartily accepted.

Dr. Eysenck fell in love with the subject and was fortunate in being able

to study under Sir Cyril Burt, the noted psychologist who was an early

advocate of statistical studies, and the legendary statistician Karl

Pearson. Dr. Eysenck graduated in 1938 and received his doctorate, also

from the University of London, in 1940.

During World War II, he was a research psychologist at an emergency

hospital near London that treated mentally disturbed service personnel.

After the war, he joined the staff of London's famed Maudsley Hospital,

perhaps Britain's leading psychiatric training ground. In 1947, he became

head of the hospital's psychology department, and the next year, he joined

the faculty of the University of London. In 1950, he became head of the

university's new psychiatry institute, located at Maudsley Hospital.

In addition to his work in Britain, he served as a visiting professor at

the University of Pennsylvania and the University of California-Berkeley.

Early in his career, he became known for his interests in behavior

modification and personality and for his lack of enthusiasm for Freudian

psychoanalysis. In the early 1950s, he began attacking psychoanalysis in

the profession's own journals, maintaining that there was no statistical

evidence to prove that the treatment actually worked.

His marriage to the former Margaret Malcolm Davies ended in divorce.

Survivors include his wife, the former Sybille Bianca Giulietta Rostal,

whom he married in 1950 and who lives in London; a daughter from his

second marriage, Connie Eysenck of Bethesda; a son from his first

marriage; three sons from his second marriage; and eight grandchildren

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The Pioneer Fund and the Council for Nazional Policy...

The Pioneer Fund served as a small part of "a multimillion dollar political empire of corporations, foundations, political action committees and ad hoc groups" active in 1980s (Washington Post, March 31, 1985, p. 1; A16) developed by Tom Ellis, Harry Weyher, Marion Parrott, Carter Wrenn and Jesse Helms. The Fund has served as a nexus between academic theory and practical political ideology. It's leadership, especially, Harry Weyher, Thomas F. Ellis and Marion A. Parrott are part of an interlocking set of directorates and associates linking the Pioneer Fund to Jesse Helms' high-tech political machine. Ellis, for example, simultaneously served as Chairman of the National Congressional Club and the Coalition for Freedom, co-founder of Fairness in Media, a board member of the Educational Support Foundation and Director of the Pioneer Fund. Harry Weyher, president of the Pioneer Fund served as lead counsel for Fairness in Media. 5

Recipients of Pioneer grants have included most of the leading Anglo-American academic race-scientists of the last several decades have been funded by the Pioneer, including William Shockley, Hans J. Eysenck, Arthur Jensen, Roger Pearson, Richard Lynn, J. Philippe Rushton, R. Travis Osborne, Linda Gottfredson, Robert A. Gordon, Daniel R. Vining, Jr., Michael Levin, and Seymour Itzkoff - all cited in The Bell Curve. (1)" 6

Founder of the Pioneer Fund, "Colonel Draper, as he was often called by his friends and admirers was a man searching for a way to restore an older order. Draper believed geneticists could scientifically prove the inferiority of Negros.... Under his direction, the Pioneer Fund's original charter outlined a commitment to "improve the character of the American people" by encouraging the procreation of descendants of the original white colonial stock." Draper turned more and more to academic irredentists still dedicated to white supremacy and eugenics. Most prominent among these early recruits was Henry Garrett, Chair of Psychology at Columbia University from 1941-1955. A Virginia born segregationist, Garrett was a key witness in defending segregation...Garrett helped to distribute grants for Draper and was one of the founders of the International Association for the Advancement of Eugenics and Ethnology (IAAEE) in 1959. The IAAEE brought together academic defenders of segregation in the U.S. and apartheid in South Africa. The Pioneer Fund supported the IAAEE and other institutions working to legitimising race science, including the IAAEE's journal, Mankind Quarterly..." 7

The Pioneer Fund has changed little since its inception. An article in the New York Times on December 11, 1977 characterized it as having "supported highly controversial research by a dozen scientists who believe that blacks are genetically less intelligent than whites." In the 1960s Nobel Laureate William Shockley (1910-1989), a physicist at Stanford University best known for his "voluntary sterilization bonus plan" received an estimated $188,710 from the Pioneer Fund between 1971 and 1978. Arthur Jensen, an educational psychologist, garnered more than a million dollars in Pioneer grants over the past three decades. Three years after being recruited by Shockely, Jensen published his now famous attack on Head Start in the prestigious Harvard Education Review. Jensen claimed the problem with black children was that they had an average IQ of only 85 and that no amount of social engineering would improve their performance. Jensen urged "eugenic foresight" as the only solution. (7)" 8

