Posted 27 August 2010 - 12:25 AM
I thought the collected statements of the LBJ Lincoln's passengers might be of interest. (The LPM scenario in my discussion is the three shots at Z-160, Z-224, and Z-313, scenario pushed by almost all LNs. As you can see, it's malarkey.)
From patspeer.com chapter 6:
Unfortunately, the HSCA failed to match the Zapruder film with the eyewitness testimony. If they had, they would have realized that the light-blue Vice-Presidential limousine was just making the turn at frame 160, with its Secret Service back-up car in close-pursuit, and that there was no way an audible shot was fired at this point. As demonstrated below...
Hurchel Jacks was the driver of the light blue Lincoln transporting Vice-President Johnson. (11-28-63 statement to the Secret Service, 18H801) “We had just turned from Main onto Houston, drove one block, and turned left. My car had just straightened up from making the left turn. I was looking directly at the President’s car at that time. At that time I heard a shot ring out which appeared to come from the right rear of the Vice-President’s car. Mr. Rufus Youngblood, the Secret Service Agent riding in my car asked me what that was and at the same time he advised the Vice President and Mrs. Johnson to get down. He climbed to the rear of the seat with the Vice President and appeared to be shielding the Vice president with his own body. At that time I heard two more shots ring out.” (Interview with CBS broadcast 6-26-67) “The car in which I was driving which occupied the Vice-President had just completed its turn and I felt a blast of which appeared to be a rifle shot came from behind me. I turned and looked up to school book depository… I heard three shots and I could feel the concussions from all three.” Analysis: as Jacks said the limousine had completed the turn before the first shot, and as Jacks only heard one early shot, his recollections are completely at odds with the LPM theory. First shot hit 190-224. Last two shots bunched together.
Rufus Youngblood sat in the front seat of the Vice-Presidential car. (11-28-63 New York Times article) “I heard three explosions but I think the quick unusual movements in the President’s car also made me react. I’m not sure I reacted on the first shot, between the first and second, or on the second. I had no idea where the shots came from.” (11-29-63 report, 18H766-772) “The motorcade then made a left turn, and the sidewalk crowds were beginning to diminish in size. I observed a grassy plot to my right in back of a small crowd...I heard an explosion…I noticed that the movements in the Presidential car were very abnormal, and, at practically the same time, the movements in the Presidential follow-up car were abnormal. I turned in my seat and with my left arm grasped and shoved the Vice-President, at his right shoulder, down and toward Mrs. Johnson and Senator Yarborough. At the same time, I shouted “get down!” I believe I said this more than once and directed it to the other occupants of the rear seat. They all responded very rapidly. I quickly looked around again and could see nothing to shoot at, so I stepped over into the back seat and sat on top of the Vice-President. I sat in a crouched position and issued orders to the driver. During this time I heard two more explosion noises...I am not sure that I was on top of the Vice-President before the second shot—he says I was. All of the above related events—from the beginning of the sound of the first shot to the sound of the third shot, happened within a few seconds.” (3-9-64 testimony before the Warren Commission 2H144-155) “Well, the crowd had begun to diminish; looking ahead and to the right the crowd became spotty. I mean it wasn't continuous at all like it had been. As we were beginning to go down this incline, all of a sudden there was an explosive noise. I quickly observed unnatural movement of crowds, like ducking or scattering, and quick movements in the Presidential follow-up car. So I turned around and hit the Vice President on the shoulder and hollered, get down, and then looked around again and saw more of this movement, and so I proceeded to go to the back seat and get on top of him. I then heard two more shots. But I would like to say this. I would not be positive that I was back on that back seat before the second shot. But the Vice President himself said I was. But--then in hearing these two more shots, I again had seen more movement, and I think someone else hit a siren--I heard the noise of a siren… Well, there wasn't too much difference in the noise of the first shot and the last two. I am not really sure that there was a difference. But in my mind, I think I identified the last two positively as shots, whereas the first one I thought was just an explosive noise, and I didn't know whether it was a firecracker or a shot. It seems, as I try to think over it, there was more of a crack sound to the last two shots. That may have been distance, I don't know…There seemed to be a longer span of time between the first and the second shot than there was between the second and third shot.” (11-22-73 article in the Dallas Times Herald) "It was an explosive noise. It wasn't the backfire