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1865 and 1937: The Two Key Dates


John Simkin
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I believe that it was events that took place in 1865 and 1937 that hold the key to understanding the assassination of JFK. I am away on business today. Tomorrow I will explain why I think these two dates are significant.

Anyone got any ideas? The first is fairly straightforward and will also help you understand the significance of 1937. Here is another clue. Just before his death, one of LBJ’s closest friends said: “Lyndon Johnson’s whole world was built on that dam.”

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Constructions began on the Hoover Dam in 1931.

If Hoover made a deal with LBJ to place him into being our Vice Pres. because of his correptions and being over looked by Hoover the deal was set to kill Kennedy.

Johnson agreed and it was even up against Kennedy for Johnson to run. The encouragements for Kennedy to agree was the fact that he wasn't that popular in the south and so this would need someone with influeance from the south to help to win that election.

In the 1865 Lincoln was assassinated. So, what is the connection?

The fact that it was perhaps freedom of the slaves vs. the early 60's and that was for freedom of the black to be equal citizens of the US. But added with the dam part, well I now am at a loss?

Only that the Hoover dam built more jobs and a city and powered enough lights to built casano's and that helped many Mafia sets.

In 1937 Joe Kennedy became ambassador to Britian.

In 1919 was the beginning of the Kennedy wealth in bootlegging.

So even that would be off and not going back far enough to the period of 1865?

It was the bootlegging that angered Hoover, plus his remarks from Joe Kennedy about his being gay and wearing women's dresses.

I am total loss for the connections. Look forward to the answer.

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I believe that it was events that took place in 1865 and 1937 that hold the key to understanding the assassination of JFK. I am away on business today. Tomorrow I will explain why I think these two dates are significant.

Anyone got any ideas? The first is fairly straightforward and will also help you understand the significance of 1937. Here is another clue. Just before his death, one of LBJ’s closest friends said: “Lyndon Johnson’s whole world was built on that dam.”

John, the dam to which you are refering, is, of course, the Mansfield Dam, a dam on the lower Colorado River that was to be built by George and Herman Brown of the Brown and Root Construction Company.

The story is told in Caro's The Path To Power. FDR had verbally approved of the dam and the Brown Brothers had sunk $1.5 million into it when it was discovered that the dam site was on Texas land not federal land and construction stopped. Soon after LBJ was first elected to Congress, he interceded with two FDR aides to cut through bureacratic red tape to allow the Bureau of Reclamation to fund the dam.

"Of all the things I've ever done," LBJ once wrote, "nothing has ever given me as much satisfaction as bringing power to the hill country of Texas."

In May of 1939 George Brown (of the Brown and Root Construction Company) wrote to LBJ: "I hope you know, Lyndon, how I feel in reference to what you have done for me [in securing the approval for the dam project] and I'm going to try to show my appreciation through the years with actions rather than words."

The Brown brothers, starting in 1941, helped to fund all of LBJ's campaigns.

In 1940 the company constructed the Corpus Christi Naval Air Station, the first of several big war projects. After the war, it continued to construct US air and naval bases in France, Spain and Guam. In 1962 it won the contract to build the $200 million manned space center in Houston (now, of course, called the Johnson Space Center).

In 1962 the company was purchased by Halliburton, and it was a major contractor for the war in Vietnam.

And yes it should be noted that, at least according to William Torbitt, George and Herman Brown helped finance Permindex. Members of this Forum will recognize that name and its alleged connection to the Kennedy assassination.

The only problem is that, at least IMO, all this information has no dam connection to the assassination.

(For Nancy's benefit, the Hoover Dam was not named after J. Edgar Hoover; and Herbert Hoover had an ironclad alibi for Nov 22, 1963. Moreover, I've carefully searched through all of the photos of the crowd at Dealey Plaza, and none of the people bear even a superficial resemblance to Herbert Hoover.)

Edited by Tim Gratz
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1962 Brown and Root purchased by Halliburton.

1962 Beatles break nationally in U.K. on B.B.C. radio.

1962 Bob Dylan's first album.

1962 Oswald returns from Soviet Russia.

Crucial year in cultural and political history, 1962 was back in the time of Charles DeGaulle, Ho Chi Minh & Mao Tse Tung;

a transliminally conflicted time arena for the elite habitus and their existential critics.