Roger Pearson, whose Institute for the Study of Man has been one of the top Pioneer beneficiaries over the past twenty years ($870,000 from 1981-1996) is the clearest example of the extremist ideology of the Fund's leadership...Taking account of all groups linked to Pearson, Pioneer support between 1975-1996 exceeds one million dollars - nearly ten percent of the total Pioneer grants for that period. 9

"For an overview on 'race and intelligence,' Murray and Herrnstein recommend two books by three Pioneer Fund recipients: Audrey Shuey, Frank C. J. McGurk, and R. Travis Osborne. McGurk is the main authority they cite to 'prove' that IQ tests are not racially biased. He was one of the 'scientific' mainstays of the segregationist movement in the southern US. In 1959 McGurk and Shuey became leading members of the International Association for the Advancement of Ethnology and Eugenics, first publisher of Mankind Quarterly 10 Other members included Senator Jesse Helms and the oil billionaire Hunt brothers. Arch-racists in the South introduced Shuey's book in court during the 1960s to argue for continuing school segregation and denying the vote to black people. University of Georgia professor Osborne also testified in court against school integration. Osborne was still, in 1992, trying to prove the long-discarded theory that brain size is somehow related to intelligence." 11

Much of The Bell Curve's racist drivel comes from Mankind Quarterly, whose principle is that the "Negroid" race is inferior to all others, and from professors funded by the pro-Nazi Pioneer Fund (PF). Behind this fascist gang stand important members of the US ruling class.

Seventeen authors cited in The Bell Curve are Mankind Quarterly (MQ) contributors. Ten are former or present editors or members of its editorial advisory board. MQ's avowed purpose is to counter "Communist" and "egalitarian" influences in anthropology. From its start in 1960, its founders and funders believed that white people were genetically superior. Robert Gayre was the founder of MQ and its editor-in-chief until 1978. As a champion of South African apartheid and a member of the ultra-right Candour League of white-ruled Rhodesia, he testified in court in 1968 that black people as a group are "worthless." Other MQ contributors have included Henry Garrett of Columbia University, who wrote pamphlets for the pro-segregation White Citizens Councils; Corrado Gini, the leader of fascist Italy's eugenics movement; and Ottmar von Verschner, a leading Nazi race-scientist and academic mentor of the concentration camp butcher Joseph Mengele.

The key figure in the PF network is Roger Pearson, who is close to Jesse Helms. Sam Crutchfield, a lawyer for Helms, has been the lawyer for Pearson's Institute for the Study of Man. The PF has given Pearson over $787,400, mostly for editing Mankind Quarterly and The Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies. The last publishes articles by PF recipients, notably Arthur Jensen, Michael Levin, and Richard Lynn. Thomas Ellis, a PF director, is a long-time friend and campaign manager for Helms. 12

In 1958, Pearson, living in London, led the Northern League. This white-power organization included former Nazi SS officials. Willis Carto, founder of the anti-black and anti-semitic Liberty Lobby, arranged a 1959 U.S. speaking tour for him. Pearson soon moved to the U.S. to edit the neo-Nazi publication Western Destiny. In Eugenics and Race he asserted: "If a nation with a more advanced, more specialized, or in any way superior set of genes mingles with, instead of exterminating, an inferior tribe, then it commits racial suicide. "

This track record won Pearson influence in Washington, DC. In 1975 he became editor of the journal of the American Security Council...Pearson also headed the U.S. chapter of the World Anti-Communist League (WACL). In 1977 he became the international chair of this nest of fascist vipers. He organized its 1978 convention, which featured two U.S. Senators as keynote speakers. Then he was exposed as having recruited open neo-Nazis to WACL, and was forced to resign. Four years later,[1982] President Reagan personally thanked Pearson for his "substantial contributions to promoting and upholding those ideals and principles that we value at home and abroad." 13