of a motorcycle...I spun around in the seat. With my arm I hit him (Johnson) on the shoulder and told him to get down. Then I proceeded to climb into the back seat. There were two more shots...Johnson says I jumped on him before the second shot. I never said it. I wouldn't say it now." (20 years in the Secret Service, published 1974) "Suddenly there was an explosive noise--distinct, sharp, resounding. I could not be certain if it had been a firecracker, bullet, bomb or some other explosive. I looked around quickly but saw nothing to indicate its source. But the movements in the President's car were not normal. Kennedy seemed to be falling to his left and there was sudden movement among the agents in the car directly ahead of us. I turned instinctively in my seat and with my left hand I grasped Lyndon Johnson's right shoulder and with all the leverage I could exert from a sitting position I forced him downward. "Get down!" I shouted. "Get down!" The vice-president reacted immediately. Still not seeing the source of the explosion, I swung across the back seat and sat on top of him. There were two more explosions in rapid succession, only seconds after the first. From my crouched position I saw a grayish blur in the air above the right side of the President's car...People along the sides of the street were scattering in panic." Analysis: the first shot as described by Youngblood was certainly not at frame 160, as he observed unusual movement in the presidential limousine and back-up car just afterwards. He also described two more shots, grouping them together in a manner suggestive they were bunched together, and not five seconds apart. He also marked on Exhibit CE 354 his impression of the Vice-Presidential limo's location at the time of the first shot. It was far down the road from its location at Z-160, and was probably closer to its location at Z-224. First shot hit 190-224. Last two shots bunched together.
Senator Ralph Yarborough sat the on the back seat behind the driver of the Vice-Presidential car. (11-22-63 AP article found in the Long Beach Press-Telegram) "The horror of the assassination was mirrored in an eye-witness account by Sen. Ralph Yarborough, D-Tex., who had been riding three cars behind Kennedy. "You could tell something awful and tragic had happened," the senator told newsmen before Kennedy's death became known. His voice breaking and his eyes red-rimmed, Yarborough said: "I could see a Secret Service man in the President s car leaning on the car with his hands in anger, anguish and despair. I knew then something tragic had happened." Yarborough had counted three rifle shots as the presidential limousine left downtown Dallas through a triple underpass. The shots were fired from above — possibly from one of the bridges or from a nearby building." (11-22-63 report on NBC television, at approximately 1:45 PM) "Yarborough said he was in the third car behind the President. It seemed to him, he said, that at least two of the shots were fired from the right rear. He said he couldn't say anything about the third shot." (11-23-63 article quoting Yarborough in the San Antonio Light)) "The shots were louder than a pistol. At first we thought they were cherry bombs." (11-29-63 article in The Texas Observer, quoting Yarborough outside Parkland Hospital on 11-22-63) "I heard three loud explosions, like a deer rifle. You could smell powder all the way here. I thought it was rifle shots….After the second shot, the Secret Service man had us lie over so we wouldn’t project over the seat. He said “get down, get down, get down.” The shooting ended…There was a slight pause between the shots… "Bang"…a pause of two or three seconds… "bang"…And then a longer pause before the third shot." (11-30-63 AP article found in the 12-1-63 Washington Star) "Senator Yarborough, Democrat of Texas, said the sound was 'bang-bang-bang.' The Senator, a war veteran, said it sounded like measured fire, not a fusillade. He described the sounds before the type of rifle was known by him." (4-6-64 interview with William Manchester, as recounted in The Kennedy Assassination: 24 Hours After, 2009) "At the first shot, I knew right away it was a rifle shot. I began to smell it before the second shot, and I thought that was odd. The reason I smelled it is that we were right under the trajectory--right in front of the muzzle blast."(7-10-64 affidavit, 7H439-440) “as the motorcade went down the slope of Elm Street toward the railroad underpass, a rifle shot was heard by me; a loud blast, close by….When the noise of the shot was heard, the motorcade slowed to what seemed to me a complete stop (though it could have been a near stop). After what I took to be about three seconds, another shot boomed out, and after what I took to be one-half the time between the first and second shots (calculated now, this would have put the third shot about one and one-half seconds after the second shot…) a third shot was fired. After the third shot was fired, but only after the third shot was fired, the cavalcade speeded up….I saw people fall to the ground on the embankment on our right, at about the time or after the second shot, but before the cavalcade started up and raced away.”