All three Hoovers were alive, Herbert Clark Hoover, his son Herbert Clark Hoover and of course J. Edgar Hoover, originator of the Justice Department's autonomous agency, the federal bureau. Who ever said President Hoover was there in Dallas?

1962 wasn't culturally part of the Sixties,

that historical Decade ran more 1/64 to 8/74.

Beatles to Nixon Resigns.

A generational equinox.

Horrible brinksmanship and folly all around, like now............

Edited by Shanet Clark
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Crucial year in cultural and political history, 1962 was back in DeGaulle, Ho & Mao's day; a transliminally conflicted time arena for the elite habitus and their existential critics....

1962 wasn't culturally part of the Sixties, that historical Decade ran more 1/64 to 8/74.

"Transliminally conflicted time arena," whew! Liminality is a fantastic lense through which to view JFK's post Missile Crisis period, an event during which the whole world stared into the abyss. The old narratives were clearly and dangerously obsolete, yet the culture was not broadly prepared for the new. The period between the Missile Crisis and Dallas was JFK's greatest time; betwixt and between narratives, yet with political credentials established (except to the military and anti-civil rights crowd), he was finally free to compose a new cultural anthem for western culture generally. The abrupt termination of his leadership did inaugurate the period we think of culturally as the Sixties. Watergate, and especially the disclosure of the smoking gun conversation regarding Hunt, marked the end of that decade. It also briefly presented a new era of hope that the pre-modernism of McCarthyistic right-wing anti-communism, ultimately personified by Nixon, was finally discredited. The CIA/Mafia plotting and the rash of new killings added fuel to this hope. We were finally going to get at the truth. But then the derailment of the HSCA, the undermining of Carter's presidency with Bush's secret negotiations with Iran, and finally the election of Reagan and murder of Lennon within a month squashed the hopefulness for authentic freedom and democracy among intellectuals and lefties.

Tim

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It is bloody BRINKSMANSHIP, vile and utterly ugly brinksmanship.

Cursed militarists.

Military spending went off the public budget and out of financial debate with the public, and it continues today.

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It is bloody BRINKSMANSHIP, vile and utterly ugly brinksmanship.

Cursed militarists.

Military spending went off the public budget and out of financial debate with the public, and it continues today.

Besides being thoughtlessly expensive, such brinksmanship is a serious threat to mankind's existence. If you play with fire long enough you are sure to get burned.

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It is bloody BRINKSMANSHIP, vile and utterly ugly brinksmanship.

Cursed militarists.

Military spending went off the public budget and out of financial debate with the public, and it continues today.

Besides being thoughtlessly expensive, such brinksmanship is a serious threat to mankind's existence. If you play with fire long enough you are sure to get burned.

I'll see your Terrorist and raise you two Freedom Fighters...

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It is bloody BRINKSMANSHIP, vile and utterly ugly brinksmanship.

Cursed militarists.

Military spending went off the public budget and out of financial debate with the public, and it continues today.

Besides being thoughtlessly expensive, such brinksmanship is a serious threat to mankind's existence. If you play with fire long enough you are sure to get burned.

I'll see your Terrorist and raise you two Freedom Fighters...

Makes me wonder how Robin Hood would have been characterized if he lived today. The "War On Terror" is essentially a global wet blanket thrown over all struggles against the status quo. America was founded by terrorists. But those guys at the Boston Tea Party did have a flair for the dramatic, as well as a sense of humor.

Tim

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Repeated Deleted Post

Edited by Tim Carroll
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Repeated Deleted Post

Edited by Tim Carroll
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(For Nancy's benefit, the Hoover Dam was not named after J. Edgar Hoover; and Herbert Hoover had an ironclad alibi for Nov 22, 1963. Moreover, I've carefully searched through all of the photos of the crowd at Dealey Plaza, and none of the people bear even a superficial resemblance to Herbert Hoover.)

Just guessing and looking up dates. But nothing you stated ties back into the period of 1865? Something has to tie back that far.

On all of the documentaires they sort of go the way I went. Didn't have a clue about anything dealing with the dam and the date of it's starting is about the time of Mr. Simkins statements. I looked it up.

You are right about it's naming after so it isn't that.

Again sort of lost to how all of this time frame would link to a build op of JFK assassination?

