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East India Company, OSS/CIA and United Fruit in Draper Wedding Party


John Bevilaqua
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Americans siding with British in Revolutionary War

Who was represented at the Taft-Draper wedding party in 1917 with links to the British East India Company, the CIA, the OSS and Military Intelligence?

All of these products were staples of Clipper Ship trade between India, Great Britain and the USA except for the Railroads of course.

Cotton, Textiles, Shipping, Teas and Spices, Fruit and Sugar, Tobacco and Rum and of course, slaves, hundreds of thousands of slaves to serve the Cotton Pickin',

Textile Weavin' and Fabric Makin' Machinery and Mechanisms of the Draper and Preston Families from Massachusetts.

1) Cotton and Textiles from the Drapers, the Prestons and the Memphis, Tennessee Snowden families (Eben S. Draper, Jr., usher Mr. and Mrs. George Snowden, wedding party)

2) Spices and Teas from Perrin family, the original staples of the British East India Compay (Lee J. Perrin usher)

3) Fruit and Sugar from the Prestons and Drapers at Boston Fruit Company and United Fruit including Chiquita Bananas which sponsored

coups d'etat or attempts in Guatamala, Cuba and the Dominican Republic (Eben S. Draper, Jr. usher)

4) Tobacco from Angier P. Duke of the Duke and North Carolina RJR Tobacco interests where Draper plied his trade in involuntary sterilization at

Bowman Gray Medical School at Wake Forest and the Bowman and Boyden Grays later joined the O.S.S. and the C.I.A. (Angier P. Duke, usher)

5) The Vanderbilt Railroad Empire via the Vanderbilt Webbs and later Robert "Railroad" Ryan grandfather of Clendenin J. Ryan who funded YAF for Bill Buckley, Jr. and funded ISI

for Uliuss L. Amoss and Maj. Carleton S. Coon) Ryan, Amoss and Coon were forerunners of Mind Control and Programmed Assassins (James Watson Webb, usher)

6) Clipper Ships from the Higginson family (James Jackson Higginson, usher)

7) More Clipper Ships and of course, drug smuggling, via the Sturgis family from Boston (William J. Sturgis, usher)

Here are the known members of the Draper Wedding Party with links to the British East India Trading Company. Many of these families supported the British during

the American Revolution including some of the Drapers and Prestons...

James Watson Webb, Arthur McKinstrey, Reese D. Alsop, Wm. J. Sturgis, Lee J. Perrin, James Jackson Higginson, Angier P. Duke, Mr. and Mrs. George Snowden....

These New England merchant families founded the Bank of Boston and United Fruit Company (Boston Fruit Company) later owned by Nelson Rockefeller and delMonte.

When Jacobo Arbenz in Guatamala tried to nationalize United Fruit in 1954, Allen Dulles, E. Howard Hunt and others executed a coup d'etat and ousted Arbenz.

Through the sponsorship of the Barings and also the Rothschilds, a number of leading New England families, some of whom had sided with Great Britain during the American Revolution, were brought into the opium trade as junior partners. These merchant families ran fleets of clipper ships and became in many cases fabulously wealthy as the result of their association with the British East India Company. Among these key New England merchant families were: Cabot, Coolidge, Forbes, Higginson, Sturgis, Lodge, Lowell, Perkins and Russell.

These New England merchant families founded the United Fruit Company (started as the Boston Fruit Company of Andrew Preston, Draper's cousin) and the Bank of Boston.

The founding families of Skull & Bones included the Russell and Perkins families, Over several generations, however, all these families heavily intermarried and became, in effect, one extended power grouping.

(See: Wedding of Helen Draper to Walbridge Taft where James Jackson Higginson and William J. Sturgis, merchant families cited above here were Taft's ushers.)

William Huntington Russell incorporated Skull & Bones as the Russell Trust Association. Throughout the 20th century, the Russell Trust Association listed the New York City headquarters of Brown Brothers Harriman as its address.

Russell was valedictorian of his class at Yale in 1833.

He and his Skull & Bones comrades considered themselves to be a special elite among the merchant banking and Puritan pilgrim elite of Yale.

They took the Puritan beliefs of the early New England settlers, that they were "elected by God," and pre-ordained to rule North America.

The founding of Yale College in 1701 pre-dates the American Revolution by several generations. Many of the founders of Yale were righteous men of the Puritan heritage who devoutly believed in God and country. Some of these patriotic souls later made up the core of Benjamin Franklin's political coalition which ultimately broke with the mother country, Great Britain. Many graduates of Yale were active in the American Revolution and the founding of the United States.

Two critics of the Order, historian Antony Sutton and investigative journalist Ron Rosenbaum (himself a Yale graduate), both concluded that Skull & Bones has degenerated since its founding and has taken on more of the occult and ritualistic trappings of the majority of European freemasonic and Illuminati secret societies. Sutton charges that the Order is secretly known among its initiates as the "Brotherhood of Death" and has become an evil instrument in the hands of America's secret power elite. Rosenbaum claims that the society's Germanic origins are inherently wicked and pre-Nazi.

In a long 1977 article in Esquire magazine, Rosenbaum charged that the Skull & Bones building on the Yale campus houses remnants from Hitler's private collection of silver.

As members of the Skull and Bones Society, at one time the building on the Yale campus held bounty from the "tomb raiders" of the grave sites of Pancho Villa, Geronimo and several others. These included the actual skulls of such upstarts as Pancho Villa and Geronimo as warnings to those who would oppose the power elite from Yale.

While these stories cannot be dismissed out of hand, it must be noted that authors Rosenbaum and Sutton may be biased. As a young Jewish student at Yale, Rosenbaum was almost automatically excluded on religious grounds from the inner sanctum of the campus's secret societies. Sutton, a British-born eccentric historian, proudly admits his strong British biases, frequently citing philosopher John Stuart Mill as the spiritual mentor in his book on the Order.

Stephen Higginson (November 28, 1743 – November 28, 1828) was an American merchant and shipmaster from Boston, Massachusetts. He was a delegate for Massachusetts to the Continental Congress in 1783. He took an active part in suppressing Shays' Rebellion, was the author of the Laco letters (1789), and served the United States government as navy agent from May 11 to June 22, 1798. Although he was a privateer during the American Revolutionary War he became a "blue light", extreme-Federalist during the War of 1812 and was one of the most notorious members of the Essex Junto that changed and brought the once honorable party of Alexander Hamilton to a very disgraceful end.

and more, much more..

Yet another Clipper Ship Trade British East India Company Wedding....

Thomas B. Yuille

"A member of an old Southern family, Mr. Yuille was born in Halifax County, Va. As a young man he became associated with the American Tobacco Company at Durham, N.C. In 1901 he came to the company's office here and in 1912 became a vice president of the company. Mr. Yuille continued as vice president of American Tobacco until 1916, when he resigned. Soon afterward he became president of the Universal Leaf Tobacco Company. In 1923 he was elected president of the Tobacco Products Corporation. Organizations with which he had been affiliated at various times as a director were the United Retail Stores Corporation, American Machine and Foundry Company, United Drug Company, First and Merchants Bank of Richmond, Va., United States Trust Company of Newark, Tobacco Products Export Corporation, Universal Leaf Tobacco Comapny, Inc., and Knollwood Manor, Inc." (Thomas B. Yuille Dead At Age of 64. New York Times, Nov. 23, 1934.) He married Nannie Williams Long in 1894, when he was the American Tobacco Company's representative in Clarksville, Va. (Another Wedding in Henderson. Raleigh News and Observer, Oct. 31, 1894.) In 1907, he was the head of the leaf buying department. (Fierce Tobacco Rivalry. New York Times, Nov. 26, 1907.) Yuille, William P. Gilmour, and and Williamson W. Fuller were executors of the estate of John B. Cobb of Stamford. (Cobb Estate is $4182,708. New York Times, Oct. 18, 1923.) He had a joint brokerage account with C.C. Dula of Liggett & Myers Tobacco Co. His daughter, Ellen, married William J. Sturgis of Bronxville, N.Y., the son of Rev. Joseph R. Sturgis of Virginia. Angier B. Duke was best man, and the ushers were Philip O. Mills, A.J. Drexel Biddle Jr., James A. Blair Jr., George B. Glaenzer [s&B 1907], Theodore S. Watson, Walbridge S. Taft [Yale 1907], Theodore P. Dixon [s&B 1907], and his brother, J. Steele Sturgis of Chicago. Guests included J.F. Horan, Jaquelin P. Taylor, and Mr. and Mrs. Albert H. Wiggin. (Sturgis-Yuille Wedding. New York Times, Oct. 9, 1915; Miss Ellen Yuille Weds W.J. Sturgis. New York Times, Nov. 18, 1915.) She remarried to Chicago broker Wolcott Blair, son of Watson F. Blair, in 1926. His daughter, [susan] Burks Yuille, married Carroll Carstairs, Yale 1913, of New York and Philadelphia. (Miss Yuille Weds Carroll Carstairs. New York Times, Mar. 21, 1924.) Carroll Chevalier Carstairs was an art dealer in New York City. (Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased during the Year 1948-1949, p. 69.) His daughter, Nancy Yuille, married Viscount Adare. (Miss Nancy Yuille Wed in Palm Beach. New York Times, Mar. 8, 1934.) His daughter, Melissa, married William C. Whitney's nephew, Harry Payne Bingham, in 1937.

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Edited by John Bevilaqua
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See Tobacco, Tomahawks and Textiles posting from last year....

The American Tobacco Company

The anti-smoking conspiracy began over a century ago. Skull & Bones members ring-led the creation of the American Tobacco Trust, to gather all the companies under anti-smoker control. But they knew that they couldn't just take over the tobacco companies and shut them down, because others would simply enter the field. So, they also created and built up enemies to persecute tobacco, particlarly the American Cancer Society, the Harvard School of Public Health, and the American Heart Association, and used these as proxies to create and control the federal health establishment (the National Institutes of Health and National Cancer Institute, et al.) to manufacture fraudulent pseudo-science to deceive the public at taxpayer expense. The anti-smoker-controlled tobacco companies merely put up a phony pretense of fighting the anti-smoker-controlled "health" lobbies, and purposely throw lawsuits (that is, to those brought by the "right" plaintiffs) in order to financially intimidate potential entrants away from the tobacco industry.

The anti-smokers' fixation on James Buchanan Duke as the ruthless builder of the Tobacco Trust is just a smokescreen for the corrupt municipal railway and electricity barons, of whom William Collins Whitney (Skull & Bones 1863), was one. The whole gang of them was involved in the American Tobacco Company, and Whitney, with his main partner, Thomas F. Ryan, and his brother-in-law, Oliver H. Payne, played a central role. The Whitney's Northern Finance Corp. was a major stockholder at least until 1929.

The Whitney Family

"In 1884 James B. Duke moved to New York and opened a cigarette factory, intending to develop a tobacco market in the North. Shortly thereafter, he met Oliver Payne, who suggested that instead of fighting his North Carolina competitors, he buy them out. American Tobacco was the result." (Oliver Hazard Payne's business activities. Marist College Center for E-Business.) Payne himself had been the second largest refiner in Cleveland when Rockefeller bought him out, and he subsequently became one of the major partners of Standard Oil. In 1884, the partners began looking for ways to invest their money.

Oliver Hazard Payne's Business Activities / Marist College Center for E-Business

The company attributes American Tobacco's pricing to its use of the Bonsack machine, which other manufacturers declined to adopt. And: "J.B. Duke was then a handler of men, a professional executive rather than a financier. He owned far less than a controlling share in American Tobacco common. In 1897 Colonel Oliver Payne of Standard Oil cornered a working majority of the stock, and Duke told Payne he would sell his shares and start a new company if Payne's group desired it. Payne backed down and gave Duke a free hand from that point onward. Not that Duke was 'agin' the men who furnished capital. In fact, his principle motive was top bring into the American camp such well-connected men as Thomas Fortune Ryan, William C. Whitney, Anthony N. Brady and P.A.B. Widener." (Sold American! - The First Fifty Years. American Tobacco Company, 1954.)

Sold American!, 1954 / tobacco document

As for these "well-connected men:" Between about 1880 and 1905, "A single group of six men -- Yerkes, Widener, Elkins, Dolan, Whitney, and Ryan -- combined the street railways, and in many cases the lighting companies, of New York, Philadelphia, Chicago, Pittsburgh, and at least a hundred towns and cities in Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Ohio, Indiana, New Hampshire, and Maine. Either jointly or separately, they controlled the gas and electric lighting companies of Philadelphia, Reading, Harrisburg, Atlanta, Vicksburg, St. Augustine, Minneapolis, Omaha, Des Moines, Kansas City, Sioux City, Syracuse, and about seventy other communities. A single corporation developed nearly all the trolley lines and lighting companies of New Jersey, another controlled similar utilities in San Francisco and other cities on the Pacific Coast.... In New York, Thomas F. Ryan and William C. Whitney were the powerful, though invisible, powers in Tammany Hall... In Philadelphia, Widener and Elkins dominated the City Hall and also became part of the Quay machine of Pennsylvania." They made their fortunes in these fields through construction overcharges and stock market bubbles. (The Age of Big Business, A Chronicle of the Captains of Industry, by Burton J. Hendrick. Globusz Publishing. Chapter V, The Development of Public Utilities. Originally published in 1919 by Yale University Press.)

Hendrick / Globusz Publishing

(America's Sixty Families - The Public-Utility Background of Wilson's Backers. By Ferdinand Lundberg. Vanguard Press 1937 & 1938.) Other exploits of Brady, William L. Elkins, Rockefeller, Ryan, Whitney, and Widener, plus Charles Evans Hughes.

Lundberg / Conspiracy Theory Research Links Archive

"Thus in setting up the American Tobacco Company the artful allies Whitney and Ryan had begun by issuing to the public an initial capital of $10,000,000, which was increased in 1898 to $70,000,000; then finally, when they changed the company into a New Jersey corporation in 1909, they celebrated with a rousing capitalization of $180,000,000! According to one of the fantastic legends of Wall Street, Whitney and Ryan together had used little more than $50,000 in promoting the Tobacco Trust, and capturing its stock." (Chapter Sixteen, Concentration: The Great Trusts. In: The Robber Barons, by Matthew Josephson. Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1934.)

The Robber Barons, Ch. 16 / Yamaguchy

Richard Kluger in "Ashes to Ashes" (Alfred A. Knopf, 1996) strives to portray the Tobacco Trust as a one-man show of James Buchanan Duke. He claims that, in the 1890s, "everal of American Tobacco's ranking directors, Lewis Ginter among them, argued that Duke was acting rashly and squandering company capital in reaching for control of the entire tobacco universe. These rebels approached the Standard Oil multimillionaire Oliver H. Payne, by then a prominent Wall Street investor, and sought his aid to wrest control of American Tobacco. Payne had an audience with Duke, who persuaded him of the necessity of these slashing tactics that, in various forms, Standard Oil itself had pioneered. Payne came on board as an ally of Duke, not to check him." Kluger also implied that Union Tobacco, headed by Thomas Fortune Ryan with Payne's brother-in-law Whitney as a director, was a potential competitor of American Tobacco. While "Vowing his hatred of predatory trusts in general and Duke in particular," Ryan actually tricked Liggett & Myers, which had refused to sell out to American, into selling out to him instead. Then, Union promptly turned around and "came into the fold." This was no doubt the plan in the first place.

Directory of Cigarette Brands, 1864-1988

Directory of Cigarette Brands 1864-1988. F. Delman, A.M. Marion Jr., J Umana, K Sukhra, eds. Tobacco Manufacturers Association of the United States, Inc., 1989 (Second Edition).

Directory of Cigarette Brands 1864-1988 / tobacco document

The American Tobacco Company, incorporated in 1889

"The tobacco growers fear that it means an organized effort on the part of the great manufacturers of the country to control the price of leaf tobacco. The charter passed the two branches of the Virginia legislature Wednesday without attracting any special attention, and Gov. Lee signed it along with a big batch of others. An attempt will be made pass a repealing bill." The incorporators of the company in 1889 were Lewis Ginter, John Pope, Thomas M. Jeffries, Milton Cayce, and James M. Boyd, "all prominent and leading tobacconists of Richmond." (The American Tobacco Company. Raleigh News and Observer, Dec. 25, 1889.)

Lewis Ginter

"As some of our readers will be anxious to know who Maj. Ginter is, we will state that before the war he was a silk merchant in the city of Richmond, and in the pursuit of his business went occasionally to Europe, was in Paris the night of the Revolution in 1848, when Louis Philipe was dethroned and France declared free. The Major says things were stormy that night." He served with the Confederacy in the Civil War. After the war, he was in the banking business in New York City, until "Black Friday," when he returned to Richmond to manufacture tobacco and cigarettes. (The Pender Monument Fund. Raleigh News and Observer, Oct. 10, 1883.) In 1860, he was with the firm of Ginter, Alvey & Arents, which imported goods from Europe. (Domestic News Items. New York Herald, May 11, 1860.) "At a round table in the Waldorf cafe last evening four friends sat in quiet converse. One was recently from Richmond, and his apparent familiarity with the inside history of the American Tobacco company made him unusually interesting." The speaker said that Ginter "is a bachelor, about 75 years old and in a feeble condition. If he should die just now, goodby Tobacco Trust!" "He went into the Tobacco Trust with his eyes open and a tremendous price for his business, and next to Duke himself is the leading spirit of what threatened to become the greatest of monopolies. After Ginter comes his man, John Pope. For years... John Pope has been one of the biggest men in the American Tobacco company. He was recognized as the personal representative of Mr. Ginter, and was made vice-president. He arrived at his present prosperity in a rather peculiar way. When Mr. Ginter was selling dry goods and notions in White street he made it his business to become acquainted with every employe in his store, as well as with the cartmen and shippers. Among the latter was a good-natured chap of the name of Pope, to whom he took a great fancy. Pope used to jump off his wagon to rush in for such goods as the firm had to go by express, and Mr. Ginter never failed to pass a word or two with him. When the old gentleman went to Richmond he took Pope along and pushed him to the front." (Ginter and Pope. From the New York Press. Milwaukee Journal, Feb. 21, 1896.) Ginter resigned in 1897, reportedly after his propositions were overruled. (Major Ginter's resignation. New York Times, May 2, 1897.) "It is said that John Dunlap, of New York, is Lewis Ginter's greatest chum, and his legal advisor as well. Mr. Ginter is the richest man in Virginia, and is just now about to retire to private life. One day he visited Dunlap and made the acquaintance of the latter's nephew, a boy of 10 or 12 years. 'Wouldn't you like to have a pony?' he asked. 'I couldn't very well,' replied the youngster, 'because I have no place to keep him. But I would like some pictures.' He meant cigarette pictures. Mr. Ginter went to the factory and had a complete set of all the pictures that had ever been used in his cigarettes got together, and he sent it to his small friend with an injunction never to smoke." (The Daily Picayune, New Orleans, Jun. 14, 1897, p. 4, col. E.) "Major Ginter was born in New York City in 1820, descending from an old German family which came to this country nearly two centuries ago. He went to Richmond as a clerk when seventeen years old, and after a short time opened the 'Yankee Notion House,' which was a landmark to the older citizens of that community. He served as Quartermaster in the Confederate Army with the rank of Major, being then a wealthy and prominent business man.After the war he came to New York as a member of the brokers' firm of Harrison, Goddin & Co. All of his accumulations were swept away on 'Black Friday,' and he went back to Richmond without a dollar and started in the cigarette business. He formed a partnership with Joseph Allen, who was making cigarettes on a small scale, the firm of Allen & Ginter then employing about a dozen hands." (Death of Lewis Ginter. New York Times, Oct. 3, 1897.) He left his home to his nieces, the Misses Arents; his country home, Westbrook, to his sister, Mrs. Young; and his stock farm to George Arents. His brother and a niece and nephew in Missouri were also remembered. The total value was estimated at $7 to 8 million. (Will of the Late Maj. Ginter. Raleigh News and Observer, Oct. 7, 1897.)

John Pope

John Pope, vice president of the American Tobacco Company, was "not quite 40" when he died at Lewis Ginter's residence. His malady was said to be laryngitis, from which he had suffered for quite some time. He was born in Brooklyn, N.Y. When he was fourteen years old, Lewis Ginter "found him a check boy in a New-York express office," and he went to Richmond in 1872 or 1873 with Ginter. He had a brother in Richmond and three sisters in Brooklyn. (Obituary. Boston Daily Advertiser, Apr. 9, 1896; Obituary Record. New York Times, Apr. 9, 1896.) His estate was valued at $1,750,000. George Pope was the executor. (A Tobacco Millionaire's Will. Charleston, S.C. Weekly News and Courier, Apr. 15, 1896.) He left 500 shares of American Tobacco preferred and 1000 shares common, plus $25,000 in other securities to his sisters, and $150,000 each to his sisters and brother, with his brother as the residuary legatee. (Will of John Pope. New York Evening Post, Apr. 14, 1896.) His brother, George P. Pope, gave much of his wealth to the Catholic Church, and was made a Knight of the Order of St. Gregory by Pope Leo XIII in 1902. (George P. Pope Dead. New York Times, Nov. 27, 1917.) John Pope of Allen & Ginter Tobacco was a nephew of William Wilberforce Mann. Mann was working on a universal language when he died. His library and effects were left to Lewis Ginter, who had supplied him with money for several years. (The Dead Recluse. New York Times, Feb. 24, 1885.) Mann was born in New Hampshire in 1808, and his parents took him to Georgia when he was young. He lived in Paris during the 1848 revolution, and married a French woman by whom he had a daughter, Marion [or Maria]. (The Dead Recluse's Daughter. New York Times, Feb. 25, 1885; William Wilberforce Mann. Papers, 1825-1897. Accession 26673, Personal Papers Collection, The Library of Virginia, Richmond, Virginia.).

William Wilberforce Mann / University of Virginia

The American Tobacco Company, 1890

"The American Tobacco Company, chartered in New Jersey last week, is said to represent an immense cigarette trust. Allen & Ginter, of this city [Richmond], Duke & Son, of Durham, N.C., Kinney Brothers of New York and Richmond, Goodwin of New York, and Bonsack's Cigarette Machine Works, of Lynchburg, are in the combination." (The Deadly Cigarette. The Los Angeles Times, Jan. 4, 1890.) "The scheme was to admit George Arentz [sic] and Albert Young, both friends and family connections of Mr. Ginter, and other wealthy New Yorkers. The object of this charter, Mr. Pope says, was to enable the works to retain their local interest, and reinforced by abundant means to keep from being pressed into the cigarette trust now spreading its strong arms over the entire continent. It is suggested now that the purchase may have been in the interest of the combination, and this belief is supplemented by the fact that Gov. [James Edwin] Campbell, of Ohio, is reported to have recently introduced to Major Ginter a wealthy Englishman who was very anxious to get control of the works." It was said to have $25,000,000 of "mostly English money." The managers of Allen & Ginter in New York and William S. Kimball & Co. of Rochester, N.Y., denied that they had been sold to the trust. (A Great Tobacco Deal. Raleigh News and Observer, Jan. 5, 1890.) From the Baltimore Sun, Jan. 23: The New Jersey incorporators were Lewis Ginter and John Pope of Richmond, Va., George Arents and James B. Duke of N.Y., Benjamin N. Duke and George W. Watts of Durham, N.C., Francis W. Kinney of N.J., William H. Butler and Charles J. Emory of Brooklyn, and William S. Kimball of Rochester. (The Great Cigarette Syndicate. Daily Evening Bulletin, San Francisco, Jan. 31, 1890.) [The Virginia charter was reported to have been repealed on Feb. 1.] Charles Head & Co. and Cordley & Co. of Boston sought to buy the company's preferred stock. (Boston Daily Advertiser, May 26, 1890, p. 3.)

The published directorate: Lewis Ginter, Richmond, Va.; John Pope, First Vice President, Richmond Va.; George Arents, New York City; James B. Duke, President, New York City; Benjamin N. Duke, Durham, N.C.; George W. Watts, Durham, N.C.; Francis S. Kinney, Butler, N.J.; W.H. Butler, Secretary, Brooklyn, N.Y.; Charles G. Emery, Treasurer, Brooklyn, N.Y.; William S. Kimball, Second Vice President, Rochester, N.Y. Stephen Little was the Controller. The Farmers Loan and Trust Company of New York was its registrar. (American Tobacco Company Display Ad. Milwaukee Sentinel, June 3, 1890.)

American Tobacco Co., 1891-98

From the Baltimore Sun: American Tobacco bought Marburg Bros. and G.W. Gail & Ax of Baltimore in 1891. (A Deal in Tobacco. Raleigh News and Observer, Apr. 24, 1891.) The National Tobacco Company of Louisville and the Whitlock Company of Richmond also joined the trust. (American Tobacco Company. Daily Inter Ocean, Jan. 29, 1892.) Directors elected were William H. Butler, John Pope and George W. Watts for two years, Benjamin N. Duke and George Arents for one year, and George W. Gale and William A. Marburg additional directors for one year. (Millions rolling around. New York Times, Jan. 28, 1892.) Arents, Duke, Gail, and Josiah Brown were elected for one year, and Pope, Watts and Butler for two years. (American Tobacco Company; and: Stock Quote 4. New York Times, Feb. 15, 1894.) Arents, Duke, Gail and Brown were re-elected. (American Tobacco Company's Meeting. New York Times, Apr. 16, 1895.)

A grand jury indicted President James B. Duke and directors Butler, Marburg, Louis Ginter, Arents, Gail, Benjamin N. Duke, Watts, Brown, and Charles G. Emery, alleging that in April 1889, the Allen & Ginter, Duke, Sons & Co., McKinney & Co., William S. Kimball & Co., and Goodwin & Co. combined as the American Tobacco Co., and obliged retail customers not to buy from other manufacturers. The evidence was presented by the National Cigarette Company, which manufactured Admiral cigarettes. (Tobacco men under indictment. New York Times, May 8, 1896.) Joseph H. Choate and W.W. Fuller were attorneys for American Tobacco, while Assistant District Attorney John D. Lindsay represented the state. New York's anti-trust law amending the 1893 law was signed by Gov. Morton that May. Cases were pending in Illinois and New Jersey as well. (Tobacco trust rights. New York Times, Nov. 18, 1896.) Their demurrer was dismissed. (Tobacco men to be tried. New York Times, Jan. 23, 1897.) The defendants were represented by Daniel G. Rollins, W.W. Fuller and Lucien Oudin. District Attorney Olcott and his assistants Carpenter and Hardwicke represented the prosecution. (American Tobacco Company. New York Times, June 8, 1897.) Josiah Brown, the Secretary of American Tobacco, was the only defendant in attendance. In all forty ballots, ten jurors voted for conviction and two for acquittal. Those two had asked whether American sold more cigarettes than its constituent companies had before the combination. The case was discharged. (Tobacco jurors disagree. New York Times, June 30, 1897.) William H. Butler resigned from the directorate of the American Tobacco Company to become president of the Union Tobacco Company, and Harrison Drummond was elected to fill his place. (A Tobacco Competitor. New York Times, Dec. 9, 1898.)

