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The Education Forum

1964 Civil Rights Act

Jim Root

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"Jim, I suggest you do the same about your Civil Rights theory. It is in danger of being lost in Tim's thread."

John Simkin

What is presented here is not a long thought out theory. At best it is a cosmic soup that may come together to form a whole at some future date in time. Tim Gratz suggested that we should “list … various scenarios and consider them.” I had been pondering some thoughts surrounding recently uncovered information that was leading me to reexamine John J. McCloy as a possible conspirator.

First some background. When I first began researching the assassination of JFK I was a convinced “lone nut” believer for no other reason than I had never been convinced by any one single conspiracy theory and I knew that they could not all be true. When I first read the Warren Report (11 years ago) I discovered the name of Edwin Walker. Thus began a quest to learn as much about Walker as possible. About three years ago I made my first visit to Center Point, Texas, Walker’s home town. What I discovered has since convinced me that the Warren Report was very flawed in, if nothing else, it’s portrayal of Edwin Walker!

At any rate in the past 96 hours these thoughts have emerged as a scenario to be considered.

On November 29, 1963 Lyndon Johnson announced that he was going to drive forward with what became known as the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Johnson did so in the name of our fallen President, John F. Kennedy. What must be remembered is that what became law after the assassination was a questionable piece of legislation before the death of Kennedy. And Kennedy was reluctant to push this legislation forward.

At the time of Kennedy's death civil rights leaders in the South had criticized Kennedy for doing too little in the area of Civil Rights. Kennedy had voted against the Civil Rights Act of 1957 and whiles a Senator had never been a keen advocate of such legislative issues. While Kennedy played the race card to receive the Black vote in America, a vote that may have helped him gain the Presidency, Kennedy had to tread a very fine line in the South by 1963. His popularity by September 1963 showed that his support had dropped to 44% in the South. It had been 60% in March 1963. Chances for the passage of Civil Rights legislation was dropping as fast as Kennedy's poll numbers and he, it seems, was unwilling to be crucified in the 64 election on the cross of Civil Right.

The country, as we learned in the mid 60’s, was on the verge of unprecedented social unrest and perhaps uncontrollable violent civil unrest. Civil Rights as a major campaign issue in 64 may have threatened Kennedy's reelection bid and it may have set back the Civil Rights movement by years leading to further, uncontrollable social upheaval.

One could argue that the death of Kennedy led to the resurrection of the Civil Rights Act!

Christopher George has suggested that:

1)Passage of the Civil Rights legislation was made possible not simply because of the removal of Kennedy because of the assassination itself, given the free rein the country usually gives a President after a national tragedy. This is what benefited George W. Bush during the period after 9/11 -- there is a honeymoon period with political opponents, the media, and the public, in which the nation feels the President can do no wrong and he is able to push through otherwise difficult legislation.


2) Passage of the Civil Rights legislation was made more possible because LBJ was a southerner and Kennedy was not. Just as with Nixon going to China, the old hard line Communist baiter suddenly making treaties with the Reds. Texan LBJ was more palatable to the Old South than the Catholic New Englander as a leader in terms of furthering Civil Rights legislation.

A quick look at the Warren Commissioners could suggest that their action over the next year were not only directed at completing the Commission Report but also playing a major role in the passage of this landmark legislation.

Earl Warren: Major proponent of Civil Rights as the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. The famous “Impeach Warren” posters in Dallas at the time of the assassination were generated, in great part, by his decisions supporting racial equality.

Richard Russell: Southerner who was a major opponent of Civil Right legislation for the previous 20 years. Russell, who had opposed anti lynching legislation, switched positions and announced he would not block the Civil Rights Act.

Hale Boggs: Southerner that supported the Bill, supporter of Civil Rights in general.

John S. Cooper: Southerner who supported the legislation

Gerald Ford: A general opponent to Federal involvement in Civil Rights legislation who would support the Civil Rights Act of 1964 as Chairman of the House Republican Caucus.

John J. McCloy: Architect of the integration of the US Military McCloy was an early and vocal proponent of Civil Rights as well as an author and proponent of the National Security Act. Chairman of the World Bank, head of the Ford Foundation, McCloy was the ultimate insider.

Allen Dulles: It is difficult to find information about his position on Civil Rights.