Shanet is just plain cool over here with the Beatles and Dylan. He is right though that is the time of them to begin with hits.

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I believe that it was events that took place in 1865 and 1937 that hold the key to understanding the assassination of JFK. I am away on business today. Tomorrow I will explain why I think these two dates are significant.

Anyone got any ideas? The first is fairly straightforward and will also help you understand the significance of 1937. Here is another clue. Just before his death, one of LBJ’s closest friends said: “Lyndon Johnson’s whole world was built on that dam.”

Anxiously awaiting your post! I know I got the dam right, and I know from another thread that you believe the "MIC" was behind the assassination. Obviously, Brown and Root (later "Kellogg Brown and Root", I believe), could be considered part of the MIC.

With respect to MIC, what about the connection between the Paines and Bell Helicopter?

You posted (quite sure it was you) an interview with Bobby Kennedy in which Bobby denied that JFK was going to withdraw from the War in Vietnam. How was JFK threatening the MIC? Are you referring to his speech at American University?

As you can tell, a lot of people are awaiting you thoughts on the connection between events in 1865 and the assassination. All I can think of is that the Lincoln assassination was definitely a conspiracy (forget all that nonsense about Lincoln being shot in a Ford (theatre) and Kennedy being shot in a Ford (car), etc. But

I know you're getting at something more than the Lincoln assassination, so I for one am waiting for your post!

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As you can tell, a lot of people are awaiting you thoughts on the connection between events in 1865 and the assassination.  All I can think of is that the Lincoln assassination was definitely a conspiracy (forget all that nonsense about Lincoln being shot in a Ford (theatre) and Kennedy being shot in a Ford (car), etc.  But I know you're getting at something more than the Lincoln assassination, so I for one am waiting for your post!

Part 1: The Deep South and the Assassination of JFK

By 1865 the white ruling elite of the Deep South knew they were going to be defeated. They would no longer be allowed to have slaves. However, they were determined to hold onto their power.

The first step they took was assassinating Abraham Lincoln. He was replaced by his vice president, Andrew Johnson. The name is just a coincidence but there are indeed parallels between these two men.

The important thing about Andrew Johnson was that he did not see slavery as a moral issue. Before the Civil War he had made speeches in favour of slavery.

On 22nd September, 1862, Abraham Lincoln issued his Emancipation Proclamation. He told the nation that from the 1st January, 1863, all slaves in states or parts of states, still in rebellion, would be freed. Johnson complained to Lincoln about this decision and as a result it was agreed that this proclamation would not apply to Tennessee.

In February, 1863, Johnson decided to travel to Washington. On the way he stopped at several Northern cities where he made speeches about slavery. Johnson made it clear that under the right conditions he would be willing to accept the abolition of slavery. He stressed the economic rather than the moral arguments against slavery. He told his audiences that he owned slaves and told the story of how two had run away but later returned as free men to work for wages. Johnson argued that they were more productive as free men than they had been as slaves.

Southern newspapers criticised Johnson for these speeches and claimed he was making a bid for higher office. The Nashville Daily Press pointed out that: "No man in Tennessee has done more than Andrew Johnson to create, to perpetuate and embitter in the minds of the Southern people, that feeling of jealousy and hostility against the free States, which has at length culminated in rebellion and civil war. Up to 1860, he had been for 20 years among the most bigoted and intolerant of the advocates of slavery and Southernism". The newspaper accused him "of having but one aim, the Vice Presidency of the United States, on any rabid ticket likely to be successful."

After Johnson's successful speaking tour leading members of the Republican Party began to suggest that Lincoln should select Johnson as his running mate in the 1864 presidential election. His vice president, Hannibal Hamlin was a Radical Republican and it was felt that Lincoln was already sure to gain the support of this political group. It was argued that what Lincoln needed was the votes of those who had previously supported the Democratic Party in the North.

Lincoln originally selected General Benjamin Butler as his 1864 vice-presidential candidate. Butler, a war hero, had been a member of the Democratic Party, but his experiences during the American Civil War had made him increasingly radical. Simon Cameron was sent to talk to Butler at Fort Monroe about joining the campaign. However, Butler rejected the offer, jokingly saying that he would only accept if Lincoln promised "that within three months after his inauguration he would die".