Harrison I. Drummond, Yale 1890

Harrison Irwin Drummond (1869-1920), Yale Ph.B. 1890, was born in Alton, Ill. After graduation, he joined the Drummond Tobacco Company, founded by his father, James Thomas Drummond, in St. Louis. He became president after his father died. He became first vice president and a director of the Continental Tobacco Company when it absorbed Drummond. He retired in 1901 and returned to St. Louis, where he was a director of the Merchants-Laclede National Bank and the Mississippi Valley Trust Company, and President of the Drummond Realty Trust Company. He moved to Pasadena, Cal. in 1906, and helped organize the Security National Bank. He had two brothers who graduated from Yale, James T. Drummond 1896 S and Charles R. Drummond ex-1899 S.; and a son, Harrison, non-graduate 1919 S. (Obituary Record of Yale Graduates, 1920-1921, pp. 223-224.) James T. Drummond was a vice president of Drummond Tobacco until 1901, then joined his brother at the Drummond Realty until 1902. He joined Liggett & Myers Tobacco Co. in 1912, and was its southwestern sales manager. (Obituary Record of Yale Graduates 1925-1926, p. 251.)

Obituary Record of Yale Graduates, 1920-1921 / Yale University Library (pdf, 304 pp)

Obituary Record of Yale Graduates 1925-1926 / Yale University Library (pdf, 350 pp)

Benjamin N. Duke

Mrs. Benjamin N. Duke, Mrs. W.W. Fuller, Mrs. Walter H. Page, Mrs. Rufus L. Patterson and Mrs. T.B. Yuille were patronesses of the Noirth Carolina Society. (North Carolina Society Gives Dance. New York Times, Apr. 20, 1912.) Benjamin N. Duke was a brother of James B. Duke. His daughter, Mary L. Duke, married Anthony Joseph Drexel Biddle less than two months after her brother, Angier Buchanan Duke, married Cordelia Drexel Biddle, the bridegroom's sister. "The bridesmaids were the misses Ellen Yuille, Florence Gilbert, and Caroline Fuller of this city; Yvonne Townsend of Washington, D.C., and Lucy Stokes and Anna Branson of Durham, S.C. [sic]... The ushers included Maurice Burke Roche, Evans Russell Tucker Jr., Henry Nichols Tucker, William Sturgis and Edwin Kane of New York; Pierpont Schreiber of Short Hills, N.J.; De Benneville Bell, Reginald Hutchinson, and Alfred Putnam of Philadelphia; and Lawrence Villas of Chicago." The New York guests included Mr. and Mrs. Robert L. Dula, Mr. and Mrs. Oliver W. Harriman, Mr. and Mrs. George W. Hill, Mr. and Mrs. Percival S. Hill, Mr. and Mrs. Rufus L. Patterson, Mr. and Mrs. Clinton W. Toms, Mr. and Mrs. Henry W. Taft and his son, Walbridge S. Taft, and Mr. and Mrs. T.B.Yuille. The Philadelphia guests included Mrs. George Widener and Mr. and Mrs. Joseph E. Widener, and Mr. and Mrs. Henry A. Berwind. Other guests were Judge R.T.W. Duke, William Eskridge Duke and Miss Mary Duke of Charlottesville, Va., Mrs. A.H. Stokes of Durham, N.C.; and Perry Belmont of Washington, D.C. ($500,000 in Gifts At Biddle Wedding. New York Times, Jun. 17, 1915.)

$500,000 in Gifts At Biddle Wedding, 1915 / New York Times

Benjamin Duke's son, Angier Biddle Duke, drowned in 1923. He had established a trust fund for his wife and their two children in 1919. The securties included: 5,000 United Drug Company, $250,000; 1,000 United States Steel preferred, $116,137; 1,000 R.J. Reynolds Tobacco preferred, $113,500; 1,000 Weyman-Bruton Company preferred, $106,045; 320 George W. Helme Company preferred, $33,965; 700 American Snuff preferred, $66,895; and additional stocks worth $63,343. The Guaranty Trust Company was the trustee. (Accounting Filed in A.B. Duke Trust. New York Times, Oct. 5, 1924.)

Angier Biddle Duke Jr., the grandson of Benjamin N. Duke, married Priscilla St. George, the granddaughter of George F. Baker Jr. (~1878-1937). Barbara Field was a bridesmaid, and Marshall Field Jr. [4th] was an usher. The guest list was lengthy. (Priscilla St. George Is Married To Angier B. Duke in Tuxedo Park. New York Times, Jan. 3, 1937.) Barbara and Marshall Jr. were the children of Marshall Field 3d, who financed the stockholders of Tobacco and Allied Stocks in their takeover of Philip Morris.

Thomas B. Yuille

"A member of an old Southern family, Mr. Yuille was born in Halifax County, Va. As a young man he became associated with the American Tobacco Company at Durham, N.C. In 1901 he came to the company's office here and in 1912 became a vice president of the company. Mr. Yuille continued as vice president of American Tobacco until 1916, when he resigned. Soon afterward he became president of the Universal Leaf Tobacco Company. In 1923 he was elected president of the Tobacco Products Corporation. Organizations with which he had been affiliated at various times as a director were the United Retail Stores Corporation, American Machine and Foundry Company, United Drug Company, First and Merchants Bank of Richmond, Va., United States Trust Company of Newark, Tobacco Products Export Corporation, Universal Leaf Tobacco Comapny, Inc., and Knollwood Manor, Inc." (Thomas B. Yuille Dead At Age of 64. New York Times, Nov. 23, 1934.) He married Nannie Williams Long in 1894, when he was the American Tobacco Company's representative in Clarksville, Va. (Another Wedding in Henderson. Raleigh News and Observer, Oct. 31, 1894.) In 1907, he was the head of the leaf buying department. (Fierce Tobacco Rivalry. New York Times, Nov. 26, 1907.) Yuille, William P. Gilmour, and and Williamson W. Fuller were executors of the estate of John B. Cobb of Stamford. (Cobb Estate is $4182,708. New York Times, Oct. 18, 1923.) He had a joint brokerage account with C.C. Dula of Liggett & Myers Tobacco Co. His daughter, Ellen, married William J. Sturgis of Bronxville, N.Y., the son of Rev. Joseph R. Sturgis of Virginia. Angier B. Duke was best man, and the ushers were Philip O. Mills, A.J. Drexel Biddle Jr., James A. Blair Jr., George B. Glaenzer [s&B 1907], Theodore S. Watson, Walbridge S. Taft [Yale 1907], Theodore P. Dixon [s&B 1907], and his brother, J. Steele Sturgis of Chicago. Guests included J.F. Horan, Jaquelin P. Taylor, and Mr. and Mrs. Albert H. Wiggin. (Sturgis-Yuille Wedding. New York Times, Oct. 9, 1915; Miss Ellen Yuille Weds W.J. Sturgis. New York Times, Nov. 18, 1915.) She remarried to Chicago broker Wolcott Blair, son of Watson F. Blair, in 1926. His daughter, [susan] Burks Yuille, married Carroll Carstairs, Yale 1913, of New York and Philadelphia. (Miss Yuille Weds Carroll Carstairs. New York Times, Mar. 21, 1924.) Carroll Chevalier Carstairs was an art dealer in New York City. (Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased during the Year 1948-1949, p. 69.) His daughter, Nancy Yuille, married Viscount Adare. (Miss Nancy Yuille Wed in Palm Beach. New York Times, Mar. 8, 1934.) His daughter, Melissa, married William C. Whitney's nephew, Harry Payne Bingham, in 1937.

Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale, 1948-1949 / Yale University Library (pdf, 186 pp)

Continental Tobacco Co., 1898

Incorporators of the Continental Tobacco Company: James B. Duke, John B. Cobb, Harrison I. Drummond, Mark Leopold, Frank H. Ray, Herbert L. Terrell, Oliver H. Payne, Thomas Atkinson, Pierre Lorillard Jr., James B. Hughes, C.H. Faucette, Paul Brown, Basil Doerhoefer, Grant B. Schley, and Oren Scotten. (The Continental Tobacco Co. New York Times, Dec. 11, 1898.)

American Tobacco Co., 1900

Directors of American Tobacco, 1900: R.L. Patterson (Sec.), H.D. Lee (Treas.), J.B. Duke (Pres.), T.F. Jeffries (VP), B.N. Duke, T.W. Watts, George Arents, J. Doerhoefer, O.H. Payne, J.B. Cobb (VP), H.I. Drummond, P.A.B. Widener, T.F. Ryan, Anthony N. Brady, W.W. Fuller, W.R. Harris (VP). (Moody's Manual of Industrial and Miscellaneous Securities, First Annual Number, 1900. John Moody, Editor. ?.C. Lewis Co.)

ATC, Moody's Manual, 1900 / tobacco document

Peter Doerhoefer

Peter Doerhoefer, "the Nestor of the immense tobacco manufacturing interests of Louisville," was born at Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany. He married Katherine Siebel and came to America in 1851. He opened a butcher shop in New Albany, then began to manufacture plug tobacco, and moved to Louisville in 1861. John and Basil Doerhoefer were his sons. (Death List of a Day. New York Times, Sep. 19, 1902.)

The Universal Tobacco Company, 1901-1904

William H. Butler, an organizer of the American Tobacco Company in 1890, and brother, George P. Butler, founded the Universal Tobacco Company, out of whose remains the Butler & Butler Tobacco Company was formed, and then acquired by American Tobacco. In 1912, he and his brother bought the Surbrug Company, manufacturing smoking tobacco in Hoboken, N.J., and the Khedivial Company, manufacturing cigarettes. The Tobacco Products Corporation was founded on this, which later acquired the New York City branch of Philip Morris.

The Tobacco Products Corporation

Consolidated Tobacco Co., 1901

The Consolidated Tobacco Company was formed in 1901 to take over the common stock of the American and Continental Tobacco Companies. Directors were James B. Duke, Oliver H. Payne, Thomas F. Ryan, J.R. Cobb, W.W. Fuller, Grant B. Schley, Frank H. Ray, Anthony N. Brady, C.C. Dula, William R. Harris, P.A.B. Widener, Percival S. Hill, B.N. Duke, and Charles E. Halliwell. (Consolidated Tobacco Co. New York Times, June 7, 1901.) The American Snuff Company and the American Cigar Company were added as well. (Tobacco Trust Attacked. New York Times, May 29, 1902.) In the Northern Securities litigation, "It was recalled, as a coincidence, by some of those present, that on June 20 W. Bourke Cockran called the attention of District Attorney Jerome to failure to answer questions on the part of the Consolidated Tobacco Company. In reply to that letter De Lancey Nicoll also addressed the District Attorney, in the course of which letter he said, concerning the formation of the Consolidated Tobacco Company: 'All of the stockholders except those holding 12,000 shares of the American Tobacco Company, and an even larger proportion of the Continental Tobacco Company, accepted the offer and exchanged their stock for bonds. Most of these 12,000 shares were then assembled into a pool or a syndicate, on behalf of which four suits have been brought which, fom one standpoint or another, attack the validity of the American Tobacco Company's offer to purchase. Most of the persons interested in this pool are also connected with the Universal Tobacco Company, organized by Messrs. Cockran, William H. Butler, abnd others, as a rival for the American Tobacco Company in April 1901 and the suits which have are all under the direction or control of Mr. Cockran and his associates, one of whom at least is a gentleman well known in the financial world as a promoter of strike litigation.'" [strike litigation constituted suits filed in order to reap a settlement.] (Got Stock Free To Bring Merger Suit. New York Times, Aug. 16, 1902; Tobacco Trust Case Submitted to Mr. Jerome. New York Times, Jun. 21, 1902.)

Charles E. Halliwell

In January 1899, the majority of stock of the Liggett & Myers Tobacco Co. was sold to Mr. Butler of the Union Tobacco Company by Moses C. Wetmore, Charles E. Halliwell, Samuel T. McCormick, Mrs. Claude Kilpatrick, Mrs. John Fowler, and Mrs. John E. Liggett for $6.5 million cash. Wetmore was to continue as president and general manager for five years, and George S. Myers kept his shares. (Big Tobacco Deal. Morning Oregonian, Feb. 5, 1899.) Mrs. Charles E. Halliwell, wife of the First Vice President of the Continental Tobacco Company, was the daughter of James Ayres Brown, "a leading merchant of London." (Obituary Notes. New York Times, Mar. 13, 1902.) Their daughter Mabel married Holland Sacket Duell, Yale 1902, a lawyer from Syracuse. (Weddings of a Day. New York Times, Sep. 30, 1904.) Halliwell fell ill in 1905 and married his nurse, Miss Ruth Alice Cole. "In the American Tobacco Company Mr. Halliwell is second in importance only to James B. Duke. He is also a director of the American Peat Fuel Company, the American Snuff Company, Automatic Weighing Machine Company, International Cigar Machine Company, Kentucky Tobacco Product Company, Luhrman & Wilbern Tobacco Company, and the P. Lorillard Company. He is 55 years old, and his wealth has been estimated at $20,000,000." (Charles E. Halliwell Weds. New York Times, Oct. 5, 1906.) "Mr. Halliwell was in control of the Leggitt [sic] & Meyers Tobacco Company, in St. Louis, when James B. Duke set out to combine the big tobacco concerns," and made Halliwell an officer of the American Tobacco Company. He was said to be 50 years old. (Charles Halliwell Dead. Washington Post, May 7, 1907.) In 1909, C.E. Halliwell had $600 in dividends of American Tobacco preferred stock unclaimed since 1904. (American Tobacco Co., Fiscal Statement, Dec. 31, 1921.)

American Tobacco Co., Fiscal Statement, Dec. 31, 1921 / tobacco document

His widow married William Porter, who began as a cotton broker in Louisville, then "allied himself with the National Tobacco Company and then with the American Tobacco Company, becoming general manager of the sales department in this city. In 1903, Porter gave up the tobacco business, becoming a member of the Stock Exchange firm of Perkins, Erickson & Co." (Stock Exchange Man Hurt in Auto Wreck. New York Times, May 25, 1911.) Porter died, and she married Warren Clark Van Slyke, a well-known lawyer. She had received a quarter of Halliwell's $5 million estate in trust, with half to his daughter and a quarter to his son, Walter S. Halliwell. (Mrs. Porter to Wed Again. New York Times, Jun. 20, 1913.) Holland S. Duell's daughter Helen, Vassar 1927, married Thomas Witter Chrystie, Columbia 1924. (Holland Sackett Duell, B.A. 1902. Bulletin of Yale University. Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased during the Year 1942-1943, pp. 75-76.). They were the parents of American Health Foundation trustee Thomas L. Chrystie. (Mrs. Thomas W. Christie, Women's Civic Leader, 57. New York Times, Oct. 28, 1963.)

Yale Obituary Record 1942-1943 / Yale University Library (pdf, 312 pp)

De Lancey Nicoll

De Lancey Nicoll, The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1910 / Google Books

American Tobacco Company acquires the Cuban trade, 1902

London newspapers claimed that George P. Butler of the Universal Tobacco Company acquired the Henry Clay & Bock Tobacco Company and the Havana Commercial Company. (Rival for Tobacco Trust. New York Times, Jan. 25, 1902.) However, The American Tobacco Company acquired the Havana Commercial Company, Henry Clay & Bock Tobacco Company, and H. de Cabanas y Carbajol Company, the three largest companies dealing in Cuban cigars and tobaccos, and incorporated them as the Havana Tobacco Company in New Jersey. H.B. Hollins & Co. had a large interest in the Havana Commercial Company. (Tobacco Trust in Cuba. New York Times, May 29, 1902.)

[James Coleman] Ford Huntington of Louisville, Ky., Scroll & Key 1891, was secretary-treasurer of the Havana Tobacco Company in 1901. He left to become treasurer and a vice president of the New York Telephone Company until retiring in 1931. His brother, Robert Palmer Huntington, Scroll & Key 1891, was with Drexel, Morgan & Co. from 1891-1895, then Hoppin, Koen & Huntington, architects. (Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased during the Year 1948-1949, p. 19.) Stephen Whitney and Beekman Hoppin were ushers at Robert Palmer Huntington's marriage to Helen Gray Dinsmore. Mrs. Levi P. Morton, the wife of the vice president, was one of the guests. (Huntington-Dinsmore. New York Times, Jun. 2, 1892.) His daughter married Vincent Astor, son of John Jacob Astor who died in the Titanic disaster. "The wedding marked the uniting of two families of great wealth. Mr. Astor, following his father's death, came into the possession of estates valued at $65,000,000, and his bride is the granddaughter of the late William B. Dinsmore, a multi-millionaire... Her grandfather on the maternal side was Alvin Adams, founder of the Adams Express company." (Vincent Astor Weds Helen Huntington. New York Times, May 1, 1914.) After the Astors were divorced, she married Lytle Hull, son of Mrs. George Huntington Hull of Louisville, Ky., whose mother was also a Huntington. Her ex-husband married Mary Benedict Cushing, daughter of Dr. Harvey Cushing, the year before. (Mrs. Astor Is Wed to Florida Broker. New York Times, Apr. 16, 1941.) Her sister, Alice, married Charles H. Marshall. Her sister and Mrs. Marshall Field 3d were matrons of honor, and Marshall Field 3d was best man. Cole Porter was one of the ushers. (Alice Huntington One of Many Brides. New York Times, Jun. 3, 1917.)

Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale, 1948-1949 / Yale University Library (pdf, 186 pp)

William B. Dinsmore Jr. married Marion De Peyster Carey, whose stepfather was Richard Delafield. His ushers were Frederic Foster Carey, Frederick Prime Delafield, Valentine G. Hall, Oliver S. Campbell, L. Frederic Holbrook Betts, Dexter Blagden, Frederic Huntington, and Nathaniel Thayer Robb. (Many Bright Weddings. New York World, Jun. 5, 1905.)

British-American Tobacco, 1902

The first board of directors of the British-American Tobacco Company: Sir William Henry Wills, J.B. Duke, J.B. Cobb, H.H. Wills, W.R. Harris, C.E. Lambert, W.W. Fuller, W.G. Player, C.C. Dula, Hugo von R. Cunliffe Owen, Percival S. Hill, Thomas Gracey, W.B. Ogden, Thomas Ogden, R.H. Walters, P.R. Walters, Percy Ogden, and Harold Roberts. J.B. Duke, R.H. Walters, and Thomas Ogden joined the board of the Imperial Tobacco Co. (The Tobacco War Ended. New York Times, Sep. 28, 1902.)

B.A.T. Industries An historical note, by Laurie Dennett, 1987.

Dennett, 1987 / tobacco document

AT in 1906: "Of the common stock, $35.5 million [of $40.2 million] was owned by fifty-two people, and the ten largest stockholders owned 63%. These included six directors - James and Benjamin Duke, Thomas Fortune Ryan, Anthony Brady, O.H. Payne and P.A.B. Widener - along with the Wall Street firm of Moore & Schley, Grant B. Schley himself, and the Whitney and Elkins estates. Among those owning $100,000 or more in common stock were Percival Hill, George Arents, R.J. Reynolds, Pierre Lorillard and R.A. Patterson, originator of the Lucky Strike smoking tobacco." (Sold American! American Tobacco Company, 1954, p.37.)

AT in 1906, Sold American!, 1954 / tobacco document

William James Wallace of the Central Trust-associated Butler law firm represented the American Tobacco Company in the Sherman Anti-Trust suit. Another attorney for American was De Lancey Nicoll, whose sister later married Thomas F. Ryan.

Oral Argument of De Lancey Nicoll , U.S. v. American Tobacco Co. and others, 1910 / tobacco document

U.S. Supreme Court, U.S. v. American Tobacco Co., 221 U.S. 106 (1911) / FindLaw.com

U.S. Marshalls served papers on James B. Duke, Caleb C. Dula, Percival Hill, Thomas J. Maloney, William R. Harris, William H. McAllister, Benjamin N. Duke, Herbert D. Kingsbury, William W. Fuller, Robert C. Dula, George C. Allen, and Rufus L. Patterson at the office of the American Tobacco Company. Thomas F. Ryan, Anthony N. Brady, H.M. Hanna, Pierre Lorillard, Grant B. Schley, P.A.B. Widener and a half dozen others were out of town. (Tobacco men subpoenaed. New York Times, July 19, 1907.)

American Tobacco Company, 1911

"Court Convinced of Correctness of Its Construction of Sherman Acts as Applied to the Standard Oil Company - Finds Undisputed Facts Sufficient to Convict Tobacco Company - Court Below to Control Trust's Dissolution." (Reaffirms Rule of Reason in Tobacco Trust Case. New York Times, May 30, 1911.) SIC. The strange antics of the Butler brothers and their friends seem to have escaped the Court's notice. They are not among the 29 defendants.

Opinion Nos. 118 and 119, U.S. vs. American Tobacco Co., May 29, 1911 / tobacco document

The Directors and four others owned 77% of the common stock: A.N. Brady 33,334 shares; O.H. Payne 33,334; P.A.B. Widener 33,000; Moore & Schley 31,452; Thomas F. Ryan 30,000; W.C. Whitney estate 29,034; J.B. Duke 25,000; B.N. Duke 14,000; W.L. Elkins estate 13,233; G.B. Schley 12,200. Most also held large amounts of preferred stock. Other holders of common stock: Gertrude Whitney 6,667; W.R. Harris 6,567; G.W. Watts 6,500; H.M. Hanna 5,500; Paul Brown 5,200; C.E. Halliwell, 4,600; C.C. Dula 4,108; R.B. Dula 4,100; J.B. Cobb 4,002; W.W. Fuller 4,000; S. Siegman 3,350; H.P. Whitney 3,300; W.B. Dickerman 3,035; P.S. Hill 2,427; George Arents 2,300; R.K. Smith 2,000; C.N. Strotz 2,000; Sidmon McHir 1,933; Homan & Co. 1805; W.H. McAlister 1,800; Wolf Bros. & Co. 1,575; George Blumenthal 1,470; C.A. Griscom 1,433; B.H. Homan 1,334; R.J. Reynolds 1,333; R.A.C Smith 1,333; P. Lorillard 1,300; Dominick & Dominick 1,230; T.J. Maloney 1,167; R.L. Patterson 1,100; Charles D. Barney & Co., James G. Butler, G.D. Casilear, Sarah P. Duke, Laura M. Kimball, D.S. Lamont estate, S.I. Peters, A.W. Smith, J.H. Smith, Mrs. A. Woerishoeffer, F.B. Mitchell, and M.E. Dickerman, 1,000 each. "Those named owned together 355,065 shares out of a total outstanding of 402,424 shares, par value $40,242,200." The preferred stock amounted to $78,089,100. The company's lawyers included W.W. Fuller, De Lancey Nicoll, Lewis Cass Ledyard, and Alton B. Parker. (Tobacco Plan Goes Now Before Court. New York Times, Aug. 25, 1911.)

Robert A.C. Smith

"Robert A.C. Smith was born at Dover, England, on Feb. 22, 1857, son of Gilbert and Emily Smith. When he was two years old, the family moved to Cadiz, Spain. He attended school there until he was 13 and then went to school in Folkestone and London. In 1874 he came to New York for a visit, and because of his Spanish education and business training he accepted the offer of a position from the firm of Lyles and Gilston, dealers in railway supplies, principally with Cuba and Latin America." He was involved in railway and electrification projects in Cuba and Latin America," and later in Connecticut and Westchester County, N.Y. His shipping company transported Spanish prisoners during the Spanish-American War [as President of the American Mai8l Steamship Co.], and he was Commissioner of Docks in New York City 1913-1918. He was a director of the Metropolitam Street Railway Company when Thomas F. Ryan controlled it; the American Tobacco Company, the White Rod Mineral Springs Co., Ward line of Steamships, Albany & Hudson Railroad, American Surety Company, Chicago Union Traction Company, Internation Banking Company, American Agricultural Chemical Company and many Cuban companies. "Mr. Smith was credited with having much influence with the McKinley administration and especially with Elihu Root," at the time he became involved in Cuba. (R.A.C. Smith Dies At 76 in England. New York Times, Jul. 28, 1933.) In 1884, he represented the Metal Exchange at the N.Y. Cahmber of Commerce, whose issues included the tariffs on tobacco. (Explaining the Treaty. New York Times, Dec. 13, 1884.) Smith was a leading member of the syndicate of William C. Whitney, Skull & Bones 1863, that took over the State Trust Company. (Loans of State Trust Company. New York Times, Jan. 14, 1900.) The State Trust was merged into the Morton Trust. (The State Trust to Be Absorbed. New York Times, Feb. 2, 1900.) Smith had ties to Cuban President Tomas Estrada Palma. (What Mr. Palma Will Do. New York Times, Apr. 17, 1902.) He joined in the birthday celebration of "Dynamite Johnny" O'Brien, "the man who had sneaked more dynamite into South American countries desirous of internal explosions than any other of record," at the Hotel McAlpin. ('Dynamite Johnny' Honored By Cuba. New York Times, Apr. 21, 1917.) His niece, the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. George A. Williams, married John Fraser Stokes, son of Dr. Charles S. Stokes, former Surgeon General of the U.S. Navy. (Stokes-Williams Wedding. New York Times, Feb. 2, 1917.) He was a director of the Bank of America during the takeover contest. (Battle for Control of Bank of America is Taken Into Court. New York Times, Jan. 19, 1927.) He was a director of the Southern National Bank, of which tobacco merchant Isaac Rosenwald was president and largest individual stock owner. (Many Changes in National Banks. New York Times, Jan. 10, 1894.) His son-in-law, Irvin W. Day, and the Bankers Trust Company were executor and trustee of his will. (R.A.C. Smith Left Estate to Family. New York Times, Aug. 17, 1933.) His net estate was $4,798,417. (Frothingham Left $55,680 in Books. New York Times, Apr. 24, 1937.) Irvin W. Day (Cornell 1916) was Smith's daughter's second cousin. His father. J. Francis Day, was president of the Utica Trust Company. (Miss Smith's Wedding. New York Times, Sep. 9, 1913.) J. Francis Day was secretary of the Utica Trust and Deposit Company when it was organized in 1899 with James H. Sherman, later Vice President of the United States under William H. Taft. (J. Francis Day. New York Times, Jan. 13, 1941.) R.A.C. Smith was a director of the Union Tobacco Company in 1898-99, and he was a guest at Thomas F. Ryan's tobacco summit dinner in 1916.