(3-28-75 article in the Dallas Times-Herald, quoting an ABC TV report from the evening before) "Yarborough, riding two cars behind the President, said he, too, heard three shots, but he believed some had been fired from in front of Kennedy and not from the Texas School Book Depository where Oswald allegedly fired the shots that killed Kennedy. 'You don't smell gunfire unless you are upwind from it, and it blows in your face,' said Yarborough, who has urged the reopening of the investigation. He said he could not have smelled the gunpowder if the shots had been fired from behind the motorcade." (12-27-78 letter to the HSCA, HSCA vol. V, p.698) “In the motorcade in Dallas, the first explosion was so distinct in its nature that my mental processes immediately registered “rifle shot” — it was an immediate mental reaction without conscious thought process on my part. On many occasions since, I have stated that there were definitely three explosions (this while the FBI was expounding its two shot theory), but during all these years I have been troubled by the fact that the two subsequent explosions did not sound like that first clear sound of indisputable rifle fire, clear as a signal. I assumed that the difference might have been caused by the changed position of the car, or other movement. The recent revelations of a possible fourth shot possibly clear up that doubt as to the reason for the difference in sound between the different explosions.” (11-13-83 UPI article found in the Paris Texas News) "He remembers the sharp crack of rifle fire and the smell of gunsmoke drifting down above his right shoulder as Johnson's car rolled past the southeast corner of the Texas School Book Depository. "I've hunted all my life, I handled all kinds of weapons in the Army, and I knew it was rifle shots, and there were only three," he says." (Interview with Jim Marrs published in Crossfire, 1989) "I thought 'Was that a bomb thrown?" and then the other shots were fired. And the motorcade, which had slowed to a stop, took off. A second or two later, I smelled gunpowder. I always thought that was strange because, being familiar with firearms, I never could see how I could smell the powder from a rifle high in that building." (1-18-92 Interview with Deborah and Gerald Strober, published in Let us Begin Anew, 1993) "And then the shots rang out. I knew that the first one was a rifle shot. And I knew that the third one was a rifle shot. And I was kind of dumb-fussing about the middle one, because there were three distinct explosions. That Warren Report that there were two was just a lot of bunk. The third one caused my confusion there. Immediately after the first shot the motorcade slowed up--slowed up to just nearly a walk. I thought it stopped. And I could smell smoke--gunsmoke --'cause it's coming down from that rifle right over us; we were in the back seat, behind it, that second shot, then it came. It was just like counting: one, two, three. I thought: My goodness. Was there a bomb? What's that smoke up there? And what are they stopping for? Was I mistaken? Was that a bomb, instead of a rifle? And then, after the third shot, they took off. Well, after the confusion of the second shot, I just assumed it was all in one place. I was very much concerned about that second shot, because I was smelling smoke. Somebody--one of the Lyndon Johnson men--was trying to discredit me; he said I was so excited I thought I smelled gunsmoke. I told the Dallas police later--I was by there later and saw them--and they said, "We all smelled that gunsmoke." Let me tell you one thing that didn't happen: that cock and bull story he (Johnson) told about Youngblood pushing him down and jumping over and sitting on him. It's just plain--a fabrication. It didn't happen at all. Youngblood turned around. He had a little box--I guess it was an information box from the radio--and he leaned over. See, we had a small car; you couldn't have pushed big old Lyndon down there. So Youngblood leaned over and looked right in Johnson's eyes, and Johnson looked straight ahead and didn't look at anything." Analysis: Yarborough's statements regarding the spacing of the shots and the sound of the shots were inconsistent and quite literally all over the map. He was more consistent on some of the other aspects, however, and these aspects suggest that Yarborough heard the shots much as most everyone else. As Yarborough notes that the motorcade slowed down after the first shot, and as the motorcade only slowed down after agent Greer turned around to look at the President circa frame 255 of the Zapruder film, his statements are inconsistent with a first shot miss at frame 160 and a second shot hit around frame 224, as proposed in the LPM scenario. His statement that people dived to the ground after the second shot, when, as we shall see, none of the close-by witnesses recalled diving to the ground before witnessing the head shot, suggests as well that the second shot was the head shot, and that a third shot followed. First shot hit 190-224. Last two shots probably bunched together (with the last shot after the head shot).