It was now decided that Johnson would make the best candidate for vice president. By choosing the governor of Tennessee, Lincoln would emphasis the fact that Southern states were still part of the Union. He would also gain the support of the large War Democrat faction. At a convention of the Republican Party on 8th July, 1864, Johnson received 200 votes to Hamlin's 150 and became Lincoln's running mate.

During the election Johnson made it clear that he supported what he called "white man's government". However, when faced with black audiences he spoke of the need of improved civil rights and on one occasion during a speech in Washington offered to "be your Moses and lead you through the Red Sea of war and bondage to a fairer future of liberty and peace."

White racists in the Deep South realized that Johnson was controllable. While Lincoln was alive, they had no chance of maintaining white rule.

Abraham Lincoln died at 7.22 on the morning of 15th April. Later that day a group of Radical Republicans led by Benjamin Wade met with Johnson. It was suggested that Henry G. Stebbins, John Covode and Benjamin Butler should be appointed to the Cabinet to make sure that laws would be passed that would benefit former slaves in the South.

Johnson was unwilling to change the Cabinet. It soon became clear that Johnson was surrounding himself with advisers such as Preston King, Henry W. Halleck and Winfield S. Hancock, who were well known for their reactionary views. Johnson also began to clash with those cabinet members such as Edwin M. Stanton, William Dennison and James Speed who favoured the granting of black suffrage.

Southern politicians began to realize that Johnson was going to use his position to prevent reform taking place. One Confederate senator, Benjamin Hill, wrote from his prison cell: "By this wise and noble statesmanship you have become the benefactor of the Southern people in the hour of their direst extremity and entitled yourself to the gratitude of those living and those yet to live."

Johnson now began to argue that African American men should only be given the vote when they were able to pass some type of literacy test. He advised William Sharkey, the governor of Mississippi, that he should only "extend the elective franchise to all persons of color who can read the Constitution of the United States in English and write their names, and to all persons of color who own real estate valued at not less than two hundred and fifty dollars."

In early 1865 General William T. Sherman set aside a coastal strip in South Carolina, Georgia and Florida for the exclusive use of former slaves. A few months later, General Oliver Howard, the head of the new Freeman's Bureau, issued a circular regularizing the return of lands to previous owners but exempting those lands that were already being cultivated by freeman. Johnson was furious with Sherman and Howard for making these decisions and over-ruled them.

Johnson also upset radicals and moderates in the Republican Party when he issued an amnesty proclamation exempting fourteen classes from prosecution for their actions during the American Civil War. This included high military, civil, and judicial officers of the Confederacy, officers who had surrendered their commissions in the armed forces of the United States, war criminals and those with taxable property of more than $20,000.

Johnson became increasingly hostile to the work of Howard and the Freeman's Bureau. Established by Congress on 3rd March, 1865, the bureau was designed to protect the interests of former slaves. This included helping them to find new employment and to improve educational and health facilities. In the year that followed the bureau spent $17,000,000 establishing 4,000 schools, 100 hospitals and providing homes and food for former slaves.

In early 1866 Lyman Trumbull introduced proposals to extend the powers of the Freeman's Bureau. When this measure was passed by Congress it was vetoed by Johnson. However, the Radical Republicans were able to gain the support of moderate members of the Republican Party and Johnson's objections were overridden by Congress.

In April 1866, Johnson also vetoed the Civil Rights Bill that was designed to protect freed slaves from Southern Black Codes (laws that placed severe restrictions on freed slaves such as prohibiting their right to vote, forbidding them to sit on juries, limiting their right to testify against white men, carrying weapons in public places and working in certain occupations). On 6th April, Johnson's veto was overridden in the Senate by 33 to 15.

Johnson told Thomas C. Fletcher, the governor of Missouri: "This is a country for white men, and by God, as long as I am President, it shall be a government for white men." His views on racial equality was clearly defined in a letter to Benjamin B. French, the commissioner of public buildings: "Everyone would, and must admit, that the white race was superior to the black, and that while we ought to do our best to bring them up to our present level, that, in doing so, we should, at the same time raise our own intellectual status so that the relative position of the two races would be the same."