After the breakup of the American Tobacco Company, its Preferred Stock was deposited at the Central Trust. The Committee was J.N. Wallace, Chairman; Frederick Strauss, Charles D. Norton, Harry Bronner, and Ernest Iselin; F.L. Babcock, Secretary, and Adrian H. Larkin, Counsel. American Tobacco Company Bonds were deposited at the Guaranty Trust. (Display Ad 17. New York Times, Aug. 2, 1911 p. 11.) Charles D. Norton was a Vice President of the First National Bank. As of Dec. 31, 1911, the American Tobacco Company had $26,750,742.63 in cash accounts, including $6,737,506.69 at the Guaranty Trust Co., $4,349,521.51 at the Farmers Loan & Trust Co., $3,326,049.64 at the Central Trust Co., $2,500,000.00 at J.P. Morgan & Co., and $2,303,628.00 at the National City Bank, and amounts between one and two million dollars at the Chase National Bank, the National Shawmut Bank, the National Bank of Commerce, and the Fourth Street National Bank; and lesser amounts at other banks. (Fiscal Statements, The American Tobacco Co., Dec. 31, 1911.)

ATC Fiscal Statements, Dec. 31, 1911 / tobacco document

Breakup of American Tobacco, 1912

James B. Duke resigned as president of the American Tobacco Company, and became head of the British-American Tobacco Co. He was replaced by Percival S. Hill, former president of the American Cigar Company and Vice President of American. The new directors of American Tobacco were M.W. Reed, T.J. Walker, J.M.W. Hicks, J. Fletcher, P.J. Hanlon, J.T. Wilcox, M.C. Patterosn, E.S. Edwards, George W. Hill, and W.H. O'Brien. Edwards, Hanlon, George W. Hill, Patterson, and T.B. Yuille were elected Vice Presidents, and Junius W. Parker succeeded Williamson W. Fuller as general counsel. Of the original 27-member board, seven resigned to go with P. Lorillard and Liggett & Myers. C.C. Dula, R.B. Dula, R.D. Lewis, and W.R. Irby became directors of L&M, and T.J. Maloney, Herbert D. Kingsbury, and R.K. Smith joined the board of Lorillard. Dula became President of L&M, and Maloney the President of Lorillard. (Duke Goes Out As American Tobacco Head. New York Times, Feb. 15, 1912.) In 1922, these three firms were accused of conspiring with numerous jobbers' associations to keep tobacco prices high, while R.J. Reynolds was exonerated (Tobacco Price Plot Laid to Three Big Firms. New York Times, Jan. 19, 1922.)

American Tobacco Company, 1917

Major stockholders in the American Tobacco Company in 1917: Estate of A.N. Brady [misspelled "Brandy"], p.8; J.B. Duke, p.32; Estate of Mrs. W.L. Elkins, p.35; L.C. Ledyard & P. Whitney, p.73; Moore & Schley, p. 88; Northern Finance Corp., p. 95; O.H. Payne, p. 99; T.F. Ryan, p.112; A.L. Sylvester, p. 128; Western Reserve University, p. 142; H.P. Whitney, p. 148. Directors: James C. Brady, John C. Engelhard, Daniel Hall, Percival S. Hill, George W. Hill, Charles S. Keene, Julius H. Mahler, Walter B. O'Brien, Charles A. Penn, Morton W. Reed, Allis L. Sylvester, and Josiah T. Wilcox, pp. 154-6.

ATC Directors' Minutes #18, Mar. 14, 1917 / tobacco document

Charles A. Penn

Charles Ashby Penn, born 1868 in Patrick County, Va., was the son of the founder of the F.R. Penn Tobacco Company, where he was employed until it was taken over by the American Tobacco Company in 1912. He was involved in the creation of Lucky Strike cigarettes in 1916. (C.A. Penn Is Dead; Expert on Tobacco. New York Times, Oct. 23, 1931.) According to American Tobacco's tributes, F.R. Penn Tobacco was acquired in 1903. Charles A. Penn was its active head, and he became a director of American Tobacco in 1914 and vice president in 1916, and continued in these offices until his death. (Charles Penn Is Lauded in Resolutions. Danville, Va. Bee, Oct. 30, 1931.)

In 1918, Ryan, Brady, and Widener were among the 30 richest Americans. (The First Rich List. B.C. Forbes, Sep. 27, 2002.)

Thomas F. Ryan / Forbes 2002

Brady & Widener / Forbes 2002

American Tobacco Company, 1919

Directors of the American Tobacco Company elected for a one-year term on March 12, 1919: James C. Brady, Frederic W. da Costa, Daniel Hall, Percival S. Hill, George W. Hill, Charles S. Keene, James E. Lipscomb, Julius H. Mahler, Charles F. Neiley, Walter H. O'Brien, Charles A. Penn, Morton W. Reed, A. L. Sylvester, Josiah T. Wilcox. (The American Tobacco Company, Series C 1, (B-14) Minute Book #23.)

The American Tobacco Company, 1919 / tobacco document

American Tobacco Company, 1920

Some large stockholders in March 1920: N.W. Aldrich 2050 pfd; G. Arents Jr. 3200 pfd, 950 com; Annie A. Arents, Farmers Loan & Trust, trustee, 1360 pfd; D. Humphries U W of G. Arents, Farmers Loan & Trust, trustee, 2630 pfd; Estate of A.N. Brady 7401 pfd; P. Brown 2000 pfd 3000 com; Citizens Savings & Trust Co. 1900 pfd; E.W. Clucas 1200 pfd; J.P. Dalton 7925 com; Denny, Pomroy & Co. 2935 pfd; M.H. Duell 1670 com; Estate of Wm. L. Elkins 10000 pfd, 12500 com; Harriman & Co. 7500 com; G.H. Haskell 4600 pfd; J.W.W. Hicks 1200 pfd; P.S. Hill 1412 com; Mrs. A.L. Hill 1400 com; G.W. Hill 2150 com; T. Hitchcock 1500 pfd; J.P. Hoes 1179 pfd; Home Insurance Co. 2000 pfd; M.P. Jacobs 3300 pfd; L.M. Kimball 4402 pfd; L.N. Kramer 1000 pfd; Lakeside Hospital 1190 pfd; Lindenwood Female College 3544 pfd; Maben & Co. 1215 pfd; A. Marburg 1140 pfd; G.G. Mason 2000 pfd; Melville Securities Co. 6300 pfd; Mercantile Trust Co. 1600 pfd; E.C. Moore Jr. 1000 pfd; Wm. P. Morgan 1200 com; Municipal Gas Co. of the City of Albany 1166 pfd; Northern Finance Corp. 20340 pfd; J.W. Ogden 2000 pfd; J.H. Ottley 1000 pfd; U.W. of O.H. Payne for O.C. Paget 1317 pfd; U.W. of O.H. Payne for D.W. Paget 1317 pfd; S.T. Peters 1000 com; C.R.R. Putnam 1000 pfd; Wm. H. Sage 3000 pfd 700 com; St. Louis Children's Hospital of St. Louis, Mo. 1047 pfd; Mrs. H. Schroder 500 pfd 507 com; C. Soby 1434 pfd; A.L. Sylvester 2000 com; M.E.W. Terrell 1000 pfd; O.W. Watts 7000 pfd; Western Reserve University 2366 pfd; L.P. Witte 2802 pfd; J.A. Woolley 1200 pfd. 526,997 preferred shares and 402,242 common had equal voting power. There were 8814 stockholders. Directors were Frederic M. da Costa, George W. Hill, Percival S. Hill, Charles S. Keene, James E. Lipscomb, Julius H. Mahler, Charles F. Nalley, Walter H. O'Brien, Charles A. Penn, Morton W. Reed, A.L. Sylvester, Josiah T. Wilcox, Thomas W. Harris, and Tullis T. Harkrader. (The American Tobacco Company, Series C 1, (B-15) Minute Book #24, pp. 74-144.)

The American Tobacco Company, 1920 / tobacco document

American Tobacco Company, 1924

Major stockholders in 1924: E.B. Aldrich etc.; A.A. Arents and G.J. Arents, Jr; H.M. Arnold, p.4; Paul Brown, p.9; Estate of A.N. Brady, p.10; William L. Elkins Trust, p.19; Farmers' Loan & Trust Co., p.20; G.H. Haskell, p.26; A.W. Hill; Mrs. Hill, p.28; M.P. Jacobs, p.30; N.S Jonas, p.31; G.G. Mason, p.39; Moore & Schley, p.41; H.E. Mumford, p.42; Northern Finance Corp., p.44; Paine, Webber & Co., p.45; P.B. Reuter, p.49; Safe Deposit & Trust Co. of Baltimore; A.G.C. Sage, p. 53; L.D. Smith & Co., p.55; Mrs. S.V. Watts; H.P. Whitney; the P.A.B. Widener Estate, p.63; L.P. Witte, p.65. Directors: Frederic M. da Costa (Aud), Tullis T. Harkrader, Thomas W. Harris, George W. Hill, Percival S. Hill, Charles S. Keens, James E. Lipscomb, Julius H. Mahler, Arthur C. Mower, Charles F. Neiley, Paul A. Noell, Charles A. Penn, A.L. Sylvester, Jesse R. Taylor (Treas), p.71.

ATC Directors' Minutes #30, 1924 / tobacco document

American Tobacco Company, 1926

Directors elected April 7, 1926, for one year: John E. Archbell, Donald Geddes, Tullis T. Harkrader, Thomas W. Harris. George W. Hill, Charles S. Keene, James E. Lipscomb, Arthur C. Mower, Charles F. Neiley, Paul A. Noell, Junius Parker, Charles A. Penn, James H. Perkins, A.L. Sylvester, Jesse R. Taylor. (American Tobacco Company Minute Book, Series B1 C-24, pp. 161-163.) Perkins was the President of the Farmers Loan and Trust Company of New York.

ATC Directors' Minutes, 1926 / tobacco document

Stockholders, ATC Directors' Minutes, 1926 / tobacco document

Donald Geddes

Donald Grant Geddes joined Clark, Dodge & Co. after it merged with his original firm, Chase & Higgins. He was a general partner of the firm from 1899 to 1939, and a limited partner until his death. He became a member of the New York Stock Exchange in 1899, and was a member of the Exchange's Board of Governors from 1904 to 1922, and an advisory governor from 1934 to 1937, when he gave up his seat; then he held a seat again from 1942 to 1945. He was a director of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad, the American Tobacco Company, Consolidated Edison, International Mercantile Marine, Chemical Bank and Trust Company, Western Union Telegraph Company and Celanese Corporation of American. (Donald G. Geddes, Broker 59 Years. New York Times, New York Times, Nov. 19, 1949.) His father-in-law, Eugene Lascelles Maxwell, was a member of the railway machinists' supply firm of Manning, Maxwell & Moore. (The Obituary Record. New York Times, Feb. 11, 1895; A Day's Weddings. New York Times, Nov. 2, 1899.) Donald Geddes joined the board of the St. Paul railroad after Peter Geddes retired. William Rockefeller was a longtime director. (St. Paul Re-Elects Board. New York Times, Sep. 29, 1912.) Donald G. Geddes and the United States Trust Company were trustees of the trusts for William Rockefeller's daughters, Mrs. Geraldine Rockefeller Dodge and Mrs. Emma Rockefeller McAlpin. (Report on Estate of William Rockefeller. Jan. 28, 1939.) His son, Gerald Maxwell Geddes, was with Clark, Dodge & Co. until his retirement, and his son Eugene M. Geddes was board chairman of Clark, Dodge. (Judith Hariss Wed to Broker. New York Tmes, Oct. 3, 1972.) Clark, Dodge & Co. was acquired by Kidder, Peabody in 1974, and E. Maxwell Geddes Jr. became a vice president of Kidder, Peabody. (Sara Geddes Has Wedding. New York Times, May 31, 1987.)

American Tobacco Company, 1929

Major stockholders of ATCO in 1929: W.L. Elkins Estate, p.10; Fidelity, Phila. Tr. Co., p.12; Farmers' Loan & Tr. Co., p.11; A.W., G.W., C.M., and J.S. Hill, p.28; A. Iselin & Co., p.32; N.Y. Life Ins. Co. and NY Botanical Garden, p.55; Northern Finance Corp., p.56; C.A. Penn, p. 60; A.L. Sylvester, p.81; P.A.B. Widener Estate, p.93. Directors: John K. Fletcher, Donald Geddes, Thomas W. Harris, Tullis T. Harkrader, Frank W. Harwood, George W. Hill, Charles S. Keens, James E. Lipscomb Jr., Arthur C. Mower, Charles P. Neiley, Junius Parker, Charles A. Penn, James H. Perkins, Vincent Riggio, William D. Stocks, and Thomas R. Taylor, pp.102-4.

ATC Directors' Minutes #37, 1929 / tobacco document

American Tobacco Company, 1930s

Edward Lasker and American Tobacco: "Mr. Lasker attended St. Albans School in Washington, D.C., while his father [Albert D. Lasker] was chairman of the United States Shipping Board. He was graduated from Phillips Exeter Academy and in 1933 from Yale University. Following his graduation from Yale he was associated with J. Wix, London, the English branch of the American Tobacco Company, and now is connected with the New York office of Lord & Thomas." (Troth Announced of Caral Gimbel. New York Times, Nov. 29, 1934, pg. 36.) In the Tobacco Documents Online, there is correspondence between ATC and J. Wix in 1932 and after 1935, but none during 1933 and 1934. Edward Lasker became a director of Philip Morris in 1960.

Directors of ATC, 1936: Richard J. Boylan (Sec.), James R. Coon (Aud.), John A. Crowe, C. Huntley Gibson, Patrick H. Gorman, Paul M. Hahn (VP), Tullis T. Harkrader, Edmund A. Harvey (Treas.), George W. Hill (Pres.), George W. Hill Jr., James E. Lipscomb Jr., Charles F. Neiley (VP), William H. Ogsbury, Fred B. Reuter, Rowland W. Richards, and Frank V. Riggio (VP). In 1938, Hiram R. Hanmer, and in 1940, Orpheus D. Baxalys joined the board, while Richards left.

ATC Fiscal Statement, 1936 / tobacco document

American Tobacco Company cash on deposit with banks, Dec. 31, 1937: $6.5 million at the Guaranty Trust Company of New York; $3.9 million at the Chase National Bank; $3.2 million at the National City Bank; $2.4 million at the Bankers Trust Company; $1.9 million at the Central Hanover Bank and Trust; $1.2 million at the Manufacturers Trust Company, and lesser amounts at other institutions. (ATC Fiscal Statement, Dec. 31, 1937.)

ATC 1937 Fiscal Statement / tobacco document

ATC 1938 Annual Report & Proxy / tobacco document

John R. Latham

"John R. Latham, former president of American Cigarette and Cigar Co. and creator of American Tobacco's 'Sold American!' radio jingle in the 1930s, died February 21 at his home in White Creek, N.Y. He was 72. Latham began his career at Young & Rubicam advertising agency in the late 1920s. upon graduation from Lehigh University. He became known as the Father of the Radio Jingle after he sold the idea of a tobacco auctioneer's voice in a commercial to American Tobacco's flamboyant chief executive, George Washington Hill. At one point in the 1930s, Lucky Strike was the nation's best-selling cigarette, achieving the honor by outselling R.J. Reynolds' Camel and Liggett & Myers' Chesterfield. Latham became president of American Cigarette and Cigar, an American Tobacco subsidiary, in 1938 and introduced Pall Mall, the first king size cigarette to be marketed nationally. During the Second World War, Latham was a Marine Corps major, assigned to the Office of War Information. After the war, he joined Curtis Publishing Co. as a sales executive and then returned to the tobacco business as advertising manager of Philip Morris. During the 1950s, he created the Philip Morris country music radio show, which toured the South and Middle West. He left the tobacco business for good in 1960, when he became senior vice president of a Warner Lambert Pharmaceutical Co. subsidiary. In later years, he was a securities broker in New York and at the time of his death was affiliated with the financial firm, R..L. Day Co." (Obituaries. Tobacco International, Apr. 4, 1980, p. 79.) His wife, Louise, worked in the creative department of J. Walter Thompson for 21 years. (Latham, Louise Stunkard. New York Times, Jan. 6, 2002.)

Tobacco International, Apr. 4, 1980 / tobacco document

Latham, Louise Stunkard, Jan. 6, 2002 / New York Times

On Aug. 8, 1942, the radio program "Your Hit Parade" did "a command performance at the request of the U.S. Government through the Office of War Information." (Radio Continuity. Lucky Strike, Your Hit Parade, July-Dec. 1942.) Also serving in the OWI were Clifton R. Read, who was the first publicity director for the American Society for the Control of Cancer and later the media and information director of the American Cancer Society; and William B. Lewis, Chief of the OWI Domestic Radio Bureau who became chairman of the ACS.

Your Hit Parade, July-Dec. 1942 / tobacco document

American Tobacco Company, 1940s

ATC Proxy, 1940 / tobacco document

Directors of the American Tobacco Company, 1942: Orpheus D. Baxalys, Richard J. Boylan (Sec), James R. Coon (Aud), John A. Crowe, Preston L. Fowler, C. Huntley Gibson, Patrick H. Gorman, Paul M. Hahn (VP), Hiram R. Hanmer, Tullis T. Harkrader, Edmund A. Harvey (Treas), George W. Hill (Pres.), George W. Hill Jr. (VP), James E. Lipscomb Jr., William H. Ogsbury, Fred B. Reuter (Asst Treas). Transfer Agent: Guaranty Trust Company of New York; Registrar: City Bank Farmers Trust Co.

American Tobacco Company, 1942 Annual Report / tobacco document

Harry L. Hilyard, a former vice president of the Guaranty Trust Company of New York, was elected a director, replacing Tullis T. Harkrader, who died. (American Tobacco Earns $22,534,201. New York Times, Mar. 1, 1944.)

American Tobacco Company 1946 Annual Report & Proxy / tobacco document

American Tobacco Company 1947 Proxy & Annual Report / tobacco document

American Tobacco Company 1948 Annual Report & Proxy / tobacco document

American Tobacco Company 1949 Proxy & Annual Report / tobacco document

American Tobacco Company, 1950s

ATC 1950 Proxy & Annual Report / tobacco document

ATC 1951 Proxy & Annual Report (clearer) / tobacco document

ATC 1951 Proxy & Annual Report / tobacco document

Amendment No. 1 to Form S-1, Prospectus of American Tobacco Company, 1,075,685 Shares of Common Stock, (par value $25), $50,000,000 Twenty-Five Year __ Percent Debentures, Dated Feb. 1, 1952, Due Feb. 1, 1977. Morgan Stanley was the largest underwriter at 4.00%, with about 15 others over 2%.

Amendment No. 1 to Form S-1, ATC / tobacco document

ATC 1952 Annual Report & Proxy / tobacco document

Prospectus, the American Tobacco Company, 1,075,685 Shares Common Stock (Par Value $25), $50,000,000 Twenty-Five Year % Debentures, by Morgan Stanley, March 5, 1952. Directors, p. 23-24.

1952 Stock Offering / tobacco document

Notice of Special Meeting of stockholders to vote on the merger of American Cigarette and Cigar Co. with American Tobacco Co., Oct. 26, 1953.

ATC Special Meeting, 1953 / tobacco document

Merger of American Cigarette and Cigar Company into American Tobacco Company

ATC 1953 Proxy & Annual Report / tobacco document

ATC 1954 Proxy / tobacco document

ATC 1955 Proxy / tobacco document

ATC 1956 Annual Report / tobacco document

ATC 1956 Proxy / tobacco document

Six new vice presidents: Virgil D. Hager, vice president of manufacturing; John A. Crowe, senior vicepresident, manufacture and leaf; A. LeRoy Jansen, continuing as controller; Harry L. Hilyard, continuing as treasurer; Robert B. Walker, director of sales; Alfred F. Bowden, former assistant to the president, to be director of public relations. All were directors of the company. (One of 6 New Officers Of American Tobacco. New York Times, Apr. 8, 1957.)

ATC 1957 Proxy & Annual Report / tobacco document

ATC 1958 Proxy & Annual Report / tobacco document

ATC 1959 Proxy / tobacco document

ATC 1959 Annual Report / tobacco document

American Tobacco Company, 1960s

ATC 1960 Annual Report / tobacco document

ATC 1961 Annual Report / tobacco document

1962 Tobacco Industry Research Council Scientific Advisory Board Meeting

"1. The Scientific Advisory Board meeting this Friday was attended by Carl Thompson. They made more grants and analized what has been accomplished.

"2. Ogden White, Chairman of the Finance Committee of Sloan Kettering and Memorial Hospital reported that the R. J. Reynolds Company had agreed to grant a $100 thousand to Sloan Kettering. It could indicate that Reynolds feels here's a little protection or TIRC hasn't done too much. Reynolds wanted a raw products center for the industry, claiming that TIRC should be interested in agriculture as well as health (They control 35 - 40% of the TIRC funds). American Tobacco vetoed this because they couldn't be connected with any leaf industry. Reynolds then bought a farm and formed their own raw products research center. Sloan Kettering will be the logical one to investigate cancer claims. P. Lorillard has been giving $25,000 for years without any fanfare. They are going to approach other tobacco companies, automotive companies, milk companies, and anyone else with an interest in the cancer controversy. Right now we are committed to the TIRC concept. Reynolds by working with Sloan Kettering might see developments as they come about. They might get a new dimension to their research. Mr. Wynder will be out in April with a paper which says there is something in filters which is selective and safe. The agency was alerted that this paper might come out and asked to think of anything which might be exploitable. The marketing department has been alerted to play on the selectrate trademark of Marlboro. There is talk that the FCC might lift the ban on health claims in ads." (From James Bowling Area, Philip Morris, Mar. 13, 1962.) Ogden White joined the board of directors of Liggett & Myers in 1968.

TIRC Meeting, 1962 / tobacco document

ATC 1963 Annual Report / tobacco document

Summary of ATC Annual Meeting, April 1, 1964 / tobacco document

ATC 1964 Annual Report / tobacco document

ATC 1965 Annual Report / tobacco document

ATC 1967 Annual Report / tobacco document

ATC 1968 Annual Report / tobacco document

American Brands 1969 Annual Report / tobacco document

American Tobacco Company, 1970s

American Brands 1970 Annual Report / tobacco document

American Brands 1971 Annual Meeting / tobacco document

American Brands 1971 Annual Report / tobacco document

American Tobacco Company 1972 Financial Statement. Their largest deposit of cash in banks was at the Morgan Guaranty Trust Company of New York, $1,567,209.36. They also had large deposits of cash at the Northern Trust Company, Chicago, the Chase Manhattan Bank, the First National City Bank, and Republic National Bank of Dallas.

American Brands Fiscal Statement 1972 / tobacco documents

American Brands Fiscal Statement 1972 (proxy statement) / tobacco documents

American Brands 1973 Annual Report / tobacco document

American Brands 1974 Annual Report / tobacco document

American Brands 1975 Annual Report / tobacco document

American Brands 1976 Annual Report / tobacco document

American Brands 1977 proxy / tobacco document

American Brands Proxy and Annual Report, Dec. 31, 1978. Dividends receivable from investments in stocks of other companies, p. 55.

American Brands Annual Report, 1978 / tobacco document

Fiscal Binder Index, 1978 / tobacco document

1979 merger of American Tobacco and FDS Holding Company, of Springfield, Illinois. FDS was created in 1970 by the Franklin Insurance Company, several Wisconsin residents were large holders of American $6.00 Convertible Preferred Stock: the First Wisconsin Trust Company of Milwaukee, as trustee of various trusts for Clarise F. Turer, 29.14%; Ida Soref of Milwaukee, 24.28%; Ruth S. Coleman of Milwaukee, 24.28%; Ruth S. Gorenstein of Whitefish Bay, 17.32%. Mark Sumner, of Herz, Levin, Teper, Chernof & Sumner, S.C., 9.16%; and Ralph Gorenstein of Whitefish Bay, 8.16%. The Harris Trust & Savings Bank of Chicago and Roberta S. Gorenstein were co-trustees of 10.88%, and Mark Sklar of Phoenix, Ariz. held 11.88%. All directors and officers of American as a group held 0.48% of Common Stock. (Milton Soref was the president of Master Lock Company, a division of American Brands. He died in 1973.) The First National Bank of Chicago was the transfer agent for $2.67 and $2.75 Preferred Stocks only.

1979 American Brands - Franklin Insurance Joint Proxy (ATC directors) / tobacco document

1979 American Brands - Franklin Insurance Joint Proxy (stockholders) / tobacco document

Robert K. Heimann, the president since 1969 and CEO since 1973, retired at the end of 1980. Virginius B. Lougee III was elected president and CEO of American Brands, and continued as president and CEO of American Tobacco. Edward W. Whittemore was elected chairman and CEO of American Brands.

American Brands 1980 Annual Report / tobacco document

American Brands 1981 Annual Report / tobacco document

In 1982, the Chubb Corporation owned 7.8% of voting stock.

American Brands 1982 Annual Report / tobacco document

In 1983, the Chubb Corporation owned 5.4% of voting stock.

American Brands 1983 Annual Report / tobacco document

American Brands 1984 Annual Report / tobacco document

American Brands 1986 Annual Report / tobacco document

American Brands 1987 Annual Report / tobacco document

American Brands 1988 Annual Report / tobacco document

American Brands 1989 Annual Report / tobacco document

American Brands 1990 Annual Report / tobacco document

American Brands 1991 Annual Report / tobacco document

American Brands 1992 Annual Report pp 69-72 / tobacco document

American Brands 1992 Annual Report pp 109-115 / tobacco document

American Brands 1993 Annual Report / tobacco document

American Brands 1994 Annual Report / tobacco document

Anthony N. Brady

"The Anthony N. Brady here mentioned was a traction magnate, who, beginning as a clerk in Albany, had by means of legislative manipulation giving richly valuable railway and other franchises, accumulated an estate of $90,000,000." (Chapter 36, Governor Sulzer's Impeachment and Tammany's Defeat 1913-1914. In: The History of Tammany Hall, by Gustavus Myers. New York, 1901, with additions, 1917.)