It seems that this group not only came together on the assassination findings but they also seem to have blended their views together, despite some rather divergent positions, on Civil Rights. To some extent the Warren Commissioners became the key players in the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 despite the fact that some commissioners had been leaders of the fierce opposition prior to the assassination.

The nation was being torn apart over the question of Civil Rights. Kennedy dies and the legislation is then passed that would eventually lead to a calming of racial tensions. While social unrest would continue the central rally point for “left leaning” civil rights demagogues had been destroyed. One could argue that if that was a motive, the "conspirators" accomplished their goal.

Unlike many of the other theories that are advanced (i.e. Cuba, mafia, far right, etc.) little if anything was accomplished by these groups that improved their positions. The exception would be the military industrial complex. For years I have advocated the potential participation of Maxwell Taylor in the assassination scenario. This position does not change with this scenario. In fact, Taylor would play a major conspiratorial role as well and the focus of civil unrest would change from civil rights to an anti-war fever.

Another intriguing aspect of this scenario is that John J. McCloy was a vocal advocate of Civil Rights for 20 years by the time of the Kennedy assassination. McCloy, in many ways helped raise Warren to his position on the Supreme Court. Warren changed in many ways after he and McCloy worked together on the relocation of Japanese Americans in 1942. McCloy would became involved in fund raising for Warren and championed his political career. When Warren negotiated a promise to be appointed to the next available seat on the Supreme Court in exchange for his endorsement of Eisenhower, the Supreme Court would be changed into an institution of social change rather than an interpreter of the Constitution.

Had McCloy accomplished what Roosevelt failed to accomplish in the 1930’s? Was the Supreme Court now a “stacked” institution? Stacked and manipulated by a cabal led by McCloy and his followers in the “Establishment?”

After the passage of the Civil Rights Act Warren sped up judicial review of Civil Rights cases thus assuring that the Supreme Court gave it its blessing to the Act.

With this type of power was the fact that Kennedy was not getting the job done in this area a death warrant?

I have been researching John J. McCloy for years based simply upon the fact that I found a letter written from him to Edwin Walker that was dated five months before the assassination.

In just the last few weeks I have made a circumstantial connection between McCloy and the NSA's John B. Hurt that seems rather strong. It deals with factual statements made by McCloy during discussions with President Truman prior to the surrender of Japan and the dropping of the first atomic bomb (statements that were based upon information that had been pieced together by John B. Hurt). I must consider that this folds in well with a loose connection between Hurt and Edwin Walker (beginning about 1935) and a stronger connection between Maxwell Taylor and Hurt (beginning 1941) all which could be just a coincidence. But toss in the fact that Oswald attempted to contact a John Hurt (information that was suppressed from the Warren Commission) and we have another interesting web from which to weave this possible picture.

But in this scenario you would have to make John J. McCloy a major conspirator and he would have to be in a position to coordinate and cover-up the assassination. Are there facts to support this position? In addition the motive would have to fit with McCloy’s character. One would also have to be convinced that he would, somehow, have the ability to cover up his crime if he was in fact involved.

Edwin Walker would be a pawn that could be manipulated if the need arose.

Let's examine the facts (not circumstantial evidence).

1) I recently discovered that the Kennedy Library seems, to a remarkable degree, to lack a collection of written correspondence between McCloy and Kennedy despite the fact that McCloy was a major player within the Kennedy administration. One could credibly ask why is there a lack of correspondence preserved. What is missing and why?

2) Throughout his political career McCloy advocated and pursued the advancement of civil rights within the military and later spread his advocacy to any area that could include Federal jurisdiction (interstate commerce and transportation for instance). He also fought for the equality of Nations and their peoples as well as the reemergence of a strong, equal partnership position for Germany within a democratic Europe that could fight Soviet expansion.

3) Being within the government and with a background in intelligence McCloy would have had access to the information necessary to pull off an assassination.

4) McCloy had a close personal relationship with Maxwell Taylor that began in Italy (1943/44 or before), continued into Germany (McCloy as High Commissioner and Taylor as Military Governor, both were avid tennis players) that continued into the 1960's with both of the two working together within the Kennedy Administration.

5) Taylor and Edwin Walker had a close relationship that began in 1927 and lasted until ?????