"Pearson eventually replaced Gayre as editor of The Mankind Quarterly. Pearson, more than most, saw the potential in manipulating genetics for political goals when, in 1959, he wrote Eugenics and Race. He argued that the white race is endangered by inferior genetic stock, but with proper use of modern biological technology "a new super-generation" descended from "only the fittest" of the previous generation can be produced. Whoever adopted such a scientific breeding program "would dominate the rest of the world". Moving to the United States Pearson quickly became involved in far-right politics, first editing Western Destiny and later the short-lived The New Patriot, a magazine designed to conduct "a responsible but penetrating inquiry into every aspect of the Jewish Question". It included articles such as "Zionists and the Plot Against South Africa", "Early Jews and the Rise of Jewish Money Power", and "Swindlers of the Crematoria". Despite his fascist connections, Pearson became increasingly well connected with the Republican Party and the right-wing think-tank, The Heritage Foundation. 14

"Henry Garrett, Chair of Psychology at Columbia University from 1941 to 1955. A Virginia born segregationist, Garrett was a key witness defending segregation in the landmark case Brown v. Board of Education in 1954. During the 1950s and 1960s, Garrett helped to distribute grants for the Pioneer Fund and was one of the founders of the International Association for the Advancement of Eugenics and Ethnology (IAAEE) in 1959. The IAAEE brought together academic defenders of segregation in the USA and apartheid in South Africa. The Pioneer Fund supported the IAAEE and other institutions working to legitimise race-science, including the IAAEE's journal, The Mankind Quarterly." 15

Roger Pearson was a writer and organizer for the Nazi Northern League of northern Europe, who in 1977 joined the editorial board of Policy Review, the monthly Heritage Foundation publication. William Shockley, Arthur Jensen and Roger Pearson, who has written that "inferior races" should be "exterminated" were funded while Tom Ellis was director on the Pioneer board. At that same time, Ellis served on the CNP's thirteen-member executive committee with Holly Coors, Paul Weyrich, and Heritage Foundation president, Edwin Feulner until June 1989. Oliver North and Reed Larson also joined the executive committee.

Recall that in order to be a CNP member, a biography/resume must be submitted by a CNP member and the executive must have a unanimous vote in order for an individual to be asked to be a member. CNP's Gary North writes of the formation years of the CNP including himself with Timothy LaHaye, Terry J. Jeffers and Terry Dolan, in the article Gary North on the CNP

In the United States, WACL's first chairman was Roger Pearson, a white supremacist, eugenicist and neo-Nazi. Pearson was the editor of Willis Carto's anti-Semitic rag, Western Destiny, the forerunner of the Liberty Lobby's Spotlight tabloid. By the mid 1970s, Pearson served on the editorial boards of both the Heritage Foundation 15a and the American Security Council. Pearson, who has described himself as a "mainstream conservative," boasted to an associate about his alleged role in hiding Nazi doctor Josef Mengele, the "Angel of Death" who directed Nazi "medical experiments" at the Auschwitz extermination camp. With degrees in anthropology and economics, Pearson is the author several books on eugenics. His most "popular" are Eugenics and Race and Race and Civilization. He credits Professor Hans F. K. Gunther, a Nazi racial theoretician, as the inspiration behind the latter volume. Under Pearson's tutelage, WACL added Western European chapters that were drawn from the ranks of Nazi war criminals, Third Reich collaborators, neo-Nazis and right-wing terrorists. Western European affiliates included the racist British League of Rights and Italy's Italian Social Movement (MSI). Pino Rauti, the founder of the outlawed group, Ordine Nuovo was a key WACL Western European contact.... Rauti and countless other Italian fascists including the war criminal, June Valerio "Black Prince" Borghese, and key members of the Italian general staff, were "rehabilitated" Nazi collaborators recruited by the CIA into NATO's "stay behind" anti-communist terror network, also known as "Gladio."... 15b

The National Congressional Club was Jesse Helms' PAC based in Raleigh and directed by Helms' senior advisor, attorney Tom Ellis. National Congressional Club, raised $9.8 million in the 1982 election cycle. In the 1984 cycle, the club raised $5.7 million while Helms campaign committee raised $13.99 million, 16 The Club dissolved in the 1990's, with many staffers absorbed into other campaigns.

The Congressional Club began after the 1972 Senate campaign, when Ellis retained Richard Viguerie (CNP) to help pay off the Helms campaign debt. Ellis and Viguerie built the Congressional Club mailing list to more than 300,000 regular contributors -- a constituency for Helms and a major financial resource within the conservative movement... Besides Viguerie, Phillips [Howard Phillips], and Dolan [ John T. (Terry) Dolan] connections, Helms is actively represented in Weyrich's [Paul Weyrich] coordinating groups. 17.

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