Ch. 36, The History of Tammany Hall / Yamaguchy

"...Anthony Brady was one of Thomas Edison's business partners, and left at his death one of the largest personal fortunes that had ever been accumulated." (Profiles: Westchester County. New Yorker, Nov. 13, 1978.)

Westchester County / Dispatches From the Vanishing World

Anthony N. Brady and James N. Wallace, his longtime crony at the Central Trust Company of New York, were among the five voting Trustees elected to control the stock of General Motors for five years. (Voting Trustees for General Motors. New York Times, Oct. 23, 1910.) Brady was elected a director of GM. (General Motors New Board. New York Times, Nov. 16, 1910.)

"...A man who for years fulfilled the functions of one of Mr. Brady's financial advisors said that the minimum value of his estate was $75,000,000, and that a maximum estimate would be considerably in excess of $100,000. This amounts to putting Mr. Brady's wealth almost on a par with that of the late J.P. Morgan." His largest holdings were in the American Tobacco Company. After its dismemberment in 1911, he and the other defendants were forbidden to increase their holdings; however, Brady was believed to have not sold any of it, either. Their value was estimated at $31 million.

In addition, he held stock in Brooklyn Rapid Transit, power properties in Tennessee and Georgia, and Japanese lighting plants, "especially in Tokio." "The investments so far enumerated, concerning which definite information is available, foot up at least $54,000,000, and they take no accouint of several companies with which Mr. Brady's name was especially connected as a large, and in some cases, almost the sole owner. Among those in which his interest was very large were the Consolidated Gas Company and its subsidiary, the New York Edison Company, and the Commonwealth-Edison Company of Chicago and the People's Gas, Light and Coke Company of that city. In Albany, Troy, and Utica, the gas and electric companies are understood to have been practically owned by him.

"As indicating the extent of his holdings in corporations of this class, he was not only a Director but President of the following: New York Edison Company, Electric Illuminating Company of Brooklyn, Kings County Electric Light and Power Company, Memphis Consolidated Gas and Electric Company, Municipal Gas Company of Albany, and Utica Gas and Electric Company. He was Vice President of the People's Gas Company in Chicago and a director in the Indiana Lighting Company, New Amsterdam Gas Company, New York Mutual Gas Light Company, Troy Gas Company, United Electric Light and Power Company of Baltimore, and Westchester Lighting Company.

"In the transportation field in and around Brooklyn Mr. Brady was Chairman of the board of each of these: Brooklyn Rapid Transit, Brooklyn Heights Railroad, Brooklyn, Queens County & Suburban, Brooklyn Union Elevated, and Nassau Electric. He was also a Director in the Canarsie Railroad, Coney Island & Gravesend, Sea Beach Railway, and South Brooklyn Railway. Most of these, of course, are subsidiaries of the B.R.T. Mr. Brady was also a Director, however, in the Hudson & Manhattan Company and the Hudson Companies. In the automobile field his interest in the General Motors Company was large enough to entitle him to a Directorship.

"Mr. Brady's rubber interests were represented by Directorships in the United States Rubber Company, the General Rubber Company, and the Rubber Goods Manufacturing Company. On the European trip on which he died Mr. Brady was planning to expand his interests to the oil fields of Mexico.

"Only two bank Directorships were held by Mr. Brady, one in the Maryland National Bank and the other in the National Commercial Bank of Albany. His miscellaneous investments carried Directorhips in the Atlantic Coast Lumber Company, the British-Columbia Copper Company, Consolidated Car Heating Company, Consolidated Telegraph and Electric Subway Company, Durham Coal and Iron Company, Electric Storage Battery Company, Helderberg Cement Company, National Surety Company, New Niquero Sugar Company, New York Air Brake Company, Transit Development Company, Union Bleaching and Finishing Company, Union Carbide Company, and the United States Cast Iron Pipe and Foundry Company." (Brady's Fortune May Be $100,000,000. New York Times, Aug. 6, 1913.)

The Anthony Brady Memorial Laboratory at Yale was funded from Brady's estate. It opened in 1917. Medical School Dean George Blumer recruited Milton Winternitz as Anthony N. Brady Professor of Pathology. (1911-1921. Medicine at Yale, 1901-1951.)

Medicine at Yale 1911-1921 / Yale University

James Cox Brady, Scroll & Key 1904 (1882-1927)

Brady inherited 1/6th of Anthony Brady's wealth; he was a director of American Tobacco in 1917 and 1919. He was a Yale graduate (1904), and a member of its Scroll & Key Society. In 1917, he sold 20 of his racehorses for $22,365, and donated the proceeds to the Red Cross. "He was a large benefactor of the Post-Graduate Medical School and Hospital, of which he was a Director at the time of his death." He was also a trustee and director of the Central Union Trust Company of New York [~1918-1927], vice president of the Brooklyn Edison Company and a director of several other utility companies, and a director of the Chrysler Corporation. He and other members of his family established the Anthony N. Brady Memorial building at the Yale medical school. Matthew S. Sloan, President of the Brooklyn Edison Company, and G.W. Davison, President of Central Union Trust Company, expressed their regrets. (James Cox Brady, Financier, Dead. New York Times, Nov. 11, 1927.) He left a quarter of his fortune to his widow and third wife, Helen McMahon Brady, and the rest to his four daughters and one son. His brother Nicholas F. Brady, Walter P. Chrysler, and William G. [sic - V.] Griffin were executors of his estate. (James C. Brady Left $55,000,000 To Family. New York Times, Nov. 29, 1927.) Mrs. James C. Brady; her sister, Mrs C.S. Ransom; and his sister, Mrs. E. Palmer Gavit of Albany, were all killed together in the wreck of a speeding train while returning from the funeral of Patrick Garvan. (Daughter and Daughter-in-Law of A.N. Brady Killed. New York Times, Oct. 4, 1912.) He was married again to Lady Victoria Mary Pery of Ireland, who died in 1918; and then to Helen McMahon, the sister of John T. McMahon, Yale 1926. His sister, Marcia, was Mrs. Carll Tucker, Yale 1904, and Luther Tucker [skull & Bones] 1931, was a nephew. (Bulletin of Yale University. Obituary Record of Graduates of the Undergraduate Schools Deceased During the Year 1927-28, pages 169-171.) His widow later married Charles Suydam Cutting, whose brother, R. Fulton Cutting, was a major benefactor of the American Society for the Control of Cancer. (Mrs. James Brady To Be Bride Today. New York Times, Jul. 2, 1932.)

Obituary Record 1927-28 / Yale University Library (pdf, 366 pp)

In 1919, James C. Brady took a $7 million check from Edey & Co., brokers, for the sale of American Tobacco Company stocks held in the trusts from the Anthony N. Brady estate. Nicholas F. and James Cox Brady, along with the Central Union Trust Company, were the trustees of the estate, and Mrs. Carll Tucker and Mrs. Francis P. Garvan sought to have them removed. They invested in New Jersey Standard Oil at seven percent, which was reduced by taxes to only 2½ percent. "During 1919, said the witness, the trustees had on deposit with the Central Union Trust Company a daily deposit of $1,332,200. At one time the deposit was $4,500,000. In 1920 the average was $816,800. Interest was at 2 per cent, because some of the money was being put out on call through stock brokers." (Brady Explains $7,000,000 Sale. New York Times, Jan. 10, 1924.) The suit was settled. Cadwallader, Wickersham & Taft, and Guthrie, Jerome, Rand, & [chief counsel Isidor J.] Kresel were attorneys for the contestants; Samuel A. Beardsley signed for the executors and trustees, former Gov. Nathan L. Miller was of counsel for the trustees, while Dean, King & Smith represented Francis P. Garvan. (Heirs Settle Over Brady Estate. New York Times, Feb. 27, 1924.)

James C. Brady formed the Brady Security and Realty Corporation in 1923, with William V. Griffin as his business manager. The corporation comprised the financial interests of his widow, his brother, and his children. (Appeal Brady Estate Tax. New York Times, Nov. 24, 1929; State Keeps Up Fight For Brady Estate Tax. New York Times, June 14, 1930.) Griffin was one of the original financiers of Time, Inc., in 1923.

Brady was a horse-related buddy of pharmaceutical magnate Charles Pfizer, and purchased 180 acres adjoining Pfizer's estate in 1911. Story of Hamilton Farm. About U.S. Equestrian Team Foundation.) The farm was named for his first wife, Elizabeth Jane Hamilton, who was killed in a railroad wreck in 1912. Guglielmo Marconi and his transmitting station were also neighbors. (Somerset County History. D.T. McBride Website.)

Story of Hamilton Farm / USET

Marcia Brady (Mrs. Carll Tucker, Yale 1904)

Carll Tucker was a son of Luther Henry Tucker [Yale 1855], editor of The Country Gentleman, an agricultural journal, that was founded by his grandfather, Luther Tucker. His two sons were the Rev. Luther Tucker [s&B 1931], pastor of the Indian Hill church, a Presbyterian and general Protestant church near Cincinnati, and Carll Tucker Jr. [s&B 1947], a Mount Kisco newspaper Publisher. The Tuckers lived in Elihu Root's former mansion at 733 Park Avenue. (Carll Tucker, 74, A Clubman Here. New York Times, Jul. 30, 1956.) His brother, Luther H. Tucker, Yale 1891, was managing editor of journal until 1911, then an executive of the Morris Plan Industrial Bank of Albany, and a trustee of the Albany Medical College and Albany Hospital. (Obituary Record of Graduates of the Undergraduate Schools Deceased during the Year 1950-1951, p18.) Luther H. Tucker 1855 died in Albany in 1897. (Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased during the Academical Year ending in June, 1897, pp. 29-30.) His brother, Gilbert M. Tucker, Williams College 1867, became editor-in-chief from 1897 until 1911, when it was sold to the Curtis Publishing Company of Philadelphia. (Gilbert M. Tucker, Editor, Dies at 85. New York Times, Jan. 14, 1932.) Mrs. Carll Tucker was a patroness of a fundraiser for the New York Cancer Institute (Jewel Fashion Show Aids War on Cancer. New York Times, May 1, 1934), and was a member of the social service committee of the Memorial Hospital when it opened its gift shop. (Tea for Cancer Hospital. New York Times, Nov. 2, 1934.) Carll Tucker was a vice president of the Presbyterian Hospital. (Heads Merged Hospitals. New York Times, Oct. 9, 1945.)

Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale, 1950-1951 / Yale University Library (pdf, 160 pp)

Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University, 1896-1897 / Yale University Library (pdf, 78 pp)

Nicholas Frederic Brady (1878-1930)

"In his story of his father's activities and business relationships, Mr. Brady said: 'The President of the Central Trust Company was James M. [sic] Wallace, my father's close personal and business friend, intimately acquainted with my father's business activities. He was my father's confidant and advisor. The preceding President had been Frederick P. Olcott of Albany, who had given my father his first real financial backing. My father had always felt that he had a great deal to do with the building up of the trust company. He had his office there. He kept his securities there for years without so much as a receipt to show for them." (Brady Says Father Trained Him In Job. New York Times, Jan. 18, 1924.)

Nicholas Brady graduated from Yale University in 1899, and became associated with his father's interests. His first position was at Edison Electric Illuminating Company, later merged with the New Gas, Electric Light, Heat and Power Company to form the New York Edison Company. He succeeded his father as its president on his death in 1913. At his death he was a director of numerous gas and electric companies, and also the Chrysler Corporation, National City Bank of New York and affiliates, and Farmers Loan - City Bank and Trust Company. He was a member of the national advisory committee of the Yale Human Welfare Group, which created the Institute of Human Relations. He was a founder of the Knights of Malta in the United States in 1918. At his death, he had suffered from arthritis complicated by a heart condition. Mrs. Brady was the sister of Edward J. Garvan, Yale 1894, Francis P. Garvan, Yale 1897 [who financed the Cancer Society's official organ], and John S. Garvan, Yale 1902. (N.F. Brady Dies At 51 After Long Illness. New York Times, May 28, 1930; Bulletin of Yale University. Obituary Record of Graduates of the Undergraduate Schools Deceased During the Year 1929-30, pages 161-166.) His widow, Genevieve Brady, who later married William J. Babington Macaulay, the Irish Free State Minister to the Vatican, left a bequest of $68,824 to Pope Pius XII, "who was a close friend of Mrs. Macaulay and who was entertained at her home on his visit to this country when he was Cardinal Pacelli, Papal Secretary of State." She left shares valued at $172,061 to Archbishop John G. Murray of St. Paul, Minn., and $137,500 each to the Sisters of Mercy of the Diocese of Hartford, the Catholic Charities of the Archdiocese of New York, the Manhattanville College of the Sacred Heart, the Novitiate of St. Isaac Jogues at Wernersville, Penn., and the Society of the Helpers of the Holy Souls. Msgr. Fulton J. Sheen of the Catholic University of Washington, DC, got $68,824. Mr. Macauley got an even $1,000,000. Her sister and James Cox Brady Jr. received $480,000. The greater part of the estate was in securities valued at $5,477,569; with cash of $198,489 including an account of $170,035 in the Central Hanover Bank and Trust Company. ($6,299,000 Net Left By Mrs. Macaulay. New York Times, Jan. 29, 1941.)

Obituary Record 1929-30 / Yale University Library (pdf, 398 pp)

The Lyndon Larouche website implicates Nicholas Brady and William F. Buckley, Sr. (father of William F. Buckley Jr., Skull & Bones 1950, and grandfather of Christopher Taylor Buckley, S&B 1975) in helping to incite the Cristeros Rebellion in Mexico. (Synarchism, the Spanish Falange, and the Nazis, by William F. Wertz, Jr. Executive Intelligence Review, July 25, 2003.)

Wertz, 2003 / Executive Intelligence Review

James Cox Brady Jr. (1907-1971)

He was the only son of James Cox Brady (~1882-1927). He married Eliot Chace, daughter of Malcolm G. Chace, a director of the Chase National Bank. His sister Jane (Mrs. F.S. Moseley Jr.) was matron of honor; and the ushers included her husband, Reeve Schley, and Paul Mellon of Washington. (Eliot Chace Weds J. Cox Brady Jr. New York Times, Jul. 7, 1929.) Her grandfather was Arnold Buffum Chace, Chancellor of Brown University. (Dr. Arnold B. Chace of Providence Dead. New York Times, Feb. 29, 1932.) Brady was head of the New York Racing Association from 1961 to 1969. "From an uncle, Nicholas F. Brady, he inherited the directorship of 50 companies. And when his father died at the age of 45, he left an estate valued at more than $25-million. It included a company he had founded, Purolator Products, the maker of oil filters." He graduated from Yale in 1929, and served in the South Pacific during World War II. (James Cox Brady Dead At 63. New York Times, May 25, 1971.) He was a member of Scroll & Key. (Sixty Men Tapped For Yale Societies. New York Times, May 18, 1928.) He was an usher at the wedding of Chauncey Keep Hubbard, Scroll & Key 1929, the son of E. Kent Hubbard, to Virginia Drake, daughter of James Frank Drake, president of the Gulf Oil Company. (Drake-Hubbard. New York Times, Aug. 25, 1935; Elaborate Bridal for Miss Drake. New York Times, Dec. 24, 1935.) His daughter, Elizabeth Hamilton Brady, married Reuben Francis Richards, the son of Tobacco and Allied Stocks director Junius A. Richards. (Elizabeth Brady Bride in Peapack. New York Times, Dec. 13, 1953.) He was a director of the Bankers Trust Company from 1951 until approximately 1964.

Nicholas Frederick Brady (1930- present)

Nicholas Frederick Brady was the son of Nicholas Frederic Brady. He graduated from Yale in 1952. He was chairman of the Board of Dillon, Read & Co., and a director of NCR Corp., the MITRE Corp., and the H.J. Heinz Company. He was in the US Senate (R-NJ) from April to December, 1982, and Secretary of the Treasury from 1988 to 1993. His successor in the US Senate in 1982 was anti-smoker Sen. Frank Lautenberg.

Nicholas F. Brady bio / US Treasury

Nicholas F. Brady bio / US Congress

Nicholas F. Brady was best man for his brother, James Cox Brady (Scroll & Keys 1957), who married Joan Babcock, a great-great-granddaughter of Samuel D. Babcock, the founder of the Guaranty Trust. Allen Wardwell 2d and Reeve Schley 3d were his ushers. (Wedding June 27 For Joan Babcock. New York Times, Jun. 2, 1957; L.I. Nuptials Held for Joan Babcock. New York Times, Jun. 28, 1957.)

Nicholas Frederick Brady Jr. married Leigh Topping, the great-granddaughter of tobacco financier Daniel G. Reid. He was a regional vice president in Atlanta of the Purolator Courier Corporation. She graduated from Emory University, and was until recently a financial analyst in the Atlanta office of the Bankers Trust Company. (Leigh Topping Is the Bride Of N. F. Brady Jr. in Atlanta. New York Times, May 31, 1987.)

Leigh Topping Is the Bride Of N. F. Brady Jr., 1987 / New York Times

In 1993, during the ABC network's hysterical campaign of lies about secondhand smoke and the tobacco industry, Brady was a director of that despicable company.

Benjamin N. Duke

Benjamin N. Duke and others filed notice of their intention to organize the Bankers Trust Company of New York. The other incorporators were D. Crawford Clark, Bayard Dominick, Albert E. Goodhart, Herman C.E. Hoskier, Francis H. Leggett, Almeric H. Paget, William G. Park, Gilbert M. Plympton, Henry S. Redmond, William Schall, John W. Simpson, Clarence H. Wildes, and John Walter Wood Jr. (The Bankers' Trust Company. New York Times, Aug. 11, 1899; The Bankers' Trust Company. New York Times, Sep. 21, 1899.) Louis V. Bright (Vice Pres.), D. Crawford Clark, George Coppell, Bayard Dominick, John F. Dryden, Benjamin N. Duke, George W. Ely (Pres.), Albert E. Goodhart, Edwin Gould, Edmund T. Halsey, William H. Hollister, Percival Knauth, Francis H. Leggett (Vice Pres.), Almeric H. Paget, William G. Park, Gilbert M. Plympton, William Schall Jr., John W. Simpson, Francis S. Smithers, Ransom H. Thomas, and J. Walter Wood Jr. were directors. (Display Ad. Nov. 1, 1899; Display Ad, Jan. 2, 1900.) Its president, George William Ely, had been a secretary of the New York Stock Exchange for over 25 years. (New position for G.W. Ely. New York Times, Aug. 31, 1899.) The company was absorbed by the Atlantic Trust Co. The Atlantic Trust had lobbied to make it easier to form trust companies. (Trust companies combine. New York Times. Nov. 21, 1900.)

Paul M. Hahn

Paul M. Hahn (1895-1963) joined the law firm of Stanchfield & Levy in 1918 and became a partner in 1926. He first worked on their American Tobacco account in 1929; he joined the firm as a director and assistant to President George Washington Hill in 1931, and was President of American Tobacco from 1950 to 1963. (Paul M. Hahn, by Neil Loynachan. The Tobacco Leaf, Jan. 5, 1963.)

The Tobacco Leaf, 1963 / tobacco document

Hahn CV, no date / tobacco document

Percival Smith Hill

Percival S. Hill (~1862-1925) was the son of George W. Hill and Sarah White. He studied two years at the University of Pennsylvania, and two years at Harvard. He was with the wholesale carpet firm of Boyd, White & Co. for 11 years, until becoming involved in the tobacco industry in the 1890s. He was made sales manager of the Blackwell Bull Durham Tobacco Company in 1892, and President in 1898. He became a vice president of the American Tobacco Company in 1900 and moved to New York City. He was also Chairman of the American Cigar Company, President of the Cuban Tobacco Company, director of the Havana Commercial Company, the Henry Clay & Bock Co., and H. de Cabanas y Carabajal. His wife was the former Cassie Royland Milnes. His son, George W. Hill, was vice president of the American Tobacco Company. One of his two daughters was Mrs. Maurice Boyer, whose husband was vice president of the Bank of Paris. (Percival S. Hill, Tobacco Head, Dies. New York Times, Dec. 8, 1925.) Albert D. Lasker's advertising agency, Lord & Thomas, got the American Tobacco Company's advertising account in 1923. Mrs. Percival S. Hill was an activist for Memorial Hospital, N.Y.C., in 1934. (Tea for Cancer Hospital. New York Times, Nov. 2, 1934.)

George Washington Hill

George W. Hill (~1885-1946) was the son of Percival S. Hill. He was President of the American Tobacco Company from 1925 until his death. He graduated from the Horace Mann School in 1902 and attended Williams College for two years, and joined the company in 1904. (George W. Hill, 61, Is Dead in Canada. New York Times, Sep. 14, 1946.) He was a member of the American Red Cross Mission to Russia in 1917. He was a director of the Seaboard National Bank in 1923. Elliott Averett, Vice President of United Cigar Stores, was a fellow director. (Display Ad 44. New York Times, Apr. 8, 1923 p. E14.) His daughter, Mary Hill, married Arthur Twining Hadley 2d, son of Morris Hadley [skull & Bones 1916], whose grandfather was the president of Yale from 1899 to 1921. Her brother, George W. Hill Jr. [scroll & Key 1931] was also an officer of the company. (Mary Hill Is Wed to A.T. Hadley 2d. New York Times, Dec. 19, 1948.) George W. Hill Jr.'s Keys classmate, James Gamble Rogers, became the account manager for Lucky Strike cigarettes in 1938.

Thomas F. Ryan

Thomas Fortune Ryan (1851-1928) was born in Virginia, and worked in a Baltimore dry goods commission firm until his employer and father-in-law, John J. Barry, retired. In 1870, he came to New York and was employed as a clerk in a Wall Street brokerage firm. In 1874, he became a member of the Stock Exchange. "Early in that decade he formed the partnership which was to play so great a part in his life and in the financial history of the next thirty years. He became acquainted with William Collins Whitney, then a power in Wall Street, and the older man early realized the genius of young Ryan, gradually entrusting him with more and more important work, and finally forming an equal partnership which lasted until Whitney's death. Two other figures played a prominent part in the career of Mr. Ryan. They are Elihu Root and Paul D. Cravath, the lawyers who handled the intricte legal affairs which his many transactions involved." In 1885, he gave up his brokerage business and began the reoganization of street railways with Whitney, Anthony N. Brady, and John Dolan. In 1886, this group united with the Philadelphia syndicate of P.A.B. Widener and William L. Elkins. In the early 1890s he formed the Union Tobacco Company, which acquired the Blackwell-Bull Durham Company and later Liggett & Myers. "Gradually the syndicate absorbed other competing concerns, and by 1901 represent 80 percent of the United States trade. In that year Mr. Ryan, who had been the dominant power throughout, formed a syndicate under the New Jersey laws known as the Consolidated Tobacco Company, which controlled practically all the common stock of the American Tobacco Company, the name of the syndicate into which all the earlier companies had merged." In 1902, the group obtained control of a British firm, Ogden's Ltd., and attempted to expand into England. A British firm, the Imperial Tobacco Company, headed by Sir Charles Willis, attempted to expand into the U.S. They negotiated an agreement that gave American an unrestricted field in the U.S. and its possessions, plus Cuba and Canada, and a two-thirds interest in the British-American Company, which handled markets outside the U.S. and British interests.In 1905, he settled the feuding at the Equitable Life Insurance Co. by purchasing the controlling interest from James Hazen Hyde. The transaction took place in the offices of the Morton Trust, which Ryan controlled, with lawyers Elihu Root and Samuel Untermyer participating. The Equitable's stock was placed in the hands of three trustees, who were former President Grover Cleveland, Justice Morgan J. O'Brien, and George Westinghouse; and former Navy Secretary Paul Morton [whose sons-in-law, Charles H. Sabin and William C. Potter, were subsequently presidents of the Guaranty Trust after its merger with the Morton Trust], was made president. (How Ryan Rose In Wall Street. New York Times, Nov. 24, 1928.) Robert Livingston Cutting Jr., an uncle of ASCC benefactor R. Fulton Cutting, was another of Ryan's early business partners. (Copartnership Notices. New-York Times, Apr. 4, 1882 p. 7.)

Thomas F. Ryan was a founder of the Société Internationale Forestière et Minière du Congo (International Forestry and Mining Company of the Congo, aka "Forminière"), created to develop the mining fields. Economic writer Isaac F. Marcosson said that the King had made the deal with them because he wanted the process for extracting rubber from the guayule shrub, which was held by the International Rubber Company, a Ryan-Guggenheim-Rockefeller concern. The Crown of Belgium received half the shares of Forminière; the other half was divided between the King and the Société Générale, a semi-governmental bank of Belgium; and Thomas F. Ryan. "Later Mr. Ryan admitted Daniel Guggenheim, Harry Payne Whitney, John Hays Hammond, and Senator [Nelson W.] Aldrich as associates in the enterprise." The directors of the American Congo Company were William H. Page of Page, Crawford & Tuska, attorneys for the Continental Rubber Co.; A. Chester Beatty a of the Guggenheim staff of mining engineers; and J.G. Whitley, Consul General of the Congo Free State to the U.S. The Independence Belge named Thomas F. Ryan, Edward B. Aldrich, the two Guggenheims, Harry Payne Whitney, John D. Rockefeller Jr., and Bernard M. Baruch as chief stockholders. (Details of the Ryan Congo Concesions. New York Times, Dec. 14, 1906; Ryan Was A Partner of King Leopold II. New York Times, Nov. 24, 1928.)

The 1916 Tobacco Summit

In 1916, Ryan gave a dinner at his Fifth Avenue home: "His guests included United States Senator Oscar W. Underwood [D-Ala.], Dr. Nicholas Murray Butler, Francis L. Stetson, Henry Clay Frick, Frank S. Witherbee, Charles Schwab, James B. Duke, Morgan J. O'Brien, Alexander J. Hemphill, C.C. Dula, John B. Dennis, Justice Francis K. Pendleton, John D. Archbold, Theodore P. Shonts, John D. Ryan, Daniel Guggenheim. J. Sargeant Cram, R.A.C. Smith, Francis L. Hine, Bernard M. Baruch, Charles B. Alexander, Henry Clews, Fairfax Landstreet, W.W. Fuller, Paul D. Cravath, Daniel G. Reid, James S. Alexander, Junius Parker, Percival S. Hill, De Lancey Nicoll, August D. Juilliard, William C. Potter, John D. Prince, Hugo Cunliffe-Owen, and Valentine P. Snyder." (Thomas F. Ryan Is Host. New York Times, Feb. 18, 1916.) Cravath was T.F. Ryan's attorney, Duke and Cunliffe-Owen were executives of British-American Tobacco, and Hill was president of the American Tobacco Company, for which Nicoll was an attorney and Parker was a large stockholder. Frick, Hine, J.D. Ryan, and Reid were associated with the Tobacco Products Corporation, a predecessor of Philip Morris; J.D. Ryan, Reid, Stetson, Hemphill, Guggenheim, Juilliard, Potter and Snyder with the Guaranty Trust, and Dula was President of Liggett & Myers Tobacco and a director of the Guaranty Trust. Butler was the President of Columbia University, where Prince was a professor. In 1909, the school received $2,250,000, from the will of John Stewart Kennedy, and members of Butler's family got bequests as well. (How They'll Spend Kennedy Millions. New York Times, Nov. 7, 1909.)