In June, 1866, the Radical Republicans managed to persuade Congress to pass the Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution. The amendment was designed to grant citizenship to and protect the civil liberties of recently freed slaves. It did this by prohibiting states from denying or abridging the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States, depriving any person of his life, liberty, or property without due process of law, or denying to any person within their jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

The elections of 1866 increased the Republican Party two-thirds majority in Congress. There were also a larger number of Radical Republicans and in March, 1867, Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act. This act forbade the President to remove any officeholder, including Cabinet members, who had been appointed with Senate consent. Once again Johnson attempted to veto the act.

In 1867 members of Radical Republicans such as Benjamin Loan, James Ashley and Benjamin Butler, began claiming in Congress that Johnson had been involved in the conspiracy to murder Abraham Lincoln. Butler asked the question: "Who it was that could profit by assassination (of Lincoln) who could not profit by capture and abduction? He followed this with: "Who it was expected by the conspirators would succeed to Lincoln, if the knife made a vacancy?" He also implied that Johnson had been involved in tampering with the diary of John Wilkes Booth. "Who spoliated that book? Who suppressed that evidence?"

Much was made of the fact that John Wilkes Booth had visited Johnson's house on the day of the assassination and left his card with the message: "Don't wish to disturb you. Are you at home?" Some people claimed that Booth was trying to undermine Johnson in his future role as president by implying he was involved in the plot. However, as his critics pointed out, this was unnecessary as it was Booth's plan to have Johnson killed by George Atzerodt at the same time that Abraham Lincoln was being assassinated.

On 7th January, 1867, James Ashley charged Johnson with the "usurpation of power and violation of law by corruptly using the appointing, pardoning, and veto powers, by disposing corruptly of the property of the United States, and by interfering in elections." Congress responded by referring Ashley's resolution to the Judiciary Committee.

Congress passed the first Reconstruction Acts on 2nd March, 1867. The South was now divided into five military districts, each under a major general. New elections were to be held in each state with freed male slaves being allowed to vote. The act also included an amendment that offered readmission to the Southern states after they had ratified the Fourteenth Amendment and guaranteed adult male suffrage. Johnson immediately vetoed the bill but Congress repassed the bill the same day.

It was clear that the Southern states would prefer military rule to civil government based on universal male suffrage. Congress therefore passed a supplementary Reconstruction Act on 23rd March that authorized military commanders to supervise elections and generally to provide the machinery for constituting new governments. Once again Johnson vetoed the act on the grounds that it interfered with the right of the American citizen to "be left to the free exercise of his own judgment when he is engaged in the work of forming the fundamental law under which he is to live."

Radical Republicans were growing increasing angry with Johnson over his attempts to veto the extension of the Freeman's Bureau, the Civil Rights Bill and the Reconstruction Acts. This became worse when Johnson dismissed Edwin M. Stanton, his Secretary of War, and the only radical in his Cabinet and replaced him with Ulysses S. Grant. Stanton refused to go and was supported by the Senate. Grant now stood down and was replaced by Lorenzo Thomas.This was a violation of the Tenure of Office Act and some members of the Republican Party began talking about impeaching Johnson.

At the beginning of the 40th Congress Benjamin Wade became the new presiding officer of the Senate. As Johnson did not have a vice-president this meant that Wade was now the legal successor to the president. This was highly significant as attempts to impeach the president had already began.

Johnson continued to undermine the Reconstruction Acts. This included the removal of two of the most radical military governors. Daniel Sickles (the Carolinas) and Philip Sheridan (Louisiana and Texas) were replaced them with Edward Canby and Winfield Hancock.

In November, 1867, the Judiciary Committee voted 5-4 that Johnson be impeached for high crimes and misdemeanors. The majority report written by George H. Williams contained a series of charges including pardoning traitors, profiting from the illegal disposal of railroads in Tennessee, defying Congress, denying the right to reconstruct the South and attempts to prevent the ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment.

On 30th March, 1868, Johnson's impeachment trial began. Johnson was the first president of the United States to be impeached. The trial, held in the Senate in March, was presided over by Chief Justice Salmon Chase. Johnson was defended by his former Attotney General, Henry Stanbury, and William M. Evarts. One of Johnson's fiercest critics, Thaddeus Stevens was mortally ill, but he was determined to take part in the proceedings and was carried to the Senate in a chair.