6) McCloy wrote a letter to Walker (five months before the assassination) that one could argue was designed to distance him from Walker IF Walker were in fact associated with Oswald following the assassination (perhaps showing advanced knowledge of events about to unfold?). That message was placed in a depository that was very public and should have been very easy to find if events began to unravel or could have been placed as an insurance policy to insure complicity on the part of an unwitting Edwin Walker.

7) The assassination attempt upon the life of Edwin Walker was in fact associated with Oswald after Walker was interviewed by a German newspaper the morning following the assassination.

8) The assassination attempt upon Walker was in fact explained away by the Warren Commission that was led, in many ways, by John J. McCloy.

9) McCloy and the Warren Commission concluded that Oswald acted as a "lone nut."

10) McCloy was in fact named to the Warren Commission and played a major role in naming the lead council and directing the investigation.

11) Maxwell Taylor did direct, as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the War in Vietnam

12) McCloy and Taylor had the means, the motive and the opportunity to lead an assassination coup of President John F. Kennedy. (Taylor, Vietnam War, MCCloy Civil Rights legislation?)

13) Another fact that I just discovered in the last 48 hours. Lt. Gen. Gordon A. Blake, head of the NSA at the time of the assassination and therefore the "boss" of John B. Hurt until his retirement, was a classmate of Edwin Walker (USMA 1931) while Maxwell Taylor was an instructor at West Point. Since the NSA was controlled by the Department of Defense, Taylors authority over the organization would be direct.

14) Marshall Sylvester Carter was Deputy Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) from 1962 to 1965. He too was also a West Point class of 1931 Taylor/Walker associate.

15) After the assassination, while on the plane from Dallas to Washington DC it was Maj. Gen. Chester Clifton who made the plans dealing with how to get the widow, Kennedy's body after the autopsy and how to get the new president off the plane. Clifton was a Taylor appointee to Kennedy's staff and just by coincidence his first commanding officer after graduation from West Point was Edwin Anderson Walker.

Let us consider Walker further.

If known to the general public, would the personal relationships of Edwin Walker with members of Kennedy's staff and advisors be a reason to call for a further investigation intothis man?

Let me return to the subject of Walker's travels in Europe that overlaps Oswald's travels in 1959.

Why was there such a lack of information presented to the Warren Commission dealing with Oswalds travels? Despite the fact that passenger lists were available for all flights that left London (Heathrow) Airport at the time of the Kennedy assassination and to the investigators by the Warren Commission. But no one identified which flight Oswald departed on. Why?

New information that Antti and I have pieced together reveals that Oswald may well have taken anyone of several flights from London on the morning of Oct. 10, 1959 with anyone of several destination that could have placed him and Walker in the same place at the same time to meet. If these two men did in fact meet, could that meeting later provide Oswald with a motive to attempt to assassinate Edwin Walker? Motive equaling something more than just a "nut."

Is it important to consider that the messages sent by John Hickerson (American Ambassador in Helsinki who worked with McCloy and Cooper during the creation of NATO) dated September 4, 1959 and October 9, 1959 coincide exactly with major events in Lee Harvey Oswald's "defection" to the Soviet Union? These two dates coincide exactly with Oswald's early discharge from the Marines and his application for a passport at the Santa Ana, CA Courthouse (Sept. 4, 1959 which lists Helsinki as a possible destination) and his extra day of travel (Oct. 9, 1959) in Europe.

The Oct. 9, 1959 message suggested that if a person presented himself at the Soviet Embassy and had already purchased first class Intourist vouchers, that person could gain entrance into the Soviet Union easily. Oswald followed the instructions to the letter despite the fact that he never entered the American Embassy in Helsinki, where this information was generated, and that the information was considered so valuable that it remained classified for 13 years. Who gave him that information? COULD it have been Walker who was in the same place at the same time?

If Oswald and Walker did in fact meet what would the Warren Commission be compelled to do to cover that event up?

1) Oswald's flight from London to Helsinki could not be identified. It was not.

2) The military history of Walker would need to be left out of the Commission record. It was.

3) The telephone interview conducted between Walker (who was staying at a Hotel in Shreveport, LA) and a German newspaper would have to be explained away. It was.

4) Oswald would have to die. He did.

5) Walker would have to be kept quite. The letter from McCloy to Walker would insure this.

Just arguments for a scenario but arguments based upon facts.

Jim Root

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