Union Tobacco - Delaware

G.J. Whelan and the Schulte cigar store interests incorporated Union Tobacco in Delaware, as a subsidiary of the Union and United Tobacco Company. Whelan and Ryan were the largest stockholders. (Union Tobacco Co. Formed. New York Times, Jul. 16, 1927; T.F. Ryan in Union Tobacco. New York Times, Aug. 2, 1927.) In 1929, the Union Tobacco Company, which had leased the right to manufacture several brands from the American Tobacco Company, voted to surrender the lease and continue as strictly a stock holding company. It held 98 shares of Philip Morris Consolidated Class A, $1,775; 1,895 shares of Philip Morris Consolidated common, $9,742; 32,300 shares of Philip Morris & Co. Ltd., $628,832; 61,100 shares of Tobacco Products Corporation Class A stock, $1,381,341; 372,200 shares of Tobacco Products Corporation common, $7,568,247; 75,000 shares of Union Cigar Co., $382,275; and 300 shares of United Cigar Stores common, $8,338, along with stock in North American Match Co. and Lion Match Co. Jesse R. Taylor was the president. (Union Tobacco Quits Commodity Trade. New York Times, Dec. 29, 1929.)

Ryan's first wife, Ida, was a major benefector of Catholic charities and was made a Countess of the Holy Roman Empire in 1907. The $200,000 she left to be divided among her sons was held at the Central Union Trust until their 30th birthdays. (Final Accounting on Ryan Estate. New York Times, Dec. 23, 1920.) His second wife was the sister of DeLancey Nicoll, attorney for the American Tobacco Company in 1910, and her second husband, the late Cornelius C. Cuyler, was T. DeWitt Cuyler's brother. (Thos. Fortune Ryan Weds Mrs. Cuyler. New York Times, Oct. 30, 1917.) Ryan's son, Allan, was indignant that his father had remarried only twelve days after his mother died, and they were still not on speaking terms when his father died. In 1920, Allan A. Ryan obtained a corner on Stutz Motors, was expelled from the Stock Exchange, and went bankrupt.

In 1943, an investigation by the O.S.S. determined that the Forminiere mines were the primary source of industrial diamonds which were being smuggled to the Third Reich. The investigator discovered "'that a full year's supply of diamonds had reached Germany from Forminiere through Red Cross parcels.' The shipment of several million carats of diamonds through the parcels that were regularly sent from the Congo to Nazi-occupied Belgium required considerable organization and support in the intervening areas.... With the end of the war in 1945, the OSS was dissolved, and the question of 'dealing with the enemy' was never resolved." (Chapter 9, Diamonds For Hitler. In: The Diamond Invention, by Edward Jay Epstein.) The author blames the De Beers cartel and its "Jewish Connection."

Ch. 9, Diamonds for Hitler / Edward Jay Epstein.com

Paul D. Cravath

Paul Drennan Cravath graduated from Oberlin College in 1882. He was the son of a Congregational minister, Rev. Erastus Milo Cravath, a founder and president 1875-1900 of Fisk University. His brother, Erastus M. Cravath Jr., Yale 1894, was associated with the Trinidad Asphalt Co. and the Bermudez Asphalt Mines, Trinidad. (Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased during the Year 1938-1939, pp. 85-86; and: Cravath, Paul Drennan (14 July 1861-1 July 1940). American National Biography Online.)

Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased during the Year 1938-1939

Cravath, Paul Drennan / Economic History Net

Allan A. Ryan Jr.

Allan Aloysius Ryan, Thomas F. Ryan's grandson, declined election to Scroll & Keys (Yale Tap Day Brings Honors To Juniors. New York Times, May 18, 1923.) Ushers at his wedding included Charles Dewey Hilles Jr., Thomas Frederick David Haines, Clifton Samuel Thompson, and Edwin Foster Blair, all Skull & Bones 1924; James T. Babb, Elihu Club '24; and Charles H. Sabin Jr. (Janet Newbold Weds A.A. Ryan Jr. New York Times, Feb. 6, 1929.) During World War II, Hilles was a vice president of International Telephone & Telegraph, which helped Hitler during the war, as well as a director of the American Cancer Society. In 1952, Hilles was elected a director of the Royal Typewriter Company, of which Allan A. Ryan was chairman. (Executive Changes. New York Times, Jan. 16, 1952.) Allan A. Ryan was the chairman of Forminière when it halted production in Kasai Province in 1962, blaming lack of law and order. "A group of Americans of the Ryan and Guggenheim families own one of the largest share blocks in the $10,000,000 company." Ryan was also chairman of the Royal McBee Corporation, formed from the merger of the McBee Company, a leading producer of punch cards and data processing equipment, with Royal Typewriter. (Forminiere Ceases Production in Congo. New York Times, Jul. 14, 1902.) Ryan's obituary says that he graduated from Princeton University in 1924. He started on Wall Street immediately after graduating, and got a seat on the New York Stock Exchange in 1930. He was a director of the Royal Typewriter Company from 1932 to 1954 and its chairman, and the chairman of Royal McBee until 1965, when it merged with Litton Industries. (Allan Ryan, Ex-State Senator. By Alfred E. Clark. New York Times, Oct. 16, 1981.) Kingsley Kunhardt, a vice president of the Guaranty Trust, was a director of Royal Typewriter and Royal McBee.

Allan A. Ryan Jr. was a member of the Federal Broadcasting Corporation, which acquired the commercial and program presentation rights of New York City radio station WMCA. The group included John T. Adams; Howard G. Cushing; Major Talbot O. Freeman; Walter S. Mack Jr., later the president of Pepsi-Cola; A. Newbold Morris; Paul Nitze; James K. Norris, Clendenin J. Ryan Jr.; Robert Thayer; Bethuel M. Webster, who was later counsel to Liggett & Myers Tobacco Co.; and John Hay Whitney, with former N.Y. Governor Alfred E. Smith as chairman. (Smith Heads Board of New WMCA Group. New York Times, Aug. 28, 1933.) Ryan's first wife, Janet Newbold, divorced him in 1936 and married William Rhinelander Stewart; who died. She then married James S. Bush, Skull & Bones 1922. (Mrs. Stewart's Wedding to Jim Bush of St. Louis. By Mary Van Rensselaer Thayer. Washington Post, Aug. 4, 1948.) Janet Newbold's father, Fleming Newbold, was President of The Evening Star Company in Washington, DC. (Mrs. Stewart Wed To James S. Bush. New York Times, Aug. 15, 1948.) Bush was the brother of Prescott S. Bush, S&B 1917.

Allan A. Ryan III, Skull & Bones 1953

Janet Newbold Ryan Stewart Bush was the mother of Allan A. Ryan III, Skull & Bones 1953, who was with the investment banking firm of Smith, Barney & Co. (Miss B.A. Redmond Becomes Fiance. New York Times, Jun. 7, 1957.) Ushers at his wedding included Russell W. Meyer, Thruston Ballard Morton Jr., and Tilghman B. Evans [T. Boyd Evans], all Skull & Bones 1954, and Jonathan J. Bush, Skull & Bones 1953. (Barbara Ann Redmond Is Bride of Allen Ryan 3d, Yale Alumnus. New York Times, Nov. 3, 1957.) Morton was Executive in Residence at the College of Business & Public Administration of the University of Louisville, and a director of the Kroger Company from 1968 to 2001. He was the son of the US Representative (1947-53) and Senator (1957-68) from Kentucky, Thruston Ballard Morton, Yale 1929. Jonathan James Bush is the brother of former President George Herbert Walker Bush.

Morton, Thruston Ballard (1907-1982) US Congress

Kroger Company 1994 DEF-14A / Securities and Exchange Commission

Kroger Company 2001 DEF-14A / Securities and Exchange Commission

Jonathan J. Bush / Demopedia - Democratic Underground.com

The Bush Crime Family Tree / Project for the Old American Century

Fortune P. Ryan

Fortune Peter Ryan, Allan A. Ryan's brother, went directly from Yale University to the New York Curb Exchange. He joined Royal Typewriter Company in 1934 in the New York Service Department, and eventually became assistant to the president. He was appointed Vice President in charge of advertising in 1948, and president in 1951. He was elected president of the $100-million a year Royal McBee Corporation in 1960. He was also a trustee of Lenox Hill Hospital. (Royal McBee Corp. Promotes Fortune P. Ryan to Presidency. New York Times, Jun. 25, 1960.)

Grant Barney Schley

Grant B. Schley (1845-1917) was head of the New York brokerage firm of Moore & Schley. In 1881 he began working as a clerk at Wells, Butterfield & Co. in Syracuse, and after the firm was combined into Adams Express Company, he was sent to the money order department in New York. In 1874, after meeting George F. Baker, a director of American Express who was President of the First National Bank, he became a clerk in the First National. In 1879, he married Baker's sister, Elizabeth. After six years there, he resigned to go into the brokerage business with Ernest Groesbeck, as Groesbeck & Schley. In 1885, he became a partner of John G. Moore, who entered the brokerage business "at the suggestion of a number of capitalists who were associated with him in the Mutual Telegraph Company." Schley was a director of the American Smelting and Refining Company, the Chihuahua Mining Company, the Coal Creek Mining and Manufacturing Company, the Electric Storage Battery Company, the Elliott-Fisher Company, the Northern Pacific Railway, the Pittsburgh Coal Company, and the Republic Iron and Steel Company. (Grant B. Schley, Financier, Dead. New York Times, Nov. 23, 1917.) Grant B. Schley and Oliver H. Payne were directors of the Manhattan Trust Company (Display Ad 15. New York Times, Jan. 21, 1901 p. WF8.) Schley and Payne were also directors of the Chase National Bank (Annual Bank Elections. New York Times, Jan. 13, 1904.)

Reeve Schley

Reeve Schley was the son of Grant Schley's brother, William T. Schley (1840-1912), an attorney for the New York Central Railroad. Reeve Schley graduated from Yale in 1903 and was a Fellow of the Yale Corporation in 1942. Reeve Schley practiced law with Simpson, Thacher & Bartlett for twelve years, until resigning to become a vice president of the Chase National Bank. He was vice president until 1946 and a director from 1920 to 1933. He was Eastern treasurer of the Republican National Committee from 1918 to 1920, and president of the American-Russian Chamber of Commerce in 1929, of which Allen Wardwell, Yale 1895, was president. He was chairman of the Howe Sound Company, and a director of General Dynamics Corporation, the Atlas Corporation, the United States Guarantee Company, the Chihuahua Mining Company, and Potosi Mining Company. In 1956, he was elected chairman of the Underwood Corporation, and he was chairman and a director of the Somerville Trust Company until his death. (Reeve Schley, 79, Retired Banker. New York Times, Jun. 27, 1960.) Reeve Schley Jr. [Wolf's Head 1931] was an usher at the wedding of John Holbrook [scroll & Key 1931]. Reeve Schley's daughter, Eleanor Prentice Schley, married Webster B. Todd, and they were the parents of anti-smoker New Jersey Governor Christine Todd Whitman. Nicholas Brady was a ribbon bearer at the wedding. (Miss Schley Bride of Webster B. Todd. New York Times, Oct. 11, 1933.)

SCHLECHT - SCHUTT / Robert Ronald Hanley Sr.

Yale Daily News - Spring Vacation 1942 / Yale University

The Schley family developed the Township of Far Hills, which had a deed covenant prohibiting the sale or use of alcoholic beverages on the property. Reeve Schley was mayor from 1924 to 1937. (History of the Borough of Far Hills, by Anne O'Brien.)

History of the Borough of Far Hills / Welcome to Far Hills Borough

Reeve Schley 3d and Allen Wardwell 2d were ushers for James Cox Brady (Scroll & Keys 1957), who married Joan Babcock, a great-great-granddaughter of Samuel D. Babcock. Nicholas F. Brady was best man for his brother. (Wedding June 27 For Joan Babcock. New York Times, Jun. 2, 1957; L.I. Nuptials Held for Joan Babcock. New York Times, Jun. 28, 1957.)

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Strugis Shipping Empire from Boston

PRESTIGE IS ONLY IN OUR MINDS.

Harvard is one of the oldest of America's universities and has become one of the most prestigious. But what is "prestige"? The word is defined by Merriam-Webster as follows: "standing or estimation in the eyes of people; weight or credit in general opinion; commanding position in people's minds."

"Prestige" is not unlike the word "history"-HIS STORY-when you consider that what we call history has been written by people on the winning side, who reveal only that part of what happened that they want us to know. If what really happened would not afford them that air of standing or estimation in people's minds to which they aspire, then they're not averse to making up a cover story which would bestow on them that degree of craved respectability.

So prestigious has Harvard's "image" become that you may have trouble, for example, believing that the board members, administrators, and faculty of Harvard-that noble institution-would allow the men and women who are entrusted with its endowment to operate in a manner that Catherine Austin Fitts has suggested. (See reference to her allegations at http://www.mail-archive.com/natnews%40egro.../msg01280.html).

What do you really know about Harvard? There is a side of history that has been glossed over in the telling-that has been covered up.

WHO WROTE THE HISTORY THAT YOU WERE TAUGHT?

Since the American Revolution Harvard College has been run by the successors of a board that in the period after the Revolution, was entirely under the control of a group of men from Essex County, Massachusetts, located north of Boston. These men were mentioned in 1808 in correspondence between then-Senator John Quincy Adams and Thomas Jefferson as being involved in a plot to secede from the United States because they felt its nationalistic policies designed to protect the trade of the United States were detrimental to their own business interests.

These men, called the "Essex Junto" were identified by Adams as:

(1) Massachusetts Senator George Cabot,

(2) Judge John Lowell and his son, also named John Lowell (sometimes called

"The Rebel"),

(3) former Secretary of State Timothy Pickering,

(4) merchant Stephen Higginson,

(5) Massachusetts Supreme Court Justice Theophilus Parsons, and

(6) Aaron Burr's brother-in-law, Judge Tapping Reeve from Connecticut.

All the plotters except Reeve had been born in Essex County.

Researcher Anton Chaitkin, who is one of the authors of the much lauded "Unauthorized Biography of George Bush," spent months delving into the archived correspondence among those individuals, and unearthed admissions of their treasonous intentions against the United States. The plot was hatched in large part by the secret intelligence operations of their trading partner, the British East India Company, in collaboration with powerful financier families in Europe.

Alexander Hamilton's support of Thomas Jefferson for president against Aaron Burr prevented the clique from electing Burr, but Hamilton's action also targeted him for destruction; he was eventually murdered in a duel set up by Aaron Burr.

THE HARVARD ENDOWMENT - ESTABLISHED WITH DRUG PROFITS.

After Judge John Lowell was selected to Harvard's Board, he continued to pour money into that school's coffers, and was rewarded in return. From then until 1943, there was only one decade in which a Lowell was not among the half-dozen or so board members. His son, John Lowell, attended his first meeting of the Harvard board April 17, 1810, at the home of the board chairman, Theophilus Parsons. [source: Greenslet, Ferris, The Lowells and their Seven Worlds, Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, (1946), pp. 75-76.] Judge Parsons was aptly characterized by a faculty member: "Our college .... is under the absolute direction of the Essex Junto, at the head of which stands Chief

Justice Parsons,.... a man as cunning as Lucifer and about half as good. This man is at the head of the Corporation.'' [source: Quoted in Zechariah Chafee, Jr., "Theophilus Parsons," Dictionary of American Biography.]

The Cabot name has been almost as closely associated with control of the Harvard Corporation as the Lowells. The Cabot family, which was involved in the shipping trade, established their fortunes during the war years of 1776-1783 as eminently successful privateers. One author stated: "The Cabots provided America with more privateers than any other family." [source: Leon Harris, Only to God: The Extraordinary Life of Godfrey Lowell Cabot (New York: Atheneum, 1967), p. 6]

KEEP THE FAMILY'S VALUE IN THE FAMILY.

The Cabot fleet, sanctioned by various state legislatures, attacked and captured British, Spanish, Portuguese, and other ships, selling the spoils of legalized piracy as booty. George Cabot's brother, Andrew, purchased the estate confiscated from the Royal Governor of New Hampshire, John Wentworth, a cousin of both the Cabots

and Higginsons. He later became the governor of Nova Scotia. George Cabot's uncle Francis married the sister of Richard Clarke, of Clarke and Sons--the British East India Company agents whose tea was dumped in Boston harbor. [source: Briggs, Vernon L., History and Genealogy of the Cabot Family, 1475-1927, privately printed, Boston, 1927, Vol. I, p. 196.]. George Cabot's wife was his double-first-cousin, Elizabeth Higginson. Stephen Higginson's daughter, Sarah, was the wife of Judge John Lowell.

Samuel Cabot became the friend and personal agent of his English cousin, Richard Clarke, and was placed in charge of the management and disposal of the Clarke's property in the United States. He also directed the Clarke family's venture capital into new investments. The bond was made closer when he married Richard Clarke's granddaughter. The bulk of the Cabot family's fortune was acquired several years later by Samuel Cabot's son (Richard Clarke's great-grandson) through an alliance with Thomas Handasyd Perkins in the West Indies slave-trade.

Thomas H. Perkins and his brother worked tirelessly, trading with China and sending cargoes to the West Indies and to Europe. By the end of 1792 they owned sizable shares in seven vessels, but were losing interest in the slave trade because of a vicious slave uprising at that time. They much preferred the China trade, and by the 1830s, Perkins was said to control as much as half of the entire U.S. trade with Canton. [source: Russell B Adams Jr., The Boston Money Tree ©1977]. Their nephew, John Perkins Cushing was chosen as an assistant to the manager of the Canton outpost in 1804, who died within a few months. Cushing, not yet twenty, became a principal in the firm, newly named Perkins & Company.

WALTHAM MILL--FORERUNNER TO HUD MONEY LAUNDERING.

John Perkins Cushing remained in Canton tending the affairs of Perkins & Company while his more "respectable" relations like Francis Cabot Lowell were marveling at the success of their Waltham mill and laying the foundations of the great manufacturing city of Lowell, Massachusetts, which was financed with the profits brought in from China. Thomas Handasyd Perkins, though he built a short-lived cotton mill of his own along the Charles River in Newton, just west of Boston, and later made some fairly substantial investments in the Lowell mills-he was even, for a time, president of the Appleton Company-remained first and foremost a merchant, far and away the leader of Boston's mercantile community.

By the 1820s Cushing was known as the most influential of all the foreigners in Canton. Cushing had struck up a close business and personal relationship with the hong merchant Houqua, who at his death in 1843 was said to be the richest man in the world. During the War of 1812, they loaned their money out--at 18 percent interest--to other merchants in Canton. But the fur trade paled and when hard cash grew harder to come by, a search began for a substitute for the furs and specie that had been foundations of Boston's China trade. Opium seemed the ideal commodity to fill the gap.

During much of the 1820s, opium was virtually the only profitable commodity in the China trade. The British, with their monopoly in opium-rich India, were far and away the heaviest dealers, but the Perkins interests, sparked first by Cushing and later by the brothers Robert Bennet Forbes and John Murray Forbes, ran a worthy second. The first Perkins cargo of Turkish opium, on board the brigantine Monkey, arrived in China in 1816; when the transaction proved profitable, the firm dispatched an agent to Leghorn, Italy, to set up an opium-buying operation. It was the beginning of a thriving if illicit

commerce for the house of Perkins and for the future of a number of other Boston fortunes.

Thomas Handasyd Perkins welcomed Chinese moves to halt the opium traffic, figuring that if China made things hot enough for drug dealers, the less venturesome traders would be scared out of the business, leaving a bigger share for the Perkins firm. It was a shrewd guess: rival merchants John Jacob Astor and Stephen Girard dropped the opium trade. For years, along with the Boston firm of Bryant & Sturgis, the Perkins interests had a virtual monopoly on Turkish opium imports to China. The Perkins firm and Bryant &Sturgis were frequently called "the Boston Concern," and William Sturgis, scion of an old Cape Code seafaring family, was a Perkins nephew and employee.

Cushing announced, on October 26, 1818, that the commission business of Perkins & Company would thereafter be handled by a newly organized firm, James P. Sturgis & Company, whose head was William Sturgis's first cousin. On paper, this took Cushing out of direct involvement in the drug trade, since opium shipments from the Boston Concern would go through the Sturgis firm rather than Perkins & Company. In fact, Cushing had by no means washed his hands of the opium traffic; not only was he related to the principals of James P. Sturgis & Company, but he was still a partner of the drug-dealing Perkins brothers, who also were Sturgis kinsmen. And even after he retired from active business and returned to Boston, he continued to invest in opium

ventures.

Russell & Company was founded in 1824 with Cushing's encouragement. Later, Perkins & Company would be merged with the Russell firm, further consolidating the Boston Concern's interests in China.

Like John Perkins Cushing, John Bennet Forbes was a Perkins nephew. His father, Ralph Bennet Forbes, had married Margaret Perkins in 1799, young Bennet was taken under the generous Perkins wing, as were his brothers Thomas Tunno Forbes and John Murray Forbes. The Forbes boys grew up in Milton, just south of Boston, where they were enrolled at Milton Academy. In 1816, at the age of twelve years, John Bennet became the first apprentice in a new firm formed by Thomas H. Perkins, Jr. and James Perkins along with Samuel Cabot, their brother-in-law.

By 1818, John Bennet Forbes had been stationed in China to assist his cousin John Perkins Cushing. In 1828 Cushing returned to Boston from Canton, where he had spent nearly half his life, leaving Perkins & Company's affairs in the able hands of John Bennet's brother, Thomas Tunno Forbes. He rejected a proposal of partnership with Samuel Cabot (a Perkins son-in-law) and Thomas Perkins, Jr. and also turned aside an offer as head of the Perkins firm, which since the death of James Perkins in 1822 had been run by Samuel Cabot and Thomas Handasyd Perkins.

Thomas Forbes, who understood that John Bennet preferred his life on the sea to running the Canton office, died in 1828, leaving instructions that Russell & Company should take over the Boston Concern's affairs. Samuel Russell agreed, and in the spring of 1832, Bennet Forbes sold a half share in the business to Russell & Company. With a tidy fortune, he sailed home to Boston, where he set up in the offices of China merchant Daniel C. Bacon to handle consignments from Russell & Company. Through the influence of younger brother, John Murray Forbes in Canton--who managed transactions for Houqua as well as for the Boston Concern-the goods readily came his way. For the two Forbeses, Houqua's business offered a double-barreled return: John picked up a percentage of the hong merchant's business in Canton, and Bennet got a commission on his shipments sold in Boston.

At the same time, Bennet began to build an expensive house on a hill in Milton; it is now the Museum of the American China Trade, under the curatorship of his great- grandson, Dr. H. A. Crosby Forbes, an expert on Chinese porcelain. (This house is a short distance from where George Herbert Walker Bush was born less than a century later.) John Murray Forbes, his health broken from his labors, returned to Boston on doctor's orders in the summer of 1833. When he recovered and returned to China the following year, Forbes found the firm still deeply involved in the opium trade. When he returned to Boston in the spring of 1837, he brought with him a sizable fortune-including a half-million dollars of Houqua's own money which the hong merchant gave him to invest in American enterprise as he saw fit-and an agreement to get a three-sixteenths share of the firm's profits for three years, in ex[c]hange for looking after its interests in the United States.

The Panic of 1837 resulted in John Bennet's insolvency, and he again returned to China, with John's power of attorney, entitling him to act in his stead as a partner in Russell & Company. It was a well-placed trust: Bennet Forbes was made chief of the firm on January 1, 1840, and man[a]ged to merge the competing house of Russell, Sturgis & Company into the older Russell concern.

To be continued tomorrow....

Web sources:

With reference to the allegations of Catherine Austin Fitts: See her articles posted at her website under "Harvard Endowment Prefers 'Gaming' to Market Competition"

http://www.solari.com/action/articles/index.html

For an excerpt from: The Boston Money Tree by Russell B Adams Jr.©1977All Rights

Reserved; Thomas Y. Crowell Company New York ISBN 0-690-01209-8

324 pps. - First Edition - Out-of-print

See http://peach.ease.lsoft.com/scripts/wa.exe...trl&P=R3303

See http://peach.ease.lsoft.com/scripts/wa.exe...trl&P=R4317

For an excerpt from: Bonds of Enterprise by John Lauritz Larson President and Fellows of Harvard College©1984 Harvard University press ISBN 0-87584-155-4257 pages - First Edition -- Out-of-print In-print from: McGraw-Hill Companies ISBN: 0071032797

See http://peach.ease.lsoft.com/scripts/wa.exe...rl&P=R46610

Several chapters of Anton Chaitkin's book, Treason in America, have been posted by

Kris Millegan and can be retrieved by searching the archives, which is a wealth of information:

See http://peach.ease.lsoft.com/scripts/wa.exe...L=ctrl&P=R2

You can also search Kris Millegan's CTRL archives: http://peach.ease.lsoft.com/scripts/wa.exe?S1=ctrl&D=0

and at his website at: http://www.ctrl.org/

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Taft's were founding members of Skull and Bones...

[The following is from a "white paper" written for Japanese readership. The views expressed here do not necessarily reflect the views of ctrl.org or its editors]

George Bush, Skull & Bones and the New World Order

Paul Goldstein

Jeffrey Steinberg

George Bush, Skull & Bones and the New World Order

A New American View -- International Edition White Paper

April 1991

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction .............................ii

The Order of Skull & Bones.......... ......2

Initiation and Ritual......................7

The Spartan Model ........................10

Henry Stimson: Master Bonesman............13

Stimson's Kindergarten and the Cold War...16

Vietnam: The Bonesmen's Debacle.......... 19

Bush in Profile...........................23

The Order's Network.......................25

The New World Order.......................28

The Persian Gulf War......................31

Implications for Japan ...................34

Bibliography..............................38

Some Prominent Members....................39

Selected Quotations.......................43

Introduction

This special report is intended to assist the Japanese audience in more fully understanding the present policies of the United States under the administration of President George Bush. It explains the thinking behind America's military adventure in the Persian Gulf and its current attitudes toward the Middle East region.