Charles Sumner, another long-time opponent of Johnson led the attack. He argued that: "This is one of the last great battles with slavery. Driven from the legislative chambers, driven from the field of war, this monstrous power has found a refuge in the executive mansion, where, in utter disregard of the Constitution and laws, it seeks to exercise its ancient, far-reaching sway. All this is very plain. Nobody can question it. Andrew Johnson is the impersonation of the tyrannical slave power. In him it lives again. He is the lineal successor of John C. Calhoun and Jefferson Davis; and he gathers about him the same supporters."

Although a large number of senators believed that Johnson was guilty of the charges, they disliked the idea of Benjamin Wade becoming the next president. Wade, who believed in women's suffrage and trade union rights, was considered by many members of the Republican Party as being an extreme radical. James Garfield warned that Wade was "a man of violent passions, extreme opinions and narrow views who was surrounded by the worst and most violent elements in the Republican Party."

Others Republicans such as James Grimes argued that Johnson had less than a year left in office and that they were willing to vote against impeachment if Johnson was willing to provide some guarantees that he would not continue to interfere with Reconstruction.

When the vote was taken all members of the Democratic Party voted against impeachment. So also did those Republicans such as Lyman Trumbull, William Fessenden and James Grimes, who disliked the idea of Benjamin Wade becoming president. The result was 35 to 19, one vote short of the required two-thirds majority for conviction. The editor of The Detroit Post wrote that "Andrew Johnson is innocent because Ben Wade is guilty of being his successor."

On 25th July, 1868 Johnson vetoed the decision by Congress to extend the activities of the Freeman's Bureau for another year. Once again Johnson decision was speedily overturned.

Johnson continued to issue pardons for people who had participated in the rebellion. By the end of his period in office he gave 13,350 pardons, including one for Jefferson Davis, the president of the Confederacy during the American Civil War.

On 25th December, 1868, Johnson used his last annual message as president to attack the Reconstruction Acts. He claimed that: "The attempt to place the white population under the domination of persons of color in the South has impaired, if not destroyed, the friendly relations that had previously existed between them; and mutual distrust has engendered a feeling of animosity which, leading in some instances to collision and bloodshed, has prevented the cooperation between the two races so essential to the success of industrial enterprise in the Southern States."

Johnson received considerable help from the Deep South in helping to return power to the white elite.

The first branch of the Ku Klux Klan was established in Pulaski, Tennessee, in May, 1866. A year later a general organization of local Klans was established in Nashville in April, 1867. Most of the leaders were former members of the Confederate Army and the first Grand Wizard was Nathan Forrest, an outstanding general during the American Civil War. During the next two years Klansmen wearing masks, white cardboard hats and draped in white sheets, tortured and killed black Americans and sympathetic whites. Immigrants, who they blamed for the election of Radical Republicans, were also targets of their hatred. Between 1868 and 1870 the Ku Klux Klan played an important role in restoring white rule in North Carolina, Tennessee and Georgia.

At first the main objective of white supremacy organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan, the White Brotherhood, the Men of Justice, the Constitutional Union Guards and the Knights of the White Camelia was to stop black people from voting. After white governments had been established in the South the Ku Klux Klan continued to undermine the power of blacks. Successful black businessmen were attacked and any attempt to form black protection groups such as trade unions was quickly dealt with.

Radical Republicans in Congress urged President Ulysses S. Grant to take action against the Ku Klux Klan. In 1870 he instigated an investigation into the organization and the following year a Grand Jury reported that: "There has existed since 1868, in many counties of the state, an organization known as the Ku Klux Klan, or Invisible Empire of the South, which embraces in its membership a large proportion of the white population of every profession and class. The Klan has a constitution and bylaws, which provides, among other things, that each member shall furnish himself with a pistol, a Ku Klux gown and a signal instrument. The operations of the Klan are executed in the night and are invariably directed against members of the Republican Party. The Klan is inflicting summary vengeance on the colored citizens of these citizens by breaking into their houses at the dead of night, dragging them from their beds, torturing them in the most inhuman manner, and in many instances murdering."

Congress passed the Ku Klux Act and became law on 20th April, 1871. This gave the president the power to intervene in troubled states with the authority to suspend the writ of habeas corpus in countries where disturbances occurred. Ulysses S. Grant used this legislation several times, the Ku Klux Klan. However, because its objective of white supremacy in the South had been achieved, the organization practically disappeared.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAjohnsonA.htm

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAkkk.htm

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