Lady Bird Johnson sat next in the middle of the back seat of the Vice-Presidential car. (Transcription from 12-2-63 tape recording, 5H564-567) “we were rounding a curve, going down a hill and suddenly there was a sharp loud report—a shot. It seemed to me to come from the right, above my shoulder, from a building. Then a moment and then two more shots in rapid succession. There had been such a gala air that I thought it must be firecrackers or some sort of celebration. Then, in the lead car, the Secret Service men were suddenly down. I heard over the radio system “Let’s get out of here,” and our Secret service man who was with us, Rufus Youngblood I believe it was, vaulted over the front seat on top of Lyndon, threw him to the floor and said “Get down.” (Interview in PBS documentary "LBJ", broadcast 1997) "It all began so hopefully, but the feeling in Texas was not good for Kennedy and so, of course, we were uptight. And we were going along and I was heaving a sigh of relief, "Thank the Lord, everything's going to be all right," and then came that shot. The Secret Serviceman suddenly vaulted over Lyndon and pushed him to the floor." Analysis: Mrs. Johnson’s recollections regarding the shots themselves are in line with those of Jacks and Youngblood. Her statements that they were “rounding a curve”—not “making a turn”--and “going down a hill” place the limousine further down the street than it was at frame 160. While her statement that the shot came from her right led Vince Bugliosi and others to cite her statement as evidence that she was saying the shot came from the sniper's nest as early as frame 160, the building to the right of Mrs. Johnson at frame 160 was not the school book depository, but the Dal-Tex Building. First shot hit 190-224. Last two shots bunched together.
Vice-President Lyndon Johnson sat on the right-hand side of the back seat of the Lincoln. (11-23-63 letter to Secret Service Chief Rowley) “Upon hearing the first shot, Mr. Youngblood instantly vaulted across the front seat of my car, pushed me to the floor and shielded my body with his own.” (7-10-64 statement, 5H561-564) “The motorcade proceeded down Main Street and then turned right on Houston. It then turned into Elm, which is a block, I believe, beyond the intersection of Main and Houston. The crowd on Elm Street was smaller. As the motorcade proceeded down Elm Street to the point where the assassination occurred, it was traveling at a speed which I should estimate at 12 or 15 miles and hour. After we had proceeded a short way down Elm Street, I heard a sharp report. The crowd at this point had become somewhat spotty. The Vice-Presidential car was then about three car lengths behind President Kennedy's car, with the Presidential followup car intervening. I was startled by the sharp report or explosion. but I had no time to speculate as to its origin because Agent Youngblood turned in a flash, immediately after the first explosion, hitting me on the shoulder, and shouted to all of us in the back seat to get down. I was pushed down by Agent Youngblood. Almost in the same moment in which he hit or pushed me, he vaulted over the back seat and sat on me. I was bent over under the weight of Agent Youngblood's body, toward Mrs. Johnson and Senator Yarborough. I remember attempting to turn my head to make sure that Mrs. Johnson had bent down. Both she and Senator Yarborough had crouched down at Agent Youngblood's command. At some time in this sequence of events. I heard other explosions. It was impossible for me to tell the direction from which the explosions came." (8-19-69 tape prepared for his book The Vantage Point, as transcribed and published by Michael Beschloss in Reaching for Glory, 2001) "we heard shots. It never occurred to me it was an assassination or a killing. I just thought it was firecrackers or a car backfiring...The first time I knew that there was anything unusual was when the car lunged...It zoomed...This great big ole boy from Georgia said, "Down!" And he got on top of me." (The Vantage Point, 1971) "Just after our car made a left turn at the top of Elm, I was startled by an explosion...I did not know what it was. Before the echo had subsided, before the noise had completely registered on my consciousness, Agent Youngblood spun around, shoved me on the shoulder to push me down, and shouted to all of us, "Get down!" Almost in the same moment, he vaulted over the seat, pushed me to the floor, and sat on my right shoulder to keep me down and protect me. "Get down!" he shouted again to all of us...I still was not clear about what was happening...At some time in the sequence of events, I heard other explosions. It was impossible to tell where they were coming from and I still was not certain what they were. Then a voice came crackling over the radio system: 'Let's get out of here.'" Analysis: as the limousine was just turning onto Elm Street at frame 160, and as President Johnson described proceeding down Elm Street "a short way" before hearing the first shot, his statement is suggestive the first shot was heard after frame 160. His contention that Youngblood climbed on top of him after the first shot, when Youngblood is still in the front seat of the Lincoln at Z-255, is more than suggestive that there had only been one shot by that point, which must have hit, and that two shots followed. His description of “other explosions” is suggestive that these explosions were closely spaced, but is too vague to come to a conclusion. First shot hit 190-224.