In so doing, we provide a glimpse into the most powerful organization in America--the Order of Skull & Bones. This secret fraternity is based at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut, where many of the leading members of the U.S. government and the American intelligence community received their formal education. The Order, as it is referred to by its members, is a bastion of White Anglo Saxon Protestant (WASP) culture, which is at the core of the American 20th century outlook.

The reader will learn that President George Herbert Walker Bush's concept of the New World Order is an old idea, one which has its origins in the philosophy and beliefs of the secret Skull & Bones fraternity. Today in particular, this is the prevailing outlook of the U.S. government, many of whose most influential members, like the president himself, are part of the Skull & Bones network. These men seek to recreate the American imperium of the immediate post-World War II period, an era which President Bush frequently refers to as "the American Century."

The powerful men of Skull & Bones genuinely believe that they have a strategic and moral "right" to control world affairs. Consequently, they take upon themselves the authority to crush any rivalrous threat to U.S. imperial leadership, whether by current allies, such as Japan, Germany or Great Britain, or by Cold War adversaries, like the Soviet Union. The members of the Order, due to their narrow WASP upbringing, view with particular suspicion the maneuverings of Zionist Israel and its affluent, influential lobby in the United States.

Bush, his fellow Bonesmen and their like-thinking elitist allies in the American Establishment see themselves as New World Order warriors, an American samurai caste of sorts, whose mission is restoring American greatness. They intend to utilize the institutional networks of the U.S. government and key private agencies, such as the New York Council on Foreign Relations, to advance their purpose.

The Skull & Bones members believe in the idea of "constructive chaos." By keeping their true policy intentions secret, by constantly sending out mixed signals on all critical policy issues, they consciously seek to sow confusion among both their nominal "friends" and "enemies" alike.

The fulcrum for the policy of constructive chaos is, at present, the Middle East situation. Although U.S. military action in the region has for the time being subsided, America's military power will remain a critical determinant in the future of that vital zone of conflict. American military power is aimed at securing undisputed control over the vast reservoir of oil -- not at necessarily fostering any permanent alignment of local states or combinations of regional interests.

If President George Bush and his fellow true believers are successful, the United States will be first among equals in the New World Order. This is their goal. It is also the quest of the Bonesmen of the Order of Skull & Bones -- America's warrior aristocracy.

THE ORDER OF SKULL & BONES

Skull & Bones was founded at Yale College in New Haven, Connecticut in 1832. It is the oldest and most prestigious of Yale's seven secret societies. Among the others are: Scroll & Key, Book & Snake, Wolf's Head, Eliahu, and Berzelius. These fraternities serve as a recruiting ground for young men destined for careers in government, law, finance and other influential sectors of American life. Skull & Bones is the elite of the elite among these secret societies. Only Scroll & Key can claim a near equal influence on American affairs over the past 160 years.

Unlike the Greek fraternities on most other American university campuses, Skull & Bones and its similar secret societies exist exclusively at Yale. They are not part of any nationwide public association. The other elite Ivy League colleges, Harvard and Princeton have similar exclusive secret societies. Yet, even among these few universities, the secret societies of Yale -- led by Skull & Bones -- are unchallenged in their influence on American political affairs.

According to some accounts, the Skull & Bones secret society at Yale has an underground affiliation with two other societies which were simultaneously founded at two other locations. The number "322" that appears under the skull and crossbones on the Order's emblem is believed to indicate the year of its founding -- 1832 -- and the fact that it is the second lodge within an international system. By some accounts, the lodge holding the number "1" is in Germany and the lodge numbered "3" is based at another American college.

Since its founding, Skull & Bones has only inducted about 2,500 members. At any given time, only about 600 or so members of the Order are alive. This small number underscores the tremendous concentration of power in the hands of its members.

If the members of Skull & Bones were to select a Hall of Fame from among their own elite ranks, some of the people whose names would almost certainly appear at the top of the list would be:

* Alphonso Taft, a founding member of the Order who served as the Secretary of War under President Rutherford B. Hayes (1876-1880).

* William Howard Taft, the only man to ever serve as both the President of and Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court.

* Henry Lewis Stimson, partner in the Wall Street law firm of Root and Stimson, Secretary of War under President Taft (1908-1912), Governor General of the Philippines (1926-1928), Secretary of State under President Herbert Hoover (1929-1933) and Secretary of War under Presidents Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman (1940-1946).

* Averell Harriman, investment banker with Brown Brothers Harriman, director of the Lend-Lease program of the U.S. State Department (1941-1942), U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union (1943-1946), Governor of New York, Under Secretary of State for Asia (1961-1963), and presidential secret envoy to Soviet leaders Stalin, Krushchev, Brezhnev and Andropov.

* Robert Lovett, partner in Brown Brothers Harriman, Assistant Secretary of War for Air (1941-1945), Deputy Secretary of Defense, Secretary of Defense (1950), leading member of the New York Council on Foreign Relations.

* Harold Stanley, investment banker, founder of Morgan Stanley.

* Robert A. Taft, United States Senator (1938-1950).

* Prescott Bush, investment banker and partner in Brown Brothers Harriman, United States Senator from Connecticut, father of George Herbert Walker Bush

* George Herbert Walker Bush, United States Congressman (1964-1970), Chairman of the Republican National Committee, United States Ambassador to the United Nations, first American Diplomatic Liaison to the Peoples Republic of China, Director of the Central Intelligence Ageney (1975-1977). Vice President of the United States (1980-1988), President of the United States (1988- ).

* John Thomas Daniels, agro-industrialist, founder of Archer Daniels Midland.

* Hugh Wilson, foreign service officer, Counselor to Japan (1911- 1921), U.S. Minister to Switzerland (1924-1927), Assistant Secretary of State (1937-1938). Ambassador to Germany 1938), Special Assistant to the Secretary of State (1939-1941), Office of Strategic Services (1941-1945)

The members of the Order of Skull & Bones, true to their firm belief in "constructive confusion," have intentionally allowed a series of conflicting mythologies to spring up about the origins and history of their secret fraternity. According to one version of the Order's founding, it was an outgrowth of an earlier British or Scottish freemasonic grouping first established at All Soul's College at Oxford University in the late 17th century. Another version of the history of Skull & Bones is that it grew out of the German "nationalistic" secret .societies of the early 19th century. Still a third explanation is that Skull & Bones is an uniquely American institution which adopted some of the rituals of European freemasonry, but molded these rituals and beliefs into a new form.

Regardless of these conflicting accounts, it can be stated with certainty that the Order was first established on the Yale campus in 1832 It was officially incorporated only in 1856 under the name Russell Trust Association. According to virtually all the available biographical data on its early members, the money required to sustain the secret order's campus affairs and its broader role in placing its members into key positions of influence upon their graduation from Yale, derived from the opium trade in the Far East. That trade was set up by the British East India Company and was flourishing by the time the Treaty of Paris was signed in 1783 ending the American War for Independence. The East India Company during this period was controlled by the Baring Brothers Bank (Toward the closing decades of the 17th century, the British House of Rothschild would supplant the Baring Brothers as the controlling financial interests in the China opium trade.

Through the sponsorship of the Barings and also the Rothschilds, a number of leading New England families, some of whom had sided with Great Britain during the American Revolution, were brought into the opium trade as junior partners. These merchant families ran fleets of clipper ships and became in many cases fabulously wealthy as the result of their association with the British East India Company. Among these key New England merchant families were: Cabot, Coolidge, Forbes, Higginson, Sturgis, Lodge, Lowell, Perkins and Russell.

These New England merchant families founded the United Fruit Company and the Bank of Boston. The founding families of Skull & Bones included the Russell and Perkins families, Over several generations, however, all these families heavily intermarried and became, in effect, one extended power grouping.

William Huntington Russell incorporated Skull & Bones as the Russell Trust Association. Throughout the 20th century, the Russell Trust Association listed the New York City headquarters of Brown Brothers Harriman as its address.

Russell was valedictorian of his class at Yale in 1833. He and his Skull & Bones comrades considered themselves to be a special elite among the merchant banking and Puritan pilgrim elite of Yale. They took the Puritan beliefs of the early New England settlers, that they were "elected by God," and pre-ordained to rule North America.

The founding of Yale College in 1701 pre-dates the American Revolution by several generations. Many of the founders of Yale were righteous men of the Puritan heritage who devoutly believed in God and country. Some of these patriotic souls later made up the core of Benjamin Franklin's political coalition which ultimately broke with the mother country, Great Britain. Many graduates of Yale were active in the American Revolution and the founding of the United States.

Two critics of the Order, historian Antony Sutton and investigative journalist Ron Rosenbaum (himself a Yale graduate), both concluded that Skull & Bones has degenerated since its founding and has taken on more of the occult and ritualistic trappings of the majority of European freemasonic and Illuminati secret societies. Sutton charges that the Order is secretly known among its initiates as the "Brotherhood of Death" and has become an evil instrument in the hands of America's secret power elite. Rosenbaum claims that the society's Germanic origins are inherently wicked and pre-Nazi.

In a long 1977 article in Esquire magazine, Rosenbaum charged that the Skull & Bones building on the Yale campus houses remnants from Hitler's private collection of silver. While these stories cannot be dismissed out of hand, it must be noted that authors Rosenbaum and Sutton may be biased. As a young Jewish student at Yale, Rosenbaum was almost automatically excluded on religious grounds from the inner sanctum of the campus's secret societies. Sutton, a British-born eccentric historian, proudly admits his strong British biases, frequently citing philosopher John Stuart Mill as the spiritual mentor in his book on the Order.

Despite the possible personal biases in these two accounts of the history of the Order of Skull & Bones, it must be acknowledged that the membership of the society has tended over generations to converge upon a small group of New England families who have intermarried and then sponsored their sons and nephews into the Order. This kind of inbreeding always tends to produce narrow-mindedness and prejudice against outsiders, which can be a serious shortcoming, particularly among individuals responsible for charting the course of a nation as powerful as the United States.

It can be documented by comparing the family charts of the early Bonesmen that there is today a core group of no more than 20 to 30 families who form the nucleus of the Order. The majority are old-line Puritan families who came to North America in the very first wave of settlers in the 17th century. Among these prominent families are: Whitney, Lord, Phelps. Wadsworth, Allen, Bundy, Adams, Stimson, Taft, Gilman and Perkins. A second group of families in the Skull & Bones core earned fabulous fortunes during the 18th and 19th centuries and thus won a rite of passage into the New England elite, even though they were not among the earliest settlers. The leading Skull & Bones families in this second category are: Harriman, Rockefeller, Payne, Davison, Pillsbury and Weyerhauser.

A few of the Jewish banking families who made their way from Germany to the United States during the 18th and l9th centuries were eventually granted limited access to the WASP inner sanctums. Some families, like the Schiff, Warburg, Guggenheim and Meyer families, were unofficially designated as intermediaries between the New England WASPs and their cousins in London. This was especially true after the Rothschild interests supplanted the Anglican Baring group as the most powerful financial cabal in the City of London. Some of these German Jewish families became so absorbed into the WASP or Anglican society that they eventually converted from Judaism to Protestantism and were gradually ostracized from the Jewish aristocracy.

The WASP families, however, never saw the prominent Jewish investment banking families of America as equals. The Jews were considered politically and culturally different by the WASPs, and have never been accepted into the latter's inner circle. For the most part, these Jewish merchant bankers are viewed with suspicion and distrust by the members of the Order. Moreover, the Jewish fraternal societies, such as B'nai B'rith, were formed out of the British-based Scottish Rite Freemasonry. Their sponsors in America, the Rothschilds and the Cecil Rhodes Trust (also known as the British Round Table Group), are connected with the British Foreign Office and its secret intelligence apparatus.

INITIATION AND RITUAL

To be initiated into the Order of Skull & Bones, one must endure a ritual of selection called "tapping". It is conducted by 15 senior classmen of Yale University who make up the current membership of the secret society. They select 15 members of the junior class to be the Bonesmen the following year. Historically, Skull & Bones kept blacks, Jews and all other non-WASPs from its ranks. Within the last 30 years, however, token members from these groups have been occasionally selected to join. Thus, in the most recent list of initiates to the Order, there is one Yalie with a Jewish surname and even one with a Chinese name. According to author Rosenbaum, in recent years, the Order has inducted members of homosexual rights groups on the campus into its ranks.

Among the criterion for selection -- apart from family ties to the order, which has always been an important factor -- is what is referred to by historians and members as the "Three Ordeals." These ordeals are intended to measure the prospective Bonesman's ability to "make it" in the world beyond the university campus.

The first ordeal is boarding school. The overwhelming majority of Bonesmen, given their wealthy blueblood family pedigrees, attend one of the prestigious New England preparatory schools, i.e, private high schools. (Whereas a large number of the most elite of the Harvard University students attend Groton, a school with close ties to the Anglican-Episcopal Church, where they receive a thoroughly Anglophilic education, the preferred prep schools for the future Bonesmen are the two Puritan Calvinist-sponsored Phillips Academies.)

The second of the ordeals is that of nature. The prospective Bonesmen are judged on their skills as outdoorsmen. Hunting in the New England countryside or, better yet, traveling to distant locations like Africa, the jungles of South America or even the American badlands of the Plains states, is a prerequisite for admission to the Spartan elite ranks of the Order.

The third of the ordeals is war. The experience of combat during wartime is considered to be of special significance for the Bonesmen, who see themselves as the elite of the New England WASP warrior caste. Many Yale Bonesmen of President George Bush's generation, as the result of the outbreak of World War II, went directly from prep school into the military service prior to their entering Yale. For a majority of Bonesmen, the preferred military service has historically been with the U.S. Navy. During World II the Naval air corp was a particularly important track for future Bones initiates. In peacetime, participation at Yale in military officer's training is desirable but not essential. The commitment to enter some branch of the military upon graduation is viewed with favor.

After the formal selection of the next group of prospective Bonesmen, there is an invitation followed by a formal initiation ceremony. First the 15 senior class members who are the members of the Order select a group of junior class members who are to be "tapped" for Skull & Bones. A group of Bonesmen proceed to the dormitory room of the "tappee." Upon reaching the door, they pound loudly. When the prospective member opens the door, a Bonesman will tap him on the shoulder and yell, "Skull and Bones: Do you accept?" If the candidate accepts, a message wrapped with a black ribbon sealed by black wax with the skull and crossbones emblem and the mystical Bones number 322 is handed to the "tappee." The message appoints a time and a place for the candidate to appear on initiation night. Candidates are instructed to wear no metal objects or clothing.

According to a 1940 Skull & Bones document, the initiation ceremony involves the following kinds of things: "New man placed in coffin -- carried into central part of building. New man chanted over and reborn into society. Removed from coffin and given robes with symbols on it. A bone with his name on it is tossed into the bone heap at the start of every meeting."

Within the Skull & Bones Crypt, also known as "the Tomb," there is what is referred to as a "sacred room" with the number 322, On the arched wall about the vault entrance is inscribed in German: "Who was the fool, who was the wise man, beggar or king? Whether poor or rich, all's the same in death."

This quotation from a German Freemasonic ritual remains a source of controversy surrounding the origins of Skull & Bones. It is one of the bits of "evidence" cited by some of the Order's most ardent critics that the group is "Nazi like" and singularly "Germanic". In fact, the rituals of the Order are very much like the rituals employed by Scottish and English freemasonic lodges.

Some of the mystery and confusion surrounding these occult symbols and rituals is intentionally fostered by the Order itself. Among the principles taught to the members of the Yale secret society are the value of ambiguity and secrecy. These values are not taught as part of a purely mystical or occult quasi-religion. They are taught as valuable tools to be applied by the Bonesmen when they leave the insulated environment of the Yale campus and become officials of government, the intelligence community, the military or the private sector.

A careful study of the often confusing and self-contradictory behavior and public statements of President Bush and his closest advisers throughout the months of the Persian Gulf crisis of last year and war that followed offers a valuable example of how ambiguity and secrecy are applied by Bonesmen.

For the initiates of the Order, the question of whether secrecy and ambiguity are used for the purpose of accomplishing "good" or "evil" is of secondary importance. Secrecy and ambiguity are essential instruments for wielding power. The effective wielding of power is one of the overarching goals of all Bonesmen. The secret ties built up during the Bonesmen's senior year of active membership in the Order are maintained for life. Those ties link each Bonesman to every other initiate, especially to those initiates who were members of the Order in the same year.

Thus, every member of Skull & Bones is, in real and practical terms, part of a small elite group of young Yale graduates -- most from wealthy and powerful WASP families -- who enter the world of politics, business, finance, intelligence or education and who proceed to make their mark on the world.

According to several sources, President George Bush to this day frequently consults with several of his fellow Yale Bonesmen, and has, on occasion, called upon Skull & Bones members to carry out secret diplomatic missions for the White House.

THE SPARTAN MODEL

These rites of passage into the upper ranks of the WASP Establishment are capped by the experience the Bonesmen go through in their final year at Yale -- the year in which they actively participate in the Order. For the vast majority of the initiates, the process of inculcation with the ideas of WASP supremacy, an American Calvinist version of what British imperialist writer Rudyard Kipling called the "White Man's Burden," began at prep school.

According to the biographical accounts of a number of the leading Bonesmen, the prep school experience is paramount. At prep school, intellectual pursuits are encouraged, but special emphasis is also placed on athletic performance. Future Yale Bonesmen are expected to excel in some team sport, such as baseball and football, both American inventions. (Members of Skull & Bones were involved in the development of both games.) Team sports supposedly prepare the future Bonesman to accept leadership responsibility, and more importantly, teach him to "respect the rules of the game."

According to one biographer, when George Bush was a Yale undergraduate he was a member of the university baseball team. Although he was apparently not a very good baseball player, he eventually became captain of the Yale team. One day during the Yale baseball season, he excitedly visited his mother to proudly proclaim that he had hit his first home run. She reportedly looked back at him with patrician coolness, and asked, "Yes, George, but did your team win the game?"

The particular emphasis on team sports during the prep school and Yale years is, according to several historians, part of the Spartan training that is so essential to the Skull & Bones philosophy. In the world of Skull & Bones, one of the greatest virtues is the ability to steer the nation into war and to successfully prosecute the war.

To the Bonesmen, the use of military power is a natural and essential corollary to political power. The Bonesmen are taught that, although ideas have their place, to truly transform history, military force is almost always required. Critics of the Order have pointed out that this philosophy of power and the imperial use of military force comes straight from the chronicles of the Roman Empire -- especially the Roman Empire during its phase of decline and collapse.

The criticism may prove to be most prophetically true of the current generation of Bonesmen who are leading the United States under the presidency of George Bush. During the final phase of the Roman Empire, legions were deployed out around the world to conquer and subjugate vast territories, while back in Rome, there was a breakdown, a crisis in which the entire social and cultural fabric of the early Roman republic was eroding and giving way to something akin to the drug, rock-sex counterculture of today. The Roman imperial policy of attempting to gloss over the decadence at home by engaging in constant wars of expansion led ultimately to the total collapse of Rome.

In this regard, the Spartan-Roman imperial outlook of the American WASP warrior caste, exemplified by Skull & Bones, cannot be precisely compared to the Japanese samurai code of Bushido. The Japanese Bushido code emphasized honor among the warriors and presumed a fundamentally moral or ethical vision of the world.

No such emphasis on morality and honor exists in the code of Skull & Bones. On the contrary, the Skull & Bones philosophy, according to several of its most astute critics and historians, emphasizes the "double-cross system." The "double-cross" is symbolically represented by the crossbones on the emblem of the Order. According to this philosophy, anyone who is not an initiate is inferior, and can be lied to and manipulated to further the power of the WASP Establishment. To the extent that Japanese leaders view their American WASP counterparts as men of honor whose word is sacred and whose intentions are presumed to be virtuous, they will miss the fundamental character of the American imperium. This is of special importance today, with a leading member of the Skull & Bones system occupying the White House.

Skull & Bones philosophy first manifested itself at the American national political level in the late l9th century. At that time, the men of the Order adopted all the critical features of the British imperial system, especially the belief in the Anglo Saxon God-given right to rule over all the other races. Even countries like Japan, which were never colonial possessions of the Anglo-American combination, were viewed as inferior nations to be treated no differently from the colonies in Africa, India or Latin America.

In 1898, President William McKinley, one of the last of the American presidents to manifest any of the early republican (anti-British imperialism) traditions of the Founding Fathers, was under enormous pressure from the Skull & Bones-led American imperialists. Eventually, he went to war against Spain to "free" Cuba and seize the Philippines. This was the first time that the United States entered a war through devious manipulation and purely in order to expand its territories. It marked the beginning of a new epoch in American history which would forever alter the vision of the United States. It was the first evidence that the men of the Order were at the helm of the ship of state.

President McKinley's capitulation to the WASP warriors would prove to be fatal to himself and, some would say, for his country, too. The Spanish-American War of 1898 catapulted the Skull & Bones crowd into a position of dominance within the Republican Party. At the 1900 party presidential nominating convention, McKinley was forced to accept Teddy Roosevelt as his vice presidential running mate. The McKinley-Roosevelt slate was swept into office, in part as the result of the jingoist climate built up by the just-concluded Spanish-American War. Those circumstances were not all that different from the mood that prevails in America in the aftermath of the Gulf War of 1991.

Within months of his inauguration of 1901, President McKinley was assassinated by an anarchist while traveling through Buffalo, New York. Thus, Teddy Roosevelt became president, and the Order of Skull & Bones for the first time moved into the White House. Roosevelt surrounded himself with Bonesmen. His successor in 1908, William Howard Taft, was himself a second generation member of Skull & Bones.

HENRY STIMSON: MASTER BONESMAN

According to a January 1991 article by the Washington syndicated columnists Rowland Evans and Robert Novak, when President George Bush was making his final decision to use military force to crush Saddam Hussein and decimate Iraq, he spent most of the Christmas holidays closeted at Camp David reading a newly published biography of one of his true heroes, fellow Skull & Bones initiate Henry Stimson. While most White House advisers thought that the gulf crisis would be ultimately resolved through diplomacy, unbeknownst to them, President Bush had already decided on the use of devastating military force -- regardless of what measures the world community or the Iraqi leaders took to avert war. Intimate Bush advisers described the president as being in a "mesmerized" state of mind as he walked around the presidential retreat in the Maryland mountains with his Stimson biography, "The Colonel: The Life and Wars of Henry Stimson," under his arm at all times.

Indeed, for most contemporary Bonesmen, Henry Lewis Stimson, the quintessential WASP warrior, was the very personification of the Order's full ascent to power during the period of World War II.

A member of the Order's class of 1888, Stimson served seven U.S. presidents: Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft (a fellow Bonesman), Woodrow Wilson, Calvin Coolidge, Herbert Hoover, Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Harry S Truman. As the Secretary of War under FDR and Truman, Stimson oversaw the Manhattan Project, which developed the atomic bomb. Stimson personally decided on the use of that devastating weapon against the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Years earlier, as the chairman of the American delegation at the London Naval Conference and as Secretary of State under President Hoover (1929-1933), Stimson had played a pivotal role in restricting the size of the Japanese Imperial Navy. He would be an architect of the FDR 's administration's economic provocations against Japan which ultimately helped induce Japan into the attack at Pearl Harbor, thus bringing the United States formally into World War II. And Stimson was also ultimately responsible for the FDR administration's decision to intern the Nisei (Japanese-Americans) after Pearl Harbor.

Yet, it was also Stimson who ordered American bombers to refrain from attacking the old Japanese imperial capital of Kyoto, a city rich in religious and historical tradition and artifacts. And, according to at least one of Stimson's biographers, it was also "the Colonel" who decided at the close of the war that the Japanese emperor should not be deposed. His sensitivity to Japanese culture and the importance of allowing Japan to retain honor even in defeat is widely to his close adviser, Joseph Grew, a longtime U.S. ambassador to Japan and an accomplished historian. Whether this report of Stimson's involvement in the decision to maintain the emperor is accurate or whether it underplays the role of Gen. Douglas MacArthur, the fact remains certain that Stimson was the key policymaker overseeing the postwar occupations of both Japan and Germany.

To fully understand President George Bush's attitudes and policies toward Japan, one must first appreciate the overarching influence that Stimson had on the current occupant of the White House.

According to his British biographer Geofrey Hodgson, Stimson's membership in Skull & Bones was "the most important educational experience in his life." Unlike most of his fellow Bonesmen, Stimson earned his membership solely on the basis of his achievements at Yale -- not through family money. His parents were not wealthy, although his forefathers did come to America as early Puritan colonists. But Stimson made up for his lack of financial credentials by his fierce competitive spirit. As he himself put it, the "idea of a struggle for prizes, so to speak, has always been one of the fundamental elements of my mind, and I can hardly conceive of what my feelings would be if I ever was put in a position or situation in life where there are no prizes to struggle for."

Although Stimson did not come from classic blueblood background, he married into wealth and power. His wife, Mabel White, came from a prominent Establishment family with longstanding ties to the Order. Thus, upon graduation from law school, Stimson became a partner in the law firm of Eliahu Root, President Theodore Roosevelt's Secretary of War.

Although Stimson and Roosevelt would have a falling out in later years, early on Roosevelt and Root provided "the Colonel" with the critical sponsorship and training required to succeed in the world of Establishment politics. According to Stimson's biographers, Roosevelt would frequently taunt the young Bonesman about the fact that he, unlike the president, had never been in the military or fought in any wars. (Roosevelt had resigned as Under Secretary of the Navy to go off and fight in the Spanish-American War.) Thus, at the ripe old age of 44, Stimson joined the Army during World War I and served in the American Expeditionary Force in Europe.

Among the other lasting interests that Roosevelt would pass on to Stimson was his deep passion for the Pacific. Roosevelt was convinced that America's imperial destiny was dependent upon its domination of the Pacific Ocean and the Far East. The Spanish-American War, which marked the beginning of America's imperial phase -- and the virtual abandonment of the republican principles upon which the nation had been founded -- began the U.S. colonial occupation of the Philippines, which would continue through half of the next century. Ultimately, Stimson would himself serve as the American Governor General of the islands.

In 1900, Roosevelt wrote to Stimson: "Our people are neither craven nor weaklings, as we face the future high of heart and confident of soul, eager to do the great work of a great power... wish to see the United States the dominant power on the Pacific Ocean."

STIMSON'S KINDERGARTEN AND THE COLD WAR

Henry Stimson's towering influence on George Bush and many other current members and like-thinking allies of the Order was based not only on "the Colonel's" lifetime of achievements. It was also rooted in the fact that Stimson used the World War II period to groom a successor generation of young WASP warriors who would dominate American policymaking during the Cold War and beyond. Although not every member of what came to be known as the "Stimson's Kindergarten" was a member of Skull & Bones, or even a Yale graduate, many were. All were inculcated with the Skull & Bones philosophy and methodology of wielding power. It is through this alliance and patronage system that the influence of the Order has been extended far beyond its small membership roster.

Among the leading members of the "Stimson Kindergarten" were:

* John J. McCloy, who was Assistant Secretary of War and later served as the High Commissioner for Germany during the postwar occupation.

* Robert Lovett, a member of Skull & Bones and a partner in the Order's preeminent Wall Street investment house Brown Brothers Harriman. He became Stimson's Assistant Secretary of War (Air Section). Lovett remained an influential policymaker through the presidency of John F. Kennedy.

* Harvey Bundy, another Bonesman, who became Stimson's special assistant at the War Department. Harvey Bundy's two sons, McGeorge and William, fresh out of Yale University and Skull & Bones, joined their father on Stimson's personal staff. McGeorge Bundy would co-author Stimson's memoirs In Active Service in Peace and War.

* Dean Acheson, Assistant Secretary of State, Yale graduate (he was not a member of the Order, but, rather, of one of the other Yale secret societies, Scroll Key) and senior policy adviser to FDR and Truman, who ultimately made him Secretary of State.

* Gen. George C. Marshall, Chief of Staff of the armed forces during World War II and later Truman's Secretary of State.

This group of high-powered policymakers of World War II and immediate post war period were known as the "Stimson-Marshall-Acheson Circle." They shaped America's Cold War containment policy against the Soviet Union and Communist China, including the involvement of the United States in the Korean War. It was also this group which, for better or worse, directed the postwar reconstruction programs in Germany and Japan.

Another influential member of Skull & Bones, Averell Harriman, was personally responsible for the sacking of Gen. Douglas MacArthur. It was Harriman, a banker, intriguer and former American Ambassador to Moscow, who convinced President Truman to fire MacArthur.

The predominant role that Averell Harriman would play over the course of 40 years of postwar American policymaking underscores the fact that not all leading members of Skull & Bones share the identical policy outlook. While some members of the Stimson inner circle were critical of Harriman, whom they considered to be too personally ambitious (he was also a liberal imperial Democrat in a secret fraternity dominated historically by moderate Republicans), Harriman nevertheless stands out as one of the Order's most active figures. The fact that he was a business partner and social intimate throughout his adult life of fellow Bonesman and Republican Sen. Prescott Bush Sr., the father of the current president underscores that point.

Henry Stimson died in 1950, leaving behind a core group of political offspring led by members of his old secret society, Skull & Bones. In the final years of his life he was involved in helping to shape a number of postwar government agencies which would become bastions of power and influence for the Order for years to come. Through this active role in shaping the key institutions of the Cold War era, Stimson was able to establish a continuity of power that would more than compensate for the fact that no single figure among his "kindergarten" emerged as a clear successor, and that several, like McGeorge Bundy, would prove ultimately to be rather disappointing students.

The National Security Act of 1947 transformed Stimson's old War Department into the Department of Defense, a sprawling civilian bureaucracy which would in future years house many of the most important members of the Order. Robert Lovett, for example, would become the Secretary of Defense in 1950. The 1947 act also established the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) as the permanent successor to the wartime Office of Strategic Services (OSS). In the early 1950s, the State Department's Office of Policy Coordination was merged into the CIA, giving the secret agency total control of America's clandestine operations. The National Security Agency (NSA) also was established, under the direction of the Department of Defense, vastly expanding America's signal intelligence capability.

Of all these agencies of the Cold War era, the CIA would stand out as a singular power center for Yale University alumni in general and Skull & Bones initiates in particular. The term "spooks," the well-known CIA term for a clandestine operator, was originally Yale campus argot for a secret society member. According to a recently published article in the Covert Action Information Bulletin, there is reportedly a "Bones club" within the CIA which helps promote the intelligence careers of members of the Yale secret society.

It should be pointed out that bureaucratic standing is not a real measure of power within the CIA. Very often, individuals in relatively insignificant positions within the organizational chart wield tremendous clout and maintain access to the most sensitive information and policy. Thus, for example, the present U.S. Ambassador to Beijing, James Lilley, a member of Skull & Bones and a career CIA man, is being suggested to replace William Webster as Director of Central Intelligence. For Lilley to step in as director of CIA would at this moment represent a demotion for the senior field operator. It is, however, a demotion he might accept as a personal favor to fellow Bonesman and longtime intimate pal George Bush.

The predominance of Yale graduates inside the CIA is also a part of the Stimson legacy. During World War II, many Yale students and even several leading faculty members entered the OSS. The X-2 Branch of OSS, the counterintelligence unit, was dominated by Yale students, as well as Yale English Literature professor Norman Holmes Pearson. One of the Yale men in X-2, James Jesus Angleton, went on to a legendary career as director of the CIA's counterintelligence staff.

Yale Skull & Bonesman and Stimson "Kindergartener" William Bundy assumed a senior post at CIA during the 1950s, as did Yale graduates Richard Bissell and Cord Meyer and Yale professor Sherman Kent.

VIETNAM: THE BONESMEN'S DEBACLE

According to author David Halberstam's best-selling critique of the Kennedy years, "The Best and the Brightest," the JFK presidency marked the high point of Skull & Bones postwar power. But it also marked the beginning of the secret fraternity's fall from the position of unchallenged power, and the beginning of America's precipitous decline as a world power. All these factors are summed up in one word: Vietnam.

John Fitzgerald Kennedy's Cabinet was largely handpicked by Skull & Bones elder statesman Robert Lovett, who was personally approached by Joseph Kennedy, the president's father, and asked to shape the direction of the new administration. Lovett had been one of the architects of the World War II industrial mobilization under President Franklin Roosevelt, which helped bring the United States out of the Great Depression. He had been a factional opponent of Averell Harriman within the Skull & Bones circles, initially opposing the Cold War containment doctrine and pushing the idea of Atoms for Peace during the early years of the Eisenhower presidency (l952-1960).

Kennedy had personally asked Lovett to join his Cabinet, but Lovett, a partner in Brown Brothers Harriman, preferred to shun formal government service. Instead, he placed a number of younger Bonesmen into the critical posts. McGeorge Bundy was appointed Kennedy's National Security Adviser. Averell Harriman was made Under Secretary of State for Asian Affairs, a position that placed him in charge of many of the most critical decisions along the way to disaster in Vietnam. William Bundy remained in a senior post at CIA.

The decision to escalate the American military involvement in Vietnam -- a rejection of Gen. Douglas MacArthur's prophetic warning that the United States should never engage in a ground war in Asia -- was made by members of the Order. According to some accounts, President Kennedy began to have serious second thoughts about escalating the war, particularly after several private Oval Office discussions with MacArthur.

With Kennedy's assassination, American soldiers began pouring into Southeast Asia. Harriman remained a fixture of Vietnam policy under President Lyndon Baines Johnson. McGeorge Bundy remained on as LBJ's National Security Adviser untill , when he left government service to assume the presidency of the Ford Foundation, the largest tax-exempt philanthropic agency in the United States. The Ford Foundation annually dispenses of nearly $3 billion in grants.

In his capacity as president of the Ford Foundation, Bundy helped finance the anti-Vietnam War movement. The National Student Mobilization Committee, the umbrella group for the entire New Left of the late 1960s and early 1970s, was led by David Dellinger, a Yale graduate. Episcopal Church activist William Sloan Coffin, a Bonesman, a second leading figure in the anti-war protest movement, had previously served as a CIA officer.

Thus, the Order had its hands in two critical elements of the policy debacle of the second half of the 1960s. Some leading Bonesmen helped shape the disastrous limited war strategy in Vietnam, while other members of the Order, at least tacitly, contributed to the growth of the drug-rock-sex counterculture by nourishing the New Left soil from which it sprang.

As a result of the Vietnam debacle, the "Stimson Kindergarten" literally drove itself out of the corridors of power which it had occupied without challenge for the previous 20 years. With the election of Richard Nixon as president of the United States in November 1968, a different team came into prominence. The politics of that team were personified by Henry A. Kissinger, Nixon's National Security Adviser and Secretary of State.

In a May 1982 speech in London at the Chatham House headquarters of the Royal Institute for International Affairs, Kissinger boasted that he was an enthusiastic follower of the late British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and that throughout his years in senior government posts under Presidents Nixon and Gerald Ford (1974-1976), he had always consulted more frequently with his counterparts in the British Foreign Office than he had with officials of his own government.

Although Kissinger had enjoyed early patronage from McGeorge Bundy, when the Bonesman was Dean of Harvard University and Kennedy's NSC adviser, the Kissinger era marked a low point in Skull & Bones' government power. The Central Intelligence Agency, a hub of the Order's clout, was decimated by scandals that only compounded the damage done to the Agency as the result of its role in the Vietnam disaster.

According to some respected writers, for example, Jim Hougan, author of "Secret Agenda," the CIA attempted to reverse the route by helping to bring down Richard Nixon in Watergate. There is significant evidence to bolster some of these accounts.

When Gerald Ford became president in August 1974 following Nixon's resignation, Skull & Bones made a brief comeback. In what came to be known as the "Saturday Night Massacre," Ford, in the autumn of 1975, removed Henry Kissinger from his post as NSC Adviser, replacing him with Gen. Brent Scowcroft. Kissinger ally James Schlesinger was fired as Secretary of Defense and replaced by Donald Rumsfeld. And CIA Director William Colby, who had dueled with Angleton, was fired and replaced by Skull & Bones member George Bush.

If these maneuvers were intended to be the first step in a more ambitious comeback by the WASP warrior faction, the plan was short-circuited with the election in November 1976 of Jimmy Carter as president. It would really not be until the inauguration of George Bush as president in January 1989 -- a dozen years later -- that Skull & Bones would resurface with the same degree of governmental power that it had enjoyed during the Stimson years. George Bush's selection as Ronald Reagan's vice presidential running mate in the 1980 and 1984 elections was the transition back to that power.

Many things had gone wrong in the years since Vietnam to drive the Bonesmen off the center stage. With more than a little input from Bonesmen like McGeorge Bundy and Averell Harriman, the United States had gone into a period of scientific, technological and industrial retreat. The Nixon decision on August 15, 1971 to remove the dollar from a fixed, gold-backed exchange rate system, had triggered a move toward double-digit inflation, urban decay, rising unemployment and soaring interest rates. The Kissinger-orchestrated Iranian-Middle East oil crisis in the early 1970s had contributed to a rate of deindustrialization that ultimately transformed the United State from the biggest creditor nation in the world to the world's biggest debtor nation. According to estimates compiled around the time of George Bush's inauguration as president, the total U.S. internal indebtedness had skyrocketed to more than $12 trillion.

Moreover, the period of the 1970s and 1980s had given rise to a new and powerful political-financial combination demanding a share of government clout. This new grouping, with its principle power bases in the U.S. Congress, in Hollywood and on Wall Street, was known as the Zionist lobby.

Although Jewish names had been prominent in the legal profession and on Wall Street since the founding of the American republic, in the aftermath of the 1967 Six-Day War between Israel and her Arab neighbors, Zionist power took on a whole different proportion. Again, Henry Kissinger's position in the Nixon administration symbolized the fact that the pro-Israel lobby had moved in with a vengeance to the corridors of power in the nation's capital. Even on Wall Street the 1970s and 1980s had seen a new generation of Jewish financiers come into power, replacing their more cultured and Anglicized predecessors. The WASP Establishment had developed a tolerance of and working relationship with the largely German Jewish bankers known among themselves as "Our Crowd." The new upstart Wall Street Zionists, however, were viewed by the WASPs as a collection of gangsters.

If the Skull & Bonesmen needed a legitimate justification for reviving their ever-present dislike of the East European Ashkenazic Jews, the Wall Street Zionists who became known as the so-called "New Crowd" provided them with all the excuses necessary. When Jonathan Jay Pollard, a Naval intelligence analyst, was arrested in November 1985 and charged with spying for Israel against the United States, there was a resurgence of more unabashed antisemitism among the Bonesmen and their blueblood upperclass mates. It has since become a hallmark of the Bush White House. Even when practical political affairs have demanded that the Bush administration deal with the American Zionist lobby or the right-wing Shamir government of Israel, there has been a distinctive undertone of distrust bordering on overt hostility.

BUSH IN PROFILE

Unlike Averell Harriman, who reportedly coveted personal political power and drew sharp criticism from some of his fellow Bonesmen, George Bush has been a long-term "project" of Skull & Bones. The Bush presidency in real and symbolic terms represents the effort by the Order to restore the lost spirit of the WASP warrior Henry Stimson. With the passage of time and the decay of the WASP elite, the Bush presidency may yet prove to be a tragic replay of past American dreams.

George Bush's career was sponsored every step of the way by Skull & Bones members, mostly of his father's generation. Prescott Bush (Skull & Bones Class of 1917), a Brown Brothers Harriman partner who would serve one term in Congress as senator from Connecticut, sent George to the traditional private preparatory school, Phillips Academy in Andover, New Hampshire, which grooms young New England squires for later studies at Yale.

It was while finishing his prep school training at Andover that Bush was first exposed to Henry Stimson. Reportedly, Stimson delivered a stirring patriotic speech to the Phillips student body in l940 arguing forcefully for American intervention in the war in Europe. Ironically, at that very moment on the Yale campus, the majority of Skull & Bonesmen were leading the America First movement, which opposed any such U.S. entanglement in Europe.

When war with Japan broke out a year later, George Bush enlisted in the Navy and was trained as a pilot. He flew more than 50 missions before being shot down in the Pacific. At Yale after the war, Bush captained the baseball team and followed his father's footsteps into the Order.

Political legends have it that George Bush shunned his family's patronage and went off on his own to launch a business career as an oil wildcatter, or speculator, in Texas. Nothing could be farther from the truth. Bush moved to Texas to work for Dresser Industries selling oil drilling equipment. The job was arranged for him by his father with Dresser president Neil Mallon, who was a fellow member of Skull & Bones. Desser, according to several sources, had close ties with the CIA.

After a few years with Dresser, George Bush set up his own company, Zapata Oil, to explore new oil fields in Texas and Mexico. Again, Bush was heavily backed by member of his family. Uncle George Herbert Walker, also a Skull & Bonesman, put up a large amount of capital, as did Brown Brothers Harriman. Lazard Brothers, a Jewish brokerage house with longstanding friendly ties to the New England WASPs, put up some money as well, at the urging of Andre Meyer, the owner of the Washington Post Corporation and the father of the current Post publisher Kathanne Graham. Zapata Oil sunk the first offshore well for the Kuwaiti government.

Even with that kind of backing, George Bush was less than a success as a businessman. In 1964, a longtime Bush friend, William Farrish III of Scotland, bought the majority of shares in Zapata for $3.2 million to keep the business afloat, while George, in a major career shift, ran for U.S. Congress from a wealthy district in Houston, Texas. He won.

During his three terms in Congress (Bush lost the 1970 Senate race to Lloyd Bentsen), George Bush distinguished himself as an advocate of zero population growth and a defender of the eugenics movement. Both of these positions, radical for their day, were probably the result of Bush's close friendship with William Draper Jr. -- a fellow Bonesman and a longtime advocate of population reduction schemes in the Third World.

The 1970s were for George Bush years of grooming in high-level politics and foreign policy. During the Nixon re-election campaign of 1972, George Bush was the chairman of the Republican National Committee. He later joined the chorus calling for Nixon's resignation. After a tour as the U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations, Bush was sent off to Communist China as the Chief Liaison Officer prior to the formalization of diplomatic relations. Bush shared the Beijing experience with Winston Lord, a fellow Skull & Bones member who was the CIA station chief. Lord went on to become president of the New York Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) in 1983. (The Lord family founded the city of Hartford, Connecticut, has a large number of Skull & Bones members on its family tree, and set up one of the most powerful old-line Wall Street law firms, Lord Day Lord.) In 1975, George Bush completed his "grooming" with a brief stint as Gerald Ford's CIA director.

In 1980, Bush ran a short-lived campaign against Ronald Reagan for the Republican Party's presidential nomination. Future running mate Reagan cut short Bush's 1980 presidential hopes by defeating him soundly in the primary election in New Hampshire, in the heart of New England. Reagan blasted Bush for his membership in the internationalist Trilateral Commission, which had attained notoriety because 20 members of the unpopular Carter administration had served on the commission. Bush's campaign was otherwise noteworthy because a significant number of his campaign volunteers were CIA officials; his campaign organization was directed by six top Agency and Pentagon retirees.

THE ORDER'S NETWORK

With Bush in the White House, the WASP Establishment is seeking to re-conquer lost territory, not only within the domain of national politics, but within the financial community, the legal profession and big business. A struggle between some elements of the WASP crowd and the Jewish "New Crowd" on Wall Street has been playing out in the newspapers and federal courts for the past six years, beginning with the criminal indictments of junk bond dealers Ivan Boesky and Michael Milken and the bankrupting and criminal prosecuting of the powerful Zionist-run brokerage house Drexel Rurnham Lambert.

To some extent these wars reflect the kind of scramble that always takes place during a financial crisis and shakeout, when certain formerly powerful financial institutions are wiped out and others profit from their rivals' adversity. During the Great Depression of the 1930s, the House of Morgan came out on top. Not coincidentally, Morgan Guaranty Trust and Morgan Stanley have been cornerstones of the Skull & Bones grouping on Wall Street since their founding during the last century. Founding partner Harold Stanley was a Bonesman.

One hub of the Order's postwar economic power, the major multinational oil corporations, have clearly benefited greatly from President Bush's "charming little colonial war" in the Persian Gulf. The leading oil companies which are linked to the Order are: Standard Oil Trust Corporation, Shell Oil of America, Creole Petroleum Corporation and Pennzoil Corporation. The founder and present chairman of the board of Pennzoil started out in the oil business in partnership with George Bush in Zapata Oil. It is interesting to note in the context of the Bonesmen's deep involvement in the world petroleum business that George Bush, during his early days as a Texas oilman, had worked closely with the Kuwaitis.

Eight major Wall Street and Washington, D.C. law firms stand out as practically wholly-owned subsidiaries of the Order of Skull & Bones. Each of these firms was founded by members of the Order, and each of these firms continues to provide up-and-coming Order initiates in the legal community with training, credentials and connections. A review of the major corporate clients of these firms would reveal many of the most powerful companies among the Fortune 500.

The Skull & Bones law firms are:

* Lord Day Lord

* Davis Polk Wardwell

* Simpson Thacher Bartlett

* Debevoise Plimpton Lyons & Gates

* Cravath Swaine & Moore

* Covington & Burling

* Dewey Ballantine Palmer & Woods

* Milbank Tweed Hadley & McCloy.

In addition to their corporate clientele and their direct involvement in government through the frequent appointment of partners to Cabinet posts, these firms also specialize in handling the personal financial affairs and investment portfolios of the leading WASP families. In this respect, the Skull & Bones-centered WASP Establishment imitates the Venetian model. During the height of power of Venice, which was the trading capital of the Byzantine Empire, the leading families used their personal wealth to establish insurance companies, family funds and cultural programs through which they extended their political power.

Today, the prominent law firms listed above play a special role in directing the affairs of the leading tax-exempt foundations which shape the culture and public opinion of the United States and many foreign countries. We have already seen that McGeorge Bundy, a leading Bonesman, left his position as National Security Adviser to President Lyndon Johnson in 1966 to assume the presidency of the Ford Foundation. During the nearly two decades that Bundy spent directing the $3 billion tax-exempt fund, he arguably wielded more power than he did during his six years as the National Security Adviser to two presidents. Under the Bundy reign the Ford Foundation spent hundreds of millions of dollars to launch the environmentalist movement and funded scores of projects devoted to population reduction in the Third World.

From its early decades, the Order has concentrated much of its efforts at establishing, controlling and, in some instances, capturing the major tax-exempt philanthropic foundations of America. The Russell Sage Foundation, which specializes in "social control" programs, was founded by Bonesmen. Among the leading functions of the Russell Sage Foundation today is the maintaining of a centralized tracking of the finances of all the large tax-exempt foundations in the United States. The Peabody Foundation, the Slater Foundation and several of the Rockefeller foundations were all either started by members of the Order or have been dominated by Bonesmen from their inception. Other major family funds, like the Ford Foundation and the Carnegie Endowment, were wrestled from family control by the Skull & Bones apparatus. During the tenure of McGeorge Bundy, two members of the Ford family resigned from the Ford Foundation in disgust over the direction in which Bundy had taken the philanthropic agency.

THE NEW WORLD ORDER

Between 1983-1986, the British-born conspiracy theorist Antony Sutton wrote a series of pamphlets about the Order of Skull & Bones. According to informed sources, Sutton was one of several historians who were provided with a large file of the Order's internal documents, including minutes of some meetings, descriptions of rituals, and what would appear to be a rather complete list of its members from its founding through to the early 1980s. The short pamphlets were compiled into one volume and published as a book in 1986.

For someone closely following the just-concluded Persian Gulf War and attempting to gain some insight into George Bush's performance during that largely orchestrated affair, one recurring theme in the Sutton volume stands out like a sore thumb: the New World Order.

According to the Skull & Bones documents used by Sutton in his somewhat flawed profile of the Order, the creation of a New World Order is a primary goal of the Bonesmen and has been for decades. For the initiates into the Order, the term New World Order has a very specific meaning.

It is a world dominated by American military power and American control over all strategic raw materials. Just as the Greek city-state of Sparta provided the Skull & Bones with the image of a WASP warrior caste, the Persian Empire, with its system of coalitions of satrap armies, provides the model for the Bonesmen's New World Order. The image of Secretary of State James A. Baker III traveling from foreign capital to foreign capital demanding military legions or chests of gold to finance the war for a New World Order is an image straight out of the chronicles of the Persian Empire.

According to the recent biography of Henry Stimson, the man who inspired President Bush was firmly convinced that it was essential for America to go to war once every generation or so. It was, for Stimson, a spiritually cleansing process which enables the nation to rally behind a cause and overcome its weaknesses and shortcomings in one grand burst of military fervor. The romantic mystique of the purgative powers of combat is key to understanding the political philosophy of Skull & Bones.

Although America's Vietnam debacle remains a bitter memory of the Bonesmen's failure in war, the recent Persian Gulf conflict, with its massive overkill and the use of highly advanced weapons and technologies, is now the new glorious symbol of the WASP warrior caste's reincarnation. When President Bush vowed that the Gulf War would not be another Vietnam, he was speaking first and foremost to his fellow Bonesmen -- not to the American people. If such thinking smacks of dangerous fantasy on the part of a major world power in the modern era, it is indeed.

On a more practical political level, the Gulf War was a gambit to save the Bush presidency from a mounting pile of domestic financial woes, not the least of which was the savings and loan (S&L) crisis and a pending series of failures of major commercial banks. In the months preceding the Gulf showdown, the president's own son, Neil Bush, came under intense media scrutiny for his role in the failure of a large S&L in Colorado. Neil's photograph, testifying under oath before a congressional committee probing fraud among top S & L managers, became a familiar front-page feature in every major newspaper in America, threatening dangerous popular disillusion with the Yale Bonesman in the White House. With a U.S. federal government deficit projected at nearly a half a trillion dollars for Fiscal Year 1991, in large part because of the S&L crisis and a shrinking business tax base, the Democratic Party majority in the U.S. Congress was pressing for deep cutbacks in defense spending now that the Cold War had ended.

On the international stage, the reunification of Germany, clearly the most dramatic event of 1990, posed new challenges to the Bush team. Germany was about to emerge as the dominant power in continental Europe by virtue of its advanced industrial infrastructure and its long tradition of independent political dealings with Moscow. Just months before the outbreak of the Gulf crisis, Germany's Chancellor Helmut Kohl had met with Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev and signed a long term economic assistance pact. As a result, Gorbachev dropped all remaining objections to the immediate reunification of Germany.

At that point, the Bush administration changed its tactics. Previously, in sharp contrast to the Thatcher government in Great Britain, it had been nominally in favor of German reunification. But at the Houston economic summit of the Group of Seven Industrialized Countries in the summer of 1990, the United States blocked (with Britain) Germany's plan of unconditional economic aid to the Soviet Union. President Bush took the position that the Soviet Union must submit to International Monetary Fund requisites as a precondition for any substantive economic assistance.

In the Far East, Japan's continuing growth in manufacturing also posed a threat to Washington's desire to retain superpower status. If President Bush and his Bonesmen coterie were unaware of a stunning historical analogy, their British "cousins" were quick to pick up on the parallels between the global strategic situation in July 1990 and the identical international situation that existed 100 years earlier.

In the 1890s, France, under the brilliant political leadership of Foreign Minister Gabriel Hanataux, was attempting to forge a Eurasian alliance with Germany, Russia and Meiji Japan. The idea was to link continental Europe with Japan and China through a series of large overland infrastructure projects, beginning with the Trans-Siberian Railroad. Through treaties covering key areas of economic and security matters, Hanataux hoped to create a zone of prosperity, built on a foundation of rapid economic growth and extensive trade.

Such a political-economic common interest alliance threatened the imperial hegemony of Great Britain. At the turn of the 20th century, Britain looked to the United States (as its English-speaking ally) to join in sabotaging the Hanataux plan. Through the Spanish-American War of 1898 and the Russo-Japanese War of 1905, Britain and her American junior partner (by then led by Henry Stimson's old mentor Teddy Roosevelt) managed to disrupt the French-German-Russian-Japanese economic axis. Two world wars and the Great Depression were the consequences of that interference.

THE PERSIAN GULF WAR

It was against this historical backdrop that President Bush, invoking the World War II imagery of his Skull & Bones idol Henry Stimson, went to war against Iraq. There is even speculation that President Bush was personally instrumental in luring Saddam Hussein into invading Kuwait, thereby provoking the American-led military response. Many news accounts have emphasized that a two-hour private meeting between the president and Margaret Thatcher in the Aspen, Colorado vacation chalet of U.S. Ambassador Henry Catto on August 2, 1990 helped finalize Bush's decision to immediately deploy military force.

Recently, an astute Japanese analyst drew a disturbing parallel between Bush and FDR, who was greatly influenced by Stimson. According to the writer, FDR lured Japan into World War II through an intricate series of economic warfare maneuvers which left Japan with little choice but to strike-back. In much the same way, said the analyst, Bush had lured Saddam Hussein into Kuwait in order to launch a new Gulf War that would have consequences reaching far beyond Iraq and the Middle East.

As a result of the military victory over Iraq, the United States is in the process of establishing a string of permanent military bases throughout the Persian Gulf and Near East. The oil sheikdoms of the region, led by Saudi Arabia, are now thoroughly dependent on the American military presence to ensure the survival of their regimes. The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is effectively captured by Washington. American bankers aided by U.S. gunboats now are setting world oil prices. Thus, one consequence of the Persian Gulf War is that the United States now has an oil weapon -- pointed principally at Germany and Japan. Ironically, America's two chief economic rivals have paid out a total of $27 billion to date to help finance a Bush administration military adventure which put the oil weapon in Washington's hand.

Another telling example of how the Order's man in the Oval Office intends to administer a crumbling U.S. domestic economy while imposing the New World Order on the rest of the world is to be found in the recent buyout of the majority of stock in Citicorp, the largest U.S. commercial bank, by Saudi Prince Talal bin Abdul Aziz. Citicorp is one of the major American commercial banks on the verge of collapse, but which is considered by the Bush administration and the Federal Reserve System to be "too big to fall." The stock purchase amounted to a Saudi Royal Family bail-out of Citicorp, using the increased profits being enjoyed by the House of Saud as a result of the massive jump in Saudi oil production since the beginning of the Gulf crisis in August 1990.

There points up a striking difference between the role of the United States in World War II and the Bush administration's handling to date of the Middle East crisis. During World War II, the United States went through a genuine economic revival. Skull & Bones historian Samuel Huntington described it as a "neo Hamiltonian" policy, a reference to the first United States Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton. Beginning in 1939, America became a major supplier of military and industrial goods under the Lend-Lease program to the European states fighting Hitler. At the same time, the federal government began issuing low-interest credits to revive the nation's manufacturing base which had been gutted by a decade of economic depression. The industrial buildup accelerated once the United States formally entered .World War II, leading to the establishing of entirely new industrial sectors, such as aerospace and petrochemicals.

This time around -- at least to date -- there has been no such marshaling of the U.S. domestic industrial base. Despite moderate increases in the production of certain high-tech weapons systems, the U.S. economy continues its gradual slide into what could be a new depression. Unemployment is greater than at any point in the last decade. Some sociologists fear that the complete disintegration of America's urban centers could produce new race-riots as early as the summer of 1991.

The single greatest challenge to George Bush and the Order is: Can they capitalize on the current revival of the American spirit to reverse the disastrous post-industrial society dogmas, and launch their own version of the World War II neo-Hamiltonian industrial recovery? So far, some doomsayers claim, it appears that Bush and his administration plan instead to direct their efforts at looting and blackmailing the rest of the world -- especially the gulf oil sheikdoms, Japan and Germany -- into bailing out the bankrupt U.S. financial houses and federal government and financing the posting of American-led foreign legions at every corner of the globe where there are large deposits of strategic raw materials. If this policy is not altered, George Bush may soon find himself presiding over a new disaster that will make the Vietnam debacle appear insignificant in comparison.

The politics of the New World Order appear to be borrowed largely from the pages of the decline and fall of the British Empire. Political columnist Patrick Buchanan, an early vocal opponent of the Bush Persian Gulf strategy, warned as early as August 1990 that the White House was falling into the trap of British "balance of power" politics, the very politics that left Great Britain on the scrap heap of world powers at the close of World War II, and put Winston Churchill, the architect of World War II and the Cold War, out of a job.

Since the crushing military defeat of Iraq by a technologically far superior American-led coalition, the Bush administration has vacillated on a postwar policy for the region. It has pursued a pragmatic power balancing game which is rife with potential problems. The two key elements of the American balance-of-power politics in the region are the preservation of a weakened but territorially whole Iraq to offset the other would-be regional-powers Iran and Syria. At the same time, it is tilting toward a nominally more "pro-Arab" position with regard to the Arab-Israeli conflict.

While the harsh reparations terms being imposed upon a war-devastated Iraq are probably, in the mind of Bush, aimed at dissuading any future regional military power from launching-cross-border aggressions, they amount to the slow, excruciating extermination of the population of that country. As one seasoned observer noted recently, earlier air wars had caused greater immediate losses of life, due to the inaccuracy of bombs and rockets, but had generally left basic infrastructures intact. The precision bombing of Iraq's entire infrastructure has caused what a United Nations team has called an "apocalypse." The greater loss of life will occur in the aftermath of the combat as a country with 16 million inhabitants is suddenly thrown into a "pre-industrial" state with no electricity, no water or other necessities. American humanitarian aid, administered by occupying troops, will not offset this apocalypse -- especially if harsh war reparations and asset seizures deprive Iraq of the financial resources needed to begin a rebuilding process.

Regardless of the fact that the United States has not thrown the full weight of its military presence behind the overthrow of the Saddam Hussein regime, the shortsightedness of the present Bush policy may very well lead to a Lebanon-type protracted civil war in Iraq. Such a war could potentially spread throughout the region.

IMPLICATIONS FOR JAPAN

Throughout this short study of the Order of Skull & Bones, emphasis has been placed on the philosophy, the rituals and the modus operandi of the Bonesmen who have devoted their post-Yale careers to world politics. This particular emphasis was chosen in order to provide the Japanese reader with an insight into how the Bush presidency views the rest of the world, so that it will be possible for Japan to better understand what it faces in the post-Persian Gulf War strategic environment.

The implications of Skull & Bones domination over American policymaking under the Bush presidency are enormous. Japan must be prepared to meet what amounts to a fundamentally new challenge. Few of the postwar experiences in U.S. Japanese relations will have prepared the Japanese government and the leaders of Japanese industry and finance for-what they now face.

In the recent past, the policy of Washington toward Japan has been simply to use political leverage, mostly related to Japan's regional security concerns, to exact compromises and concessions in the economic and financial sphere. But the United States, under its policy of free trade, privatization of the monetary and credit mechanisms, and the transition to post-industrial service-oriented forms of economic activity at home, has suffered a gradual but steady decline over the past 20 to 30 years. Japan, meanwhile, has prospered under a more protectionist and industry oriented policy.

In the past decade, Japan has been increasingly thrust into the role of scapegoat for the decline of American prosperity, while at the same time coming under mounting pressure to help finance the United States out of its economic mess. The pressures upon Japan to bail out its postwar big brother have caused tensions between Washington and Tokyo, but the Cold War had provided a common security interest that generally offset the occasional rough language.

Under the George Bush Skull & Bones regime at the White House all that has changed. True to the Bonesmen's credo of constructive chaos and global political domination by the WASP Establishment, the United States is now out to dominate U.S.-Japanese relations with a degree of brutal frankness that will fly in the face of all previous American sensitivities to Japan's honor. Gone are the days of former U.S. Ambassador Michael Mansfield, who always sought to maintain a public climate of friendship and cooperation between the two nations even when behind the scenes he was taking the toughest of stands on the most divisive issues.

Under the American-led New World Order, Japan can expect to be treated with far less respect publicly. It can expect that the Bush administration, including his coterie of former top CIA men now working directly out of the Oval Office, will be constantly interfering, covertly in the internal affairs of Nippon.

This shift in style has held sway since the Bush inauguration and the subsequent appointment of Michael Armacost as U.S. Ambassador to Tokyo. Armacost has assumed the posture of a Roman pro-consul, dictating policy to a weak satrap, rather than to engage, in diplomatic dialogue. Armacost's performance even before the recent events in the Persian Gulf reestablished American military might as the defining factor in world affairs -- should have provided the Japanese leadership with a clue as to the shift under way in Washington's new policy approach.

The Bush policy can best be described as a sophisticated containment policy. The new approach to Pacific affairs was telegraphed in the early days of the Bush administration when the president deployed three of his most trusted senior spooks to three critical Asian diplomatic posts: Armacost was sent to Tokyo; Bush's vice presidential national security aide and former career CIA operator Donald Gregg was sent to Seoul; and John Lilly, another career CIA man and a fellow Yale Skull & Bones member, was sent to Beijing. The fact that three of the CIA's most experienced clandestine field operators were assigned the senior diplomatic posts says a great deal about the Bush administration's intentions to conduct sophisticated political-warfare and sow confusion among the three major nations of the Far East. Bush clearly intends to pursue the historic Skull & Bones mission of extending America's dominion over the entire Pacific region. The idea of even paying lip service to equal partnership between Washington and Tokyo is over, at least for the time being.

The process of internally weakening Japan's resistance to this overarching domination by Washington's New World Order began with the Recruit scandal, when the Takexxxxa government was brought down through a U.S.-inspired secret intelligence operation. One of the primary targets of that operation was Yashuhiro Nakasone, the former prime minister and the architect of Japan's post-1973 effort to develop independent ties to the oil-producing Arab states of the Persian Gulf.

It is important to understand that Bush's WASP warriors, while adopting a similar approach of non-compromise and domination over Israel and the Zionist lobby inside the United States, will not hesitate to use the Jewish lobby as an instrument for bashing Japan into line. Thus, Commerce Secretary Robert Mosbacher went out of his way to encourage the Anti-Defamation League's leadership convention, which he addressed last year, to join with the Bush administration in pressuring Japan to submit to American free trade demands.

The Bush administration will at times encourage the Zionist lobby and Israel to mercilessly attack Japan and will at other times severely criticize Zionist "insensitivity" to Tokyo. This will all be part of the Bush strategy to dominate the Pacific Rim by playing one country or faction off against another, using hard cop-soft cop and other classic techniques of the intelligence trade.

Japan will be offered a limited junior partner status in the New World Order, while coming under mounting pressure to continue providing tribute to finance the American imperium. Above all else, Japan will be forbidden from developing any independent foreign policy toward its neighbors, the Soviet Union, the Arab world or anyone else. Such programs as the Global Infrastructure Fund, to the extent that they pose an alternative to the U.S.-dominated international regime, will be vetoed.

As a subservient junior partner in the New World Order arrangement, Japan's financial and economic muscle will be used as the piggy-bank for U.S. imperial objectives. The $14 billion "contribution" to the U.S.-led Gulf-War coalition was another benchmark in the transition in U.S.-Japanese relations, as was President Bush's abrupt cancellation of his long-sheduled state visit to Tokyo. When the chairman of the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) attempted to visit Kuwait immediately after the gulf cease-fire in March l991, the U.S. State Department refused to grant him permission to go into the American-occupied territory. These intentional diplomatic affronts should be understood as telling signs of the new American-Japanese relationship.

On the other-hand, President Bush also suddenly scheduled a brief summit with Japanese Prime Minister Kaifu in Newport Beach, California for April 4, 1991. One purpose of the sudden meeting was to lay out clear parameters of acceptable behavior on the part of the Japanese government when the prime minister meets later in April with Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev. Japanese Soviet relations, like all other crucial Japanese foreign relations, will be expected to conform with those of the U.S.

An essential blackmail "stick" that the Bush administration intends to hold over Tokyo is-Japanese dependency on Persian Gulf oil. As-the result of the Gulf War and the post war American military occupation of Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and other-key oil-producing sheikdoms, the Bush administration will exert unabashed control over world oil supplies -- and prices. In the New World Order, Japan's oil supply will be increasingly linked to concessions on a range of monetary and economic issues, including the Global Agreements on Trade and Tariffs (GATT) talks, which broke up last year as the result of largely Japanese and continental European resistance to the pure free-trade system sought by Bush and Thatcher. Assistant Treasury Secretary David Mulford, a former senior official at White Weld Securities, Inc., which restructured Saudi Arabia's entire financial apparatus, has recently announced that he will seek to prosecute Japan for its violations of the GATT regulations that call upon Tokyo to surrender government control over interest rate policies to the international banking community.

The Bush presidency, with its ambitious drive for domination over former friends and foes alike, poses an unprecedented challenge to Japan. While this is neither the time nor the place to offer a solution to the growing dilemma, the profile of the men of Skull & Bones in this white paper should provide the Japanese reader with helpful insights into the nature of the American WASP warrior class and the secret society which spawned it.

Bibliography

"Bush Boy's Club: Skull and Bones." Covert Information Action Bulletin, Winter, 1990.

Halberstam, David. The Best and the Brightest. Random House, New York, 1969.

Hodgson, Godfrey. The Colonel: The Life and Wars of Henry Stimson. Alfred Knopf, New York, 1990.

Isaacson, Walter and Evan Thomas. The Wisemen: Six Friends and the World They Made. Simon and Schuster, New York, l986.

"Membership List of All Skull and Bones Members From 1833-1950." The Russell Trust Association, New Haven, Conn., 1949.

Ranleagh, John. The Agency: The Rise and Decline of the CIA. Simon and Schuster, New York, 1986.

Rosenbaum, Ron. "Skull and Bones: An Elegy for Mumbo Jumbo." Esquire Magazine, September, 1977.

"Skull and Bones: A Short History." Executive Intelligence Review, January 30, 1980.

Stimson, Henry and McGeorge Bundy. In Active Service in Peace and War. Octagon Press, New York, 1949

Sutton, Antony C. America's Secret Establishment: An Introduction to the Order of Skull and Bones. Liberty Press, Billings, Mont., 1986.

Winks, Robin. Cloak and Gown Scholars in the Secret War William Morrow, New York, 1987.

Some Prominent Members of Skull & Bones:

William F. Buckley, Jr. (Bones Class of 1950):

Founder of National Review, the leading conservative magazine in the United States. Brother James (Skull & Bones l944) is now a member of the U.S. Court of Appeals. William F. Buckley, Jr., former CIA officer in Mexico, also built the political grassroots conservative movement in the U.S. in the 1960s. President Bush and Buckley have recently split over Buckley's strong pro-lsraelism.

McGeorge Bundy (Skull & Bones initiate of 1940):

Scion of the Skull & Bones Bundy family. Father Harvey H. Bundy was Skull & Bones, as was brother William P. Bundy. McGeorge served in the War Department during World War II as Henry Stimson's assistant and later became the National Security Adviser to President Kennedy. William Bundy became a CIA official and later served in key positions at the Departments of State and Defense. McGeorge headed the Ford Foundation (1968-1980) and William chaired the Council on Foreign Relations (1972-1983).

George Bush (initiated in 1948):

President of the United States. Comes from a complete Bones family. Father Prescott, a Bones initiate of the class of 1917. Uncle George Herbert Walker, Bones Class of 1927. U S Federal District Court Judge John Walker is also a relative and a Bonesman.

Alfred Cowles (Class of 1913):

Built the Cowles Communication empire based on the Des Moines (lowa) Register and the Minneapolis (Minnesota) Star and Tribune. These two newspapers play a significant role in shaping the early presidential primaries, especially in Iowa.

Hugh Cunningham (Bones 1934):

CIA man from 1947 to 1973. He served in top positions in the Clandestine Services, the Board of National Estimates and later as Director of Training.

Thomas Daniels (initiated in 1914):

Founder of the largest agro-business and grain cartel company in Minnesota -- Archer-Daniels-Midland (ADM). Served in the Foreign Service and later during World War II as head of the Fats and Oils Section of the War Production Board. ADM Corporation's new head Dwayne Andreas is one of the most powerful figures in U.S.-Soviet trade relations. Daniels's only son, John (Bones 1943), also works in ADM. The bank which underwrites ADM stock issues is the Morgan Stanley investment bank

Richard Ely Danielson (Skull & Bones 1907):

Past publisher of the Atlantic Monthly magazine, one of the leading magazines for seeing which policy line on a variety of issues is coming out of the Eastern Establishment.

Russell Wheeler Davenport (initiated in 1923):

Fortune magazine writer and editor, made this magazine the leading authority on financial matters in the United States. Davenport created the Fortune 500 companies list.

Henry P. Davison (Bones Class of l920):

Key senior partner in the Morgan banking and financial trust networks. His fellow Bonesman Harold Stanley (1908) founded the investment bank Morgan Stanley. Davison and his family helped set up the Guaranty Trust Corporation which became Morgan Guaranty Thomas Cochran (1904 Bonesman) was one of the most powerful partners in the Morgan bank. The influence of the Morgan banking system can be seen in its relationship with the hierarchy of U.S. intelligence. The head of the Office of Strategic Services, Gen. William Donovan, worked as a Morgan intelligence operative in the 1920s and prepared the intelligence reports for the Morgan banking concerns on developments in Europe. F. Trubee Davison became CIA Director of Personnel in 1951 and placed key Bonesmen in the right positions inside the CIA.

Averell Harriman (1913 initiate):

Scion of the Harriman railroad family. His brother Roland (Skull & Bones 1917) ran the investment bank Brown Brothers Harriman. Averell was one of the most powerful members of the Skull & Bones fraternity, His government posts ranged from Ambassador to Russia during World War II and various State Department positions to chief negotiator on the Vietnam Talks. Confidential adviser to Presidents Roosevelt, Truman, Kennedy, Johnson and later Nixon and Carter. His investment banking firm is virtually a Skull & Bones bank&Mac220;nine senior partners are from Skull & Bones. President Bush's father worked in Brown Brothers Harriman after helping to merge several companies in the United Rubber Corporation of America.

Winston Lord (Bones Class of 1959):

Chairman of the Council on Foreign Relations (1983-l988). Former State Department official and CIA officer in Asia. China expert. Six members of the Lord family were Skull & Bones, including Charles Edwin Lord, former Comptroller of the Currency, Department of the Treasury. Oswald Bates Lord (Skull & Bones l926) married Mary Pillsbury of the Minnesota based Pillsbury Flour Corporation. Winston Lord is their son.

Robert A. Lovett (1918 initiate):

Put together the Brown Brothers Harriman merger and later organized the aviation industry mobilization for World War II. Became part of the most exclusive power group in World War II under Henry Stimson. Lovett was one of the five or six most powerful men in the United States for nearly 40 years until his death in 1986.

Henry Luce (initiated in 1920):

Built the Time-Life publishing empire. Became the leading publicist of the "American century" doctrine.

Dino Pionzio (Bones Class of 1950):

CIA deputy chief of station in Chile during the overthrow of Chilean President Salvador Allende. Now works at the investment firm Dillion Read.

Alphonso Taft (initiated in 1833):

Secretary of War (1876), Attorney General (1876-1877) and later Minister to Austria and Russia. Co-founder of Skull & Bones.

Robert A. Taft (1910 initiate):

Speaker of the House of Representatives (1921-1926) and Senator (R-Ohio). Leader of the Isolationist movement in the 1930s. His son Robert A. Taft, Jr., also senator from Ohio, led the right-wing of the Republican Party in the 1950s and 1960s. Robert A. Taft, Jr., however, was the only member of the Taft family who was not Skull & Bones.

William H. Taft (Skull & Bones 1878):

President of the United States (1908-1912) and appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court (1921-1930). Secretary of War (1904-1908). Trustee, Carnegie Institution. Part of the long line of Tafts who served in the U.S. government.

William Collins Whitney (initiated 1863):

Secretary of the Navy (1885-1889). Promoter of the Naval Shipyards and financier. Part of the Whitney family which sent eight of its members to Yale to become Skull & Bonesmen. Family intermarried with the Payne, Harriman and Vanderbilt clans. The Whitneys became some of Wall Street's most powerful financiers through the Guaranty and Knickerbocker Trust Companies.

Current U.S. senators who are Skull & Bones members:

Sen. Jonathan Bingham (D-N.M.).

Sen. David Boren (D-Okla.) is chairman of the Senate Intelligence Committee.

Sen. John Chafee (R-R.I.); Former Navy Secretary and on the Senate Intelligence Committee.

Sen. John Heinz (R-Pa.): Recently killed in an airplane crash. was a Bonesman as was his father. The Heinz family has one of the largest food-producing companies in the world.

Sen. John Kerry (D-Mass.): Formerly on the Senate Intelligence Committee, Kerry is now on the Senate Foreign Relations Committee.

Selected Quotations:

-- During the Cuban missile crisis in October 1962, two Skull & Bones advisers to President Kennedy, McGeorge Bundy and Robert Lovett, met in the west wing of the White House to discuss strategy. According to author Godfrey Hodgson, there was a photograph of master Bonesman Henry L. Stimson, their mentor, on Lundy's desk. "All during the conversation the old Colonel seemed to be staring me straight in the face," recalled Lovett. Finally, he said to Bundy, "Mac, I think the best service we can perform for the president is to try to approach this as Colonel Stimson would."

-- At the Potsdam summit in 1946 when President Truman first met Soviet dictator Josef Stalin, Stimson told the president: "The chief lesson I have learned in a long life is that the only way to make a man trustworthy is to trust him."

-- Commenting on the plan of Robert Morgenthau, President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Treasury Secretary, to deindustrialize Germany after World War II, Stimson wrote: ". . . just such a crime as the Germans themselves hoped to perpetrate on their victims . . . a crime against civilization itself?" He added rather ironically that the plan was like "a beautiful Nazi program! This is to laugh!"

-- "They possessed a common background, common experience, and a common liking for old wines, proper English and Savile Row clothing," wrote the biographer of former U.S. Ambassador to Japan Joseph Grew. A top level diplomat and State Department powerhouse during the first half of the 20th century, Bonesman Hugh Wilson adds, "The Foreign Service [is] a pretty good club."

-- "These men helped establish a distinguished network connecting Wall Street, Washington, worthy foundations and proper clubs," wrote historian and former JFK aide Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. "The New York financial and legal community was the heart of the American Establishment. Its household deities were Henry L. Stimson and Elihu Root; its present leaders, Robert A. Lovett and John J. McCloy; its front organizations, the Rockefeller, Ford and Carnegie foundations and the Council on Foreign Relations."

-- British author Godfrey Hodgson stated in an essay on the American Establishment that it was "characteristic of these men to take on the burdens of world power with a certain avidity... It reflected a grim but grand duty that was a legacy from half-buried layer of New England Puritanism."

-- Averell Harriman's father, owner of the largest railroad company in the United States at the turn of the century, told his son: "Great wealth is an obligation and responsibility. Money must work for the country."

-- "I scoffed at Harvard's Porcellian club. It was too smug. But to get into Bones, you had to do something for Yale, wrote Averell Harriman. He would frequently return to the "Tomb on High Street." During the Paris Peace Conference on the Vietnam War, Harriman was quite upset about not being able to attend a "Bones Reunion." In the book The Wise Men, Harriman is described as willing to talk openly about national security affairs, but "he refused, however, to tell [even] his family anything about Bones... so complete was his trust in Bones's code of secrecy..."

-- Stimson during the liberation of France in 1944 wrote about the need for France's reconstruction following the Nazi occupation of France: "America cannot supervise the elections of a great country like France. Consequently, we must eventually leave the execution of the State Department formula to the French themselves... where we ourselves will assume responsibility in part or more for its execution according to Anglo-Saxon ideals."

-- Stimson on Austria and Germany following World War II: "They [the British] haven't any grasp apparently of the underlying need of proper economic arrangements to make peace stick... If they restore Austria to her position in which she was left by the Versailles arrangement 25 years ago, why they would reduce her to a non-self-sustaining state [is beyond me]... Central Europe after the war has got to eat. She has got to be free of tariffs in order to eat."

-- Stimson was "opposed to a Carthaginian Peace" in which Germany was reduced to a non functioning society. He wrote, "The Ruhr and Saarland... [must not] be turned into a second rate industrial land . . . regardless of what it means to Germany... [rather] to the welfare of the entire continent "

-- In 1948, the debate within the U.S. government over the creation of the state of Israel was reaching critical intensity. President Truman was the "dark horse" candidate to defeat the Republican nominee, Thomas Dewey. Truman thought he needed the Jewish groups to mobilize in his support in order to get elected. He also believed that after so many years of suffering and persecution, the Jews deserved a homeland of their own. However, his most trusted foreign policy advisers, George Marshall, Dean Acheson and Robert Lovett, were, according to the book The Wise Men, "all dead set against the birth of Israel... However humanitarian a Jewish homeland might seem... it posed a real risk to U.N. national security. It was absolutely vital that the U.S. maintain its pipeline to Mideast oil. Supporting the Zionist cause would only antagonize the Arabs." Lovett said, "Israel was one ally too many "

-- On Japan, Stimson and McGeorge Bundy wrote their book On Active Service in Peace and War: "Since 1937, when the Japanese attacked China, Stimson had been urging, as a private citizen, an embargo on all American trade with Japan, and this attitude he carried with him into the Cabinet [when he became Secretary of War]." Stimson prepared a memorandum in 1940 pointing out how Japan had yielded before American firmness, in her withdrawal from Shantung and Siberia in 1919 and her acceptance of naval inferiority in 1921. "Japan," Stimson wrote, "has historically shown that she can misinterpret a pacifistic policy of the United States for weakness. She has also historically shown that when the United States indicates by clear language and bold actions that she intends to carry out a clear and affirmative policy in the Far East, Japan will yield to that policy even though it conflicts with her own Asiatic policy and conceived interests. For the United States now to indicate either by soft words or inconsistent actions that she has no such clear and definite policy towards the Far East will only encourage Japan to bolder action."

-- On December 7, 1941, Stimson wrote in his diary: "When the news first came that Japan had attacked us, my first feeling was of relief that the indecision was over and that crisis had come in a way which would unite all our people. This continued to be my dominant feeling in spite of the news of catastrophes which quickly developed. For I feel that this country united has practically nothing to fear, while the apathy and division stirred by unpatriotic men have been hitherto very discouraging."

-- On the decision to drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Stimson wrote in an article for Harper's Weekly in 1947: "My chief purpose was to end the war in victory with the least possible cost in the lives of men in the armies which I had helped to raise. In the light that no man, in our position and subject to our responsibilities, holding in his hands a weapon of such possibilities for accomplishing this purpose and saving those lives, could have failed to use it and afterwards looked his countrymen in the face."

-- At the Truman White House in the presence of Secretary of State James Byrnes, Adm. Leahy and Secretary of the Navy James Forrestal, according to his biographer: "Stimson had argued consistently for a commitment to allow the Japanese to keep their Emperor, not because- with the memory of Manchuria in his mind he had any special sympathy for him, but because only the Emperor could persuade the Japanese to surrender and therefore save American lives."

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